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Annexure B

Document No. : DRDL/DOAD/ATF/HWT/59


Copy No.

No. of pages

: 159 (including title page)

Design, Fabrication, Installation of


Wind Tunnel System and
Commissioning of Hypersonic Wind
Tunnel Facility

Date of issue : May, 2013

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Defence Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL) proposes to establish


one meter diameter hypersonic wind tunnel to meet research and
development requirements for design of futuristic Hypersonic missiles and
Re-entry vehicles which requires generation of extensive aerodynamic data.
The facility will be built at Shamirpet (Badamafi), Hyderabad. Hypersonic Wind
Tunnel Facility consists of three major systems i.e, High Pressure System,
Wind Tunnel System and Vacuum System. High pressure system provides dry
air at 300 bar and ambient temperature and vacuum system provides the
required vacuum for various tunnel operating conditions. Wind Tunnel
System provides the required flow conditions to be simulated for testing the
models. For High Pressure System and vacuum System, tendering process is
in progress. The current proposal is for Wind Tunnel System. The scope of
work of Wind Tunnel System includes design/ realization and integration of
Wind Tunnel System, integration of Wind Tunnel System with High Pressure
System and Vacuum System on either side and commissioning of the entire
Wind Tunnel Facility. Design, realization and commissioning of High Pressure
System and Vacuum System will be carried out in standalone mode by other
vendors and will be made available to Wind Tunnel System vendor. Necessary
Civil works will be carried out by Department. Department would also provide
input power to the Wind Tunnel Building from LT sub-station and utility water
at nearest point. Entire work will be completed within a period of 48 months
from the date of signing of contract. The document describes detailed
specification, scope of work, acceptance tests of individual sub-system and
Acceptance Test Plan of the entire facility.

Contents:
Executive summary .

Nomenclature

Chapter 1 Introduction and scope of work

..

10

..

10

1.1 Scope and description ...

13

1.2 Duration

15

1.0 Introduction

..

1.3 Description of the overall facility and process

15

18

18

1.4 Location and layout of the facility


1.5 Scope of contract

Chapter 2 Pressure Regulating System


2.0 Introduction

..

..

29
29

2.1 Pressure regulating system objectives and configuration

30

2.2 Scope of Work .

31

2.3 Specifications

35

..

2.4 Acceptance tests

39

2.5 Functional test

42

2.6 Documentation .

42

2.7 Deliverables

44

Chapter 3 Air Heating System


3.1 Introduction

..

49

49

3.2 Major work definition

...

3.3 Technical specification


3.4 Deliverables

52

73

Chapter 4 Tunnel System


4.0 Introduction

49

..

75

75

4.1 Settling Chamber

75

4.1.1 Introduction

75

4.1.2 System configuration .

76

4.1.3 Technical specification

77

4.1.4 Acceptance test


4.2 Nozzles

..

83

83

83

4.2.1 Introduction

4.2.2 System configuration ..

83

4.2.3 Technical specification

86

4.2.4 Acceptance test


4.3 Test Section
4.3.1 Introduction

..

89

90

90

4.3.2 System configuration ..

90

4.3.3 Technical specification

91

4.3.4 Acceptance test

..

94

4.4 Model Incidence Mechanism .

94

4.4.1 Introduction

94

4.4.2 System configuration ..

95

4.4.3 Technical specifications

97

4.4.4 Acceptance test


4.5 Diffuser

..

99

99

99

4.5.1 Introduction

4.5.2 System configuration .


4.5.3 Technical specification
4.5.4 Acceptance test

4.6 Vacuum Isolation Valve

99
100
106
106

4.7 Connecting duct

106

4.7.1 Introduction

106

4.7.2 System Configuration

4.7.3 Technical specification


4.7.4 Acceptance test
4.8 Aftercooler

4.8.1 Introduction

4.8.2 Functional requirement and specifications


4.8.3 Inspection & Testing

108
108
108
109

..

113

..

115

..

119

Chapter 5 Instrumentation and control system


5.0 Introduction

107

4.9 Scope of work for tunnel system


4.10 Deliverables

106

....

5.1 Facility Description

5.2 Tunnel operating sequence

5.3 Functional requirement of instrumentation system


5.4 Indicative block diagrams

120
120
120
121
122
126

5.5 Instrumentation system components requirement

129

5.6 Software ..

142

5.7 Scope of work by Contractor .

143

5.8 Scope of work by Department

143

5.9 Installation and Commissioning ..

144

5.10 Documentation

..

144

5.11 Acceptance test plan ...

144

5.12 Deliverables

..

Chapter 6 Acceptance Test Plan

....................................

145
159

Nomenclature:

Pitch angle

Yaw angle

Roll angle

ADC

Analog to Digital Converter

AF

After cooler

AHS

Air Heating System

AISI

American Iron and Steel Institute

ANSI

American national standard institute

AOUT

Analog Out

API

American petroleum institute

ANALOG IN

Analog Input

ASME

American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ASTM

American Society for Testing Materials

BS

British standards

BVIS

Bureau Veritas Industrial Services Pvt Ltd

CCE

Chief Controller of Explosives

CD

Compact Disc

COTS

Commercially-off-the-shelf

CS

Carbon Steel

Diffuser

DAQ

Data Acquisition

DAC

Digital to Analog Converter

Db

Bed outer diameter

DER

Detailed Engineering Review

Di

Insulation outer diameter

DIG IN

Digital IN

DIN

Digital IN

DIG OUT

Digital Out

DOUT

Digital Out

DMR

Double Mode Redundancy

DN

Nominal diameter

DNV

Det-Norske Veritas

Ds

Shell outer diameter


6

EGV

Electro Pneumatic / Electro Hydraulic Globe Valve

EH

Electro Hydraulic

EIL

Engineers India Limited

EMI

Electro Magnetic Interference

EMC

Electro Magnetic Compliance

EP

Electro Pneumatic

FCI

Fluid Control Institute

GUI

Graphical User Interface

Heater

HMS

Health Monitoring System

HP

High Pressure

HPS

High Pressure System

HSV

Hot Shutoff Valve

HT

High Tension

HWT

Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

INR

Indian National Rupees

LEL

Lower explosive limit

LPG

Liquefied Petroleum Gas

LRIS

Lloyds Register Industrial Services Pvt Ltd

LT

Low tension

Mach Number

MAWP

Maximum allowable working pressure

MBV

Manual Operated Ball Valve

MCC

Motor Control Centre

MCS

Master Control System

MFA

Model Free Adaptive

MICS

Model Incidence Control System

MIM

Model Incidence Mechanism

MS

Measurement System

MT

Metric tones

MTBF

Mean time between failures

MVWSS

Medium Velocity Water Spray Sprinkler

Nozzle

NDT

Non Destructive Testing


7

NPS

Nominal Pipe Size

OISD

Oil industry safety Directorate

P & ID

Process & Instrumentation Diagram

PDR

Preliminary Design Review

PID

Proportional Integral Differential

PIV

Particle Image velocimetry

PLIF

Planar laser induced fluorescence

PM

Pressure Measurement

PP

Perforated plate

Pr

Pressure

PRCS

Pressure Regulating Control System

PRS

Pressure Regulating System

PRV

Pressure Regulating Valve

PSP

Pressure Sensitive Paint

PT

Pressure Transducer

QAP

Quality assurance plan

QC

Quality Control

Re

Reynolds Number

ROV

Remotely Operated Valves

RT

Radiography Test

RTD

Resistance Temperature Detector

RTDAS

Real Time Data Acquisition System

RTOS

Real Time Operating System

RTJ

Ring type joint

SC

Settling Chamber

SCADA

Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition

SNR

Signal to Noise Ratio

SS

Stainless Steel

STP

Shielded Twisted Pair

TC

Thermocouple

TEMA

Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers association

TM

Temperature Measurement

TMR

Triple Mode Redundancy

TPIA

Third party inspection agency


8

TS

Test Section

UPS

Uninterrupted Power Supply

VG

Vacuum Gauge

VIV

Vacuum Isolation Valve

VPV

Vacuum Pump Valve

VS

Vacuum System

VTA

Vent to Atmosphere

CHAPTER 1 Introduction and Scope of work


1.0 INTRODUCTION Defence Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL) (hereafter
referred as Department) proposes to establish a 1.0 m diameter hypersonic wind tunnel in
order to cater to the ever-growing ground testing requirements for various hypersonic
vehicle configurations which are currently at different stages of design and development
and also for futuristic configurations. The facility will be built at Hyderabad.
Hypersonic Wind tunnel Facility consists of High Pressure System, Wind Tunnel System
and Vacuum System. High pressure system provides dry air at 300 bar and ambient
temperature and vacuum system provides the required vacuum for various tunnel operating
conditions. Tunnel System provides the required flow condition to be simulated for testing
the models. The regulated air at ambient temperature is heated to a higher temperature as
the air passes through an air heater. The model is injected into the test section after
stabilization of the flow using a model incidence system. Further downstream the flow
passes through diffuser system and it is cooled to a lower temperature by an after cooler
before being dumped into the vacuum tank. The model is retracted after the measurements
are completed and after that tunnel blow down is stopped. The typical useful blow down
time is 20 - 40 seconds.
Broad specifications of the wind tunnel are given in Table 1.1. The operating envelope is
given in Table 1.2. Overall layout of the Wind Tunnel with High Pressure System and
Vacuum System is shown in Fig 1.1.

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Table 1.1

: Broad specifications of the Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

Nomenclature

Description

Type of Wind Tunnel

Pressure-Vacuum enclosed free jet

Test medium

Air

Nozzle exit diameter (nominal)

1.0 m

Mach number

5, 6.5, 8, 10 and 12

Stagnation pressure (bar)

10 - 100

Stagnation temperature (K)

346 -1400

Vacuum level (mbar)

0.01

Mass flow rate (kg/sec)

0.7 - 180

Minimum run time (sec)*

20

Maximum number of tests per day

Types of tests

Force, Pressure, Flow visualization (Schlieren, oil flow)

* Run time - Useful test time excluding flow settling time of approximately 20 sec

Table 1.2 : Operating Envelope of Hypersonic Wind tunnel

Highest end of Test Envelope

Mach

Lowest end of Test Envelope

P0

T0

Mass flow rate

P0

T0

Mass flow rate

(Bar)

(K)

(kg/sec)

(Bar)

(K)

(kg/sec)

30

376

180

10

346

61.38

6.5

100

575

152.4

10

487

16.6

100

760

60.6

10

653

6.5

10

100

1046

18.3

10

912

12

100

1377

6.7

10

1211

0.7

no

Note- Operating range of each Mach number is from lowest to highest. For example, Mach
5 nozzle will be operated in the range of stagnation pressure from 10 to 30bar. Other
nozzles (Mach 6.5, 8, 10 & 12) will be operated in the range of stagnation pressure from 10
to 100 bar.

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Air Heating system


LPG storage

High pressure system

M easurement system

Cooling towers

Vacuum
Pumps

Tunnel System

Compressors

Pressure regulating
system
High Pressure
storage tanks

Tunnel
Control system

Vacuum
spheres

W ind tunnel system


Vacuum system
Vacuum sphere

HEATER

Nozzle Test
Diffuser
Section
Settling
chamber

M odel Incidence
M echanism

Hot shut

Fig. 1.1

Vacuum isolation
valve
After cooler

Layout Of DRDL Hypersonic Wind Tunnel


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GL

1.1 SCOPE AND DESCRIPTION


The realization of Wind Tunnel is to be executed on turnkey basis. The scope of work,
description, functional requirements and technical specifications of each sub-system, terms
and conditions for executing the contract, etc, are given in this tender document.
The above details have been brought out for different sub-systems chapter wise as given
below.
Chapter 2 Pressure Regulating System
Chapter 3 Air Heating System
Chapter 4 - Tunnel System
Chapter 5 Instrumentation and Control System
Some of the key words used in this document are defined as follows.

Department shall mean and include the President of India acting through the
Director, DRDL and any representative (s) of the Department duly authorized on his
behalf.

Contractor shall mean the individual or firm or company whether incorporated or not,
chosen by the Department among the bidders to this tender enquiry, under-taking the
works and shall include the legal personal representatives of such individuals or the
persons composing such firm or company, of the successors of such firm or company
and the permitted assignee of such individual or firm (s) or company.

Contract shall mean the formal agreement to be executed between the President of
India and the bidder, whom the Department may choose, based on the documents
forming this tender enquiry and acceptance thereof by the bidder and together with the
documents as referred to therein including the specifications, designs, drawings and
instructions issued from time to time by the Department.

Site shall mean the land and or other places at Hyderabad on which work is to be
executed under the contract, which may be allotted by the Department for the purpose
of carrying out the work.

Materials shall mean all the items required for realizing and forming part of the Wind
Tunnel System, including raw materials, semi-finished & finished products and
subassemblies, which are manufactured by the Contractor or their sub-Contractors or
brought-out from their sub-Contractors, such as equipments, flow components, pipes,
pipe fittings, instruments, etc.

Facility shall mean the proposed Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Facility.

All the pressure values specified in this document are in absolute scale, unless
specified otherwise.
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1.1.1 MAJOR WORK DEFINITION


(i)

Design, detailed engineering, fabrication/procurement, inspection and testing,


supply, integration and commissioning of the wind tunnel consisting of the following
sub-systems.
a) Pressure Regulating System consisting of pressure regulating valves, other
valves and associated pipelines.
b) Air Heating System including heaters, hot shut-off valves, burner-blower,
chimney, LPG storage tank, associated pipeline, instrumentation and control for
heating operation.
c) Other tunnel systems such as Settling Chambers, Nozzles, Test Section, Model
Incidence Mechanism, Diffuser, Connecting Duct, After Cooler.
d) Wind tunnel cooling systems and integration with the respective wind tunnel
component.

(ii)

Design, realization and commissioning of High Pressure System and Vacuum


System will be carried out by other vendors and will be made available to Wind
Tunnel System vendor. Wind Tunnel System vendor has to integrate Wind Tunnel
System with High Pressure System and Vacuum System on either side

(iii)

Design and realization of instrumentation & control system according to the


requirement given in the document.

(iv)

Integration of sensors, instruments with wind tunnel systems and development and
supply of software for wind tunnel operation and control.

(v)

Import, supply and integration of vacuum isolation valve.

(vi)

Schlieren System will be supplied by other vendor. Wind Tunnel System vendor has
to keep provision for fixing glass windows on doors and top cover of Test Section.

(vii)

All civil works (except civil works associated with LPG system) will be carried out by
Department. Contractor has to provide all necessary details of foundation required
for installation of different components including any special foundations required for
heaters, test section, etc.

(viii) Contractor has to indicate total electrical power requirement including power
requirement for pumps for cooling systems, Department would provide only input
power to the Wind Tunnel Building from LT sub-station. Further distribution at
different points has to be done by the Contractor.
(ix)

Contractor has to specify total water requirement for cooling system. Utility water
(softened) will be provided by the Department at nearest point as specified by
Contractor. Contractor will be responsible for further routing of pipe at different
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locations. However, the contractor has to specify the quantity and the quality of the
water required for various systems.
(x)

Integration of different sub-systems of Wind Tunnel System

(xi)

Integration of Wind Tunnel Systems with High Pressure System and Vacuum System
on either side.

(xii)

Commissioning of Wind Tunnel

Note- Wind Tunnel System vendor will be provided with detailed specifications and
layout of High Pressure System and Vacuum System which will be reviewed and
accepted by them.

1.2 DURATION
The complete work mentioned above shall be executed within a period of 48 months from
the date of signing the contract.

1.3 DESCRIPTION OF THE OVERALL FACILITY AND PROCESS


1.3.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE FACILITY
The tunnel is of intermittent type and uses air as working fluid. The facility would be used to
carry out aero thermal studies of model at different flow conditions. A block diagram of wind
tunnel is given in Fig 1.2. The major systems that constitute the tunnel are:
1. High pressure system (HPS)
2. Wind Tunnel System

Pressure regulating system (PRS)

Air Heating system

Tunnel System

Instrumentation and Control System

3. Vacuum System (VS)


4. Schlieren System
5. Civil and Electrical Infrastructure
The High pressure system comprises of air compressor system, high-pressure air storage,
valves, piping and will be used to compress air to required storage pressure. The Pressure
Regulating System will be used for pressure reduction from high pressure storage to the
required test pressure in settling chamber. The heater is used to heat the air to the required
temperature. Without heating, the air expanding in the tunnel nozzle to high velocity will be
cooled to such low temperatures, which results the air to liquefy. Storage heater (cored
brick bed) is proposed. The heater bed is heated by combustion products from a burner.
15

The settling chamber is used to get a low-velocity, homogeneous flow free of turbulence. A
nozzle accelerates the air stream to the specified different speed. To get a given speed of
air stream, a unique nozzle configuration is employed. So, different nozzles are used to get
different speed of air stream. The test section contains the model to be characterized and
associated instrumentation. A diffuser decelerates the air from test section and air is
collected in the vacuum spheres. Vacuum pumps are used to evacuate the vacuum
spheres.

1.3.2 WIND TUNNEL WORKING PROCESS


The Typical sequence of operations for one blow-down is as follows: Atmospheric air is
compressed, dried, recompressed and charged into the high-pressure air storage vessels.
Simultaneously the cored bed heater is heated-up with combustion products from a burner
and the vacuum spheres are evacuated by the vacuum pumps. When the required initial
storage pressure is reached in the pressure vessels, the pressure regulating unit is set for
the required test pressure in settling chamber. When all the systems are ready, the blowdown starts. Air is supplied from the pressure vessels at a pressure regulated by the
pressure regulating system and is heated as it flows through the heater. When the pressure
in the heater reaches a specified value, a valve downstream of heater is opened and hot air
passes through the settling chamber. The high-pressure, high-temperature air then
expands through a nozzle to give the required controlled environment in the test section.
The model to be characterized is injected into the test section. The air flows around the
model in the test section. After the test section air is decelerated in a diffuser and passes
through after cooler and collected into the vacuum spheres. When the pressure in the
vacuum spheres reach a specified level the blow-down is stopped. The cycle of operations
is repeated. The duration of blow-down is 20 seconds. Four tests are planned per day.

1.3.3 DESCRIPTIONS OF WIND TUNNEL SYSTEM


The block diagram of the facility as shown in Fig. 1.2 brings out the major subsystems of
the facility. The major subsystems of Wind Tunnel System are as follows:

Pressure Regulating System

Air heating system

Tunnel system

Instrumentation and control system


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Wind tunnel system is integrated to the High Pressure System in the upstream side
and Vacuum System in the downstream side. The high pressure system of block A and
the vacuum system of block D together generate the driving pressure ratio to establish
required test conditions in the test section.
High Pressure System - Block A of Fig. 1.2: The high pressure system consists of
storage tanks of 80 m3 capacity with storage pressure 300 bar and associated
compressors, driers, etc. The storage system is sized to cater the operating envelope of the
facility as given in Table 1.2 and can be recharged within 2 hrs.
Air Heating System Block B of Fig. 1.2: The air from the storage system is regulated for
the given pressure through a pressure regulating system during the test to meet that
specific test condition. This regulated air further passes through the air heating system to
avoid liquefaction of air at very low temperatures in the test section. The capacity of the air
heater caters for a mass flow variation of 0.7-180 kg/s and a temperature rise upto 1700 K.
Two heaters are proposed A bigger heater which can handle higher mass flow upto
180 Kg/sec and lower temperature (700 K) and a smaller heater which can handle mass
flow rate upto 60.6 Kg/sec and higher temperature (1700 K). Cored brick heaters will be
used. The air heating system consists of the main heater bed, a burner blower for
combustion and associated LPG storage system and a requisite control and safety
features.
Tunnel System Block C of Fig. 1.2: This is the main subsystem of the tunnel consisting
of settling chamber, set of nozzles, test section and supersonic and subsonic diffusers,
connecting duct and Aftercooler. The hypersonic test conditions are simulated in the test
section by the selection of specific nozzle and blowdown pressure and temperature
conditions. The tunnel system further requires a separate cooling system consisting of two
blocks - one to cater to cooling of tunnel components like nozzles, diffuser, etc and the
second to cater for the cooling of air at the exit of the diffuser. Into this system the main
tunnel control system has to be integrated for appropriate control of testing conditions and
various safety interlock requirements.
Vacuum System Block D of Fig. 1.2: In hypersonic testing due to the high pressure ratio
required for testing, a vacuum system is required in downstream. The vacuum system
17

consists of three spherical storage tanks of 2200 m3 capacity each with vacuum levels of
0.01 mbar. This is achieved using two chains of four stage vacuum pumps of requisite
capacity to meet cycle time requirements of 2 hrs.
Instrumentation and Control system Block E of Fig. 1.2: The Tunnel control system
consists of two levels of control with requisite health monitoring and sequencing. At the
lower level each major system viz. high pressure system, pressure regulating system, air
heating system, vacuum system, model injection system are monitored and controlled.
Required safety features are incorporated for each subsystem for proper functioning which
includes redundant measurements and fault tolerance. At the higher level, the main control
system of the tunnel takes care of health monitoring of the above subsystems, sequencing
of tunnel operation, safety and interface interlock of these subsystems. Both hardware and
software redundancy are expected to be built up for proper functioning of the tunnel system.
The model injection into the tunnel after establishment of the flow and the variation of model
attitude during the testing are achieved by Model Incidence Mechanism with its associated
actuators, controllers, software and DAQ. This system is interfaced appropriately with the
tunnel control system.

1.4 LOCATION AND LAY-OUT OF THE FACILITY


The facility will be established at Shamirpet (Badamafi), Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.
The nearest seaport is at Chennai, which is 700 km away towards the south-east. Nearest
airport is at Shamshabad, Hyderabad.

1.4.1 LAY-OUT OF THE FACILITY


The equipment layout of the facility is given in Fig. 1.3. 3-D layout of Wind Tunnel Complex
is given in Fig. 1.4

1.5

SCOPE OF CONTRACT

The scope of the contract and the demarcation of responsibilities between the Department
and the Contractor for realization of individual system are given in this section.

1.5.1 SCOPE OF SERVICES BY THE DEPARTMENT


In order to realize individual system, the Department will provide the following services:

1.5.1.1

PRELIMINARY DESIGN & DESIGN REVIEW


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The conceptual design of the system has been done by the Department. In this document,
the P & ID along with tentative sizes of the fluid circuits for PRV system, tentative sizes of
other tunnel components are given. All the necessary input parameters (pressure,
temperature, mass flow rate) have been defined. Technical specification of individual
system has been provided in respective chapter. These details are given only for price
estimation. There may be changes in size etc. based on the design carried out by the
Contractor. The Contractor shall carry out preliminary design of the system within a period
of two months. The design done by the Contractor shall be reviewed and approved by the
Department. Department shall organize the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) meeting at
the Department within a period of one month from the receipt of design report with all
relevant details from the Contractor.

1.5.1.2

EQUIPMENT LAY-OUT

The location plan and equipment lay-out of all the systems are given in this document.
Based on this equipment layout and the P & ID, the Contractor shall prepare lay-out of
pipeline and other tunnel component, prepare isometric drawings and derive the actual
lengths required to connect between the various interfaces.

1.5.1.3

REVIEW OF DETAILED ENGINEERING

Upon award of the contract and after Preliminary Design Review, the Contractor shall carry
out detailed engineering. The Department will review the detailed engineering done by the
Contractor.

1.5.1.4

MAJOR CIVIL WORKS

The Department will carry out the following major civil works:

Site preparation and road

Building and trenches

Foundation with pockets for equipments

Lighting and PH works

Tunnel building, heater shed, Shed for Pressure Regulating System, etc

However, the Contractor shall provide the details of the area required, loads on the
equipments foundations etc.
Note: All civil works associated with the LPG system should be carried out by the
vendor.

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1.5.1.5

SERVICES DURING ERECTION AND COMMISSIONING

During erection and commissioning, the Department will provide the following services:

Electricity for erection on chargeable basis at the tariff rate prevailing at the time
of consumption

The instrumentation (measurement/command/control) for the individual system shall be


realized by the Contractor.

1.5.1.6

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

Department would provide only input power with open ended cable to the Wind Tunnel
Building ground floor panel room from LT sub-station. Further distribution at different points
have to be done by the Contractor. The contractor has to provide main distribution panel
with necessary switchgear at panel room and also set up the local distribution panels near
to the respective load center wherever required. All equipments should have power
disconnection option locally.

Supplying & laying of the cable (Armoured XLPE cable

between distribution panels as per IS 7098 standard, PVC insulated copper cable between
panels and equipments as per IS 1554 standard) is in the contractor scope. Connection
between distribution panels and earth pits is in the contractor scope.
Contractor has to indicate total electrical power requirement which should cover the
connected load, running load of individual subsystems and layout of the cable routing.

1.5.1.7

WATER SUPPLY

Contractor has to specify total water requirement for cooling system. Utility water will be
provided by the Department at nearest point as specified by Contractor. Contractor will be
responsible for further routing of pipe at different locations.

1.5.2 SCOPE OF WORK BY CONTRACTOR


The scope of work to be done by the Contractor for the realization of Wind Tunnel System
is given in this section. The bidder is required to submit a complete quotation for the entire
works mentioned herein. If required, the Contractor may engage Sub-Contractors for
executing part of the work. However, prime Contractor will be solely responsible for
completion of the work. The bidder shall provide in the quotation, the list of Sub-Contractors
proposed to be engaged for approval by the Department.

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1.5.2.1 PRELIMINARY DESIGN


The tentative P & IDs, sizing of wind tunnel components are given in this document. Upon
award of the contract, the Contractor shall carry out preliminary design of the various
systems and submit a design document containing details, with calculations of the sizing of
the tunnel circuits, comprising the pipe-lines, valves, tunnel components, instruments, etc.
within a period of two months. The Department will organize Preliminary Design Review
(PDR) meeting at the Department within a period of one month from submission of
Preliminary Design Document in which the Contractors representatives will participate. The
objective of the design review is to arrive at a consensus between the Department and the
Contractor on the design of Wind Tunnel System to freeze the input data for the detailed
engineering to be done by the Contractor. The design shall be generally as per the
configuration given in respective chapters of this document and shall meet the objective
specification. The design calculations are to be based on the codes/standards mentioned in
various section of this document. In such cases where the Contractor uses alternative
codes/ standards, it shall be their responsibility to submit a copy of such codes/ standards
in English language to the Department during design review. The design review shall
primarily address the following issues:

Design of Wind Tunnel System to comply with the specified functional requirements
as given in respective chapter of this document.

Adequacy of the size of pipelines, valves, tunnel components, instruments, etc to


comply with the specified process parameters.

Adequacy of the in-built safety features.

