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# Synopsis

On
Simulation & Controlling of BLDC (Brushless DC) motor
using PI & 2nd order fuzzy hybrid system
Submitted to

## Baddi University of Emerging Sciences & Technology

In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Technology (M.Tech)
In Electrical Engineering

Submitted By

Name of Supervisor

Sunil Kumar

## Mr. Gagan Deep

13PEE002

Associate Professor

Sr. No.

Contents

Page No.

Introduction

1-5

1.1 background
1.2 overview of BLDC motor
1.3 Applications
Literature Review

6-7

5

## 5.2 Software Requirement

References

CHAPTER 1

10

INTRODUCTION
The increase in energy prices spurs higher demands of variable speed Permanent Magnet
(PM) motor drives. Also, recent rapid proliferation of motor drives into the automobile
industry, based on hybrid drives, generates a serious demand for high efficient PM motor
drives, and this was the beginning of interest in BLDC motors. BLDC motors, also called
Permanent Magnet DC Synchronous motors, are one of the motor type that have more rapidly
gained popularity, mainly because of their better characteristics an performance. These
motors are used in a great amount of industrial sectors because their architecture is suitable
for any safety critical applications.
In general, the overall system consists of four parts:
(1) Power conversion three phase inverters
(3) Speed, torque, and current controllers and
(4) Position Control by using sensors.
Therefore, exact understanding of each part is a prerequisite for analysis and prediction of the
overall system operation. Several simulation models have been proposed for the analysis of
BLDC motor drives. These models are based on state-space equations, Fourier series, and the
d-q axis model.
The brushless DC motor is a synchronous electric motor that, from a modelling perspective,
looks exactly like a DC motor, having a linear relationship between current and torque,
voltage and speed (rad/sec). It is an electronically controlled commutation system, instead of
having a mechanical commutation, which is typical of brushed motors. Additionally, the
electromagnets do not move, the permanent magnets rotate and the armature remains static.
This gets around the problem of how to transfer current to a moving armature. In order to do
this, the brush-system/commutator assembly is replaced by an intelligent electronic
controller, which performs the same power distribution as a brushed DC motor. BLDC
motors have many advantages over brushed DC motors and induction motors, such as a better
speed versus torque characteristics, high dynamic response, high efficiency and reliability,
long operating life (no brush erosion), noiseless operation, higher speed ranges, and reduction
of electromagnetic interference (EMI).
The control of BLDC motors can be done in sensor or sensorless mode, but to reduce overall
cost of actuating devices, sensorless control techniques are normally used. The advantage of
sensorless BLDC motor control is that the sensing part can be omitted, and thus overall costs
can be considerably reduced. The disadvantages of sensorless control are higher requirements
for control algorithms and more complicated electronics. All of the electrical motors that do
not require an electrical connection (made with brushes) between stationary and rotating parts

can be considered as brushless permanent magnet (PM) machines, which can be categorized
based on the PMs mounting and the back-EMF shape. The PMs can be surface mounted on
the rotor (SMPM) or installed inside of the rotor (IPM)
Power Factor Correction (PFC) circuits appear to occupy the input stages in almost every
medium and high power switching power supply systems operating at the voltage mains. The
most often used configuration includes a boost converter at the primary stage, stabilizing the
input to the second stage. Conventional off-line power converters with front - end diodecapacitor rectifier inherit a distorted input current waveform with high harmonic content.
Though a variety of passive and active PFC techniques are in vogue, the passive techniques
may be the best choice only in low-power and cost sensitive applications. Besides the dc
voltage on the energy-storage capacitor in a single stage PFC converter is not regulated. The
Brushless DC motors (BLDC) continues to attract the drive industry owing to its simplicity,
low-cost and robust structure and it is suitable for variable-speed applications. The structure
though simple draws a pulsating AC line current resulting in low power factor and high
harmonic line current. However with the increasing demand for improved power quality,
there is a definite need for better strategies to accomplish a high performance BLDC motor
drive. A novel power factor correction strategy suitable for brushless DC motors has been
suggested. It has been found to eliminate the use of boost unity power factor stage and bulk
electrolytic capacitors. An algorithm for power factor correction of direct torque controlled
brushless DC motor drive in the constant torque region has been outlined. An intelligent
power factor correction methodology based artificial neural network has been proposed. The
dynamic characteristics of the brushless DC motor and the currents & voltages of inverter
components have been analysed through the use of fuzzy logic controller. The current
controlled mechanism has been found to allow the re-generative braking of BLDC motor and
resultant improving the efficiency and lowering the acoustic noise. It augurs the use of a
power-factor correction mechanism appropriately interfaced with a BLDC motor driver
circuit to arrive at the desired quality of power.

