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Table of Contents:
Unit 1: Arguments and Techniques of Informal Analysis

Chapter 1: Identifying Arguments


1.1 The elements of an argument
1.2 Keys for identifying arguments
1.3 Atomic and compound arguments
1.4 Kinds of arguments

6
6
10
13
14

Chapter 2: Diagramming Arguments

17

Chapter 3: Fallacious Reasoning in Argumentation


3.0 Fallacies in General
3.1 Fallacies of Relevance
3.2 Fallacies of Weak Induction
3.3 Fallacies of Presumption
3.4 Fallacies of Ambiguity
3.5 Fallacies of Grammatical Analogy
3.6 Additional fallacies
3.7 Some commonly confused fallacies
3.8 Techniques for identifying fallacies

22
22
24
31
35
38
39
41
42
43

Unit 2: Formal Evaluation of Arguments

44

Chapter 4: Criteria for Evaluating Arguments


4.1 The form-content distinction
4.2 Validity and Soundness

45
45
47

Chapter 5: The Language of Propositional Logic


5.0 Using formal systems to evaluate arguments
5.1 The syntax of propositional logic
5.2 The semantics of Propositional Logic

53
53
57
62

Chapter 6: Translation into Propositional Logic


6.1 Negations, Conjunctions, and Disjunctions
6.2 Material Conditionals and Biconditionals

67
67
83

Unit 3: Formal Techniques of Analysis I


Chapter 7: Truth-Table Analysis
7.1 Truth-Tables and the Logical Status of Propositions
7.2.1 Truth-tables and general rules of construction
7.2.2 Determining the Logical Status of a Single Proposition
7.2.3 Determining the logical status of a group of propositions
7.3 Determining the validity of an argument via truth-tables

89
90
90
91
93
95
98

Chapter 8: Indirect-Table Analysis


8.1 Indirect-table test for validity
8.2 Notation
8.3 Indirect-tables for determining logical status
8.4 Summary of tests via indirect procedure

102
102
107
107
109

Chapter 9: Truth-Tree Analysis


9.1 Foundations
9.2 Rules for truth-tree construction
9.2 Supplement: truth-trees for testing logical relations

110
110
111
119

Unit 4: Formal Techniques of Analysis II

122

Chapter 10: Natural Deduction: Rules of Inference


10.1 Elements

123
123

Chapter 11: Natural Deduction: Rules of Replacement


11.1 Rules of Replacement
11.2 Proof Strategies
11.2.1 Compressing a Proof
11.2.2 Techniques for Proving

134
134
143
143
144

Chapter 12: Natural Deduction: Proof Rules


12.0 The general idea of proof rules
12.1 Conditional Proof
12.2 Indirect Proof
12.3 General remarks on proof rules

146
146
146
149
152

Guides and Exercises

153

Ch 1
Ch 2
Fallacy Title Guide
Ch 3
Ch 4
Ch 5
Translation Guide
Ch 6
Truth-Table Guide
Ch 7
Ch 8
Truth-Tree Rule Guide
Ch 9
Natural Deduction Rue Guide
Ch 10
Ch 11
Ch 12

154
156
158
159
164
165
167
168
173
174
175
176
180
180
181
182
183

Answer Key

184

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