1.5.2.2 DETAILED ENGINEERING


Based on the Preliminary Design approved by the Department in Preliminary Design
Review (PDR), the Contractor shall carry out detailed engineering, which shall comprise the
following.
a. Detailed pipe line layout shall be made. The 3-dimensional isometric drawings of the
individual pipe-line segment shall be made and the necessary pipe stress analysis
shall be carried out. Pressure drop and temperature drop along the pipe need to be
estimated.
b. Detailed thermo-structural analysis will be carried out for all the tunnel components
like heater, associated downstream pipes, Settling Chambers, nozzles, Test Section,
Model Incidence Mechanism, Diffuser, Connecting Duct and After Cooler. Based on
thermo-structural analysis, material will be finalized.
21

c. Detailed mechanical design of all the tunnel components will be carried out and
fabrication drawings will be prepared.
d. The detailed Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) for the materials such as pipes, pipe
fittings,

valves,

tunnel

components,

instruments,

fabrication,

erection

and

commissioning shall be worked out based on mutual discussion between Contractor


and the Department.
e. Detailed

procedure

and

acceptance

criteria

for

fabrication,

erection

and

commissioning shall be provided for approval.


f. Civil and Electrical requirements: The equipment lay-out of the wind tunnel facility,
showing the major civil works to be done by the Department, is given in the drawing.
During the Detailed Engineering Review (DER), the Contractor shall provide the
additional details to be incorporated in the major civil works such as foundation
pockets, forces & moments acting on the foundation, etc. The revised equipment layout showing such fine details shall be made by the Contractor. The load details of
electrical power shall also be provided.
g. The details regarding the space requirement, water equipments shall be given by the
Contractor.
h. The purchase specification of the materials such as equipments, tunnel components,
instruments, pipes; pipe fittings, valve, etc shall be provided.
i.

The list of sub-vendors along with their company profile, technical catalogues etc.
from whom the Contractor has finalized to purchase the materials such as
equipments, tunnel components, instruments, pipes, pipe fittings, valves, etc. shall
be provided.

j.

The list of spares to be supplied shall be provided.

The Contractor shall provide Detailed Engineering Review (DER) document within 4
months after PDR approval. Department will arrange Detailed Engineering Review (DER)
meeting at the Departments site within two weeks after the submission of document.
Contractors representative (s) will participate in DER.

1.5.2.3

SELECTION OF SUB-CONTRACTORS

The list of sub-Contractors, if any, through whom the bidder proposes to acquire the
material and services for the execution of work, shall be given in the quotation. The list of
sub-Contractors proposed by the bidder is subject to review by the Department during
evaluation of the quotation.

22

During DER, the Contractor shall submit the final list of sub-Contractors with whom they
have finalized to purchase the materials and services. This list of sub-Contractors, along
with the purchase specification, is subject to review and approval by the Department.

1.5.2.4

PURCHASE OF MATERIALS

All the bought out items and materials for individual system are to be purchased by the
Contractor as per approved QA plan. The Contractor shall purchase the subsystem/materials as per specified source, wherever applicable. The purchase specifications
of such items and the sub-vendors from whom such materials are to be purchased are
subject to review and approval by the Department.

1.5.2.5

SUPPLY OF SPARES

All the necessary spares pertaining to respective system shall be supplied by the
Contractor along with the system. Detailed spares required for individual system is given in
respective chapter. The break-up prices of the spares shall be given in the quotation.

1.5.2.6

FABRICATION

The system shall be fabricated at the Contractors factory to such an extent that they can be
transported by sea and road. The fabrication shall include testing & cleaning of the system.
All the consumables, tools, tackle; etc required for fabrication shall be arranged by the
Contractor.

1.5.2.7

INSPECTION

All the bought-out materials, fabrication drawings and the works during fabrication at the
Contractors factory and erection at the Departments site shall be inspected by one of the
following reputed Third Party Inspection Agencies (TPIA).

Lloyds Register Industrial Services Pvt Ltd (LRIS)

Bureau Veritas Industrial Services Pvt Ltd (BVIS)

Det-Norske Veritas (DNV)

Any other Govt. approved Agency

TPIA will be involved for design clearance, fabrication, inspection and acceptance. The
detailed scope of inspection shall be prepared by the Contractor and approved by the
Department. It shall be the Contractors responsibility to arrange for and co-ordinate with
the TPIA. The price ceiling for inspection by the TPIA shall be separately mentioned in the
quotation. However, the payment of price for inspection shall be made only to the extent
23

and upon production of invoice by the TPIA, subject to the ceiling to be mentioned in the
contract. Apart from inspection by the TPIA, the Departments representative(s) shall
inspect the system at any stage of fabrication and erection.

1.5.2.8

TRANSPORTATION

All the fabricated items and bought out materials shall be properly packed and transported
to the Departments site at Hyderabad.

1.5.2.9

ERECTION

The system is to be erected by the Contractor at the Departments site. Apart from erecting
the system fabricated by the Contractor, it shall also be the Contractors responsibility to
erect the major equipments supplied by the Contractor. The work done by the Contractor
during erection shall be inspected by the TPIA. The erection shall also include cleaning &
testing, minor civil & structural works (for grounding of equipments, pipe supports, access
bridges, platforms, staircase, etc), and electrical system in and from MCC.
The Contractor shall arrange for constructing temporary sheds/ buildings for storing
materials, erection equipments, tools & tackles, etc. The Contractors personnel shall not be
permitted to reside inside the Departments premises after the work. The Contractor shall
arrange for transportation, accommodation, food, health care, communication, etc for their
personnel.

1.5.2.10 COMMISSIONING
Each system shall be commissioned by the Contractor in two phases as follows:

In the first phase all the subsystems of individual system will be tested individually,
in static (no-flow) condition.

In the second phase, individual system will be tested with the rest of the tunnel
system in integrated way.

The entire tunnel will be deemed to be commissioned when four successful tests have been
conducted for each Mach number at the maximum pressure and temperature condition for
a steady duration of minimum 20 seconds.

1.5.2.11 DOCUMENTATION
The Contractor shall prepare the relevant documents during different phases of the
Contract. All the documents shall be provided in 3 copies in English language only. In the
event that the documents by the sub-vendors/ sub-Contractors are in some other language,
24

it shall be the Contractors responsibility to translate them to English language. The


documents shall also be provided in CDs, besides the 3 hard copies. These documents are
subject to review by the Department. However, the Departments approval shall not absolve
the Contractors responsibility to comply with the specifications and obligations of the
contract. The list of documents to be provided by the Contractor at different phases of the
contract for different system is given in respective chapter.

25

BLOCK - A

BLOCK - B
BURNER
SYSTEM

VALVE OPERATING
SYSTEM

BLOCK - C

VENT

CHIMNEY

COOLING WATER
SYSTEM

HSV5

PRV3

HSV7

M = 10 & 12
EGV7

MBV3

SETTLING

M = 5 & 6.5
EGV4

EGV5

PRV1

M = 5 & 6.5
TEST SECTION

HSV2

HSV1

PRV2
M=8

COOLER
VIV

M = 8, 10 & 12

VACUUM

H2

MBV2

SPHERE

HSV4

HSV3

HSV8

EGV6

HSV6

SYSTEM

AFTER

H1
M = 8, 10 & 12

HIGH PRESSURE

SCHLIEREN &
I R SYSTEM

CHAMBER1

MBV1

STORAGE
M = 5 & 6.5

BLOCK -D

SETTLING
CHAMBER2

NOZZLE

VENT

CHIMNEY

DIFFUSER
VACUUM
SYSTEM

MIM
SYSTEM

ELECTRICAL
SYSTEM

MIM

TEST SECTION
EVACUATION
SYSTEM

BLOCK - E
TC 3

TC 2

TC 1

TC 4

TC MAIN
BLOCK
BLOCK
BLOCK
BLOCK
BLOCK

A : HIGH PRESSURE SYSTEM


B : AIR HEATING SYSTEM
C : TUNNEL SYSTEM
D : VACUUM SYSTEM
E : TUNNEL CONTROL SYSTEM

TC
HSV
PRV
VIV
MBV

:Tunnel CONTROL
: Hot Shutoff Valve
: Pressure Regulating Valve
: Vacuum Isolation Valve
: Manual Ball Valve

Fig 1.2 Block diagram of Hypersonic Wind Tunnel

26

M = 5, 6.5 PRV line


M = 8 PRV line
M = 10 & 12 PRV line

150m
Heater 1

Compressors
Heater 2

High Pressure
storage tanks

300m

Fig 1.3 Equipment layout of wind tunnel


27

CHIMNEY
EXPANSION
BELLOW

DIFFUSER
TEST
SECTION
CONNECTING
DUCT
VACUUM
SHPERE

PRS

NOZZLE
SETTLING
CHAMBER
HEATER SHED WITH
HEATER AND PLATFORM
AIR STORAGE

Fig 1.4 Layout of wind tunnel complex


28

CHAPTER 2 Pressure Regulating System


2.0 INTRODUCTION
The main function of the Pressure Regulating System (PRS) is to reduce the high-pressure
air stored in the air storage at 300 bar (g) to the required test pressures to be maintained in
the settling chamber within specified accuracy to meet different test conditions. The system
shall be capable of supplying air at varying mass flow ranging from 0.7 kg/s to 180 kg/s and
test pressure from 10 bar to 100 bar depending on the test requirement. The scope of the
work includes the sizing of the system, engineering of the system, procurement of various
standard components/sub systems, fabrication of pipeline etc., erection, commissioning at
site (Hyderabad), testing and demonstration of the performance, training and handing over
for normal operation.
The PRS consists of the following sub-systems/components:

Pressure Regulating Valve

Actuators

Power packs for actuators

Servo valves

Sensors

Associated valves and piping

Electrical and Control System

The preliminary layout along with the preliminary sizes of the fluid circuits and an
indicative layout of the facility are given in this document. The details of Contractors
scope of work shall include the following:

Detailed design of all the components of PRS.

Detailed engineering of the entire PRS and generation of purchase specifications.

Purchase of all materials such as manual valves, globe valve, pressure regulating
valve, actuators, power packs, servo valves, instruments, pipes, pipe fittings, etc.

Fabrication, testing and co-ordination for inspection of the system at the Contractors
factory.

Transportation of materials to and storage at the Departments site.

Erection, testing and co-ordination for inspection of the entire system at the
Departments site.

Commissioning of the PRS and demonstration of performance in wind tunnel.

29

2.1

PRESSURE REGULATING SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

Arrangement of PRS is shown in Fig. 2.1. The location of PRS with adjacent systems is
given in Fig. 2.2. A preliminary P & ID of the PRS is given in Fig. 2.3.
The system comprises of the following:

Three numbers of Globe type Pressure Regulating Valves having nominal size 2, 4
and 12 with associated actuators, power pack, servo valves, pressure transducers,
positioner, etc.

Fluid Circuit & Interface-The fluid circuit connects various subsystems of Pressure
Regulating Valve to air storage vessels in upstream and heater in downstream side.
Fluid circuit consists of various flow components like manual valves, electropneumatic (EP) valve/ electro-hydraulic (EH) valve, associated pipe line, pressure
gauges, safety devices, etc.

Functional Requirement- The functional requirements of Pressure Regulating System are


given below.

PRS shall be designed for the input pressure range of 300 -100 bar.

Tests are planned at five different Mach numbers. For each Mach number condition,
tests will be conducted at different pressure level in the settling chamber. The range of
operating pressure and mass flow rate for each Mach number operation is given in
Table 2.1. During the test, system will be operated for any pressure between the
minimum to maximum. For a given test, the settling chamber pressure is fixed.

The pressure at the settling chamber shall be controlled within 1% of the set pressure
in a closed loop.

Response of the system should be less than 5 sec.

The Contractor shall design the PRS having optimum sizes and number of PRV, to
meet the above requirements (Tentative list of PRV is given in the Table 2.2). Each
control valve shall be isolated downstream by manual ball valve and upstream by an
electro-pneumatic/electro-hydraulic globe valve. (Tentative list is given in the Table 2.3
& Table 2.4)

30

Table 2.1 : Operating pressure and mass flow rates required at different test
conditions
Settling chamber
Pressure (Bar)

2.2

Mass flow rate in kg/s for different test cases


Mach 5

Mach 6.5

Mach 8

Mach 10

Mach 12

10

61.38

16.57

6.54

1.96

0.7

20

119.55

32.38

12.80

3.85

1.40

30

180

47.87

18.94

5.70

2.08

40

63.17

25.02

7.54

2.75

50

78.31

31.04

9.36

3.42

60

93.33

37.02

11.17

4.08

70

108.25

42.96

12.97

4.74

80

123.08

48.86

14.76

5.40

90

137.84

54.74

16.54

6.05

100

152.40

60.60

18.31

6.71

SCOPE OF WORK

2.2.1 DESIGN
I. The design of the system, sub-system and the components shall be done to meet the
specifications and the functional requirements specified in the document.
II. The design shall be based on the standards/codes mentioned in Table 2.5 and if an
equivalent/better practices are followed, the same shall be informed in advance to the
department and the approval shall be obtained.
III. The design shall be analyzed for the critical conditions and the soundness shall be
established with adequate factor of safety.
IV. Adequate redundancy shall be considered while designing the system.
V. The details of the design and analysis carried out by the Contractor shall be
documented and produced whenever required.
VI. The system design and analysis will be reviewed and approved by the mutually
agreed third party inspection agency (TPIA) like LRIS, BVQI or any other Govt.
approved agency. The design shall be scrutinized and approved by the Department,
before taking up the realization/procurement.

31

VII. Material specifications, their form, condition and acceptance criteria shall be brought
out in the design.
VIII. Weld joints details, RT & DPT acceptance, internal surface finish, details of support
structure, foundation and erection shall be clearly mentioned and presented to the
Department with the approval of third party.
IX.The Detailed Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) will be prepared based on mutual
discussion with the vendor.
X. During the design phase any change in the design input (major/minor) shall be
accepted by the Contractor and incorporated.
XI. If need arises, the Department may involve and interact during the deliberations
between the Contractor and TPIA.
XII. However, it is the responsibility of the Contractor to ensure the soundness of the
design to meet the functional requirements of the systems.

2.2.2 MATERIAL
a. Qualified material shall only be used for fabricating the components.
b. Material shall be identified for each component and the traceability shall be ensured.
c. Each batch of material shall undergo testing in terms of chemical composition,
mechanical properties under the surveillance of mutually agreed third party inspection
agency (TPIA) like LRIS, BVQI, DNV, or any other Govt. approved agencies.
d. The material to be used for realization of PRS shall be purchased from approved
vendors/ manufacturers. The list of vendors/ manufacturers shall be furnished to
Department for approval.

2.2.3

FABRICATION

a. Fabrication of the components shall commence only after approval of the design by
the Department
b. Before commencing the fabrication, the Contractor shall prepare the detailed
fabrication process drawings, process plan, and quality control plan and get the
approval from the TPIA prior to submission to Department for review and approval.
c. All the welding shall be done by qualified welders only. Welders qualification shall
be done in accordance with ASME section IX, under the surveillance of TPIA
d. All the weld joints shall be qualified in accordance with ASME code section IX
e. Suitable process shall be evolved, for relieving the stresses on welded joints.

32

Details shall be furnished regarding the proposed scheme of stress relieving in the
process plan.
f. Considering the size of the system, the Contractor shall plan and schedule the
fabrication activities at the erection side also, in the department. The Contractor shall
indicate electrical power requirements for the work, which shall be made available
on chargeable basis.
g. The Contractor shall make arrangements for necessary fabrication equipments
including handling for site work at the Departments premises.
h. The Contractor shall agree to accommodate minor changes, if any, during the course
of fabrication.

2.2.4 INSPECTION
The broad scope of inspection shall be as follows. However, the detailed scope of
inspection shall be given in the quotation.
a. Review of the fabrication drawings for fluid circuits
b. Identification of the materials such as equipments, flow components, instruments, pipes,
pipe fittings, etc and review of the test and calibration certificates for compliance with the
contract specification.
c. Witnessing of welding procedure qualification and welders performance qualification
tests. If the welders already possess the performance certificate, the TPIA shall review
and authorize the same.
d. Review of X-ray films of radio-graphic tests for possible defects in the weld joints.
e. Inspection at any stage of fabrication to ensure that the methodology employed for
fabrication is in compliance with the requirements of standards/ codes, practices,
contract specification and the approved documents.
f. Witnessing of pressure test, leak test and cleanliness test of the system during
fabrication and erection at site.

2.2.5 SUPPLY OF SPARES


The following spares shall be supplied by the Contractor along with the PRS. The break-up
prices of the spares shall be given in the quotation.
I.

Spare parts and consumables for erection and commissioning: the


Contractor shall supply the spare parts (like seat insert, body gasket, gland
packing, plug/stem assembly, etc for valves), sensors, etc to be replaced/ used
during erection and commissioning
33

II.

Spare parts and consumables for operation and maintenance: The


Contractor shall also supply the spare parts (like seat insert, body gasket, gland
packing, plug stem assembly with bellows, etc for valves), sensors etc to be
replaced/ used during operation and maintenance over a period of 2 years from
commissioning. The constituents and quantity of such spare parts shall be
worked out, considering the causative factors such as normal wear & tear, fatigue
cycles, creep, Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF), etc. The spare parts
allocated for this purpose shall not be consumed by the Contractor during
erection and commissioning. The vendor shall also submit a list of source for
purchasing spare for future requirements.

2.2.6 ERECTION
The system is to be erected by the Contractor at the Departments site. Apart from erecting
the system fabricated by the Contractor, it shall also be the Contractors responsibility to
erect the components supplied by the Contractor. The work done by the Contractor during
erection shall be inspected by the TPI agency. The erection shall also include cleaning &
testing, minor civil & structural works.
The Contractor shall arrange for constructing temporary sheds/ buildings for storing
materials of PRS, piping, erection equipments, tools & tackles, etc. The Contractors
personnel shall not be permitted to reside inside the Departments premises after the work.
The Contractor shall arrange for transportation, accommodation, food, health care,
communication, safety etc for their personnel.

2.2.7 COMMISSIONING
The pressure regulating system shall be commissioned by the Contractor in two phases as
follows:

In the first phase all the subsystems/components of PRS shall be tested individually.

In the second phase, PRS shall be tested with the rest of the tunnel system in integrated
way.

Major Acceptance tests have been mentioned in the document. However, a detailed
mutually agreed Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) document will be prepared by vendor and
Department during Detailed Engineering Review (DER).

34

2.3

SPECIFICATIONS

The specifications for various components of PRS are given below

2.3.1 SPECIFICATION FOR PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE (PRV)


The control valve shall comprise valve, position sensor, actuator and hydraulic
power pack.
Pattern

Single ported Globe valve

(Tag no., Working Temperature range, MAWP, Indicative Valve Size as given in
Table 2.2 & Fig 2.3)
Design code

ANSI B 16.34

Test code

BS 6755/ BS 5155/ API 598/ B16.34

Material (body)

ASTM A216 grade WCB/ A 182 F304L

Pressure class

Class 2500

End connection

Flanged class 2500 RF with RTJ

Permissible leak rate across

Class IV as per ANSI B 16.104 / FCI 70.2

Size

2, 4 and 12

Trim characteristics

Equal percentage characteristics (Installed)

Working temperature

200-310K

Max. Working pressure

330 bar

seat

Allowable Pressure variation in test pressure

: 1% of set pressure

Run time

40 sec.

Control algorithm

Suitable control (PID/ MFA/ Fuzzy Logic etc)

Servo valve redundancy

Three level

Safety

Fail to close

Allowable noise

Less than 85 dBA

Actuator

Electro hydraulic with power pack & servo


Valves, positioner, position transmitter

Make

Fisher

The other specifications and tests shall be the same as those given for Manual valves and
Electro-pneumatic valve.

35

Table 2.2

Tentative list of Pressure Regulating Valve


Operating Conditioning

Valve

Nominal Valve size

Type of valve

Temperature

MAWP

(K)

(MPa)

PRV1

200-310

33

12

Globe

PRV2

200-310

33

Globe

PRV3

200-310

33

Globe

Tag no.

(Inches)

i) LIMIT SWITCHES
Suitable limit switches shall be provided for indicating the extreme position of the
valve (i.e. fully open or Fully closed condition). Triple mode redundancy is required for
these sensors.

ii) POSITION SENSORS


Position sensors shall be provided for indicating the percentage opening of the PRV.
Triple mode redundancy is to be provided for these sensors. For increasing reliability,
different sensors like potentiometer/LVDT, encoder may be employed. Apart from these
sensors, a local position indicator (with a pointer and graduated scale) shall be provided.

2.3.2 MANUALLY OPERATED VALVE:


Table 2.3
Valve
Tag no.

List of manually operated valves


Operating Conditioning

Temperature (K)

Nominal Valve

MAWP

Size (Inches)

Type of valve

(MPa)

MBV1

200-310

33

12

Ball

MBV2

200-310

33

Ball

MBV3

200-310

33

Ball

Tag no, pattern, working temperature range, Size, MAWP are given above in Table 2.3
Actuation

Hand operated (Manual)

Application

Isolation

Permissible leak rate

1. Class IV as per ANSI B16.104/FCI 70.2 standard for globe valve.

36

2. Bubble tight as per API 598 or Rate A as per API 598 or Rate A of BS 6755 part1 for
gate, ball and butterfly valves
End connection

Flanged ends as per ANSI B 16.5

with full port (standard bore) and in-line end

Style of construction
Body

connections
Bonnet

Bolted or screwed to body

Stem

Quarter turn stem for Ball Valves

Stem (dynamic) seal

By gland packing for Globe, Ball Valves.

Plug

Renewable (replaceable) from stem.

Seat

Renewable from body with seat insert.

Flow direction

Flow to open

Cycle of operation

10,000 cycles

MOC (Body)

ASTM A216 Gr. WCB/ A 182 F304L

Design code

1. BS 5352/ BS 6364 / API 6-D/ANSI B 16.34 for


globe valves.
2. BS 5351 for ball valves

Test code

BS 6755/ BS 5155/ API 598/ B16.34

Suitable limit switches shall be provided for indicating the extreme position of the valve (i.e,
fully open & fully closed position)

2.3.3 ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC/ ELECTROHYDRAULIC GLOBE VALVES (EGV)


The electro-pneumatic/electro-hydraulic Globe valve (EGV) shall comprise the valve,
actuator, solenoid valve and limit switches.
i) Valve
Actuation

Electro-pneumatically/Electromechanically operated

(Tag no., working Temperature range, Size, MAWP As given in Table 2.4)
Table 2.4
Valve
Tag no.

Electro-Pneumatic/ Electro-hydraulic Valves


Operating Conditions
Temperature
MAWP

Nominal

Type of

Mode of

Valve size

valve

Operation

(K)

(MPa)

(Inches)

EGV5

200-310

33

12

Globe

EP/EH

EGV6

200-310

33

Globe

EP/EH

EGV7

200-310

33

Globe

EP/EH

37

ii) Actuator
Type

Linear actuator, piston/diaphragm type, single acting,


Spring return.

Safety

Fail to close.

Response time

< 5 sec

Body material

Hard-anodized Aluminum

Solenoid Valves
Suitable solenoid valve with service gas air and excitation Voltage of 24 V. Solenoid valves
are to be configured as triple mode redundancy.
iii) Limit Switches
It should have suitable limit switches with proper electrical conduit and are to be configured
as triple mode redundancy.

2.3.4 PIPES
The details of pipe line connecting the high-pressure system (HPS) and Air heater is given
in layout. The PRS shall be connected to EGV4 of HPS as given in Fig.2.1. Wind Tunnel
Building is located away from the wind tunnel building in view of safety considerations. The
required length of the pipeline will be worked out accordingly.
Type

seamless pipes

Nominal pipe size & Schedule number

as per P & ID

Length

As required based on the isometrics to be


prepared by the Contractor.

Material

ASTM A 312 TP 304L for


all circuits.

Dimensional standard

ANSI B 36.19/36.10

2.3.5 PIPE FITTINGS:


Size & pressure rating

As required based on P&ID and isometric


drawings to be prepared by the Contractor.

Type

Butt welded fittings for fluid circuits size DN 50


Socket welded fittings for fluid circuits size DN 40

Flanges

ANSI B 16.5

Butt welded fittings

ANSI B 16.9

Socket welded fittings

ANSI B 16.11

Material for fittings to be used in SS pipeline


38

Flanges

ASTM A 182 F 304L

Butt welded fittings

ASTM A 403 WP 304L

Socket welded fittings

ASTM A 182 F 304L

2.3.6 SAFETY SYSTEM


A suitable safety device with adequate redundancy shall be installed downstream of
pressure regulating system to safe guard the system. A suitable vent pipe with an electropneumatic valve is to be provided downstream of pressure regulating system to let out the
trapped air from the pipeline when the upstream and downstream valves in this line are
closed in case of emergency. The vent pipe shall be routed outside of the shed.

2.4

ACCEPTANCE TESTS

2.4.1 VALVES
a) Material certificate: The material test certificates, detailing the physical and chemical
properties of the principle pressure-bearing parts shall be provided.
b) Welding joints test: Any butt welding joints in the valve shall be subjected to radiographic test with X-rays or gamma rays to 2-T sensitivity.
c) Soundness test for casting: All the casting shall be subjected to soundness test with
radio-graphic or ultra-sonic technique for flaw detection.
d) Hydraulic shell pressure test: The valve, prior to assembly with the bellows in partially
open position, shall be subjected to pressure test with water (with suitable corrosion
inhibitor) at the maximum rated working pressure as per standard. The test procedure
and acceptance criteria shall be as per BS 6755 Part1 or API 598 or ANSI B 16.34.
e) Hydraulic seat pressure test: The valve, in closed position, shall be subjected to
pressure test with water (with suitable corrosion inhibitor) at the maximum rated working
pressure as per standard. The test procedure and acceptance criteria shall be as per
BS 6755 Part 1 or API 598 or ANSI B 16.34.
f) Pneumatic seat test (for ball valve only): The leak rate across the seat of ball valves
shall be tested with dry air at 0.4 to 0.7 MPa by water displacement (bubble) method.
The acceptance criteria shall be as per BS 6775 Part1 or API598 or ANSI B 16.34.
g) Functional test: The valve with all accessories mounted shall be subjected to functional
test to validate the performance.
h) Marking: All the valves are assigned tag numbers for the sake of identification. The
tag number for each valve, as indicated above, besides size, pressure rating class,
material of construction etc. shall be engraved on the body of the valves.
39

2.4.2 PIPES
The following tests are to be conducted on the pipes:
i) Visual examination: All the pipes shall be visually examined for workmanship.
ii) Dimensional check: One specimen from each lot shall be subjected to dimensional
check.
iii) Chemical analysis:

One specimen from each lot shall be subjected to detailed

chemical analysis as per ASTM A 751.


iv) Mechanical tests: One specimen from each lot shall be subjected to tests for
mechanical properties as per ASTM A 370 (including impact test).
v) Hydraulic pressure test: All pipes shall be hydraulically pressure-tested with water as
per ASTM A 530.
vi) Ultra-sonic test: All the SS pipes of size DN 25 shall be subjected to Ultra-sonic test
(100%) by contact method as per ASTM A 450.
vii) Eddy current test: All the SS pipes of size DN 15 shall be subjected to Eddy current
test as per ASTM E 426.
viii) Flattening test: Pieces of pipes of length 63.5 mm (2.5) cut from the ends of 5% of
pipe lengths per lot shall be subjected to flattening test as per ASTM A 530 in steps to
prove ductility and soundness.
ix) Inter-granular corrosion test: One specimen per lot shall be subject to inter-granular
corrosion test as per ASTM A 262 (practice A/E).
x) Cleanliness: The pipes shall be cleaned and dried before dispatch.
xi) Marking: The pipes shall be marked as per ASTM A 700.