1.1 Background
Brushless dc (BLDC) motor is a rotating self-synchronous machine, whose stator is similar
to that of an induction motor and the rotor has surface mounted permanent magnet. Brushless
dc motor In BLDC motor, winding is placed on stator which is stationary and permanent
magnets are placed on rotor which is rotating. In the dc motor, the current polarity is altered
by commutator and brushes. However in brushless dc motor there are no brushes and

## commutator. The current polarity reversal is controlled by switches (MOSFET, IGBT) in

synchronization with rotor position. Therefore sensored BLDC motor uses position sensors to
sense the actual rotor position or the position can be detected without sensors. Brushless dc
motors are preferred over conventional dc motor due to their high efficiency, silent operation,
compact form, reliability and low maintenance. But the speed control of these motors is not
an easy task, the advancements in microcontroller, power electronics and electrical drives
application. The BLDC motors are used in home appliances, replacing the conventional
motor applications, everywhere there is a fast growing market for BLDC motors for several
years to come because everyone wants reliable and cost effective solution. The major
application includes washing machines, room air conditioner, refrigerator, vacuum cleaner,
dish washer etc. House hold appliance have traditionally relied on 2 classic electric motor
technology such as single phase AC induction, induction split phase, capacitor start, capacitor
run types and universal motor. There is demand for low operating cost, high performance,
reduced acoustic noise and more convenience features. Those conventional technologies
cannot provide cost effective solution. One of the ways to get higher efficiency is by selecting
the right hall sensor which can significantly affect reliability and performance of many
critical applications including robotics, medical equipment, heating, ventilation and air
conditioning (HVAC) system fans. These applications all call for a highly efficient and quiet
motor. BLDC motors are electronically commutated motors, also known as synchronous
motors because stator flux and rotor flux both rotate at same frequency that are powered by a
DC supply through an inverter .

## 1.2 Overview of BLDC Motor

In a conventional DC motor, the carbon brushes make contact with commutator on the rotor
forming an electrical circuit between the DC electrical source and armature coil windings. As
the armature rotates, the stationary carbon brushes come into contact with different sections
of the rotating commutator. When commutator comes in contact with brushes the current
reversal take place in that armature so that torque continue to act in one direction thus rotor
continue to rotate. In a BLDC motor, the electromagnets do not move, instead the permanent
magnet rotates and the armature remains static. The permanent magnets are mounted on

surface of rotor and armature winding is placed on stator. In BLDC the commutator assembly
is replaced by an intelligent electronic controller.
The advantages of BLDC motors are summarized below:
(1) High dynamic response
(2) High efficiency
(3) Long operating life
(4) Noiseless operation
(5) Higher speed range
(6) High output power
(7) Low maintenance
(8) Compact volume
The major disadvantage of BLDC motor is higher cost because of permanent magnet
and electronic commutator. The permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and the
brushless dc (BLDC) motor have many similarities.

1.3 Applications
For single speed application, induction motors are more suitable. Because of flat speed
torque curve, BLDC motor becomes more suitable for adjustable speed application
Sinusoidal BLDC motor use optical encoder or hall sensors and complex controller to
monitor speed and position. BLDC motor used in application with constant load
application require open loop control, cheaper controller while those used in varying load
application, require closed loop control, complicated and advance controller which are
expensive. Further BLDC motors used in Position control application require more
complex controller, optical encoders or High resolution resolvers to calculate speed of
motor, two or more closed loop are operated simultaneously. BLDC motor finds
applications in every segment of the market.
Some of the applications are described below:
(1) Consumer: Hard drives, CD/DVD drives, PC cooling fans, dish washer, washing
machine, vacuum cleaner, air conditioner, refrigerator, toys.
(2) Medical: Artificial heart, microscopes, centrifuges, dental surgical tools, organ
transport pump system.
(3) Automobile: Automotive applications, electric and hybrid vehicle etc.