2.4.3 PIPE FITTINGS


The following tests have to be conducted on pipe fittings:
i) Visual examination: All fittings shall be visually examined for any scratches, dents, and
surface irregularities etc.
ii) Dimensional check: One specimen from each lot shall be subjected to dimensional
check.
iii) Chemical analysis: On specimen from each lot shall be subjected to detailed chemical
analysis as per ASTM A 751.
iv) Inter-granular corrosion test: One specimen per lot shall be subjected to intergranular corrosion test as per ASTM A 262 (practice A/E).

40

2.4.4 CLEANING
The fabricated SS pipe-lines shall be cleaned as per the following procedure:
a. Mechanical cleaning: All the metallic surfaces with scales and newly welded surfaces
will be cleaned by scrubbing with SS wire brush. The loose particles generated by
mechanical cleaning shall be removed by blowing with compressed air, sucking or
washing with water.
b. Degreasing : The oil and grease adherent to the surface shall be removed by vapour
phase de-greasing with Tri Chloro Ethylene (TCE) or Per Chloro Ethylene (PCE),
followed by liquid phase de-greasing with TCE or PCE.
c. Pickling: In order to remove rusts and scales, the surfaces shall be washed with water
and pickled with a solution containing Hydro-fluoric acid (HF) and Nitric acid (HNO3).
The composition of the pickling solution and duration are to be adjusted after trial test on
a sample piece to remove uniformly less than 25m thick material. Mostly, the
composition is as follows;
HF

5% by mass

HNO3

15 to 20 %

Water

Remainder

This is followed by rinsing with water.


d. Passivation: The surfaces shall be passivated with a solution of the following
composition :

HNO3

25% by volume

Water

Remainder

Duration

2h

This is followed by rinsing with De-mineralized water.

2.4.5 PAINTING
All the CS pipe-lines and non-insulated SS pipe-lines shall be painted based on the colour
code scheme. All the pipe-lines, flow components and instruments shall be provided with
identification name plate displaying in bold letters, their tag numbers. All the structural
materials shall be painted in gray colour and stairs handrails in yellow colour. The color
code scheme shall be provided upon award of the contract. Prior to painting, the surfaces
shall be suitably prepared. The painting shall comprise 2 coats of primer and 2 coats of
synthetic enamel.

41

2.5

FUNCTIONAL TEST

Functional tests of Pressure Regulating System will be demonstrated at site during


commissioning of the Facility. The subsystems shall be tested and qualified to the
maximum extent possible at the respective manufacturing facilities and will be witnessed by
Departments representative. The integrated system shall be operated and demonstrated at
the Departments site for its capability to meet the requirements specified.

2.6

DOCUMENTATION

The list of documents to be provided by the Contractor at different phases is as follows:

2.6.1 PRELIMINARY DESIGN REVIEW


The Contractor shall submit a document listing their comments in the Tender Document
provided by the Department. In case the Contractor proposes any alternative scheme, the
same with justification along with calculation wherever necessary shall be submitted. In
case the Contractor proposes to employ alternative codes/ standards, different from those
specified in this document, the copies of such codes/ standards in English shall be
submitted.

2.6.2 DETAILED ENGINEERING REVIEW


a. Pipe-line lay-out drawings
b. Pipe-lines isometric drawings
c. Calculations for sizing of Pressure Regulating Valve and actuator
d. Design of pipe supports
e. Estimation of pressure drop
f. Cable lay-out
g. QAP
h. Procedure and acceptance criteria for fabrication, erection and commissioning
i. Civil and electrical requirements
j. Purchase specification of materials
k. List of sub-vendors/ sub-Contractors
l. List of spares & source

42

2.6.3 FABRICATION
a. As built fabrication drawings.
b. Test certificates and inspection reports of the materials such as equipments, flow
components, pipes, pipe fittings, instruments (including the calibration certificates), etc.
c. Wiring diagram of instrumentation and electrical systems.
d. Test certificates and inspection reports of fabrication (including the radiographic films)

2.6.4 ERECTION
At the end of erection, the following documents shall be submitted.
a. As-built pipe-line layout drawings.
b. As-built pipe-line isometric drawings.
c. As-built cable layout drawings.
d. Estimation of pressure drop based on the as-built pipe-line isometric drawings.
e. Certificates of tests (including radiographic films) done during erection.
f. Inspection report by the Department

2.6.5 STANDARDS FOLLOWED


The Contractor shall follow the following standard for piping, welding, valves etc mentioned
in Table 2.5.
Table 2.5

: Various standards/codes followed in PRS


Description

Standard/code

Piping

ANSI B 31.3/31.1

SS pipes

ANSI B 36.19

CS pipes

ANSI B 36.10

Butt welded fittings

ANSI B 16.9

Socket welded / threaded fittings

ANSI B 16.11

Flanges

ANSI B 16.5

Stud (fully threaded), Nuts and Washers

ASTM A 193 B8/ B7, A 194 8B/2H

Gaskets

API 601 /ANSI B 16.5/ 16.20/16.21

Ball valves

BS 5351/ API 6-D

Globe/Needle valves

ANSI B 16.34 / API 6-D/API 598/ BS


5352/BS 6755

Pressure regulators

Manufacturers standard

Filters

Manufacturers standard

43

Non return valves

BS 5352/ API 6-D


ASME Section VIII Division I/ API RP 520/

Safety relief valves

API RP 527

Rupture disc device

ASME Section VIII Division 1

Pressure gauges

BS 1780/IS 3624

Hydraulic pressure test of pipelines

ASTM A 530

Pickling & Passivation

ASTM A 380

NDT

ASME Section V

Welding

ASME Section IX, AWS

Radiography

ASTM E 94

Design & Fabrication

ASME Section VIII, division I

2.7

DELIVERABLES

The deliverables for the Pressure Regulation system is given in Table 2.6
Table 2.6

: List of Deliverables

Sr.

Item

no.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Qty.

Pressure Regulating Valve (PRV( 2,4 & 12))-with actuator,

position sensor, servo valve, limit switch , hydraulic piping, etc.

+ 3 nos

Electro Hydraulic Globe Valve(EGV( 2,4 & 12))- with

3 nos.

actuator, solenoid valves, limit switch , hydraulic piping, etc.


Manual Ball Valve (MBV ( 2,4 & 12) )
Hydraulic power pack- with accumulator, hoses, safety devices,
etc

( 1 each)
3 nos.
( 1 each)
1 no.

Associated piping air piping between EGV4 to air heating


5.

system, hydraulic piping, pipe fittings, pressure relief valve

1 no.

between PRS to air heating system, etc.


6.

Electrical System- electrical power panels, cabling, switches to


operate PRS

Note: The numbers prefixed with + are the additional requirement

44

1 no.

MBV2
PRV2

EGV6
4 branch
pipe

MBV1

PRV1
MBV3

EGV5
PRV3
EGV 4
(Part of
HPS)

Fig. 2.1

EGV7

: Arrangement of PRS with associated valves and piping

45

2 branch
pipe

Pressure
regulating
system

Settling
chamber
Air
heater

Air
storage
Fig. 2.2

: Pressure Regulating System with adjacent systems


46

Nozzle

Test
Section

Fig. 2.3

P & ID of Pressure Regulating System

47

48

CHAPTER 3 Air Heating System


3.1 INTRODUCTION
Gas based storage heater is proposed for the wind tunnel. Heater bed is contained in the
heater vessel, which acts as the heat storage medium. The heater is operated in three
cycles i.e. Heating cycle (charge cycle), Blowdown cycle (Discharge cycle) and Reheating
cycle (Recharge cycle). In heating cycle, the heater bed is heated to the required
temperature by blowing hot combustion gases through the heater bed before the tunnel
blowdown (off-line). The combustion gases are produced by burning LPG in the burner
placed on top of the heater. In blowdown cycle, the cold air at required pressure and mass
flow rate, is sent from bottom of hot bed to top of bed. During this process, the cold air gets
heated to required temperature and heater bed loses some of its heat content. In reheating
cycle, the hot bed is reheated to required temperature as performed in heating cycle. Thus
the heater is operated in these three cycles to simulate the entire tunnel operating
conditions of Hypersonic Wind Tunnel (HWT) as given in Table 3.1. Schematic diagram of
air heating system is shown in Fig. 3.1. Schematic sketch of a typical cored brick storage
heater is given in Fig. 3.2.

3.2 MAJOR WORK DEFINITION


The scope of work of Air Heating System (AHS) by Contractor includes design, detailed
engineering, fabrication drawings, fabrication, third party inspection, testing, supply of all
the systems/ sub systems/ components, installation at site ,commissioning, demonstration
of the performance, training and handing over for normal operation. The Air Heating System
consists of

Heater vessel with insulation

Heater bed

Distributor

Burner-blower for combustion

LPG Storage, Handling and Supply System

Low pressure air supply and storage system for mixing (diluting) air

Chimney with Interface pipe lines

Vent pipe lines

High pressure and High temperature valves (hot Shut-off valves) with associated
pipe lines

Pipeline between PRS to heater & downstream of heater to connect to settling


chamber
49

Expansion bellows to absorb thermal expansion

Foundations and Supporting structures for heater, all valves and all pipe lines

Safety devices

Instrumentation and control for operating air heating system

LPG leak detection system

Smoke and flame detector

Pressure sensors

Temperature sensors along with thermo-well

Flow measurements

Electrical System

The details of Contractors scope of work shall include the following.

Design of all the subsystems/ components of Air Heating System (AHS).

Transient thermal analysis, thermo structural analysis for heater, piping etc.

Detailed engineering of the system and generation of purchase specifications.

Purchase of all materials such as equipments, flow components, instruments, pipes,


pipe fittings, etc.

Fabrication, testing and co-ordination for inspection of the system at the Contractors
factory.

Transportation of materials to and storage at the Departments site.

Erection, testing and co-ordination for inspection of the entire system at the
Departments site.

Commissioning of AHS.

Demonstration of the performance, training and handing over to the Department.

50

Fig. 3.1

Schematic of Air Heating system

51

Fig. 3.2

Ds Shell outer dia.


Di- Shell Inner dia.
Db- Bed dia.
H Heater height
h- Bed height

Typical sketch of cored brick Storage heater

3.3 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION


3.3.1 HEATER BED
The Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Facility will be operated at different pressures, temperatures
and mass flow rates. Therefore, the heater shall cater to the requirements of all tunnel
operating conditions. The pressures, temperatures and mass flow rates to be simulated are
given in Table 3.1. Two heaters are required to meet the entire operating conditions. Heater
1 can handle maximum mass flow rate of 180 kg/sec at 700K. Heater 2 can deliver a
maximum mass flow rate of 60.6 kg/sec and can handle maximum temperature upto 1700
K. Any one of the heaters will be used at a given time depending on the test requirement.
Input conditions for design are given in Table 3.2. The heater bed should be designed in
such a way that the outlet temperature of air varies within +50 K during the tunnel
blowdown (40 seconds minimum). The heater bed will be made of cored brick. The heater
bed shall be designed to maintain a thermal gradient towards the bottom layer of the bed.
52

This will reduce the design temperature (order of 333 K) of the distributor (which is
discussed below) and the hot combustion gas from the bed shall be exhausted through
ducting to chimney. However, the thermal gradient should not affect the performance of the
bed to deliver the required air temperature during tunnel blowdown.
The bed should have the following quality for 10,000 cycles of operation:
(i) Thermal shock withstanding quality
(ii) Abrasive resistance capacity to avoid dust formation.

Table 3.1

Different operating conditions for Air Heating System


Heater 1
Heater

Mass

Operating

Stagnation

Stagnation

Mach

Pressure

Temperature

number

(bar)

(K)

5L

10

346

446

61.38

20

364

464

119.55

5H

30

376

476

180

6.5 L

10

487

637

16.57

6.5

20

510

660

32.38

6.5

30

525

675

47.87

6.5

40

536

686

63.17

6.5

50

545

695

78.31

6.5

60

553

703

93.33

10

6.5

70

559

709

108.25

11

6.5

80

565

715

123.08

12

6.5

90

570

720

137.84

13

6.5 H

100

575

725

152.40

Sl.
No.

Exit Air
Temperature
(K)*

flow rate
(kg/sec)

Heater 2
Operating

Stagnation

Stagnation

Heater

Mass

Mach

Pressure

Temperature

Exit Air

flow rate

number

(bar)

(K)

Temperature (K)

(kg/sec)

14

8L

10

653

903

6.54

15

20

682

932

12.80

16

30

700

950

18.94

17

40

714

964

25.02

Sl.
No.

53

18

50

725

975

31.04

19

60

734

984

37.02

20

70

742

992

42.96

21

80

749

999

48.86

22

90

755

1005

54.74

23

8H

100

760

1010

60.60

24

10 L

10

912

1212

1.96

25

10

20

949

1249

3.85

26

10

30

972

1272

5.70

27

10

40

989

1289

7.54

28

10

50

1003

1303

9.36

29

10

60

1014

1314

11.17

30

10

70

1024

1324

12.97

31

10

80

1033

1333

14.76

32

10

90

1041

1341

16.54

33

10 H

100

1048

1348

18.31

34

12 L

10

1211

1511

0.72

35

12

20

1257

1557

1.40

36

12

30

1286

1586

2.08

37

12

40

1306

1606

2.75

38

12

50

1323

1623

3.42

39

12

60

1337

1637

4.08

40

12

70

1349

1649

4.74

41

12

80

1360

1660

5.40

42

12

90

1369

1669

6.05

43

12 H

100

1378

1678

6.71

*Note - Only approximate temperature is specified. The contractor need to carry out
detailed analysis and estimate the temperature drop from heater to settling chamber and
accordingly finalize the heater exit temperature.

54

Table 3.2
Sl

Design input conditions for air heating systems


Parameter

no.

Heater-1

Heater2

Operation of Heater

Intermittent

Intermittent

Fuel

LPG

LPG

Inlet temperature of air

200 - 300 K

200-300 K

Outlet temperature of air

700 + 50 K

1700 + 50 K

Maximum working pressure

13 MPa

13 MPa

Maximum pressure drop per 10 KPa

10 Kpa

unit height of heater bed


7

Maximum mass flow rate

180 kg/sec

60.6 kg/sec

Maximum Shell temperature

333 K

333 K

10

Life of heater bed

10,000 cycles

10,000 cycles

11

Charging time

8h

8h

12

Recharging time

2h

2h

13

Blowdown time (minimum)

40 s

40 s

15

Heater vessel design

ASME

code

and ASME

relevant standards

code

and

relevant standards

3.3.2 THERMAL INSULATION OF HEATER


Liner bricks shall be provided between the cored brick bed and the heater vessel to limit the
inner wall temperature of the heater vessel to 333 K. The liner bricks shall be designed to
meet this requirement. The liner bricks also should have the same quality as that of heater
bed material with respect the thermal shock and abrasive resistance.

3.3.3 HEATER VESSEL


Design pressure

: 13MPa

Design temperature

: 333 K

Design code

: ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

Material

: SA 516 Grade 70 or equivalent material

The liner bricks and heater vessel integrity shall be ensured by the Contractor.

55

3.3.4 MAN HOLES


Top and bottom dome of heater should be manufactured as a separate unit which can be
detachable to facilitate maintenance. Suitable flanged joint will be provided as shown in
Fig. 3.1. A man hole will be provided at the bottom of the shell.

3.3.5 DISTRIBUTOR
A conical passage with a grid plate with perforations shall be provided at the bottom of the
bed to uniformly distribute the incoming flow from the 12 pipeline. The conical angle shall
be decided to ensure uniform flow distribution in the heater bed. The pressure drop across
the distributor should be of the order of 10 kPa. The distributor shall be designed to
withstand the weight of the heater bed, thermal shock and the temperature of the bottom
layer of the heater bed.

3.3.6 INTERFACE
Heaters will be integrated with 12 pipeline both in upstream and downstream.

3.3.7 VENT PIPES


A pipe of inside diameter 8 (tentative) shall be provided on the top of heater to vent out the
trapped mass of air inside the heater. The venting pipe shall be designed for a pressure of
13 MPa. Overnight losses from the bed would result in a thermal gradient with a maximum
temperature at the middle of the bed and lower temperatures at the top due to radiation
losses from the bed to the chamber walls. Air is required to be passed from the bottom to
the top of the bed (at the start of each day) to modify the thermal gradient across the bed
height and to ensure that the peak temperature is at the top of the bed. This air will be
vented out through this pipe. A suitable thermal insulation shall be provided for this pipe to
take care of the high temperature environment. High pressure and high temperature valves
shall be provided for opening & closing of the vent pipe.

The Combustion gas and

condensed water inside the air heater after completion of heating cycle/recharge cycle are
to be evacuated through this line. This vent pipe shall be ducted outside the building.

3.3.8 BURNER-BLOWER
Burner Type: LPG based
The design of the burner shall consider means, not to contaminate the bed. Combustion
gas temperature will be depending upon the test requirement heating duraton: 8 hours
(from ambient temperature to 700 K and 1700 K in Heater 1 and Heater 2 respectively)
56

The Contractor shall work out the temperature loss of the bed after each blowdown and
shall ensure that the burner-blower is capable of reheating the bed to the required
temperature within 2 hours. The combustion gas has to be sent from top to bottom of the
bed. The combustion inside heater has to take place at designed combustion pressure.
The burners are to be isolated during blowdown time. The suitable valves are provided to
isolate the LPG line and air lines during blowdown time.
Two options can be considered for the burner design
Option 1: The burner shall be capable of burning at various air-fuel ratios so as to
achieve different exhaust temperatures of the hot combustion gases required
during the heating of the bed.
Option 2: The burner, which can burn at constant air-fuel ratio with a provision to mix air
with the combustion gases to attain the required temperature.
The burner-blower can be located either on the top of the heater vessel or outside the
heater in a separate room. The Contractor shall decide the location of the burner-blower
taking into account the technical viability and cost of operation.
The motor / compressor required for the burner-blower shall be supplied along with the
burner-blower. Contractor should also ensure that the exhaust gas composition should not
violate the pollution control norms.

3.3.9

LPG STORAGE, HANDLING AND SUPPLY SYSTEM

The LPG storage tanks will be designed by the Contractor. These tanks shall be located
outside the building at a minimum distance of 30 m which meets the safety criteria. A
tentative specification of the system has been given for reference. It comprises of various
sub-systems as described below.

3.3.9.1

LPG UNLOADING SYSTEM

The LPG unloading system is intended to unload both liquid and vaporized LPG from LPG
tanker to the LPG storage bullet.

3.3.9.2

LPG STORAGE SYSTEM

The LPG storage system consists of two nos. of LPG bullet having tentative storage
capacity of 60 MT each which will meet the requirement of 100 cycles of operation at
maximum consumption rate. Each bullet stores LPG at 17 bar. The LPG filling ends of the
vessels are connected by piping to LPG unloading system. The withdrawal ends are
connected to the LPG supply system. Necessary manual isolation valves will be provided at
57

the filling and withdrawal sides. Each storage bullet is provided with four nos of safety relief
devices. Each device is set at pressure difference of 0.5 bar. The outlets from the safety
devices are routed to a safe location for discharge to the atmosphere.

3.3.9.3

VAPORISER

The vaporizer is required to convert liquid LPG to vapour form and supply vaporized LPG at
required pressure to burner. The vaporizer will have sufficient flow rate required by the
heater burner and at required pressure. The conversion shall be accomplished by heating
the LPG by electric or steam.

3.3.9.4

PRESSURE REGULATING DEVICE

The pressure regulating device is intended to regulate the mass flow of LPG at required
supply pressure at heater end. The pressure regulating system shall consist of electro
pneumatically operated globe valve. The system shall be capable to provide varying mass
flow and required pressure.

3.3.9.5

SPRINKLER AND FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM

Medium Velocity Water Spray Sprinkler (MVWSS) system is intended to reduce tank
pressure by showering of water on the tank. The fire fighting system consists of LPG
leakage detectors, flame detectors, fire fighting nozzle and early warning for gas
concentration below the LEL (lower explosive limit). The detectors for the gas monitoring
system are strategically located at all facilities close to potential source of leakage. The
detection control equipment is provided in the control room for continuous monitoring even
during power failure. The water source point for sprinkler and fire fighting system shall be
provided by Department. However, the Contractor has to carry out necessary routing in the
LPG yard.

3.3.9.6

LPG AND WATER PIPING

The LPG piping connects various subsystems/equipments of LPG bulk storage facility like
LPG unloading system, storage vessels and LPG supply system. Water piping is used in
sprinkler system & fire fighting system. Fluid circuits involve various flow components like
manual valves, electro-pneumatic (EP) valve, pressure gauges, safety devices etc. Pipes,
fittings and flow components are to be provided. The piping (approximate length-80 m) for
connecting LPG system to burner of air heating system is in the scope of contractor.

58

3.3.9.7

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

The electrical system is intended to supply electrical power to the pumps, vaporizer and
other systems of LPG bulk storage. The systems include field panels, starters, circuit
breakers, switches, protective devices, cabling, earthing and all necessary HT & LT switch
gear as per OISD standard. All Lighting / electrical equipment and instrumentation inside
the Yard are flameproof conforming to IS: 2206 (Part I) and IS:2148 Standards.
The contractor shall furnish the electrical power requirement of various subsystems. The
Department shall provide electrical power with open-ended cable at the heater shed. Proper
routing & terminating of power cables at various equipments with necessary protective
devices is in the contractor scope. The department shall provide earth pits of 1.0 for
electronic instruments and 5 for mechanical equipments. However, proper routing &
connecting of mechanical/electronic equipments with the earth pits is in the contractor
scope. The contractor shall furnish the details regarding number of earth pits required & its
locations for connecting to mechanical & electronic equipments.

3.3.9.8

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

1. Design of the LPG Storage Installation will be done in accordance with Oil Industry
Safety Directorate (OISD) standard.
2. All safety and fire fighting measures, which are required as per above norms, would be
put in place in the storage and handling area.
3. Entire operation of the LPG/Propane Bulk Storage Installation (except for decanting
from tankers) will be done remotely from a Central Control Room.
4. Suitable number of firewater facilities should be designed and provided as per OISD
guidelines.
5. Pipelines and terminal design should take into consideration the seismicity.
6. All lighting / electrical equipment and instrumentation inside the Yard are flameproof
conforming to IS: 2206 (Part I) and IS: 2148 Standards.
7. LPG unloading will be done through suitable pumps for liquid transfer and vapour
recovery compressors for vapour recovery. All pumps and compressors are fitted with
flame-proof motors.
8. Distribution of LPG from bullets shall be executed through
(a) Natural vapour stream; and
(b) Vaporisers
9. The LPG/Propane bulk storage and distribution should be automated and will comprise
of
59

a) Remotely Operated Valves (ROVs) at strategic locations.


b) Level transmitter with high-level set point; i.e. 80% of safe filling limit.
c) Magnetic liquid level gauge with dial indication.
d) Overfill protection device interconnected with starter of pumps and compressors
when 80% of safe filling limit is achieved.
e) Excess flow valve on all inlet and outlet lines from the vessels.
10. Bottom of tank should have outlet with Remotely Operated Valve. Installation of high
temperature and high pressure alarm with auto-activation of water sprinklers need to be
installed. Side discharge type safety relief valve should be used.
11. The entire fenced area of the LPG/Propane Bulk Storage Yard shall be covered with
leak detection sensors in general and sensors shall be located at areas prone to fire
risk / leakages in particular. When sensors are activated as per pre -determined setpoints, they activate the necessary audio-visual alarm and also the Medium Velocity
Water Spray Sprinkler (MVWSS) system.
12. Necessary device to be installed at Control Room, which can locate the area of leakage
zone preciously for taking necessary emergency action.
13. The Control Room shall be able to precisely identify the affected zone as the location of
activated sensor is mimicked on the Control Panel.
14. Remotely Operated Valves (ROVs) are to be provided at strategic points on the gas
pipeline circuit and on the feeder lines of the MVWSS system.
15. These ROVs shall be interlocked for auto-activation in the event of an emergency and
should also be activated by the emergency shutdown station.
16. The MVWSS system should be also provided in the tanker unloading bays

Note: All civil works associated with the LPG system should be carried out by the
vendor.

3.3.10 CHIMNEY
A chimney shall be provided by the Contractor to vent out the combustion gases above the
tunnel building after blowing through the heater. The height of the chimney shall be such
that natural draught occurs. Necessary protection shall be provided by the Contractor to
avoid rainwater entry into the chimney.

3.3.11 HOT SHUT-OFF VALVES

60

Each heater will have 4nos. of hot shut-off valves (HSV). Schematic layout of hot shutoff
valve is given in Fig. 3.3 and specifications of hot shutoff valve are Table 3.3. The
functional requirement of the HSV is to isolate the heater from the pressure regulating
system upstream and tunnel system downstream, which will encounter a very high pressure
and high temperature. The main functions of the HSVs are as follows:

HSV1 and HSV3 - isolate the heater 1 and 2 from the pressure regulating system.

HSV2 and HSV 4- isolate the heater 1 and 2 from the settling chamber.

HSV5 and HSV6 - isolate the chimney from the heater system 1 and 2 during
blowdown.

HSV7 and HSV8 - isolate the heater 1 and 2 from vent pipe.

The most important aspect is the response time. For HSV2 and HSV4, the maximum
time allowed for full opening from fully closed condition is less than 3 seconds. These
two valves have to be fully opened in the shortest possible time. This is to ensure that
the minimum amount of air gets dumped into the vacuum vessels from the time the
valve starts opening to the fully open condition.

The typical heating cycle time from ambient bed temperature will be 8 hrs and Blowdown
time is 40 sec.