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
Ahmed M.Ahmed and Amr Ali-Eldin [1]: They explained, Brushless DC (BLDC) motors
are one of the most interesting motors, not only because of their efficiency, and torque
characteristics, but also because they have the advantages of being a direct current (DC)
supplied, but eliminating the disadvantages of using Brushes. BLDC motors have a very wide
range of speed, so speed control is a very important issue for it. There are a lot of parameters
which need to be in focus while talking about a speed controller performance like starting
current, starting torque, rise time, etc. There are two main methods for controlling the speed,
PID Controllers, and Fuzzy PI controllers. Both are different in complexity and performance.
In this paper, the PI and Fuzzy PI speed controllers for the BLDC motors will be proposed. A
simulation study is conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed speed controllers.
Further, a comparative study is performed to validate the system effectiveness.
D.Premalatha A.SakthiRubini [2]. They studied and proposed, Permanent Magnet
Brushless DC Motor (PMBLDC) is one of the main components in electrical drives due to
increased efficiency, less noise, high life time and less maintenance. The combination of
power semiconductor switches and permanent magnet (PM) materials has resulted in
increased use of brushless DC motors in several applications such as industrial robots,
actuators etc. In the existing methods the control of stator current in a brushless DC motor is
successful under low speed conditions only. Under high speed conditions such control results
in commutation torque ripple. This paper presents the direct torque control using PI and

Fuzzy controller for minimizing torque ripples of BLDC motor. The BLDC motor is fed from
the inverter where the rotor position and current controller is the input. Effectiveness of the
proposed control method is verified through MATLAB/SIMULINK
S.Darwin, M.Murugan, J. Jasper Gnana Chandran [3]. They gives a comparative
investigation on Direct Torque Control of B4-Inverter-Fed Brush less DC Motor drive using
PI and intelligent Controllers. The B4 inverter is just a reconfigured topology of ordinary six
switched inverter. Direct torque control has some benefits such as faster torque response and
reduced torque ripple for driving the brushless DC motors. The DTC of B4-inverter-fed
BLDC motor drives are studied under four strategies, such as: 1) DTC-1: DTC of B4inverter-fed BLDC motor drives using PI control; 2) DTC-2: DTC of B4-inverter-fed BLDC
motor drives using FLC; 3) DTC-3: DTC of B4-inverter-fed BLDC motor drives using
ANFIS; 4) DTC-4: DTC of B4-inverter-fed BLDC motor drives using ANN. A comparative
study on the speed response and electromagnetic torque of the four DTC strategies are carried
out. The simulation of all four DTC strategies is developed in MATLAB Simulink and from
the simulation results, the comparisons are made.
Geovanny Robles-Escobar, Luis Lopez-Perez, Carlos Ros-Rojas, Arnulfo RosalesQuintero [4]. Their experimental modeling of the transfer function of an DC voltage threephase brushless synchronous electric motor (Brushless DC Electric Motor) for a hybrid
system is presented, the bench system consists of an architecture in parallel using devices for
power division called electromagnetic clutches, that consist in a double canal pulley, a coil
and a drag plate, these clutches were connected to the motor0s arrow in this hybrid system,
allowing an individual control of both. The identified transfer function is used to design and
to simulate a control of angular speed being used the Root- Locus technique and Fuzzy Logic
to autotune the proportional integral gains. The primary objective is to synchronize the engine
speeds to make efficient the fuel use in the combustion motor. The simulation of the control
system in closed loop is made in the Simulink tool and is designed with Siso tool from the
mathematical software Matlab. The system identification is conducted through the System
Identification Toolbox of Matlab with data acquisition of angular speed, voltage and sampling
time.
Vashist Bist, Bhim Singh [5]. Their study presents a power factor correction-based singleended primary inductance converter (PFC-SEPIC) feeding brushless DC (BLDC) motor drive
for low-power household appliances. In a conventional scheme of BLDC motor, the speed is
varied by controlling the duty ratio of high-frequency pulse width modulation signals, which