61

Fig. 3.3

: Schematic of High pressure and High temperature valves

62

Table 3.3

Specifications of Hot shutoff valves


Specifications of Hot shut valves

Application
End connection
Permissible leak rate
Flow direction
Min. operation Life
Safety

Isolation (hot air)


Flanged as per ANSI B 16.5
Class VI as per ANSI standard/ Bubble tight as per API 598
Flow to open
10000 cycle
Fail to close

Heater-1
Size(mm)

Valve position
Tempreture
Pressure
Valve position
Tempreture (Flow)
Response time
Pressure(MAWP)

HSV1
300
During heating cycle
Closed
Heater side
PRV side
700 K
Ambient
2 bar
Ambient
During Blow Down
Open
150-300K
Less than 10 sec.
130 bar

HSV2
300

HSV5
300

Operating conditions
During heating cycle
During Blow Down
Closed
Closed
Heater side
Tunnel side
Heater side
Chimney side
700 K
Ambient
<700 K
Ambient
2 bar
0.1mbar(Vacuum)
130 bar
Ambient
During Blow Down
During heating cycle
Open
Open
700 K
700 K
Less than 3 sec.
Less than 10 sec.
130 bar
2 bar

HSV7
200
During heating cycle
Closed
Heater side
Vent side
700 K
Ambient
2 bar
Ambient
Blow Down conditions
Open (Blow off duration)
700 K
Less than 10 sec.
130 bar

Heater-2
Size(mm)

Valve position
Tempreture
Pressure
Valve position
Tempreture(Flow)
Response time
Pressure(MAWP)

HSV3
300
During heating cycle
Closed
Heater side
PRV side
1700 K
Ambient
2 bar
Ambient
During Blow Down
Open
150-300K
Less than 10 sec.
130 bar

HSV4
300

HSV6
300

Operating conditions
During heating cycle
During Blow Down
Closed
Closed
Heater side
Tunnel side
Heater side
Chimney side
1700 K
Ambient
<1700 K
Ambient
2 bar
0.1mbar(Vacuum)
130 bar
Ambient
During Blow Down
During heating cycle
Open
Open
1700 K
1700 K
Less than 3 sec.
Less than 10 sec.
130 bar
2 bar

63

HSV8
200
During heating cycle
Closed
Heater side
Vent side
1700 K
Ambient
2 bar
Ambient
Blow Down conditions
Open (Blow off duration)
1700 K
Less than 10 sec.
130 bar

3.3.12.1 VALVE SPECIFICATIONS


HSV shall comprise the actuator, suitable solenoid valve and limit switches.
Application

Isolation (hot air)

Size

DN 300 or burner size

End connection

Flanged/Welded end as per ANSI B 16.5

Cycle of operation

10,000 cycles

Flow direction

Flow to open

Permissible leak rate

Class VI as per ANSI B 16.34


Bubble tight as per API 598

Actuation

Solenoid & limit switches redundancy:

Electro pneumatically operated


Level three

ACTUATOR
Safety

Fail to close

Command fluid

Air / Hydraulic

Redundancy

Level three

3.3.12.2 ASSOCIATED PIPELINES


(Ref. Fig 3.3 & Table 3.4)
Table 3.4
Sr.
No.
1
2
3

Associated piping for Air heating system piping


Nominal

Pipeline

Pipe size

PRV to heater

12

Heater1 to Settling

12

Approximate Working
Length

chamber
Heater2 to Settling

12

chamber

Working

pressure

Temperature

(m)

(MPa)

(K)

25

13

TBD#

18

13

700

13

1700

Heater to chimney

12

35

0.6

1700

Heater1 to vent

13

TBD

Heater2 to vent

13

TBD

#TBD-To be decided

64

The pipeline connecting heater to settling chamber shall be provided with internal insulation
liner. The purpose of liner is to maintain uniform temperature in the axial and radial
direction. The liner will be perforated for pressure communication and may be required to
be heated to minimize temperature drop in the flow in axial and radial direction. The liner
and piping should have adequate arrangement for thermal expansion compensation. The
pipe connecting PRS to HSV 1 & HSV 3 shall be without any insulation liner. All pipelines
will be designed, fabricated and integrated for the flow parameters as given in Table 3.4.

3.3.12.3 EXPANSION JOINTS FOR PIPE LINES


The Expansion joints are to be designed and supplied by Contractor for pipe lines where
thermal stresses are to be relieved. Tentative locations are shown in Fig. 3.3. The working
conditions of pipelines are given in Table 3.4.

3.3.12 COOLING SYSTEM


Upper part of heater shell where temperature is maximum and the parts between the flange
joints of heater shell and burner assembly may be required to be cooled. The high pressure
and high temperature valves are subjected to very high thermal stresses. Therefore
components of valves need to be water cooled. The Contractor shall work out required
cooling water pressure and flow rate and supply the cooling system.

3.3.13 FOUNDATIONS AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES FOR HEATER, ALL


VALVES AND ALL PIPE LINES
Civil works will be carried out by the Department. Therefore, Contractor has to provide all
necessary foundation details.

3.3.14 SAFETY DEVICES


Pressure relief devices are to be provided and routed outside building in air heating system
at suitable places to protect the system from being exposed to high pressure. Necessary
safety devices like thermal overload protection switches to protect the electric motors from
drawing excessive current, pressure switches in the pneumatic and LPG lines, proximity
switches for isolation valves, etc will be provided. These devices must meet national and
internal standards.

65

3.3.15 INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL OF AIR HEATING SYSTEM


The instrumentation & control system of air heating system should be catered for storage &
handling of LPG, controlling of LPG supply, controlling of burner-blower system, operating
of hot shut off valves (HSV), Controlling & maintaining of heater temperature etc.
LPG storage & handling system is responsible for handling of LPG as per OISD norms. This
system may make use of pressure sensors, temperature sensors, LPG leakage detectors,
smoke & flame detectors, water sprinkler systems, fire fighting systems, remotely operated
valves etc. This system needs to work round the clock.
LPG supply controller is responsible for supplying of LPG at pre-defined rate. This system
may make use of pressure regulating valves, pressure sensors, flow rate sensors etc.
Burner-blower controller is responsible for supplying the pre-set air-fuel ratio, burning the
fuel at pre defined rate, maintaining the constant combustion pressure in the heater shell.
Heater temperature controller is responsible for maintaining the desired temperature profile
in the heater during charging, recharging and blow down cycle.
A dedicated instrumentation & control system is to be provided for exclusive operation of
AHS.

This system include sensors, signal conditioners, cables, cable conduits, patch

panels, instrument racks, intelligent controller with appropriate interface modules, data
display terminals, data storage units, interfacing units etc. One or more intelligent
controllers may be employed for the handling of above mentioned subsystems in closed
loop if required. All necessary interlocks, redundant systems should be built within the
system. This system should be of fault tolerant design in terms of software & hardware. The
controllers should be strategically positioned in order to safe guard the system even in case
of fire.
In addition to above, Instrumentation & control system should be designed for meeting
following functional requirements.
1. Total AHS operation should be fully automatic with manual over ride. In case of any
type of fault, the controller should tolerate and bring the system to the normal state
without seeking for human intervention. All the control loop elements should have
redundancy components.
2. It should have emergency shutdown button for stopping of AHS in case of
emergency.
3. SCADA based GUI environment to be made available for all process parameters. In
case of deviation of any process parameter from its nominal values, the system
66

should pop up the suitable alert signals to the operator in the form of alarms, LED
display etc.
4. Software (test code) to be developed as per IEEE 12207 standard.
5. It should acquire the data of critical parameters at 10samples/sec for round the clock.
6. It should communicate some of the important process parameters (user selected)
using TCP/IP protocol to the main SCADA which will be available at the master
control room.
Instrumentation & control system should have the following features
1. Well proven & Rugged system
2. Testability
3. Availability of components in the future (COTS are preferable)
4. Flexibility in modifying the test code (software) as per requirement
5. Expandable in terms of channel count
6. Provision for debugging the software
7. Suitable to the test environment conditions
8. Password protection for unauthorized access deny
9. EMI/EMC, CE compliances
The contractor should indicate the procedure to be followed in case of emergency and
implement the same with the proper sign boards, precautions, dos & donts etc. The source
code along with the licensed software is to be handed over to department. The contractor
has to provide the training on the application software & test code to the department
personnel. Supplying of suitable capacity UPS is in the contractor scope. An industrial PC
of latest processor with touch screen colour monitor available at the time of installation,
shall be provided.

3.3.16 MEASUREMENTS
Some of the measurements on heater for its thermal control and also for safety
compliances are
1. Bed Temperature Measurement: It is to be performed along the height of the heater.
Suitable thermocouples along with thermo-well (i.e, thermocouple assembly) are to be
provided for measurement of bed temperature. Thermocouple assembly should be
designed such that it will withstand for the operating conditions. RTDs are to be

67

provided for grate temperature measurement. Total 10 temperature measurements are


planned on each heater. Exact locations will be decided based on mutual discussions.
2. Air Temperature Measurement: It is to be performed during charge/recharge and blow
down cycle. During charge/recharge cycle, combustion air temperature is measured.
While in blow down cycle, blowdown air temperature is measured.
3. Vessel Pressure Measurement: It is to be performed during charge/recharge and blow
down cycle. During charge/recharge cycle, combustion air pressure is measured. While
in blowdown cycle, blowdown air pressure is measured. Due to large variation in the
operating pressure during charge/recharge cycle and blow down cycle, multiple ranges
of pressure sensors are needed. Safety interlock is provided in selecting suitable range
of sensor while in the type of heater operation (i.e. charge/recharge, blow down cycle).
4. Outer shell surface temperature: Hand held radiation pyrometer is to be provided for
measuring outer shell surface temperature. This is essential for ensuring the shell
temperature within the safety limits.

3.3.17 SCOPE OF WORK


The scope of work consists of the following:

3.3.17.1 DESIGN
I. The design of the system, sub-system and the components shall be done to meet
the specifications and the functional requirements laid out in the document.
II. The design shall be based on the standards/codes mentioned and if an
equivalent/better practices are followed, the same shall be informed in advance to
the department and the approval shall be obtained.
III. The design shall be analyzed for the critical conditions and the soundness shall be
established with adequate factor of safety as per ASME.
IV. Detailed thermo-structural analysis will be carried out.
V. Fatigue Analysis will be carried out
VI. The details of the design and analysis carried out for each shall be documented and
produced whenever required.
VII. The system design and analysis shall be totally reviewed and approved by the
mutually agreed third party Inspection agency (TPIA) like LRIS, BVQI, DNV etc. The
design shall be scrutinized and approved by the Department, before taking up the
realization/procurement.

68

VIII. Material specifications, their form, condition and acceptance criteria shall be brought
out in the design.
IX. Weld joints details, RT & PT acceptance, internal surface finish, details of support
structure, foundation and erection shall be clearly mentioned and presented to the
department with the approval of third party.
X. The flange joints shall be designed for both pressure and vacuum levels mentioned.
Seals shall be designed in such a way that they serve for a period of at least 2 years.
XI. In the case of components that need frequent assembly and dismantling, the
Contractor may propose an alternate joint design for the specified operating
conditions. Contractor can propose an alternate joint for easy assembly/ dismantling
instead of bolted flange joint proposed by the Department.
XII. During the design phase any change in the design input (major/minor) shall be
accepted by the Contractor and incorporated.
XIII. If need arises, the Department may involve and interact during the deliberations
between the Contractor and TPIA.
XIV. However, it is the responsibility of the Contractor to ensure the soundness of the
design to meet the functional requirements of the systems.
XV. Permissible sound level from any system is allowed to be 85 dBA from a distance of
1m.
3.3.17.2 MATERIAL
I. Qualified material shall only be used for fabricating the components
II. Material shall be identified for each component and the traceability shall be made.
III. Each batch of material shall undergo testing in terms of chemical composition,
mechanical properties under the surveilence of mutually agreed TPIA like LRIS,
BVQI, DNV etc..

3.3.17.3 FABRICATION
(i)

Fabrication of the components shall commence only after approval of the design by
the Department

(ii)

Before commencing the fabrication, the Contractor shall prepare the detailed
fabrication process drawings, process plan, quality control plan and get the approval
from the TPIA prior to submission to Department.

(iii) All the welding shall be done by qualified welders only. Welders qualification shall be
done in accordance with ASME section IX, under the surveillance of TPIA
69

(iv) All the weld joints shall be qualified in accordance with ASME code section IX
(v)

Fabrication of systems subjected to pressure and vacuum, shall be carried out in


accordance with ASME code section VIII and NDT inspection acceptance shall be as
per ASME code VIII- Division 1 & 2.

(vi) For nozzles which are available on heater shell, reinforcement, stiffener rings will be
as per ASME section VIII- division 2 and shall be attached at the external surface by
fillet welding.
(vii) Suitable process shall be evolved, for relieving the stresses on welded joints; details
shall be furnished regarding the proposed scheme of stress relieving in the process
plan.
(viii) Considering the size of the system, the Contractor shall plan and schedule the
fabrication activities at the erection side also, in the department. The Contractor shall
indicate electrical power requirements for the work, which shall be made available on
chargeable basis.
(ix) The Contractor shall make arrangements for necessary fabrication equipments
including handling for site work at the department premises.
(x)

The Contractor shall agree to accommodate minor changes, if any, during the course
of fabrication.

3.3.17.4 INSPECTION AND TESTING


I.

Inspection and testing requirements, acceptance standards shall be identified at


different stages of realization of the system through process and QC plan. Critical
stages of realization will be identified in the process/QC plan right from raw material
qualification to the final stage of the system and also erection and commissioning.
Fabrication process and QC plan will be approved by the Department before
initiation of fabrication.

II.

All the casting shall be subject to sounding test technique for flaw detection.

III.

Critical stages shall be identified, where TPIA shall be involved to carry out
surveillance inspection

IV.

Weld joints of pressure systems in addition to NDT, shall be qualified individually for
leak rate less than 10-8 Pa m3/s of helium.

V.

All the inspection/testing at every stage of fabrication of components/subsystem/systems shall be as per the approved plan, under the surveillance of the third
party inspection agency. All the reports shall be prepared by the manufacturer and
certified by the TPIA.
70

VI.

Acceptance test like hydrostatic/vacuum/leak tests shall be carried out under the
surveillance of TPIA, to the levels specified for each system as per applicable ASME
code. Apart from inspection by the TPI agency, our representative (s) shall also
witness and certify the hydrostatic/vacuum/leak tests and any other test as may be
deemed necessary.

VII.

The right and the authority of the final acceptance of the system shall be based on
the scrutiny of the inspection/ testing records, by the Department.

VIII.

Marking: The pressure vessels shall be stamped with permanent and clearly visible
identification marks at an accessible location. The details such as water capacity,
service pressure, hydraulic test pressure, and material of construction, manufactures
serial number, date of inspection and inspectors stamp shall be marked.

IX.

It shall be the Contractors responsibility to arrange for and co-ordinate with the
TPIA.

3.3.17.5 SPARES
The Contractor will supply all critical spares. A tentative list is given for reference.
1

Insulation Bricks and cored bricks

10 % of installed qty.

Burner

2 no.

High pressure and High temperature valve

2 no.

All O rings

2 sets

All Gaskets

2 sets

All fasteners with washers

10 % of installed qty.

Critical parts (to be listed by Contractor)

10 % of installed qty.

3.3.18 ACCEPTANCE TESTS:


After installing air heating system at site, the Contractor shall carry out functional tests of all
subsystems of AHS to meet their specifications. The Contractor shall carry out charge
cycles, blowdown cycles and recharge cycles to simulate tunnel operating conditions for
Mach numbers of 5, 6.5, 8, 10 and 12 as given in Table 3.1. These tests shall be repeated
by Contractor to ascertain consistency. The Contractor should demonstrate a good
comparison between achieved temperature profiles of heater bed and blowdown air with
theoretical temperature profiles for charging and recharging phases.

71

3.3.19 DOCUMENTATION
Three copies of the following documents have to be submitted by the Contractor.
I. Documents along with quotation: A complete technical description of the system
shall be furnished. The following shall be highlighted.
-

Overall documentation of AHS with technical details.

Mass of Air Heater

Size, number and type of beds.

Burner specifications

Overall size of shell

Wall thickness of pressure vessels refractory and insulation linings

Mechanical properties and chemical compositions of materials of AHS.

Technical deviation, if any should be highlighted.

II. Sooner after getting purchase order: The design documents shall be reviewed
and approved by the Third Party Inspection (TPI) agency for compliance with the
requirements of the relevant design codes as specified in the purchase order The
documents duly approved by the TPI agency shall be submitted to the Department
within 2 months from the date of the purchase order. These documents are subject
to corrections by the Department and only upon approval by the Department, the
Contractor will proceed for fabrication. However, our approval shall not absolve the
supplier responsibility/contractual obligation to comply with the specification of the
system. For LPG system the Contractor has to obtain the required certificate from
Chief Controller of Explosives (CCE), Nagpur as per relevant standard.
III. Design documents, analysis reports for air heating system approved by TPIA
IV. Fabrication drawings, process plan and QC plan approved by TPIA
V. Inspection reports at each stage of realization systems and pre-delivery certified by
TPIA
VI. Reports of tests/acceptance carried out for the bought out components
VII. Reports of mandatory functional and acceptance tests
VIII. However, the Departments approval shall not absolve the Contractors responsibility
to comply with the specifications and obligations of the contract.
IX. Consolidated reports, system wise, in a document form shall be submitted to the
Department for approval/acceptance
X. Report of the Functional tests and Acceptance tests of the air heating system in the
integrated condition.

72

XI. Prior to delivery of the consignment: On completion of fabrication, but at least 2


weeks before the expected date of delivery of the consignment, the following
documents shall be sent to the Department. The Department will review the same to
ensure compliance with the specification of the purchase order. On being satisfied,
the Department will issue a dispatch clearance.
a. The certificates of all tests shall be provided. Each page of the certificates shall
be duly counter-signed and stamped by the TPI agency.
b. Pre-delivery inspection certificate by the TPIA.
c. As-built GA drawings
d. Instruction manual for erection, commissioning, operation, trouble shooting and
maintenance.

3.3.20 INTEGRATION AND COMMISSIONING


I. The sub-systems/systems realized and qualified at stage level, shall be integrated as
laid out in the document
II. The Contractor shall work out the detailed plan for integrating the systems realized
by them. Facilities/equipments/infrastructure needed for the task shall be totally
taken care by them. The electrical power requirements shall be informed to the
Department and the same shall be provided on chargeable basis
III. The Contractor shall carry out Functional tests and Acceptance tests, in the
integrated condition, ensuring the performance of all systems to the specified
requirements
IV. In the event of not meeting specified requirements by any of the systems realized by
them, the same shall be attended to and necessary modifications shall be carried out
to make it operational in all respect.

3.4 DELIVERABLES
The list of deliverables is given below in Table 3.5.
Table 3.5: List of deliverables
Sr. no.
1

Item

Qty.

Heaters- with heater vessel, cored brick bed, insulation,


distributor plates, flue gas analyzer, safety valves etc.
Hot Shut off isolation Valve (HSV)- High temperature

2 nos. (1 each)
8 nos.

high pressure valves with actuator, limit switch , hydraulic

+ 2 nos (HSV2

piping, etc.

HSV4- 1 each).
73

Burner System- with burners, blowers, flow control


3

valves, sensors, safety devices(smoke detector, LPG

2 nos.

detector)
4

Hydraulic power pack for HSV- with accumulator,


hoses, safety devices, etc.

1 no.

Associated piping High pressure- high temperature air


5

piping upto settling chamber, hydraulic piping, cooling


water piping, vents, LPG piping, pipe fittings, pressure

1 no.

relief valves, etc.


LPG System- LPG bulk storage system with 2 nos. of
storage vessel 60 MT capacity each, LPG unloading
6

system, LPG feeding system, Sprinkler system, LPG leak

1 no.

detectors, flame detectors, fire fighting system and


associated piping as per OISD guidelines,
7
8
9
10

Chimney- Chimney with associated piping


Standalone Control System- with associated cabling
and sensors
Additional sensors- radiation thermometer, thermal
image camera, smoke and flame detector etc,
Electrical System- electrical power panels, cabling,
switches to operate PRS

TBD To be decided

74

1no.
1no.
TBD
1no.

CHAPTER 4 Tunnel System


4.0 INTRODUCTION
Tunnel system is the most important part of the whole hypersonic wind tunnel. Successful
testing is possible only when this system performs efficiently. Tunnel system consists of
following subsystems.
1. Settling chamber
2. Nozzles
3. Test section/ plenum chamber
4. Model incidence mechanism
5. Diffuser system
6. Connecting duct
7. After cooler
Fig 4.1 shows the schematic diagram of this total system. Tunnel system is connected to
Air heater on the upstream and vacuum system on downstream side.

Tunnel System

Hot air
from
heater

Settling
Chamber

Nozzle

Test section
& model
incidence
mechanism

Diffuser
System

Connecting
duct &
After Cooler

Cold air to
vacuum
chamber

Fig. 4.1 Block diagram of Wind tunnel system


4.1 SETTLING CHAMBER
4.1.1 INTRODUCTION:
Settling Chamber is a large area low velocity section connected to a pipeline in the
upstream and in downstream it is connected to the nozzle. It is needed to improve the
uniformity of the flow entering the nozzle. The supply pressure of the high pressure tank
reduces during the run and thus the flow in these tanks and lead-in pipes becomes highly
turbulent. In addition, as the valve is opened to initiate the test, it introduces additional
unsteadiness. The settling chamber is used to reduce this turbulence in the flow before it
enters the nozzle. Settling Chamber consists of conical section called wide angle diffuser in
upstream side followed by a cylindrical portion with flow manipulators.

75

In hypersonic wind tunnel air needs to be preheated (475 K to 1700K) before it enters the
settling chamber to prevent liquefaction of air in the test section after passing through
nozzle. Therefore, it is necessary to provide insulation liner in the settling chambers and
also flow manipulators have to be designed to withstand high pressure and high
temperature environment.

4.1.2 SYSTEM CONFIGURATION


Two settling chambers are required to meet the entire operating conditions of the tunnel.
The schematic diagram of settling chambers with flow manipulators and support structure is
shown in Fig. 4.2.

Nozzles

a. Settling chamber 1 (SC 1)


76

b.

Settling chamber 2 (SC 2)

Fig. 4.2 Schematic of the settling chambers with flow manipulators


and support structure
The settling chamber consists of

Wide angle diffuser

Cylindrical duct

Flow manipulators

Thermal insulation/liner

Support system

The length of the settling chamber is kept constant from the interfacing point of view. The
settling chamber has been divided into three segments for easy fabrication and
maintenance. Both the settling chambers shall be designed with thermal insulation to
prevent heat loss from the hot air. The schematic of the settling chamber with details of flow
manipulators for settling chamber 1 (SC 1) and settling chamber 2 (SC 2) are shown in
Fig. 4.3 and Fig. 4.4.

4.1.3 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION


Quantity

2 no.

Inlet (interface to pipeline)

12 flange (for SC1 & SC 2)

Outlet diameter**

600 mm (for SC 1)

300 mm (for SC 2)

5965 mm (Approximate)

Overall length

77

Design pressure+
Operating flow temperature

Mass flow rate (max)


Design code

13 Mpa for SC 1

13 MPa for SC 2

700 K 50K for SC 1

1400 K 50K for SC 2

180 kg/sec (for SC 1)

60.6 kg/sec (for SC 2)

ASME code for fired pressure vessels


Section VIII, Division 1
For SC1 (tentative)

Material of construction
Shell

SA 516 Gr. 70

Flow manipulator

ASTM A 240 SS 321

Insulation liner

ASTM A 240 SS 321

Material of construction

For SC2 (tentative)

Shell

SA 516 Gr. 70

Flow manipulator

INCONEL 718/Haynes-214

Insulation liner

INCONEL 718/Haynes 214

**The dimensions given here are the required internal diameter of insulation liner.
+Before starting the blow down the settling chamber shall be evacuated to 0.01 mbar hence
design shall be checked for external pressure.

78

THERMAL INSULATION
PP1
Hole dia.
: 30 mm
Pitch
: 34 mm
No. of holes : 253
Porosity
: 63.25%

PP2
Hole dia.
Pitch
No. of holes
Porosity

: 20 mm
: 25 mm
: 451
: 50.11%

PP3
Hole dia.
: 10 mm
Pitch
: 15 mm
No. of holes : 1303
Porosity
: 36.19%

PP4
Hole dia.
Pitch
No. of holes
Porosity

: 5 mm
: 9 mm
: 3619
: 25.13%

EXIT

IN
Fig. 4.3 Schematic of the SC 1 with flow manipulator details
79

THERMAL INSULATION
PP1
Hole dia.
: 30 mm
Pitch
: 33.7 mm
No. of holes : 61
Porosity
: 61%

Hole dia.
Pitch
No. of holes
Porosity

Hole dia.
Pitch
No. of holes
Porosity

PP3
: 10 mm
: 15 mm
: 313
: 34.78%

Hole dia.
Pitch
No. of holes
Porosity

PP2
: 20 mm
: 24 mm
: 121
: 53.78%

PP4
: 5 mm
: 9 mm
: 883
: 24.53%

EXIT
IN

Fig. 4.4 Schematic of the SC 2 with flow manipulator detail

80

4.1.3.1 MECHANICAL DESIGN


Mechanical design of the settling chamber includes the shell design, the type of joints,
assembling and fixity of the thermal insulation/liner and the flow manipulators. The interface
of settling chamber shall be from the flange of heater end piping.
Note: Tentative materials have been quoted for different components only for
reference purpose. Contractor will carry out detailed thermo structural analysis to
finalize the material.

4.1.3.2 THERMAL INSULATION


Both the settling chambers will be provided with internal insulation liner. The purpose of
liner is to maintain uniform temperature in the axial and radial direction. The liner will be
perforated for pressure communication and may be required to be heated to minimize
temperature drop in the flow in axial and radial direction. The Contractor shall design,
fabricate and integrate the thermal insulation with the settling chambers. The Contractor
shall ensure the integrity of the thermal insulation for 10,000 cycles of operation. The
tentative material for the thermal insulation is ASTM A240 SS 321 and INCONEL
718/Haynes-214 for settling chamber 1 and 2 respectively.

4.1.3.3 SHELL
The settling chamber outer shell shall be designed for the internal working pressure of
13 MPa as per the ASME code. The outer shell shall be made out of SA516 grade 70 or its
equivalent material. The Contractor shall carry out the thermal analysis of settling chamber
considering four blowdowns per day, with an interval of 2 hr between two successive
blowdown. Water jacket may be required to be provided on the shell for offline cooling in
order to bring down the shell temperature before next blowdown. Sufficient numbers of
lifting eye bolts shall be provided on each section to facilitate safe handling by overhead
cranes during maintenance.

4.1.3.4 JOINTS
The settling chamber can be divided into three segments. All the three segments of the
settling chamber shall be assembled together by flanged joints using suitable fasteners.
The end flanges shall be designed to interface with 12 pipe line flange in the upstream end
and nozzle flange in the downstream end. The flanges and fasteners are to be designed for
the pressure and temperature mentioned above as per ASME code. The joints should be
leak proof both at high pressure and vacuum and the vacuum leak rate should not exceed
81

10-8Pa m3/s. suitable gaskets, seal shall be provided in the joints to arrest leak both at high
pressure and vacuum at high temperature. All the segments shall be assembled together
within the concentricity of 1 mm and perpendicularity of 1 mm for the total length of 5.9 m.
The Contractor shall work out the limits of concentricity, perpendicularity, positional
tolerance of bolt holes in the segment level to achieve the above specified tolerances in the
assembly and shall incorporate in the fabrication drawings. The Contractor may propose an
alternate joint design in place of bolted flange joint proposed by the Department with the
consideration of easy assembly / dismantling by the operator.

4.1.3.5 FLOW MANIPULATORS


The flow manipulators shall be designed as per the details as given in Fig. 4.3 and Fig. 4.4.
Provision is to be kept to incorporate additional manipulator for future augmentation (if
required). The thickness of the flow manipulator shall be designed by Contractor to
withstand the design pressure and temperature as per ASME code. Suitable materials for
flow manipulator shall be selected by Contractor to suit the operating conditions of the
settling chambers. Tentative material of flow manipulator is ASTM A 240 SS 321 or its
equivalent for SC 1 and INCONEL 718 for SC 2. However, the Contractor will carry out
detailed thermo structural analysis considering mechanical and thermal load and finalize
suitable material. Adequate arrangement shall be provided for holding the flow manipulator
against operational loads, thermal expansion and also it should be removable for ease of
maintenance.

4.1.3.6 SUPPORT STRUCTURE


The settling chamber will be mounted on support structures. Each segment shall be
provided with separate support structure. The support structures will be movable on rails
that are provided on the building floor. A suitable rolling system with locking mechanism
shall be provided for the movement of the settling chamber in both axial and lateral
direction. This centerline of the settling chamber is fixed at a height of 1.5m from the
building floor. A suitable height adjusting mechanism shall be provided on the support
structure to take care of a height adjustment of 50 mm. Support structure shall be made
out of structural steel. The lateral wheel shall have vertical movement capabilities with
suitable mechanism/actuator to lift total settling chamber assembly at least 100 mm for
lateral movement of settling chamber.

82

4.1.3.7 MEASUREMENTS PORTS


Each settling chamber shall be provided with 8 Nos. of measurement ports for pressure and
temperature measurement. For pressure measurement, suitable adaptor shall be provided
for nullifying the temperature effect (i.e., reduction from stagnation temperature to ambient
temperature). Tentative size of nozzle is 2 & the locations of nozzle are shown in Fig. 4.2.
The exact size and location will be finalized based on mutual discussion.

4.1.4 ACCEPTANCE TEST


Hydrostatic test and vacuum leak rate test
Hydrostatic test will be carried out as per standard. Vacuum leak test will also carried out to
ascertain an allowable leak rate of 10-8 Pa-m3/sec. These tests will be carried out at the
Contractors site during inspection.

4.2 NOZZLES
4.2.1 INTRODUCTION
Nozzles are required to accelerate the flow from low speed to high speed. Convergentdivergent contoured nozzles are proposed. Five set of assemblies are required for
simulation of five different Mach number conditions. The nozzles are assembled with the
settling chamber in the upstream end and with the test section in the downstream end.

4.2.2 SYSTEM CONFIGURATION


The nozzle consists of

Convergent region

Throat region

Cooling system for throat region( For Mach 8,10 & 12 Nozzles only)

Divergent region

Interface with the Test Section

Interface with the Settling Chamber

Support trolley structure with wheels

Aerodynamic contours of the nozzles shall be given by the department. The overall length
of the nozzle assembly is 7m. Schematic of a typical nozzle assembly and support
structure in the tunnel circuit is shown in Fig. 4.5. Diagram of the nozzle assembly for
individual Mach numbers is shown in Fig. 4.6. Preliminary analysis shows that nozzles for
Mach 8, 10 and 12 need to be cooled at the throat. However, the Contractor will carry out
the detailed heat transfer analysis to ascertain it. The uncooled nozzle throats (Mach 5 &
83

6.5) should be free to expand. A tentative scheme is shown in the sketches. Tentative
scheme is also shown for water cooled nozzles (Mach 8, 10 & 12). However, Contactor
will finalize the schemes based on detailed thermo structural analysis. The Contractor will
also finalize the requirement of off-line cooling considering four tests per day with an
interval of 2 hr between two successive tests.
Test section

Nozzle cooling

Settling chamber

Nozzle

Diffuser

Fig 4.5 Schematic of a typical nozzle assembly and support structure in tunnel circuit

84

1000

500

800

800

1000

1000

1200

700

124

600

3
see detail E

see detail E

see detail E

M5

see detail E

1000 1700

see detail E

30 80
Detail E

500

727

600

800

800

1000

see detail D

1000

see detail D

1200

see detail D

973

see detail D

1000 1700

see detail D

M6.5

30 80
see detail D

650

500

800

800

1000

1000

1200

1050

cooling
circuit

300

3
see detail C

see detail C

see detail C

M8

see detail C

30 80
Detail C

85

1099

1700

500

800

500

800

1000

1000

1200

1200

cooling
circuit

300

3
see detail B

see detail B

see detail B

see detail B

1150 1700

see detail B

M10
80

30
Detail B

750

800

800

1000

1000

1200

1450

Water cooled
throat

2
see detail A

see detail A

see detail A

see detail A

1213 1700

see detail A

M12
80

30
Detail A

Fig. 4.6

Diagram of the nozzle assembly for individual Mach numbers

4.2.3Technical Specifications
The overall length of the nozzle is 7.0 m and the nominal exit diameter is 1 m. The nozzles
shall be divided into number of segments based on fabrication and inspection feasibility
maximum number of segments is limited to eight numbers. The dimensions and operating
conditions of the nozzles are summarized below in Table 4.1. Butt welded flange with
elastomeric o-ring shall be provided on each segment. There should not be any step inside
profile due to flange joint. Internal contour of the nozzles will be supplied by the department.
Contractor has to carry out detailed mechanical design, thermo-structural analysis and
cooling system design. As tunnel components will be evacuated before the actual
blowdown, the design shall be checked for external pressure.

86

Table 4.1

Dimensions and operating conditions of the nozzles

DIMENSIONS

Mach

Mach

Mach

Mach

Mach

5.0

6.5

8.0

10.0

12.0

Overall Length, m

7.0

Inlet Diameter, m

0.6

0.6

0.3

0.3

0.3

Throat Diameter m

0.190

0.107

0.073

0.043

0.028

Exit Diameter, m

1.000

1.000

1.099

1.150

1.213

Convergent Length, m

1.22

0.98

0.90

0.75

0.50

Divergent Length, m

5.78

6.02

6.10

6.25

6.50

Stagnation Pressure, MPa

3.0

10

10

10

10

Flow Temperature, K

400

600

800

1100

1400

4.2.3.1 MATERIAL
Table 4.2

: Tentative list of materials


Segments

Mach
No.
5.0
6.5

8.0
10.0
12.0

AISI

AISI

304L

304L

AISI
304L

AISI

AISI

AISI

AISI

AISI

304L

304L

304L

304L

304L

AISI

AISI

AISI

AISI

AISI

AISI

304L

304L

304L

304L

304L

304L

AISI

AISI

AISI

AISI

AISI

AISI

304L

304L

304L

304L

304L

304L

AISI

AISI

AISI

AISI

AISI

AISI

304L

304L

304L

304L

304L

304L

AISI

AISI

AISI

AISI

AISI

304L

304L

304L

304L

304L

15-5PH*

15-5PH

Berylco *

15-5PH

Berylco *

Berylco *

3
15-5PH*

AISI 304L

*Nozzle throat section


The tentative material list for the different segments of the nozzle is given in Table4.2.
However, Contractor will finalize the material based on detailed thermo-structural
analysis

4.2.3.2 JOINTS
i.

All the segments of the nozzles shall be assembled together by flanged joints using
suitable fasteners. The end flanges shall be designed to suit with the settling chamber
87

flange in the upstream end and test section in the downstream end. The number of
segments is driven by fabrication and machining feasibility. The Contractor must strive
for minimum number of segments. In case of limitation of in house facility, the
Contractor must make use of facilities available in other places in the country.
However, maximum number of segment permissible is eight. Apart from these joint
there should be a flange on each nozzle assembly as shown in Fig. 4.5 to interface
with test section. It should be designed to withstand nozzle thrust, load due to thermal
expansion.
ii.

The flanges and fasteners shall be designed for the required pressure and
temperature level as per relevant standard (ASME) with adequate factor of safety
The joints shall be leak proof both at high pressure and vacuum (10-2 mbar). Suitable

iii.

gaskets / seals shall be provided in the joints to arrest leak both at high pressure and
vacuum at elevated/room temperature.
iv.

All the segments shall be assembled together within the concentricity of 1mm and
perpendicularity of 1mm for the total length of 7m. The Contractor shall work out the
limits of concentricity, perpendicularity, positional tolerance of bolt holes in the flanges
in the segment level to achieve the above specified tolerance in the assembly and
shall incorporate in the fabrication drawings. Suitable provision for lifting shall be
provided in each segment.

v.

There should not be any step at the joint interface. The Contractor should carry out
suitable interface design to take care of this aspect. Suitable locating pins shall be
provided in flange.

4.2.3.3 FABRICATION TOLERANCE


The allowable tolerances on the machined inside surface are
i. 0.02 mm in the throat segment on diameter
ii. 0.06 mm in other places on diameter

The contour of the inside machined surface of the nozzle shall be within the tolerance
of 0.12 mm and shall be maintained throughout. The X and Y coordinates of the
contour shall be measured at an interval of 100 mm along the axis at 8
circumferential locations. The CMM facility for inspection should be available at
machining centre.

The nozzle shall be reinforced by stiffeners along the external circumference to


maintain the contour, during machining and handling only.

88

4.2.3.4 SURFACE FINISH


The Contractor shall ensure internal surface finish of N6 (0.8 m).

4.2.3.5 COOLING SYSTEM


The throat segment of Mach 8, Mach 10 & Mach 12 nozzle assembly needs to be cooled
externally to withstand high temperature. The Contractor shall carry out the cooling system
design, detailed engineering, cooling water pumping requirements, fabrication and
integration of the cooling system with nozzle and supply. The pumping required for cooling
system shall be supplied by the Contractor along with the nozzle assemblies. Provision for
mounting one temperature sensor at outlet and two pressure sensors at inlet & outlet shall
be provided.

4.2.3.6 MEASUREMENT PORTS


Provision for mounting pressure sensors at the nozzle exit with suitable adaptor shall be
provided. The adaptor shall take care of nullifying the temperature effect.

4.2.3.7 SUPPORT STRUCTURE


The nozzle assembly will be mounted on support structures. The support structures will be
movable on rails, which are provided on the tunnel floor. A suitable rolling system with
locking mechanism shall be provided in the support structure for the movement of the
nozzle assembly in both axial and lateral directions. The centerline of the nozzle assembly
is fixed at a height of 1.5 m from the building floor. A suitable height adjusting mechanism
shall be provided on the support structure to take care of a height variation of 50 mm.
Support structure shall be made out of structural steel. The lateral wheel shall have vertical
movement capabilities with suitable mechanism/actuator to lift total nozzle assembly at
least 100 mm for lateral movement of Nozzle.
.
4.2.4

ACCEPTANCE TEST - HYDROSTATIC TESTING & VACCUM LEAK TEST

Convergent and throat segment of the nozzle shall be hydrostatically tested as per
standard. The complete nozzle assembly shall be tested for vacuum leak test to ensure that
the leak rate should not exceed 10-8 Pa-m3/sec.The end closure shall simulate the mating
flange configuration.

89

4.3

TEST SECTION

4.3.1 INTRODUCTION
The test section is a closed chamber where the test model is placed during the blowdown
and measurements are carried out. The rear end of nozzle is projected into the test section
in the upstream side and the front end of the diffuser known as scoop assembly (flow
collector) is projected into the test section in the downstream side.
Model incidence mechanism is housed in the test section. It is required to inject the model
into the flow and to retrieve it after the measurements are completed. This system will
position and orient the model with respect to the tunnel axis at a desired and pre-planned
location.

4.3.2 SYSTEM CONFIGURATION


The Test Section consists of
Compartment I
Interface with nozzle assembly
Interface with scoop assembly and supersonic diffuser
Doors
Compartment - II
The model incidence mechanism is accommodated in the compartment - II. The nozzle
assembly and supersonic diffuser are interfaced with the compartment - I of test section
with flanged joint and the flow takes place through the compartment -1. Schematic of test
section with model incidence mechanism is shown in Fig. 4.7.

90

SCOOP
ASSEMBLY
DOOR

COMPARTMENT-1

SCOOP

SUPERSONIC
DIFFUSER

NOZZLE

PITCH
MECHANISM

AXIAL
MECHANISM

INJECTION
MECHANISM

COMPARTMENT-11

Fig. 4.7

: Schematic of Test section with Model incidence mechanism

4.3.3 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION


The detailed mechanical design of the Test Section shall be carried out by the Contractor.
The tentative details of the test section components are described below:

4.3.3.1 COMPARTMENT - I
(Refer Fig 4.7 )
The size of the compartment-I is 6m (L) x 3.5m (W) x 3.0m (H) (internal dimensions). The
nozzle assembly, scoop assembly and supersonic diffuser shall be integrated with the
compartment - I. The details of the interfaces are given below:

a. INTERFACE WITH NOZZLE


The nozzle is rigidly mounted with the test section wall with a flanged joint. The nozzle
assembly shall be protruding approximately 1300 mm into the compartment - I. The tunnel
is housed in the first floor of the tunnel building and tunnel centerline is 1.5m from the floor.
The nozzle shall be integrated with the test section within the concentricity of 1 mm. The
nozzle test section interface shall be leak proof both at high pressure (0.2 MPa) and
vacuum of 0.01 mbar. The interface shall be designed for easy assembly & dismantling of
91

nozzle assembly. Test section will be subjected to various loads like nozzle thrust, forces
due to thermal expansion of components between heater and test section, etc. Test section
should be suitably designed to withstand the above loads.

b. INTERFACE WITH SCOOP ASSEMBLY AND SUPERSONIC DIFFUSER


The supersonic diffuser is rigidly mounted with the test section wall in the downstream end
maintaining the tunnel centreline (1.5m from the floor). The supersonic diffuser shall be
integrated with the test section within the concentricity of 1 mm. The upstream end of the
diffuser known as scoop assembly is a convergent duct followed by a straight duct. The
straight portion of the scoop slides into the straight portion of the supersonic diffuser. The
distance between the nozzle exit and the scoop entry is variable between 0.8m and 2.8m.
A cut out of size 1.3m length and 0.5m wide is to be provided at the start of scoop for Model
Incidence Mechanism operation. The Contractor shall design the interfacing of the scoop
assembly in the test section with a provision for axial movement of 2m. The Contractor shall
design and supply a suitable traversing mechanism for the movement of scoop. The
supersonic diffuser test section interface shall be leak proof both at high pressure and
vacuum and necessary sealing shall be provided. The Contractor shall design the interface
taking into account the dimensions of the supersonic diffuser and scoop. The interface shall
be designed for easy assembly. The diffuser and scoop shall be integrated with the test
section within the concentricity of 1mm.

c. DOORS
Two sliding doors shall be provided on both sides of the compartment - I. The door size
should be 2 m (L) x 2 m (H). The doors shall be opened / closed by an automated
mechanism and locked tightly with the test section without any leak by providing necessary
sealing in the closed condition. The doors shall be designed to open by sliding along the
tunnel axis by providing proper guide ways. A suitable mechanism (Hydraulic/ electric) for
opening and closing the doors and for locking the door with the test section shall be
designed by the Contractor.
The Contractor should design for a flange on the sliding doors to mount 700 mm schlieren
window glass. The sliding door mechanism shall be designed in such a way that the
parallelism between the two opposite schlieren windows does not get altered. The center of
schlieren windows shall be at 1.5m from the floor. The two schlieren windows should be
coaxial within 0.5 mm. Glass windows for schlieren to be fixed with metallic frames. The
92

metallic frames are to be integrated with the test section doors on both side and parallelism
of 1 minutes need to be maintained. Dummy metallic windows shall be provided.

d. CUT-OUT FOR MODEL INCIDENCE MECHANISM:


The compartment - I shall be isolated from the compartment - II by steel platform. A cut-out
of size 3.5m (L) x 1.1m (W) shall be provided on the platform. Sliding door shall be provided
to open and close the cut-out with suitable mechanism (hydraulic / electro mechanical). The
platform shall be of removable type for the maintenance of Model Incidence Mechanism.

e. TOP COVER OF THE COMPARTMENT I :


The top cover of the compartment I should be designed as a removable member to
facilitate assembly of diffuser. It is also necessary for any future augmentation of
incorporating a top chamber for rapid injection mechanism. A flange shall be provided on
the top of compartment - I for mounting 700 mm glass window which is necessary for
Advanced Measurement like Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) technique, Laser based
diagnostics (PLIF/PIV). Dummy metallic windows shall be provided.

4.3.3.2 COMPARTMENT - II
The size of the compartment - II is 4.4m (L) x 3.5m (W) x 6.1m (H). The Model Incidence
Mechanism is rigidly mounted in compartment - II before injection. A door of size 1m (W) x
2.0m (H) shall be provided in the compartment- II for the personnel to enter for
maintenance. A suitable mechanism shall be provided for opening / closing the door and a
locking system to keep the door vacuum tight with the compartment - II. The compartment II of the test section shall be grouted to the ground and should be designed to withstand the
loads like nozzle thrust, thermal expansion forces.

4.3.3.3 DESIGN INPUTS:


The test section (all the compartments) shall be designed as per ASME code for an
operating internal pressure of 0.2 MPa. The design should be also checked for external
atmospheric pressure for internal vacuum condition. The proposed material is SA 516 grade
70 or its equivalent.

4.3.3.4 PORTS FOR INSTRUMENTATION CABLES AND COOLING SYSTEM HOSES


A number of ports shall be provided in the test section for routing instrumentation cables,
hydraulic and cooling system hoses. Proper feed through must be provided to avoid
93

vacuum leak and minimize the signal noise. Additional dummy flanges shall be provided for
meeting futuristic requirements. The exact details such as number of ports and sizes shall
be decided after mutual discussion.

4.3.3.5 MEASUREMENT PORTS


Provision shall be provided for mounting the sensors for performing following
measurements.

Test Section pressure

Test Section temperature

Test section vacuum level

4.3.3.6 DOOR OPERATION


All the doors provided in the test section shall be operated remotely from the tunnel main
control room. However, a control panel with manual overrides shall also be provided for
door operation near the test section for opening / closing of doors during the preparation for
blowdown.

4.3.4 ACCEPTANCE TESTS


The Test Section shall be pneumatically tested for internal pressure as per standrad and
vacuum at 0.01 mbar at Contractors site during inspection. For vacuum, the allowable leak
rate shall be less than 10-8 Pa m3/s.

4.4 MODEL INCIDENCE MECHANISM (MIM)


4.4.1 INTRODUCTION
Model Incidence Mechanism (MIM) has to perform two functions:
a. to support the model rigidly against the aerodynamic loads acting on the
model and the mechanisms.
b. to inject the model into the flow after flow stabilization in the tunnel and orient
the model with respect to the flow direction.
The MIM shall provide pitch, yaw and roll motions to the model during test in the injected
position. It should retract the model after the test.
The model incidence mechanism has five degrees of freedom:
vertical movement for injecting the model into the flow;
linear horizontal movement along the tunnel axis;
94

three angular movements for changing the orientation of the model with respect to
the flow axis (Pitch - , Yaw - and Roll - ).
Each of these movements is obtained and controlled by a separate driving mechanism.
Total five driving mechanisms need to be provided. For conventional force and pressure
measurement, model can be injected within 2 sec whereas for heat transfer measurement,
the model needs to be injected at much faster rate (within 200 milliseconds).

4.4.2 SYSTEM CONFIGURATION


Schematic of MIM is shown in Fig. 4.8
Roll mechanism
Pitch mechanism

Yaw mechanism

Horizontal mechanism

Vertical mechanism
(for injection)

Fig. 4.8 Schematic of Model Incidence Mechanism


Schematic of Model Incidence Mechanism in the test section at different positions is shown
in Fig. 4.9.

95

b) MIM in Compartment I at = 0

a) MIM in Compartment II
(before injection)

(after injection)

c) MIM in Compartment I at = 45

d) MIM in Compartment I at = -10

Fig. 4.9 Schematic of the proposed Model incidence mechanism in


different positions in Test section

96

4.4.3 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS


The technical specifications of model injection mechanism are given below in Table 4.3.
Table 4.3

Technical specifications for model incidence mechanism

Sl no

Parameter

Specifications

1.

Quantity, Nos.

1
1.75 m approx.

2.

Injection distance

(vertical distance traveled by MIM from


compartment-II to the tunnel axis)
Conventional Mechanism < 2 sec

3.

Injection time

Rapid Injection Mechanism ~200 msec (Only in


flow jet around 610mm)

4.

Injection drive

Hydraulic/ Electric

5.

Pitch range

-10 to +45

6.

Pitch drive

Servomotor with a worm and worm gear

7.

Pitch rate

1/sec to 15/s at variable rates

8.

Yaw range

-10 to +10

9.

Yaw drive

Servomotor with a worm and worm gear

10.

Yaw rate

1/sec to 15/s at variable rates

11.

Roll range

-90 to +90

12.

Roll drive

Electrohydraulic / Electromechanical

13.

Roll rate

1 /s to 25 /s at variable rate

14.

Axial movement

- 200 to +200 mm

15.

Axial movement

linear actuator

16.

Axial movement rate

~ 5 mm/s

17.

Mode of operation (pitch/yaw/roll)

Both continuous and pause mode

18.

Accuracy

0.05 or better

The origin of the coordinate system is fixed at the centre of arc of the sector.
Suitable position sensors, limit switches must be provided for all the angular movements
and linear movements. These sensor output shall be used as a feed back for operating the
MIM in closed loop. Triple mode redundancy is to be provided for these sensors. The
contractor shall provide the electrical interfacing details of these sensors to the department.
During the sweep of any one of the angles, variation of other angles should be within
0.05.

97

However, the Contractor is not constrained to provide the above drive system and is
free to design a suitable drive system, which shall meet the requirements.

4.4.3.1
i.

DESIGN INPUT

Model weight and size: The weight of the model including sting is approximately 30 kg.
Slender model of 1m length can be tested. Wing body model of 500 mm wing span
can be tested.

ii.

Aerodynamic design: The model experiences aerodynamic loads and moments during
the blowdown. Maximum aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the model at the
model centre of rotation are given below:
o Normal load

: 6000 N

o Axial load

: 3000 N

o Side force

: 3000 N

o Pitching moment

: 1500 Nm

o Yawing moment

: 350 Nm

o Rolling moment

: 150 Nm

Note - These loads are likely to change


The leading edge of the strut of model incidence mechanism, which is inside the flow,
shall be a wedge with a semi vertex angle of 15.
iii. Blockage: The blockage of the model incidence mechanism along with sting in any
case shall not exceed 5%
iv. Mechanical design: The system shall be designed for the aerodynamic loads
mentioned above with a factor of safety of 3 on yield stress. Suitable materials should be
selected. Tip of the strut which is subjected to repeated thermal environment can be made
replaceable. The design shall be checked for the stiffness and vibrations. The maximum
deflections permitted on the model at any orientation of the model with reference to model
centre of rotation is 0.1.
v. Thermo-structural analysis: The Contractor shall carryout detailed thermo-structural
analysis to finalize the material. However, a tentative list of material is given for reference.
a.

15-5 PH shall be used for strut, model mounting pod.

b.

SA 240 Gr 304L for other parts of the model incidence mechanism.

c.

Maraging steel for sting.

d.

Niobium for tip of model strut

98

4.4.3.2

CONTROL

All the operations will be pre-programmed from the main control console of the tunnel. The
system shall be compatible to accept the commands from the main control console
computer and feed back from the system shall be provided to the main control for display of
, and in the main control console computer. A control panel with manual override
shall be provided near the tunnel test section.

4.4.3.3

INTEGRATION WITH TEST SECTION

The model incidence mechanism shall be integrated with the test section such that the
centre of arc of the sector shall coincide with tunnel centreline ie 1.5m from the floor and
shall be within the limit of 1 mm. The model incidence mechanism shall be rigidly mounted
in the compartment II of test section.

4.4.4 ACCEPTANCE TESTS


The Contractor shall carryout the functional tests of the mechanism as per specifications
during commissioning of the wind tunnel at site. Mutually agreed Acceptance test plan will
be worked out before commissioning the system

4.5 DIFFUSER
4.5.1 INTRODUCTION
Diffuser of the wind tunnel system is intended to capture all the air from the nozzle flow in
the test section and convert the kinetic energy of the flow into pressure energy i.e. to
decelerate the flow and recover the total pressure. It is connected in the downstream end of
the test section through a flanged joint & upstream end from connecting duct. The
supersonic diffusers shall be mounted on the rails and subsonic diffuser shall be on fixed
support grouted to floor.

4.5.2

SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

The diffuser consists of

Scoop assembly

Scoop Mechanism for axial movement

Supersonic diffuser (constant area duct)

Subsonic diffuser

Interfacing of the scoop mechanism in the test section

Interfacing of the supersonic diffuser to the test section


99

Interfacing of the subsonic diffuser to the connecting duct

Interfacing of the vacuum isolation valve to supersonic and subsonic diffusers.

Entire diffuser assembly shall be supported on rails. Schematic of the outline of the diffuser
is shown in Fig 4.10.

Scoop

Constant area duct

Subsonic diffuser

Fig. 4.10 Schematic of the outline of the diffuser

4.5.3 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION


The detailed mechanical design, thermo structural analysis, cooling system design of the
diffuser shall be carried out by the Contractor. The tentative details of the diffuser
components are described below:

4.5.3.1 SCOOP ASSEMBLY


The scoop assembly is a convergent duct followed by a straight cylindrical duct. The inlet
diameter of the scoop assembly is 1.8 m. The convergent duct has two steps: 150 and 80
convergence. The scoop assembly moves telescopically inside the constant area duct over
a length of 2m which is operated off-line. The positions of the scoop vary from 0.8m to 2.8m
from nozzle exit. The scoop assembly should be sufficiently strong to take thrust load of
flow. Thermal coating may be provided inside the scoop assembly to take care of the high
temperature effect. The scoop shall be mounted on the scoop mechanism with suitable
support structure for axial movement. Scoop mechanism need to be fixed inside the test
section.
The details of the scoop assembly are given in Fig. 4.11.

100

Vacuum isolation
valve

Test section

Sub-sonic diffuser
assembly

Scoop assembly

1000

18,5

12

15

50

3 nos. 120 degree apart

Test
Section
Supersonic
Diffuser

scoop
mechanism

Fig. 4.11 Schematic of the scoop assembly

Inlet diameter of the scoop: 1.8 m

Semi convergent angle of the first convergent duct: 150.

Semi convergent angle of the second convergent duct: 80

Overall length of the convergent duct: 1.97 m


101

02
1

2500

1800

996

1000

970

Bellow

Inside diameter of constant portion of scoop: 1 m

Length of the straight portion: 2.5 m

Design pressure: 0.4 MPa

Flow Temperature: 1400 K (maximum)

A slot shall be provided on the bottom of the scoop assembly to accommodate the test
model. The size of the slot shall be based on the size of the model incidence
mechanism strut/sector and shall be 1.3m L x 0.5 m W (tentative).