increase the switching losses in the voltage source inverter (VSI) feeding BLDC motor.
However, this study presents a BLDC motor of which the speed is controlled by adjusting the
DC bus voltage of the VSI feeding BLDC motor. Moreover, a fundamental switching
frequency of VSI is employed for reduction of its switching losses by operating the BLDC
motor in electronic commutation. A PFC-based SEPIC is designed for its operation in
discontinuous inductor current mode such that the voltage control is achieved using a single
voltage sensor with inherent PFC at AC mains; which also makes it a cost effective solution
for low power applications. The proposed drive is implemented on the developed converter
for the performance evaluation.

CHAPTER 3
PROBLEM FORMULATION
Due to the increasing demand for compact & reliable motors and the evolution of low cost power
semiconductor switches and permanent magnet (PM) materials, brushless DC motors become
popular in every application from home appliances to aerospace industry. Latet experimental
modeling of the transfer function of an DC voltage three-phase brushless synchronous electric
motor (Brushless DC Electric Motor) for a hybrid system is presented, the bench system consists
of an architecture in parallel using devices for power division called electromagnetic clutches, that
consist in a double canal pulley, a coil and a drag plate, these clutches were connected to the
motors arrow in this hybrid system, allowing an individual control of both. The identified transfer
function is used to design and to simulate a control of angular speed being used the Root-Locus
technique and 2nd order Fuzzy Logic to autotune the proportional integral gains. The primary
objective is to synchronize the engine speeds to make efficient the fuel use in the combustion
motor and controlling of other operations.

OBJECTIVES
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

## Simulation of DLDC Motor.

Introducing PI & fuzzy in BLDC motor for speed control.
Analysis done on the basiss of 2nd order fuzzy controller.
Controlling different operations including speed.
Analysing & comparison based on parameter.

CHAPTER 5
HARDWARE & SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT
5.1 Hardware requirement
3GB of free HDD space
1GB RAM
64 MB Graphics card
Core 2Duo processor or above
5.2 Software requirement
Windows XP or above
MATLAB R2012a (7.10.0.499)

CHAPTER 6
REFERENCES
[1]. Ahmed M.Ahmed and Amr Ali-Eldin Brushless DC Motor Speed Control using both PI
Controller and Fuzzy PI Controller International Journal of Computer Applications (0975
8887) Volume 109 No. 10, January 2015

## [2]. D.Premalatha A.SakthiRubini Direct Torque Control of Brushless DC Motor Using PI

and Fuzzy Controller International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology
Research (IJSETR) Volume 4, Issue 4, April 2015 922
[3]. S.Darwin, M.Murugan, J. Jasper Gnana Chandran Sensorless Direct Speed Control for
BLDC Motor Drives Using Fuzzy Logic International Journal of Innovative Research in
Science, Engineering and Technology (An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization) Vol. 4,
Special Issue 6, May 2015
[4]. Sudhanshu Mitra , Amit Ojha A Comparative Investigation on DTC of B4-Inverter-Fed
BLDC Motor Drives Using Pi and Intelligent Controllers International Journal of Advanced
Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering (An ISO 3297: 2007
Certified Organization) Vol. 4, Issue 3, March 2015
[5]. Geovanny Robles-Escobar, Luis Lopez-Perez, Carlos Ros-Rojas, Arnulfo RosalesQuintero PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF BLDC MOTOR DRIVE USING PI AND
FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL SCHEME International Research Journal of Engineering and
Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 02 Issue: 06 | Sep-2015
[6]. Vashist Bist, Bhim Singh An Adjustable Speed PFC Bridgeless-SEPIC fed Brushless DC
Motor Drive 978-1-4673-7151-3/15/\$31.00 2015 IEEE