The scoop assembly may be welded/ divided into two segments

SS 310 or any other equivalent material shall be used

Tentative thickness of the shell is 10 mm.

To reduce the flow induced vibration from the scoop exit it should have movable guide
support in the diffuser.

4.5.3.2 CONSTANT AREA DUCT

The length of the constant area duct is 9.5 m. The internal diameter of the constant area
duct is equal to the outer diameter with minimum clearance and subsequent to it, the
diameter is 1 m. The constant area duct is water cooled to maintain the shell
temperature at maximum 333 K. The schematic of constant area duct is given in
Fig 4.12.

Overall length

: 9.5 m

Diameter

: 1 m nominal

Design pressure

: 0.4 MPa (maximum)

Flow Temperature

: 1400 K (maximum)

Shell temperature to be cooled to

: 333 K

Material of construction

: ASTM A 516 Gr. 70

The wall temperature of the diffuser shall be limited to 333K. Suitable cooling system shall
be designed by the Contractor to achieve this temperature limit. Total number of segments
should be limited to three. Individual segment is assembled together with flange joints. An
expansion bellow shall be designed and fabricated for the working conditions as shown in
Fig. 4.12. The joints shall be made leak proof in both high pressure and vacuum (vacuum
leak rate should not exceed 10-8 Pa m3/s) by providing suitable interface and downstream
flange shall be designed to suit with the vacuum isolation valve.

102

4.5.3.3 SUBSONIC DIFFUSER ASSEMBLY


This is a conical divergent duct interfaced with vacuum isolation valve in the upstream side
and connecting duct in the downstream side. The inlet diameter is 1 m and outlet diameter
is 2 m and the semi-divergence angle of the diffuser is 2.50. The length of the diffuser
assembly is 11.45 m. The subsonic diffuser assembly is divided into three segments and
assembled together with flange joints using fasteners. The fasteners shall be designed for
the working conditions. The joints shall be leak proof in both high pressure and vacuum
(vacuum leak rate should not exceed 10-8 Pa-m3/sec by providing suitable gaskets /
sealing. The upstream flange shall be designed to suit with the vacuum isolation valve and
downstream flange shall be designed to suit with the connecting duct.
A cooling system is required to cool the diffuser due to high temperature environment. The
schematic of the subsonic diffuser assembly is shown in Fig. 4.13.

103

Nozzle

Cooling
water
in

15

1000

Nozzle

1100

Cooling
water
out

3500

4000

500

1500

9500

Guide rail for m ovable support


3 nos. 120 degree apart

Fig. 4.12 : Schematic of supersonic (constant area) diffuser


Nozzle
Nozzle

Cooling water in

Nozzle

2000

2,5

1000

Cooling
water
out

4000

4000

11450

Fig. 4.13 : Schematic of Subsonic diffuser

104

3450

The specifications of subsonic diffuser are given below:


o

Inlet diameter

: 1m

Outlet diameter

:2m

Semi divergence angle

: 2.50

Overall length

: 11.45 m

Design Pressure

: 0.4 MPa

Flow temperature

: 1400 K

Material of construction

: ASTM A 516 Gr. 70

Shell temperature to be cooled to : 333 K

Design

: As per ASME

The wall temperature of the diffuser shall be limited to 333 K. Suitable cooling system shall
be designed by the Contractor to achieve this temperature limit. The Contractor shall
design the diffuser for a design pressure of 0.4 MPa and temperature of 333K as per ASME
code.

4.5.3.4 COOLING SYSTEM


The diffuser needs to be cooled externally to withstand high temperature of the flow. The
Contractor shall carry out the cooling system design, detailed engineering, cooling water
pumping requirements; fabrication for cooling system shall be supplied along with the
diffuser assembly. Provisions for mounting one temperature sensor at outlet and two
pressure sensors at inlet & outlet shall be provided.

4.5.3.5 SUPPORT STRUCTURE


The diffuser assembly shall be mounted on support structures. Each segment shall be
provided with separate support structure. The support structures for the supersonic diffuser
will be movable on rails whereas support structures for subsonic diffuser will be fixed
directly to floor. The centerline of the diffuser is fixed at a height of 1.5m from the building
floor. A suitable height adjusting mechanism shall be provided on the support to take care
or a height variation of 50 mm and lateral adjustment of 50 mm. Support structure shall
be made out of structural steel.

4.5.3.6 MEASUREMENT PORTS


Measurement ports will be provided on each segment of the diffuser wall for pressure and
temperature measurement. Suitable adaptor shall be provided for pressure measurement
for nullifying the temperature effect (i.e., reduction from stagnation temperature to ambient
105

temperature).

Similarly

suitable

arrangement

shall

be

provided

for

temperature

measurement. Tentative measurement location is shown in fig 4.12 & fig 4.13. Number of
ports, location, etc will be finalized based on mutual discussion.

4.5.4 ACCEPTANCE TESTS


The diffuser assembly shall be integrated and shall be pneumatically tested for 0.4 MPa
internal pressure and vacuum leak rate test (10-8 Pa m3/s) at Contractors site during
inspection.

4.6 VACUUM ISOLATION VALVE


The vacuum isolation valve is integrated with constant area duct in the upstream end and
subsonic diffuser in the downstream end.
The specifications of the vacuum isolation valve are given below:
VAT series DN 1000 large HV gate valve with a mechanical interlock for open position of
the valve
Quantity

: 1 No.

Type

: With position indicator and solenoid

Body material

: Stainless steel (appropriate grade)

Sealing material

: Gate: VITON; Bonnet: VITON (appropriate grade)

Make

: VAT / GMBH

Valve shall be supplied with spare kit.


Limit switches shall be provided for indicating the extreme position of the valve. This valve
operation is very critical from tunnel operation point of view. Hence at sensor level, triple
mode redundancy is to be provided.

4.7 CONNECTING DUCT


4.7.1 INTRODUCTION:
Connecting duct is the interface between diffuser and after cooler.

4.7.2 SYSTEM CONFIGURATION


A schematic diagram of the connecting duct along with after cooler is shown in Fig. 4.14

106

Aftercooler
Sub-sonic diffuser
assembly
Vacuum isolation
valve

Connecting
duct
Bellow
Scoop assembly

assembly

Water
jacket
Connecting
duct

Aftercooler

Man hole

ground level

Fig. 4.14 Schematic of the connecting duct


4.7.3 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
Quantity

: 1 no.

Entry diameter

: 2000 mm

Operating flow temperature

: up to 1400 K

Design code

: ASME code pressure vessels Section VIII, Division -1

Wall temperature to be cooled to: 333 K


Note - A manhole shall be provided at the bottom.

107

4.7.3.1 MECHANICAL DESIGN


Mechanical design of the connecting duct includes the shell design, the type of joints,
assembly with diffuser and Aftercooler. The connecting duct needs to be designed to
withstand both 4 bar internal pressures as well as 0.01 mbar vacuum. It shall be designed
as per ASME code and the shell temperature shall be maintained at 333 K. Contractor
needs to design the cooling system for the connecting duct, if necessary. The material of
the connecting duct is proposed to be SA516 grade 70.

4.7.3.2 JOINTS
The connecting duct can be divided into two segments. The segments will be assembled
together by flanged joints using suitable fasteners. The end flanges shall be designed to
suit the upstream and downstream flange joints. The flanges and fasteners are to be
designed for the pressure and temperature mentioned above as per ASME code. The joints
should be leak proof both at high pressure and vacuum and the vacuum leak rate should
not exceed 10-8 Pa m3/s. Suitable gasket / seal shall be provided in the joints to arrest leak
both at high pressure and vacuum. The Contractor may propose an alternate joint design in
place of bolted flange joint proposed by the department with the consideration of easy
assembly / dismantling by the operator.

4.7.3.3 MAN HOLE


A manhole shall be provided in the duct as shown in Fig. 4.14. The door for the manhole
shall be leak proof both at high pressure and vacuum and the vacuum leak rate should not
exceed 10-8 Pa m3/s.

4.7.3.4 SUPPORT STRUCTURE


The connecting duct will be mounted on support structures (If necessary). Support structure
shall be made out of structural steel.
4.7.4 ACCEPTANCE TEST
Hydrostatic test as per standard and vacuum leak rate test (10-8 Pa-m3/sec) as acceptance
test shall be carried out at the Contractors site during inspection.

4.8 AFTERCOOLER
4.8.1 INTRODUCTION
Aftercooler is a heat exchanger intended to cool hot air coming from diffuser to
temperature less than 333K before it enters the Vacuum spheres. A suitable heat
108

exchanger shall be designed with the constraint of pressure drop not exceeding 10% of the
inlet pressure. The requirement of Aftercooler is on-line cooling of the hot air stream
coming out of the diffuser. A counter flow type heat exchanger (shell-and-tube, STHE) has
to be designed as per Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA) to meet the
requirement. In this scheme, soft water will be used as coolant flowing inside the shell over
the tubes and hot air, which is the working fluid, flows inside the tubes. Schematic
arrangement is shown in Fig 4.15

Tube &
tube sheet

Shell

Fig. 4.15 schematic arrangement of Aftercooler

4.8.2 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT AND SPECIFICATIONS


Aftercooler shall be used for online cooling of hot air coming from the diffuser at different
mass flow and temperature. It will cater to the complete operating conditions of the tunnel
as shown in Table 4.4. The requirements of the system are defined below.

The mass flow rate, corresponding temperature and pressure for each operating Mach
number are given in Table 4.4. The Contractor shall choose the most critical condition
from the table and design the Aftercooler. The temperature of air at the outlet of
aftercooler should not exceed 333 K for all operating conditions. Aftercooler should be
designed for 4 bar internal pressure and vacuum of 0.01mbar. The leak rate shall not
exceed 10-8 Pa m3/sec. It can be designed as modular in construction for easy
maintenance. Suitable support structure shall be provided which will be grouted to
109

concrete foundation. The Contractor shall supply the suitable pumps, associated
pipelines, tanks etc. Provision will be made available for measuring pressure &
temperature each at inlet and outlet. Suitable adaptor arrangement will be provided for
pressure measurement for nullifying the temperature effect if required. The inlet of shell
shall be water cooled.

Specifications are given in Table 4.5.

Proposed Material for different components of Aftercooler is given in Table 4.6.

The standards to be followed in designing of the system are given in Table 4.7.

The system should cater to test frequency of four per day at each Mach number with an
interval of two hours between two successive tests.

The system shall be designed as per ASME and adequate redundancy shall be
provided in pumps and other equipment.

Table 4.4

Different Operating conditions for Aftercooler

Inlet pressure to

Air mass flow rate

Air Inlet temp.

Kg/s

Pa

61.38

346

30858

119.55

364

61716

180

377

94117

6.5

16.57

487

10574

6.5

32.38

510

21148

6.5

47.87

525

31721

6.5

63.17

536

42295

6.5

78.31

545

52869

6.5

93.33

553

63443

6.5

108.25

559

74016

6.5

123.08

565

84590

6.5

137.84

570

95164

6.5

152.40

575

105738

6.54

653

4244

12.80

682

8488

Mach
No.

110

Aftercooler

18.94

700

12732

25.02

714

16976

31.04

725

21220

37.02

734

25463

42.96

742

29707

48.86

749

33951

54.74

755

38195

60.60

760

42439

10

1.96

912

1522

10

3.85

949

3045

10

5.70

972

4567

10

7.54

989

6090

10

9.36

1003

7612

10

11.17

1014

9134

10

12.97

1024

10657

10

14.76

1033

12179

10

16.54

1041

13701

10

18.31

1048

15224

12

0.7

1211

643

12

1.40

1257

1287

12

2.08

1286

1930

12

2.75

1306

2573

12

3.42

1323

3217

12

4.08

1337

3860

12

4.74

1349

4503

12

5.40

1360

5146

12

6.05

1369

5790

12

6.71

1377

6433

111

Table 4.5 Specification of Aftercooler


Type

of

heat

Shell-and-tube

heat

exchanger

exchanger

(fixed tube sheets construction)

Shell configuration

Counter flow

Shell side fluid

Coolant (water)

Tube side fluid

Working fluid (air)

Air outlet temperature

333K

Placement

Horizontal, fixed

Table 4.6 Proposed Material For different components of Aftercooler


Component

Material

Shell

SA-240M-Gr. 304L

Tube

SA-213M-TP 304L

Tube sheet

SA-240M-Gr. 304L

Baffle

SA-240M-Gr. 304L

Shell

SA-240M-Gr. 304L

Water piping shall be made of carbon steel ASTM A53B / 106B.

Table 4.7 Standards to be followed in system design


Description

Standard/code

After cooler

TEMA/ ASME sec. VIII

Piping

ANSI B 31.3/31.1

SS pipes

ANSI B 36.19

CS pipes

ANSI B 36.10

Butt welded fittings

ANSI B 16.9

Socket welded / threaded fittings

ANSI B 16.11

Flanges

ANSI B 16.5

Stud (fully threaded), Nuts & Washers

ASTM A 193 B8/ B7, A 194 8B/ 2H

Gaskets

API 601 /ANSI B 16.5

Non return valves

BS 5352/ API 6-D

Pressure gauges

BS 1780/IS 3624

Hydraulic pressure test of pipelines

ASTM A 530

112

NDT

ASME Section V

Welding

ASME Section IX, AWS

Radiography

ASTM E 94

Design & Fabrication

ASME Section VIII, division I

4.8.3 INSPECTION & TESTING


All the bought-out materials and the works during fabrication at the Contractors factory and
erection at the Departments site shall be inspected by one of the following reputed Third
Party Inspection Agencies. (TPIA)

Lloyds Register Industrial Services Pvt Ltd (LRIS)

Bureau Veritas Industrial Services Pvt Ltd (BVIS)

Det-Norske Veritas (DNV)

Any other Govt. Approved Agencies

The broad scope of inspection shall be as follows. However, the detailed scope of
inspection shall be given in the quotation.
a.

Review of the fabrication drawings

b.

Identification of different component of the system with test and calibration certificates.

c.

Witnessing of welding procedure qualification and welders performance qualification


tests. If the welders already possess the performance certificate, the TPI agency shall
review and authorize the same.

d.

Review of X-ray films of radio-graphic tests for possible defects in the weld joints.

e.

Inspection at any stage of fabrication to ensure that the methodology employed for
fabrication is in compliance with the requirements of standards/ codes, practices,
contract specification and the approved documents.

f.

Witnessing of pressure test, leak test and cleanliness test of the system during
fabrication and erection at site.

4.8.3.1

ACCEPTANCE TEST FOR AFTER COOLER:

Following are tests to be performed for acceptance of Aftercooler

Material Certificates: The material Certificates, detailing the physical and chemical
properties, of the principal pressure-bearing parts shall be provided.

Hardness test

Magnetic particle examination

Tare mass measurements

Water capacity measurement


113

Hydraulic pressure test as per ASME sec. VIII/TEMA

Ultra sonic test for flaw detection

Dimensional check

Functional test: The Aftercooler with all accessories mounted shall be subjected to
functional test to validate the performance for all operating condition.

Wall thickness measurement by ultra-sonic probe at identified points (the location of


the pressure vessels are sketched on drawing with reference to a fixed point on the
pressure vessels).

Dye penetrated test and radiographic test with x-rays or gamma rays to 2-T sensitivity
of all butt welded joints.

4.8.3.2 ACCEPTANCE TEST FOR COOLING SYSTEM


4.8.3.2.1 VALVES

Material certificate: The material certificates, detailing the physical and chemical
properties, of the principal pressure-bearing parts shall be provided.

Welding joints test: Any butt welding joints in the valve shall be subjected to radio
graphic test with X-rays or gamma rays to 2-T sensitivity.

Soundness test for casting: all the casting shall be subject to soundness test with radiographic or ultra-sonic technique for flaw detection.

Hydraulic shell pressure test: The valve, prior to assembly with the bellows, in partially
open position, shall be subject to pressure test with water ( with suitable corrosion
inhibitor) at the maximum rated working pressure of the particular pressure rating class
of the valve as per standard. The test procedure and acceptance criteria shall be as per
BS 6755 Part 1 or API 598 or ANSI B 16.34.

Pneumatic seat test (for ball valve only): The leak rate across the seat of ball valves
shall be tested with dry air at 0.4 to 0.7 MP by water displacement (bubble) method. The
acceptance criteria shall be as per Rate A BS 67755 Part 1) Or API 598.

Functional test: The valve with all accessories mounted shall be subjected to functional
test to validate the performance.

Marking: All the valves are assigned tag numbers for the sake of identification. The tag
number for each valve, as indicated above, besides size, pressure rating class, material
of construction etc, shall be indelibly engraved on the body of the valves.

4.8.3.2.2 PIPES

Visual examination: All the pipes shall be visually examined for workmen-like finish.
114

Dimensional check: One specimen from each lot shall be subjected to dimensional
check.

Chemical analysis: One specimen from each lot shall be subjected to detailed
chemical analysis as per ASTM A 751.

Mechanical Tests: One specimen from each lot shall be subjected to test for
mechanical properties as per ASTM A 370 (including impact test)

Hydraulic pressure test: All pipes shall be hydraulically pressure-tested with Water as
per ASTM A 530.

Ultra-sonic test: All the SS pipes of size DN 25 shall be subject to Ultra-sonic test
(100 %) by contact method as per ASTM A 450.

Eddy current test: all the SS pipes of size DN15 shall be subjected to Eddy current
test as per ASTM E 426.

Flattening test: Pieces of pipes of length 63.5 mm (2.5) cut from the ends of 5 % of
pipe lengths per lot shall be subjected to flattening test as per ASTM A 530 to prove
ductility and soundness.

Inter-granular corrosion test (for SS pipe only): One specimen per lot shall be subject
to inter-granular corrosion test as per ASTM A 262 (practice A/E).

Cleanliness: The pipes shall be cleaned and dried before dispatch.

Marking: The pipes shall be marked as per ASTM A 700.

4.9 SCOPE OF WORK FOR TUNNEL SYSTEM


4.9.1 DESIGN
I.

The design of the system, sub-system and the components shall be done to meet
the specifications and the functional requirements laid out in the document.

II.

The design shall be based on the standards/codes mentioned and if an


equivalent/better practices are followed, the same shall be informed in advance to
the department and the approval shall be obtained.

III.

The design shall be analyzed for the critical conditions and the soundness shall be
established with adequate factor of safety. The design shall be analyzed for thermal
loads, flow induced vibration for all conditions etc.

IV.

The detailed design and analysis shall be documented and produced whenever
required.

V.

The system design and analysis shall be totally reviewed and approved by the
mutually agreed third party agency (TPIA) like BVQI, LRIS etc. The same shall be

115

scrutinized

and

approved

by

the

Department,

before

taking

up

the

realization/procurement.
VI.

Material specifications, their form, condition and acceptance criteria shall be brought
out in the design.

VII.

Weld joints details, RT & PT acceptance, internal surface finish, details of support
structure, foundation and erection shall be clearly mentioned and presented to the
department with the approval of third party.

VIII.

The flange joints shall be designed for both pressure and vacuum levels mentioned.
Seals shall be designed in such a way that they serve for a period of at least 2
years.

IX.

In the case of components that need frequent assembly and dismantling, the
Contractor may propose an alternate joint design for the specified operating
conditions. Contractor can propose an alternate joint for easy assembly/ dismantling
instead of bolted flange joint proposed by the Department.

X.

During the design phase any change in the design input (major/minor) shall be
accepted by the Contractor and incorporated.

XI.

If need arises, the Department may involve and interact during the deliberations
between the Contractor and TPA.

XII.

However, it is the responsibility of the Contractor to ensure the soundness of the


design to meet the functional requirements of the systems.

4.9.2 MATERIAL
I. Qualified material shall only be used for fabricating the components
II. Material shall be identified for each component and the traceability shall be ensured
through a suitable logging system
III. Each batch of material shall undergo testing in terms of chemical composition,
mechanical properties under the surveillance of mutually agreed third party inspection
agency (TPIA) like LRIS, BVQI or any other government approved agencies.

4.9.3 FABRICATION
I. Fabrication of the components shall commence only after approval of the design by the
Department
II. Before commencing the fabrication, the Contractor shall prepare the detailed fabrication
process drawings, process plan, quality control plan and get the approval from the TPIA
prior to submission to Department.
116

III. All the welding shall be done by qualified welders only. Welders qualification shall be
done in accordance with ASME section IX, under the surveillance of TPIA
IV. All the weld joints shall be qualified in accordance with ASME code section IX
V. Fabrication of systems subjected to pressure and vacuum, shall be carried out in
accordance with ASME code section VIII and NDT inspection acceptance shall be as
per ASME code VIII- Division 1 & 2
VI. For nozzles reinforcement, stiffener rings will be as per ASME section VIII- division 2
and shall be attached at the external surface by fillet welding. This enables nozzle to
maintain contour under critical loading and handling.
VII. Inside surface of settling chamber, nozzle, diffuser, etc shall be smooth and polished to
the specified finish levels; No projection in the weld is permitted.
VIII. Suitable process shall be evolved, for relieving the stresses on welded joints; details
shall be furnished regarding the proposed scheme of stress relieving in the process
plan.
IX. Considering the size of the system, the Contractor shall plan and schedule the
fabrication activities at the erection side also, in the department. The Contractor shall
indicate electrical power requirements for the work, which shall be made available on
chargeable basis.
X. The Contractor shall make arrangements for necessary fabrication equipments
including handling for site work at the department premises.
XI. The Contractor shall agree to accommodate minor changes, if any, during the course of
fabrication.

4.9.4 INSPECTION AND TESTING


I. Inspection and testing requirements, acceptance standards shall be identified at
different stages of realization of the system through process and QC plan. Critical
stages of realization will be identified in the process/QC plan right from raw material
qualification to the final stage of the system and also erection and commissioning.
Fabrication process and QC plan will be approved by the Department before initiation of
fabrication.
II. Critical stages shall be identified, where TPIA shall be involved to carry out surveillance
inspection
III. Weld joints of pressure systems in addition to NDT, shall be qualified individually for
leak rate less than 10-8 Pa m3/s of helium.

117

IV. All

the

inspection/testing

at

every

stage

of

fabrication

of

components/sub-

system/systems shall be as per the approved plan, under the surveillance of the third
party inspection agency. All the reports shall be prepared by the manufacturer and
certified by the TPIA.
V. Acceptance test like hydrostatic/vacuum/leak tests shall be carried out under the
surveillance of TPIA, to the levels specified for each system
VI. The right and the authority of the final acceptance of the system shall be based on the
scrutiny of the inspection/ testing records, by the Department.
VII. It shall be the Contractors responsibility to arrange for and co-ordinate with the TPIA

4.9.5

DOCUMENTATION

Three copies of the following documents have to be submitted by the party


I. Design documents, analysis reports for each system approved by TPIA
II. Fabrication drawings, process plan and QC plan
III. Inspection reports at each stage of realization systems certified by TPIA
IV. Reports of tests/acceptance carried out for the bought out components
V. Reports of mandatory acceptance tests
VI. Consolidated reports, system wise, in a document form shall be submitted to the
Department for approval/acceptance
VII. Report of the functional test of the facility in the integrated condition

4.9.6 INTEGRATION AND COMMISSIONING


I. The sub-systems/systems realized and qualified at stage level, shall be integrated as
laid out in the document
II. The Contractor shall work out the detailed plan for integrating the systems realized by
them. Facilities/equipments/infrastructure needed for the task shall be totally taken care
by them. The electrical power requirements shall be informed to the Department and the
same shall be provided on chargeable basis
III. The Contractor is also responsible for integrating the tunnel systems with other system.
IV. The Contractor shall carry out functional test, in the integrated condition, ensuring the
performance of all systems to the specified requirements.
V. In the event of not meeting specified requirements by any of the systems realized by
them, the same shall be attended to and necessary modifications to be carried out to
make it operational in all respect.

118

VI. The undertaken contract will be declared completed, only on satisfactory performance
of the functional test meeting all the specifications. The responsibility completing the
total contract is with the Contractor.

4.10 DELIVERABLES
The list of deliverables is given in the table below:
Sr.

Item

no.

Qty.

Settling Chamber- Pressure shell, insulation liners, perforated


1.

plates (flow manipulators), support system with wheels and

2 nos.

associated piping.
2.

Nozzle - Pressure shell, cooling system for throat, test section


interface, support system with wheels and associated piping

5 nos.

Test section- Two sliding doors with flanges to mount schlieren


3.

glass windows, compartments with interfacing of nozzle, scoop and

1 no

diffuser, safety devices, etc


Model Incidence Mechanism- with actuators, hydraulic power
4.

1 no

pack, accumulator, hoses, safety devices, instrumentation and


standalone control system etc.
Diffuser with scoop assembly, supersonic diffuser, subsonic

5.

diffuser, expansion bellow, interface with vacuum isolation valve,


cooling system, associated piping, and pipe fittings etc.

1 no+1 no.
of
expansion
bellow
1 no+1 no.

6.

Vacuum Isolation Valve

7.

Connecting duct- with manhole, cooling system etc

1 no.

8.

After cooler- with coolant circulation system, cooling tower etc

1 no.

Note: The number prefixed by + are the additional requirement

119

CHAPTER 5 Instrumentation and Control System


5.0 INTRODUCTION
Hypersonic wind tunnel is an experimental aerodynamic test facility which simulates
hypersonic flight conditions. Measurements are performed on the test article & also on the
facility during simulation and by which aerodynamic coefficients are deduced. The facility
contains critical subsystems such as high pressure system at 300 bar pressure, vacuum
system at 0.01millibar pressure, 120MT capacity LPG storage & handling system, LPG
burner- blower system and storage heater at 1700K temperature. High pressure (300bar),
high temperature (1700K) air is used as a test medium for conducting the tests. The
sensors are very critical since these are subjected to 100 bar pressure & 1700K
temperature.

Instrumentation system plays a vital role in the hypersonic wind tunnel. Instrumentation
system is responsible for a) precise & reliable operation of the tunnel as per the time bound
(i.e., event bound) pre-defined sequence during blow down b) performing measurements on
the test article and also on the facility and c) centralized monitoring of health of the
subsystems from the tunnel main control room.

5.1 FACILITY DESCRIPTION


Hypersonic wind tunnel facility is divided into major subsystems as given below.
a) High Pressure System (HPS)
b) Pressure Regulation System (PRS)
c) Air Heating System (AHS)
d) Tunnel System
e) Vacuum System
f) Cooling System
The schematic of the facility is shown in Fig. 5.1. HPS comprises of air storage cylinders
and compressors. Compressor provides the compressed high pressure dry air, which will
be stored in cylinders. This system provides the required volume of air for tunnel operation.
EGV 4 is a electropneumatic (EP) / electro-Hydraulic (EH) actuated ON/OFF type valve
which isolates the PRS from HP system. PRS is used for maintaining the steady pressure
in the settling chamber. PRS consists of three parallel circuits. Depending on the mass flow
requirement, one of the parallel circuits is used for blow down. In each parallel circuit, three
valves are connected in tandem. First valve is EP (or EH) actuated ON/OFF type. Second
120

valve (PRV) is an EH actuated control valve whose stem position is to be controlled during
the blow down in order to maintain steady pressure in the settling chamber. Third valve is
manual operated ON/OFF type for maintenance purpose. AHS is used for online heating of
air before passing into the settling chamber. It consists of two cored brick heaters.
Depending on the temperature requirement, only one heater is used for blow down. Each
heater is having 4 Hot shut off valves (HSVs). All the HSVs are EP (or EH) actuated
ON/OFF type. HSV1 & HSV3 isolates the heater from upstream side of tunnel circuit. HSV2
& HSV4 isolates the heater from downstream side of tunnel circuit. HSV5 to HSV 8 are
connected to the open atmosphere through the chimney.
Tunnel system consists of setting chamber (SC), nozzle, test section (TS), model incidence
mechanism, diffuser, vacuum isolation valve and after cooler. SC is of larger cross sectional
area which reduces incoming flow turbulence & flow velocity. Nozzle is used for
accelerating the flow from low speed to high speed. TS is the location where scale down
model under test will be placed. Test article (model) is instrumented with various types of
sensors depending on the requirement. Measurements are performed on the model, which
is the primary aim of hypersonic wind tunnel testing. MIM is positioned inside the test
section and is used for varying model orientation (,,) during the blow down. Diffuser and
after cooler are used for reducing the flow velocity & temperature respectively before
dumping into the vacuum tanks. VIV is the most critical item from the safety point of view.
This valve has to be necessarily open during blow down. This is the first valve to be opened
for a test and the last one to be closed after the test is over.
Vacuum system is used for creating necessary vacuum level in the vacuum tanks (i.e.,
Horton spheres) and also in the test section required for the tunnel operation. Cooling
system is used for providing the water at pre-defined flow rate to all sections where cooling
is required.

5.2 TUNNEL OPERATING SEQUENCE


The typical operating sequence of the tunnel for one blow down is as follows: HP system,
Air Heating System and Vacuum System are the three subsystems which are operated
simultaneously in isolated mode by using their own stand alone system until desired test
conditions achieved. In other words, these systems are at ON condition during blow down
preparation time till desired conditions are achieved and these are at OFF position during

121

the blow down. Simultaneously model mounting, flow visualization checks are carried out.
After performing pre-test checks, blow down starts.
Blow down is carried out by tunnel control system. Valve VIV is opened. Valve HSV1 or
HSV3 is opened depending on the heater selected. A suitable parallel circuit in the PRS is
selected depending on the mass flow requirement and valves in this parallel circuit
EGV5/6/7 & MBV1/2/3 are opened. Now EGV4 is opened to admit HP air. PRV control loop
gradually opens the PRV1/2/3 by simultaneously monitoring the feedback signal of heater
pressure which is at the upstream of HSV2/4. When the pressure in the heater attains
desired value, HSV2/4 is opened. PRV control loop maintains desired pressure in the
settling chamber with in the prescribed limits for the desired test duration by taking the
feedback signal from SC. On attaining the desired test conditions in the test section, control
loop of MIM system injects the model into the test section and then perform the sweep
operation as per the time bound pre-defined sequence. Measurements are done for the
desired test duration, typically 20 seconds for force measurements and 2 seconds for
unsteady measurements. After the desired test duration, MIM control loop retract the model
to the tunneloff axis and then PRV control loop closes the PRV. After the test EGV4 is
closed first, followed by EGV5/6/7, HSV1/3, HSV 2/4 and then after a suitable delay VIV is
closed after ensuring that EGV4, EGV5/6/7, HSV1/3, HSV 2/4 are completely closed.
Sequence of operation of the tunnel is given in detail in Annexure.

5.3 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT OF INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM


Instrumentation system should be designed for performing the following functions.
a) Precise, reliable, safe, automatic operation & control of tunnel during blow down.
b) Acquisition of various types of parameters on the model & also on the facility.
c) Centralized monitoring of health of the subsystems from the tunnel main control room.
Based on these functions, the instrumentation system is classified as Control System,
Measurement System and Health Monitoring System respectively.

5.3.1 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT OF CONTROL SYSTEM:


Control system should operate & control the tunnel very precisely as per the time bound
(i.e., event bound) pre-defined sequence. During blow down, control system should control
PRS system and MIM system in closed loop. In addition to this, it also operates the valves
which are present in the tunnel circuit.
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Additional requirements from control system is


a) Tunnel operation should be fully automatic with remote monitoring and manual override.
b) Real Time display of control parameters during blow down.
c) System should be of fault tolerant design in terms of software and hard ware.
Redundant & voting systems are to be incorporated for all components required for
controlling of tunnel. In case of any kind of fault, it should tolerate and bring the tunnel to
the safe state.
d) Provision of emergency shut down button in tunnel main control room for emergency
stopping of the tunnel.
e) Deterministic execution of control loops.
f) Subsystem controllers should be of modular design, which is required for either isolated
or integrated mode of operation of subsystem controllers with master controller.
g) Configured

as

automated

check

out

system

for

functional

checking

of

valves/subsystems before actual test.


The desired features of this system is as follows
a) Testability for functional check
b) Availability of components in the future (COTS are preferable)
c) Should be of well proven state-of-the-art technology
d) Flexibility in modifying the test code (software) as per requirement
e) System should be expandable in terms of channel count
f) Suitable to the test environment conditions
g) Pass word protection for unauthorized access deny
h) EMI/EMC, CE compliances
The contractor has to work out the scheme of control system for meeting functional
requirement and supply the same. The proposed system should have above desired
features. Distributed control system approach is preferable.
A) Closed loop operation of pressure regulating system: It is to be tuned such that it
maintains steady pressure in the settling chamber within the prescribed limits for the
desired test duration. The control loop becomes a multi input single output system. The
block diagram of control loop pertaining to the PRS system is shown in Fig. 5.2.
Design conditions are a) Flow stabilization time in the settling chamber 5seconds
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b) Steady state error < 1% of set value


c) Peak over shoot < 5%.
d) PRV final opening is not more than 90%.
Tunnel will be operated at different operating conditions. At each operating condition,
desired set conditions vary. Based on the valve characteristics & operating conditions, the
contractor has to tune the control loop by choosing appropriate control algorithm such as
PID, Fuzzy logic, MFA method etc.
The contractor has to perform Hardware-in-loop simulation and also demonstrate the
performance at each & every operating condition by simulation and also the same with the
actual test setup at actual test conditions.
B) Closed loop operation of MIM: It is to be designed such that MIM is operated as per
the time bound pre-defined sequence at any cost. MIM system is a mechanical linkage
system to which model is attached. MIM has to perform three functions sequentially. These
are model injection, model sweep and model withdrawal. Model injection is nothing but
bringing of model from tunnel off-axis to tunnel axis. Model sweep means varying of model
orientation (,,) either in pitch-pause mode or continuous operation mode at pre-defined
speed depending on the test requirement. Model withdrawal means bringing of model from
tunnel axis to tunnel off-axis. Initially, MIM system is positioned at the tunnel off-axis (i.e.,
lower compartment of the test section) until the flow is stabilized in the test section. After
stabilization of flow, MICS execute its three functions as per pre-definition.
Design conditions for MIM are given in Table 4.3.
The contractor has to configure dedicated stand alone control system for MIM operation.
This controller should work in handshaking mode with tunnel master control system which
is required for automatic operation of the tunnel. This controller should have a local panel
with display (in the field) to feed the test conditions and for functional checking before the
blow down. But during actual blow down, local display option is disabled and this control
system works as per the instruction of tunnel master control system.
Based on the input conditions, the contractor has to tune the control loop by choosing
appropriate control algorithm such as PID, Fuzzy logic, MFA method etc..

124

The contractor has to perform the Hardware-in-loop simulation and also demonstrate the
performance of the controller at various input conditions during wind off condition and
during wind on condition with and without integration to the tunnel master control system.

5.3.2 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT OF MEASUREMENT SYSTEM


Measurement system should be designed for acquisition of various types of parameters on
the model & also on the facility. Model parameters consist of steady pressure, unsteady
pressure, force & moments and temperature/heat flux. Facility parameters consist of
pressure and temperature.
Measurement system is to be designed such that digitization is done near the measurand
which avoids noise intrusion and number of cables requirement. It should be a trigger
based data acquisition (DAQ) system. Data acquisition should be started & stopped upon
receiving of trigger signal (i.e., analog or digital) from tunnel control system. DAQ system
should update its running status periodically (say every 1miili second) to the operator and
also to the tunnel control system.

Data acquisition is to be carried out at pre-defined

sampling rate. Data acquisition parameters like sampling rate, analog input ranges, analog
input type (differential or single ended), acquisition duration etc.. should be programmable.
Similarly the signal conditioning parameters like bandwidth, gain etc.. should be
programmable. All the acquisition parameters should have time synchronization. Data is to
be acquired very precisely (say chain accuracy <0.5% of applied value). During the test,
few parameters (i.e., user selectable) data is to be displayed in real time in the user
selectable formats like graphical, numerical, digital etc... After the test, the system should
perform the signal processing, data analysis, report generation.
The desired features of this system are same as that of control system as given in section
5.3.1. In addition to these, the system should be reconfigurable as per test requirement.
The contractor has to work out the scheme of measurement system for meeting functional
requirement and supply the same. The proposed system should have above desired
features. Distributed data acquisition system approach is preferable.

5.3.3 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT OF HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM:


Health monitoring system should facilitate the provision for centralizing monitoring of health
of tunnel subsystems. In contrast, SCADA based GUI environment is to be created in the
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main control room. It is to be configured such that it provides the quick grasping to the
operator about the subsystem status by graphical display, numerical display, LED display
etc... This system should receipt the signals in respect of High Pressure System, Air
Heating System, and Vacuum System using TCP/IP protocol which will be available at the
respective subsystem controller. This system should also receipt the critical signals (i.e.,
digital & analog) of tunnel subsystems. This system should acquire the data of critical
parameters at low sampling rate (say 10samples/sec).
The parameters in respect of LPG storage & handling system need to be monitored round
the clock. This system should communicate the information with the suitable alters to the
authorized representative when LPG storage & handling parameters are out of safe
bounds. Arrangement of display units should be of ergonomic design.
The desired features of this system are same as that of control system as given in section
5.3.1. The additional features are
a) Flexibility in modifying the subsystem mimics & display parameters as per requirement
b) Data trending, analysis, notifying maintenance alerts & report generation.
The contractor has to work out the scheme of health monitoring system for meeting
functional requirement and supply the same. The proposed system should have above
desired features.

5.4 INDICATIVE BLOCK DIAGRAMS


The indicative block diagrams of instrumentation system are presented in this section.
These diagrams are given only for the reference for understanding about the system. But
the contractor is free to choose the better configuration acceptable by the department for
meeting functional requirement.

5.4.1 CONTROL SYSTEM


Indicative block diagram of control system is shown in Fig 5.3. As per this approach, one
exclusive control system is provided for closed loop operation of MIM system. Master
control system is reserved for closed loop operation of PRV, operation of valves which are
present in the tunnel circuit and MIM controller coordination. Individual control systems and
Host PC are connected by the dual data network. Host PC is placed in the control room.
Host PC displays the control parameters in real time. All the components of the control
system will have redundant components for making it fault tolerant. In case of any type of
126

fault, the control system automatically detects & then abort the tunnel starting (or running)
sequence in use and execute the shut down sequence. In addition to this, the control room
is equipped with push button type emergency shut down control button for stopping of the
tunnel as per pre-defined sequence.
Typical block diagram of fault torrent control loop is shown in Fig 5.4. In which sensor,
signal conditioners are connected in triple mode redundancy. Where as processor & ups
are connected in double mode redundancy. Processor (i.e., embedded controller) is
configured as a hot redundant system. Embedded controller transmits the digitized data in
real time to the host PC.
Sensor, signal conditioner and embedded controller are inter-connected by shielded twisted
pair (STP) instrumentation cable. Embedded controller consists of input / output modules,
ADC, DAC, deterministic processor, application software, RTOS, display unit etc.. The
processor receives the conditioned signal of sensor through the Input modules, digitizes the
sensor signal & perform the computations on feed back signals as per algorithm and
provides the control signal to the servo valve (or solenoid valve) through the output
modules. Servo valve and solenoid valve is used for operating of control valve and ON/OFF
type valve actuators respectively.

5.4.2 MESAUREMENT SYSTEM:


The indicative block diagram of measurement system is shown in Fig 5.5. Measurements
are classified based on the sampling rate requirement, type of measurement and location of
measurement. Based on this classification, multiple Real Time Data Acquisition Systems
(RTDAS) are configured. Each RTDAS works as a stand alone system which executes
data acquisition code in autonomous mode. All RTDAS will have time synchronization.
During the test, data is stored in the respective RT DAS & few channels (user selected)
data is displayed in the Host PC in real time. After the test, data is automatically transferred
to the HOST PC & Data server.
The measurements performed on the facility and model is termed as facility measurements
and model measurements respectively.
Facility measurements are distributed around 100m span from control room and hence one
or more RTDAS may be needed.

127

Model measurements consist of steady pressure, force & moments, unsteady pressure,
and temperature. Steady pressure measurement is performed using either independent
transducers or ESP pressure scanners. Electronic pressure scanning system is detailed for
the acquisition of ESP pressure scanner data. Unsteady pressure measurement is
performed

with

high

speed

DAS

as

sampling

rate

requirement

is

1Megasample/sec/channel. Rest of the measurements viz. steady pressure using


independent pressure transducers, force & moment and temperature are performed with
low speed DAS as sampling rate requirement is 30Ksamples/sec/channel (max).
Typical block diagram of RTDAS is shown in Fig 5.6. Sensor output is the order of few mV
and hence conditioned using suitable signal conditioner for increasing SNR. Sensor, signal
conditioner and embedded controller are inter-connected by STP instrumentation cable.
Embedded controller consists of input modules, ADC, deterministic processor, application
software, RTOS, display unit etc... Embedded controller connected to the host PC via data
network. Before the test, data acquisition code is deployed into controller. During the test,
data is stored in the embedded controller with proper time stamping. After the test, the data
is automatically transferred from embedded system to Host PC. Data processing & analysis
is carried out in the host PC.

5.4.3 HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM:


The indicative block diagram of health monitoring system is shown in Fig 5.7. High
pressure system, Air Heating System and Vacuum System are the three major subsystems
which are operated simultaneously before the test until desired conditions are achieved.
Each of these systems will have dedicated stand alone control system for their operation.
These control systems will be realized by the respective subsystem supplier.
Even though these systems will have stand alone control system with local display, SCADA
based GUI environment is essential at main control room for centralizing monitoring of
tunnel subsystem operation.
Health monitoring system consists of large display units equipped at main control room to
facilitate display of subsystem/system mimics. The mimics are organized such that it
provides quick information about subsystem health. It displays critical parameters data in
the user selectable format like graphical, digital, LED etc.. The critical parameters are
tapped from the respective control panels. Data historian server acquires the data of critical
parameters at low sampling rate (say 10samples/sec).
128

5.5 INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS REQUIREMENT


Unless otherwise specified, supplying of all components required for meeting functional
requirement of instrumentation system is under scope of instrumentation system contract.
Supplying some of the components such as actuators, servo valves and solenoid valves is
not under scope of instrumentation system contract.

5.5.1 SENSORS & CHANNELS REQUIREMENT


In the following sections, sensors requirement (tentative) at tunnel subsystems and I/O
channels requirement (tentative) at the instrumentation system subsystems is presented.
Instrumentation system subsystems include Master Control System (MCS), Measurement
System (MS), Model Incidence Control System (MICS) and Health Monitoring System
(HMS).
Note: I/O channel count, given in this section, is finalized in the view of indicative block
diagrams as shown in Fig 5.3 to Fig 5.5 & Fig 5.7. I/O channel count may vary with
different configuration scheme.

5.5.1.1 HIGH PRESSURE SYSTEM


A. Cylinders (Pressure Vessel)
i) For storing of high pressure blow down air, 36 numbers of cylinders are planned. Six
cylinders are grouped as one module with a common manifold. Each module is connected
to main manifold by a valve. These valves are operated by High pressure control system. In
other words, operation of these valves is not under instrumentation system contract scope.
Depending on the requirement of the volume of air for blow down, numbers of modules are
opened. Opening or closing status of these valves is to be known to MCS for ensuring
requisite air storage volume before starting the blow down.
Requirement: DIN 2 for each valve
Signals terminated at MCS:

DIG IN - 12

Two pressure transducers (PT) & one resistance temperature detector (RTD) is mounted at
the summing junction of all modules (just before EGV4) which are taken as reference for
the tunnel operation.
Sensors Required
1) PT

QTY: 2 Nos

2) RTD QTY: 1 No
Signals terminated at MCS: ANALOG IN 3
129

Signals terminated at MS:

ANALOG IN 2

ii) One dedicated low pressure cylinder is planned for the supply of air to the pneumatically
operated valves. Two pressure transducers are mounted on this cylinder. Cylinder is having
one ON/OFF type valve at discharge end. This valve is operated by High pressure control
system. In other words, this valve operation is not under instrumentation system contract
scope. However this valve opening status is to be known to MCS before starting the blow
down.
Requirement: DIN 2 for status monitoring
Sensor Required
1) PT

QTY: 2 Nos (1No for redundancy)

Signals terminated at MCS: ANALOG IN - 2


DIG IN - 2
iii) Electro-Pneumatic Globe Valve (EGV4) is an ON/OFF type valve for isolation of tunnel
circuit from the high pressure system. This valve is operated by MCS. Triple mode
redundancy (TMR) is planned for this valve.
Requirement: DIN 6 for status (4Nos for redundancy)
DOUT 3 for control (2Nos for redundancy)
Signals terminated at MCS: DIG IN - 6
DIG OUT - 3
EGV4 valve should be in closed position except during blow down. This valve status is to
be monitored by health monitoring system.
Signals terminated at HMS: DIG IN 4 (2Nos for redundancy)

B. Compressor Control Panel


Two compressors are planned for the delivery of required pressure. Control system for
operation of compressor will be designed & supplied by the HP system supplier. In other
words, realization of control system for HP system is not in the instrumentation system
contract scope.
One Ethernet channel (TCP/IP protocol) is to be terminated in the HMS for the health
monitoring purpose during operation of HP system. This channel contains the information of
HP system process parameters.
Signals terminated at HMS: Ethernet channel 1
130

During the blow down, compressor will be in OFF position. Compressor running status and
readiness of HP system for the blow down is communicated to the MCS.
Signals terminated at MCS: DIG IN- 4

5.5.1.2 PRESSURE REGULATING SYSTEM


Three parallel circuits are planned for operating the tunnel at wide range of M-Re
conditions. One of the three will be used for the blow down. In each parallel circuit, three
valves are connected in tandem.
A. EGV 5/6/7 : This valve is ON/OFF type EP (or EH) valve. This valve is operated by MCS.
TMR is planned for this valve.
Requirement:

DIN 6 for status

for each valve (4 Nos for redundancy)

DOUT 3 for control

for each valve (2 Nos for redundancy)

B. PRV 1/2/3 : This valve is an analog control valve whose stem position is varied during
blow down in order to maintain steady pressure in the settling chamber, this valve is
operated by the PRCS. Detailed design & realization of PRCS is under instrumentation
system contract scope. This valve is very critical & has to be controlled as per the predefined instructions. Hence TMR is planned for controlling of this valve. Sensors for
measuring stem position will be supplied by the respective valve supplier.
Requirement:

for each valve


ANALOG IN - 2 No for position measurement (1No for redundancy)
ANALOG OUT - 3 No for control (2Nos for redundancy)
COUNTER IN - 1 No for position measurement using
Linear / rotary encoder (different scheme for reliability)
DIG IN

- 4 No for extreme position indication


(2Nos for redundancy)

C. MBV 1/2/3: This is manual operated valve, whose opening/closing status to be known to
MCS before proceeding for the blow down.
Requirement:

DIN 2 for status for each valve

Signals terminated at MCS:


ANALOG IN - 6
ANALOG OUT - 9
COUNTER IN - 3
131

DIG IN - 36
DIG OUT - 9
Pipe line (between PRS & HPS) is having pressure relief valve & burst disc. The status of
these equipments is to be monitored during blow down. Two pressure transducers are
mounted on the pipe line at the up stream of PRV which are taken as reference for the
tunnel control.
Sensors Required: PT

QTY: 2Nos

Signals terminated at MCS:


ANALOG IN- 2
DIG IN - 2

5.5.1.3 AIR HEATING SYSTEM


A. Control Panel for AHS
Two heaters are planned for meeting the operational requirement. Control system for the
heater operation includes LPG storage & handling control, burner-blower control, heater
thermal control etc This will be designed & supplied by the air heating system vendor. In
other words, control system for air heating system is not under instrumentation system
contract scope.
One Ethernet channel (TCP/IP protocol) is to be provided at the HMS for the health
monitoring purpose during operation of air heating system. This channel contains the
information of air heating system process parameters.
Signals terminated at HMS: Ethernet channel - 1
During the blow down, heating system should be in OFF condition. Heating system running
status (ON/OFF) and readiness of heater for the blow down is communicated to the MCS.
Signals terminated at MCS: DIG IN - 4

B. Heater vessel
For the tunnel operation, two temperature measurements and two pressure transducers are
planned at the exit of each heater. Thermocouples along with thermo-well are used.
Sensor Required
1) PT

QTY: 4 Nos

2) Thermocouple assembly with thermowell QTY: 4 Nos


Signals terminated at MCS: ANALOG IN- 8
132

Signals terminated at MS: ANALOG IN- 8


C. Hot shut off valves (HSV)
Four HSVs are planned for each heater. HSVs are ON/OFF type EP (or EH) valve. HSV 5
& HSV 6 are at closed position & rest of the HSVs are at open position during the blow
down. HSV 5 & 6 are operated by the heater control system. In other words, operation of
HSV5 & HSV6 valves is not under instrumentation system contract scope. Rest of the
HSVs operation is in the instrumentation system contract scope and is to be done by MCS.
TMR is planned for these valves.
Requirement: For each valve
DIN - 6 for status for HSV1 to HSV 8 (4Nos for redundancy)
DOUT-3 for control for HSV1 toHSV4 & HSV 7 to HSV 8 (2Nos for redundancy)
Signals terminated at MCS:
DIG IN - 48
DIG OUT - 18
During offline, On/Off status of these valves is to be monitored by health monitoring system.
Signals terminated at HMS:

DIG IN - 32

5.5.1.4 VACUUM SYSTEM


Two identical chains of vacuum pumping systems are planned for getting desired level of
vacuum in pre-defined time in the Horton spheres and test section. Control system for
operation of vacuum pumps will be designed & supplied by the vacuum system supplier. In
other words, control system pertaining to the vacuum system is not under instrumentation
system contract scope.
A. Control Panel for VS
One Ethernet channel (TCP/IP protocol) is to be provided at the HMS for the health
monitoring purpose during operation of vacuum system. This channel contains the
information of vacuum system process parameters.
Signals terminated at HMS: Ethernet channel - 1
During the blow down, vacuum system should be in OFF condition. Vacuum system
running status (ON/OFF) and its readiness for the blow down is to be communicated to the
MCS.
Signals terminated at MCS:

DIG IN - 4

133

B. Vacuum spheres
Three vacuum spheres are planned. Each sphere is having two vacuum gauges and
one temperature sensor. These sensors will be supplied by the respective system supllier.

C. Vacuum Isolation Valve


This is the most critical valve from the safety point of view. This valve has to be necessarily
open during blow down. This is the first valve to be opened for a test and the last one to be
closed after the test. The status of this valve needs to be doubly verified to ensure safety.
Different schemes like mechanical or optical sensors may be employed to indicate the
ON/OFF status of the valve. One safety latch is to be provided to ensure that the valve is
not closed by accident. This signal is to be included as an interlock in the control software.
This valve is operated by MCS.

Requirement:
DIG IN - 6 No for status (4 Nos for redundancy scheme)
DIG OUT - 3No for control (2 Nos for redundancy)
Signals terminated at MCS: DIG IN - 6
DIG OUT - 3
This valve should be in closed position when there is no blow down. This valve status is to
be monitored by health monitoring system.
Signals terminated at HMS:

DIG IN - 3

D. Other Valves
VPV valve is located between vacuum pumping system & test section. This valve will be
operated by the vacuum control system. In other words, this valve operation is not under
instrumentation system contract scope. However this valve position is to be monitored
during the blow down.
Requirement: DIN 3 for status (2 Nos for redundancy)
Signals terminated at MCS: DIN 3

5.5.1.5 TUNNEL SYSTEM


5.5.1.5.1 SETTLING CHAMBER
Two settling chambers (SC) are planned. SC1 for M5 & M6.5 operation. SC2 for M8, M10
& M12 operation.

134

For the tunnel operation, two pressure measurements & two temperature measurements
are planned on each SC. TMR is planned for pressure measurements.
Sensors Required:
1) Pressure Transducer - QTY: 12 No
2) Thermocouple assembly - QTY: 4 No
Signals terminated at MCS:

ANALOG IN - 16ch

Signals terminated at MS:

ANALOG IN - 16ch

5.5.1.5.2 TEST SECTION


In the test section, the following measurements are planned.
Sensors Required:
1) Nozzle exit pressure - 2 No (1 No for redundancy)
2) Plenum chamber pressure - 2 No (1 No for redundancy)
3) Vacuum gauge - 2 No (1 No for redundancy)
4) RTD

- 2No (1 No for redundancy)

Signals terminated at MCS: ANALOG IN - 8ch


Signals terminated at MS:

ANALOG IN - 6ch

For the tunnel operation, the following signals are required


i) The flow visualization system readiness is communicated to MCS as a DIG IN.
ii) The control panel of the test section vacuum system needs to communicate
test section vacuum readiness status to MCS as a DIG IN.
iii) The closing/opening status of the test section is communicated to MCS as
a DIG IN.
iv) For knowing the capture tube position, two DIG IN signals are required.

Signals terminated at MCS:

DIG IN - 5ch

5.5.1.5.3 MODEL INCIDENCE MECHANISM (MIM): One dedicated control system (i.e,
Model incidence control system) is provided exclusively for the operation of MIM as per the
time bound pre-defined sequence. Detailed design & realization of MICS is under
instrumentation system contract scope. The MIM operation is critical and has to perform the
operation as per pre-defined sequence. Hence TMR is planned for this system.

135

Sensors required for the MIM operation will be supplied by the MIM system supplier.
i) Model Injection & Withdrawal operation: Tentative channel count for this operation is
given below. (assumption: Single point electro hydraulic actuation & position measurement at
one location using three sensors)
Position Control 3 Analog OUT (2Nos for redundancy)
Position Feedback / angular feedback 3 ANALOG IN (2Nos for redundancy)
Extreme Position indication 24 DIN
ii) Model incidence operation: Either electro-hydraulic (EH) or electro-mechanical (EM)
actuator is used for providing the driving force. Tentative channel count for this operation is
given below. (assumption: 3 numbers of EH actuators for three degrees of freedom)
Position Feedback / angular feedback 6 encoder signals & 3 potentiometer signals
Actuator input 9 Analog OUT
Extreme Position indication 20 DIN

Signals terminated at MICS (tentative):


ANALOG IN - 6ch
ANALOG OUT - 12ch
Counter IN - 6ch
DIG IN - 44ch
Signals terminated at MCS:
Analog IN - 9ch
Counter IN - 6ch
Signals terminated at MS:
ANALOG IN - 9 ch
Counter IN - 6ch

5.5.1.5.4 SUPERSONIC & SUBSONIC DIFFUSER


10 pressure measurements & 2 temperature measurements are planned on the diffuser.
Sensors Required:
i) Pressure Transducers

ii) Thermocouple assembly -

QTY: 10 Nos
QTY: 2 Nos

Signals terminated at MS: ANALOG IN - 12ch


Signals terminated at MCS: ANALOG IN - 4ch
136

5.5.1.5.5 AFTER COOLER


Two pressure measurements & two temperature measurements are planned on the after
cooler.
Sensors Required:
i) Pressure Transducers

- QTY: 2 Nos

ii) Thermocouple assembly

- QTY: 2 Nos

Signals terminated at MS: ANALOG IN - 4ch


Signals terminated at MCS: ANALOG IN - 4ch
5.5.1.6 MODEL MEASUREMENTS
Total 220 measurements are planned on the model. It includes steady pressure, unsteady
pressure, forces & moments and temperature. The sensors required for model
measurements will be supplied by the department. Other components of the measurement
system (i.e., excluding sensor) are to be supplied by the contractor.
A. Steady pressure measurement: It is planned to perform using independent pressure
transducers and ESP pressure scanners.
Independent pressure transducer provides analog interface usually of the order of few milli
Volts. Measurement system is to be configured for 16 channels of independent pressure
transducers data.
Signals terminated at MS: ANALOG IN - 16ch
ESP Pressure Scanners are miniature electronic differential pressure measurement units
consisting of an array of silicon piezoresistive pressure sensors, one for each pressure port.
ESP Pressure Scanner of 32 channel capacity each is planned. Measurement system is to
be configured for 4 numbers of ESP scanner data.
I/O details for each scanner:
Digital output signal -2 (RS-485)
Ethernet-2
Signals terminated at MS:

RS-485

- 8ch

Ethernet

- 8ch

B. Unsteady pressure measurement:

Miniature, high bandwidth, dynamic pressure

transducers are used. These sensors provide analog interface of the order of few milli Volts.
Measurement system is to be configured for 24 channels of unsteady pressure data.
137

Signals terminated at MS: ANALOG IN - 24ch


C. Forces & moments measurement: Strain gauge type balance is used. Measurement
system is to be configured for 4 numbers of stain gauge balances data. Each balance
needs 7 numbers of analog channels. It provides analog interface usually of the order of
few milli Volts.
Signals terminated at MS: ANALOG IN - 28ch
D. Temperature / heat flux measurement: For these measurements, either heat flux
gauge or Thermocouple is used. Measurement system is to be configured for 24 channels
of temperature data.
Signals terminated at MS: ANALOG IN - 24ch

5.5.1.7 Water cooling


Water cooling is proposed at the following subsystems. Each cooling circuit contains one
pressure transducer at inlet, one temperature & pressure transducer at outlet. Number of
cooling circuits is shown against each subsystem.
a. HSV1 to HSV8
b. Pipeline

- 1 No each

- 1No

c. Settling chamber - 1No


d. Nozzle - 1No
e. MIM - 2No
f. Diffuser - 1No
g. Connecting Duct 1No

Sensors Required
1) PT- QTY: 30 Nos
2) Thermocouple assembly - QTY: 15 Nos
Signals terminated at HMS: ANALOG IN 45ch
Nozzle cooling circuit outlet temperature is one of the important parameter. Hence it is to be
kept as interlock in the control loop.
Signals terminated at MCS: ANALOG IN - 1ch

138

5.5.1.8 MISCELLANEOUS
A. MCS has to trigger the measurement system to start acquisition of model parameters
data. In addition to this, it has to perform handshaking with the measurement system
during blow down. Hence 10(tentative) digital input & 10(tentative) digital output
channels are reserved at both ends for this purpose.
Signals terminated at MCS: DIG IN - 10ch
DIG OUT - 10ch
Signals terminated at MS:

DIG IN - 10ch
DIG OUT - 10ch

B. MCS has to perform handshaking with the MIM controller during blow down. Hence
5(tentative) digital input & 5(tentative) digital output channels are reserved at both ends
for this purpose.
Signals terminated at MCS:

DIG IN - 5ch
DIG OUT - 5ch

Signals terminated at MICS:

DIG IN - 5ch
DIG OUT - 5ch

C. Hydraulic line pressure is to be measured during blow down. Over head tank water
level, water temperature is to be measured.
Sensors Required:

Pressure Transducers - QTY: 3 Nos


Water Level indicator - QTY: 1No
Temperature QTY: 1No

Signals terminated at MCS: ANALOG IN - 4


Overall sensor requirement, which are to be supplied by the contractor, for the facility is
given in Table 5.1. Subsystem wise numbers of signals (tentative) terminated at
subsystems of instrumentation systems are given from Table 5.2 to Table 5.5. Detailed
specifications of these sensors are given in Table 5.6. Pressure sensor should be of
reputed make like DRUCK, KULITE etc... Temperature sensor should be of reputed make
like Omega, Nanmac, Medtherm etc..

5.5.2 OTHER COMPONENTS REQUIREMENT:


Based on the sensor count & channel count given in section 5.5.1, the contractor has to
work out the quantity of the other components of the instrumentation system required &
supply the same. Channel type gives the information about requirement of number of other
components is given in Table 5.7.The specifications of the components are given below.

139

5.5.2.1 CONSTANT VOLTAGE SOURCE: These are required for providing excitation to
the potentiometers, limit switches, solenoid valves etc.. Depending on the Voltage and
wattage requirement & placement of the sensors, multiple voltage sources are to be
provided at suitable locations. Voltage sources should be of programmable and capable of
driving solenoid valves.
5.5.2.2 SIGNAL CONDITIONERS: These are required for conditioning of measurement
signals and control loop feed back signals. Measurement signals are originated from
independent pressure transducers, strain gauge balances, thermocouples, RTD etc... The
specifications of signal conditioners are given in Table 5.8. Two stages amplification is
needed if the 5000 gain is not possible.
Signal conditioners required for the control loop feedback signals are to be configured in the
fault tolerant mode.
Preferred Makes: Pacific Instruments, Endevco, Preston, Dewetron, Precision Filter
5.5.2.3 ADC & DAC: ADCs are required for digitization of control system feedback
signals & measurement signals.
ADC specifications:

Resolution -16 bits minimum

Input ranges - 4 discrete steps (programmable)

Input impedance - 100 M minimum

Input coupling DC

Absolute accuracy ( including Residual gain error, Gain tempco, Ref Tempco,
Residual offset error, offset tempco, INL error, Randaom noise) - less than 0.04%

Sampling rate Programmable

Maximum sampling rate as indicated


1. Model Measurements
o Independent pressure transducer 1Ksamples/sec/channel
o ESP scanner- Not Applicable
o Unsteady pressure transducer 1Mega samples/sec/channel
o Forces & Moments using strain gauge balance- 30 Ksamples/sec/channel
o Temperature / heat flux using thermocouple, heat flux gauge - To be defined
2. Facility Measurements
o Independent pressure transducer 1Ksamples/sec/channel
o Temperature using thermocouple - 1Ksamples/sec/channel

3. Control loop feedback Measurements 1Ksamples/sec/channel


Minimum sampling rate No minimum.
140

Other specifications are defined at later stage.

DACs are required for supply of control signals to the servo valves & solenoid valves. DAC
resolution is 16bit. DAC voltage & current specifications shall be capable of driving
solenoid/servo valves.
5.5.2.4 INPUT/OUTPUT MODULES: The modules at which incoming (or outgoing) cables
will be terminated. This module provides the appropriate interface to (or from) the
embedded controller.

5.5.2.5 CABLES:
Low noise, twisted pair, individually shielded instrumentation cables are required from
measurand to the digitizer end.
For the model measurements, vacuum rated instrumentation cable is required since the
model is positioned inside the test section & in which low pressure of the order of 0.1millibar
is present. One end of the vacuum cable is terminated at the sensor & other end at the feed
through connector on the flange (i.e, vacuum side). The flange is positioned on the test
section body. From the other side of the flange (i.e., air side) STP cable is laid up to the
signal conditioner.
From the digitizer end to control room, either Ethernet or Fiber optic cable is required based
on the mode of signal transmission. Cable exposed to the atmosphere shall be protected in
suitable conduit.
The approximate distances (in meters) of various subsystems from tunnel control room is
shown in Fig 5.8. Each block is 15m (length) X 15m (height).
The flange with 300channel capacity feed through connectors (assorted) is to be supplied
by the contractor. The connector details will be given at later stage.
5.5.2.6 DETERMINISTIC PROCESSORS: These are required for execution of control
algorithms & test code (i.e., software) in real time. These units are to be configured in the
fault tolerant mode.

5.5.2.7

HOST PCs: These are required for real time display of selected parameters

during test. These are also used for channel configuration, test code development &
deployment, feeding of DAQ parameters, health monitoring etc.. before the test.
5.5.2.8

DATA PROCESSING & STORAGE UNITS: These are required for the post test

data analysis, report generation and data storage. Data server should be of large capacity
141

which should automatically transfer the data from HOST PC and store it with proper
tagging.

5.5.2.9

DATA DISPLAY TERMINALS: These are required for displaying test data during

tunnel operation & also for SCADA based GUI environment.


Quantity: 10 Nos
5.5.2.10 INTERPERSONAL WIRE LESS HANDS FREE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM: It
is required for the voice communication between field engineer and operator who is sitting
in the tunnel main control room.
Quantity: To be catered for 6 persons
5.5.2.11 SURVEILLANCE CAMERA: Suitable cameras are to be provided at strategic
locations for monitoring tunnel subsystems. The monitoring provision should be made
available in control room.
Quantity: 7 Nos

5.5.2.12 UNINTERRUPTED POWER SUPPLY (UPS)


The contractor has to work out the capacity of the UPS power supply required for the
operation of entire tunnel instrumentation system. Based on the data, the contractor has to
supply two numbers of UPS of required capacity each.
Points to be noted:
1. Even though some of the required items are not appeared in the above list, the
contractor has to supply all the items which are required for meeting functional
requirement by considering instrumentation system as a turn key project.
2. The contractor should take up minor modifications in the scope of work while execution
of project.
3. Data acquisition system make should be M/s National Instruments.
4. Controller (deterministic processor) hardware should be a real time embedded
controller.

5.6 SOFTWARE
Over all tunnel operation & control, data acquisition system, health monitoring display units,
data servers etc are to be handled by the software. User decided subroutines must be
part of the program. Fault detection and test abort should be one of the parts of the
142

software.

Coding of the software with comments as per the user requirements is in

vendors scope. Software coding is to be done as per IEEE 12207 standard compliances.
Tentative tunnel operating sequence is given in annexure. This can be used as a reference
for coding of the software. Detailed failure mode analysis is to be carried out by the
contractor. The source code is to be handed over to department & proper training regarding
the entire operation of the application software and coding of the software to be provided to
the department personnel.
Plat form: LabVIEW, LabVIEW RT.

5.7 SCOPE OF WORK BY CONTRACTOR


The hypersonic wind tunnel instrumentation system has to be executed as a single system.
The scope of work of this system is given below.
1) Detailed design & realization of well proven state-of-the-art system for tunnel operation
& control, measurement and health monitoring. The realized system should meet the
functional requirement and have desired features as mentioned in section 5.3. This system
include sensors, noise immunity instrumentation cables, digital(or fiber optic) data
transmission cables& its associated equipments, patch panels, instrumentation racks,
signal conditioners, Input & output modules with ADC & DACs, embedded controllers
(deterministic processors for real time execution of control algorithms), data display
terminals, data storage units, interfacing units, power sources etc...
2) Failure mode analysis & coding of software for data acquisition, tunnel operation &
control as per the user requirement. Coding is to be done as per IEEE 12207 compliances.
3) Configure & supply of control room equipments like display systems, computers,
necessary supporting units/peripherals, etc as per ergonomic compliances.
4) Installation and commissioning of entire tunnel instrumentation system.
5) Site calibration, demonstration & training on complete instrumentation system.
6) Provide the sources for supply of spares.

5.8 SCOPE OF WORK BY DEPARTMENT


Department shall provide the following services.
1. Sensors for model measurements like steady & unsteady pressure transducers, ESP
scanners, Strain Gauge Balances, Thermocouples and RTD.
2. Earth pits of 0.5 ohm resistance. However the contractor has to connect various
equipments to the earth pits through the proper earth strips. The contractor shall

143

provide the details regarding requirement of number of earth pits, location etc.. to the
department.

5.9 INSTALLATION & COMMISSIONING


The installation and commissioning is to be done as per the departmental terms &
conditions. Proper routing & termination of signal cables and power cables form measurand
to the control room and from UPS room to the various equipments respectively is the
responsibility of the contractor.

5.10 DOCUMENTATION
The contractor should provide all relevant documents like detail design document,
engineering document, requirement fit analysis document, ATP document, system user
manual, trouble shooting manual etc... in the form of soft copy and hard copy in English
language at appropriate time while execution of the contract.

5.11 ACCEPTANCE TEST PLAN (ATP)


Detailed ATP shall be finalized at the time of detailed design review. Tentative ATP is as
follows.
1. Test certificates, calibration certificates & OEM certificates of all components of
instrumentation system should be provided. Calibration certificates should be
traceable to national/ international standards.
2. Functional check of all components of instrumentation system is to be carried out at
contractor site. Function check on component level, subsystem level and total
system level is to be carried out at department.

5.11.1

TUNNEL CONTROL SYSTEM

1. Performance of the PRV control loop at various operating conditions is to be


demonstrated against its functional requirements by simulation and also with actual
components at site during wind off & wind on conditions.
2. Performance of the model incidence control system at various pre-set conditions is
to be demonstrated against its functional requirements at site with actual
components during wind off & wind on conditions.
3. Functionality of the subsystem controllers is to be demonstrated during isolated
mode of operation & also at integrated mode of operation with the tunnel main
control system in automatic operation mode.
144

4. Determinism of embedded controllers is to be demonstrated.


5. Ruggedness of the control system is to be demonstrated by inserting various types
of faults.
6. Execution of Tunnel operation sequence, emergency shut down sequence and test
abort sequences are to be demonstrated during wind off & wind on conditions.
7. Features of the control system will be compared against specified features as given
in section 5.3.1.

5.11.2

MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

1. Component level functional & performance checks will be carried out.


2. Performance of the measurement system at various settings is to be demonstrated
against its functional requirements at site at actual environmental conditions during
wind off & wind on conditions.
3. Features of the measurement system will be compared against specified features as
given in section 5.3.2.

5.11.3 HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM


1. Performance of the health monitoring system is to be demonstrated against its
functional requirements at site at actual environmental conditions.
2. Features of the health monitoring system will be compared against specified features
as given in section 5.3.3.

5.12 DELIVERABLES
The list of the deliverables is given in Table 5.9.

Fig. 5.1: Schematic of Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Facility.

145

(PV)
PV

PV

Fig. 5.2: Block diagram of control loop pertaining to the PRS system

Fig. 5.3: Indicative block diagram of control system

Fig. 5.4: Typical block diagram of control loop

146

Fig. 5.5: Indicative block diagram of measurement system

Fig. 5.6: Typical block diagram of RTDAS

Fig. 5.7:

Indicative block diagram of Health Monitoring System.

147

Fig. 5.8:

Approx. Distances (in meters) of various subsystems from tunnel control room
(Each block is 15m Length X 15m Height)

148

Table 5.1: Overall sensors requirement for the facility

Table 5.2:

Number of signals terminated at Master control system

Table 5.3: Number of signals terminated at Health Monitoring System

Table 5.4: Number of signals terminated at Model Incidence Control System

Table 5.5: Number of signals terminated at Measurement System

149

Table 5.6: Sensors required for facility measurements to be supplied by the contractor
Sl.

Type of

Type

Sensing

No

Measurement

of

element

Range

Accuracy

B.W.

Subjected

Monitor (M)/

(%F.S.)

(Hz)

conditions

Control ( C)/

Temp (K)/

Aero data (A)

sensor

Interface

Medium

Qty

Location

Pressure (Mpa) /
Shock (g)/
flow rate (kg/sec)
1

PM

PT

SG/

33Mpa

0.1

10

233 323 K

M&C

Analog

Air

HP Manifold

233 to

0.5

10

33Mpa

M&C

Analog

Air

HP Manifold

0.1

10

313K

Analog

Air

Low pressure

SOS
2

TM

RTD

--

323 K
3

PM

PT

SG/

1Mpa

SOS
4

PM

PT

SG/

cylinder
33Mpa

0.1

1000

313K

C&A

Analog

Air

SOS
5

PM

PT

SG/

Upstream of
PRV

12Mpa

0.1

1000

350K*

C&A

Analog

Air

Heater-1

12Mpa

0.1

1000

350K*

C&A

Analog

Air

Heater-2

750K

0.5

10

12Mpa

C&A

Analog

Air

Heater-1

C&A

Analog

Air

Heater-2

C&A

Analog

Air

Settling

SOS
6

PM

PT

SG/
SOS

TM

TC

Type-

180kg/sec
8

TM

TC

Type-

1700K

0.5

10

12Mpa
60.6kg/sec

PM

PT

SG/

12Mpa

0.04

1000

350K*

SOS
10

PM

PT

SG/

chamber - 1
12Mpa

0.04

1000

350K*

C&A

SOS

Analog

Air

Settling
chamber - 2

150

Remarks

Sl.

Type of

Type

Sensing

No

Measurement

of

element

Range

Accuracy

B.W.

Subjected

Monitor (M)/

(%F.S.)

(Hz)

conditions

Control ( C)/

Temp (K)/

Aero data (A)

sensor

Interface

Medium

Qty

Location

Analog

Air

Settling

Pressure (Mpa) /
Shock (g)/
flow rate (kg/sec)
11

TM

TC

Type-

750K

0.5

10

12Mpa

C&A

180kg/sec
12

TM

TC

Type-

1450K

0.5

10

chamber -1

12Mpa

C&A

Analog

Air

60.6kg/sec
13

PM

PT

SG/

Settling
chamber - 2

0.04

1000

350K*

C&A

Analog

Air

Exit of nozzle

0.04

1000

350K*

C&A

Analog

Air

Plenum chamber

100KPa

0.1

10

350K

Analog

Air

Test Section

0.1

10

350K

Analog

Air

Test Section

SOS
14

PM

PT

SG/
SOS

15

PM

VG

CT

-100Pa
16

PM

VG

CT

100Pa1Pa

17

TM

TC/

Type-

0.5

10

C&A

Analog

Air

Test Section

SG/

0.4Mpa

0.1

1000

350K*

C&A

Analog

Air

10

diffuser

RTD
18

PM

PT

SOS
19

TM

TC

Type-

1400K

0.5

10

0.4Mpa

C&A

Analog

Air

diffuser

20

PM

PT

SG/

0.4Mpa

0.1

1000

350K*

C&A

Analog

Air

After cooler inlet

350K

0.5

10

0.4Mpa

C&A

Analog

Air

After cooler

SOS
21

TM

RTD

--

outlet

151

Remarks

Sl.

Type of

Type

Sensing

No

Measurement

of

element

Range

Accuracy

B.W

Subjected

Monitor (M)/

(%F.S.)

(Hz)

conditions

Control ( C)/

Temp (K)/

Aero data (A)

sensor

Interface

Medium

Qty

Location

Cooling water
circuit inlet &
outlet (Nozzle)
Cooling water
circuit inlet &
outlet
(HSVs, pipe
line, SC, MIM,
diffuser, CD )
Cooling water
circuit outlet
(Nozzle)
Cooling water
circuit outlet
(HSVs, pipe
line, SC, MIM,
diffuser, CD )
Hydraulic line

Remarks

Pressure (Mpa) /
Shock (g)/
flow rate (kg/sec)
22

PM

PT

SG/

2 Mpa

0.5

10

350K

M&C

Analog

water

0.4Mpa

0.5

10

350K

Analog

water

28

M&C

Analog

water

SOS
23

PM

PT

SG/
SOS

24

TM

RTD

--

350K

0.5

10

2 MPa

25

TM

RTD

--

350K

0.5

10

0.4 MPa

Analog

water

14

26

PM

PT

SG/

10MPa

0.1

10

350K

Analog

Oil

SOS
27

PM

PT

SG/

pressure ( PRV)
X

0.1

10

350K

Analog

Oil

Hydraulic line

SOS

pressure
(HSV, MIM)

28

Water Level

29

TM

0.5

10

RTD

--

350K

0.5

10

350K
X

water

Over head tank


water
Water
temperature

Note: X - to be decided.
* - Suitable adaptor is to be designed by the contractor for reducing the temperature effect from stagnation temperature to ambient
temperature. If not, sensor capable of withstanding stagnation temperature are to be selected.
152

Table 5.7: Channel type indicates requirement of other components of


instrumentation system
S.No Channel Type Other components required
1

Analog input

signal conditioner + analog input module + ADC

Analog output

DAC + analog output module

Digital input

Digital input module

Digital output

Digital output module

Table 5.8: Broad specifications of signal conditioner


A)

B)

C)

D)

Built-in Current and Voltage Excitation


Programmable Voltage Excitation
Programmable voltage excitation up to 15 Volts with mV resolution
Excitation voltage accuracy - 0.05% or better.
Programmable ON/OFF and local or remote sense
Current 50mA or better
Short circuit protection should be available.
Programmable Current Excitation (option to be chosen for applicable sensors)
Programmable current excitation up to 50 mA with A resolution
Programmable ON/OFF
Supports 2 wire/3wire/4-wire RTD.
Compliance voltage- 15V minimum
Inputs
Input coupling: DC
Input Impedance 50M minimum
Input Protection - 50 Volts differential, 300 Volts common mode or better
Configuration -2 to 10 wire plus shield; input (2), excitation (2), sense (2) and
shunt calibration (4).
Support strain gauge type of full bridge sensors, piezo-resistive pressure
sensors, RTD, Thermocouple.
Built-in Amplifier
Amplifier range - 2mV to 10V
Programmable Gain 1 to 5000, 0.05% accuracy or better
Dual, buffered 10V Outputs per channel, independently selectable as filtered
or Wideband
Common Mode Rejection Ratio 120dB or better
Slew rate 5V/s or better
Gain Stability - 0.02% for 30 days or better, Temperature coefficient must be
0.005% or better
Gain Linearity - 0.01% for gains upto 1000, 0.02% for higher gains or better
Amplifier Zero must be automatic, 2 V RTI or 1.0 mV RTO or better
Zero Stability must be 5 V RTI, 1mV RTO at constant temperature, 1 V
RTI, 0.2 mV RTO/C or better
Noise must be 2.0 V RTI plus 0.3 mV RTO, RMS or better
Filter
Continuously programmable low pass filter, four/six pole, Bessel/ Butterworth
153

E)

F)

G)

H)

(24dB/octave) or better
Filter Bandwidth
Model Measurements:
Steady pressure using Independent pressure transducer- 1 KHz
Steady pressure using ESP scanner Not Applicable
Unsteady pressure using Dynamic pressure transducer- 100 KHz
Steady forces & moments using strain gauge balance- 30 KHz
Temperature using RTD, Thermocouple, Heat flux gauges-30KHz
Facility Measurements:
Steady pressure using Individual pressure transducer- 1 KHz
Temperature using RTD, Thermocouple -1 KHz

Filter cut-off (-3dB) must be selectable at any point between the


specified range with fine
resolution.
Isolation
Isolation should be available between the following
Sensor input and excitation
Differential Sensor input to signal output
Sensor input to output ground
Sensor input to AC power line
Input ground to output ground
Guard shield to output ground
Calibration
Shunt calibration- Programmable selection of shunt resistors in two steps
(minimum) with 0.01% (or) programmable 16-bit DAC shunt
Automatic zero Calibration- & gain calibration
Voltage substitution for gain calibration
Software
Windows based software for setup and operation
Storing & retrieving of previously programmed configuration files.
Automatically loading of latest programmed configuration file during power-up
and by software issued Reset. Report generation of programmed
configuration settings
Others
Must be scalable up to 100+ channels on requirement
Ethernet Interface or suitable interface for programming the signal conditioners
from 50meter distance
LED indication about the status of signal conditioning system
Input 230 VAC 10%. Frequency - 50Hz 3%.
Temperature Operating - 00C to 500C, Storage- -200C to 700C; Humidity95% NC

Table 5.9: List of deliverables


Sr. no.

Item

Qty.

MIM Control System

1 set

Tunnel Master Control System

1 set

Data acquisition system for model parameters ( low

1 set

154

speed & high speed) and facility parameters


4

Health Monitoring system

1 set

Work station PCs (Latest configuration)

10 Nos.

Sensors for facility measurements

107

Signal Conditioners

As per
configuration*

Interpersonal wire less hands free communication system

1 set

Cables, Conduits, patch panels, instrument racks

As per
configuration*

10

Constant voltage sources & current sources

As per
configuration*

11

Control room equipments

As per
configuration*

12

Software (Licensed)

1 set

13

UPS

14

Data storage unit

15

Surveillance camera

Note: * quantity shall be finalized based on detail design

155

Annexure

SEQUENCE OF OPERATION OF THE TUNNEL


I. PRE TEST CHECKS:
1. Energize the sensors 20 minutes prior to the test Confirm & Feedback
2. Required Pressure and Volume is achieved in the storage cylinders Feedback
3. Required Temperature is reached in the heater Feed back
4. Required Pressure is attained in the Horton Sphere Feedback
5. Completed model instrumentation and measurement integrity checks Confirm
6. Functional check of MIM system Feedback
7. Functional check of PRV Feedback
8. Test section door closure Feedback
9. Functional check of schlieren system Feedback
10. Functional check of ON/OFF valves Feedback
11. Valves EGV4 to EGV7, PRV1 to PRV 3, HSV1 to HSV 8, VIV are in closed positionFeedback
12. Valves MBV1, MBV2, MBV3 are in open position- Feedback
13. Over head tank water level - Ensure
14. Circulating of water at predefined flow rate to all required locations -Confirm

II. TEST STARTING & RUNNING SEQUENCE:


1. Admit water at pre-defined flow rate to the following sections. Ensure for the same

Pipe segment between heater & settling chamber.


Hot shut valves
Nozzle Throat
Model, Balance and Model Support
Diffuser segments
After cooler.
Note: Dont change the water flow rate until test is over, to ensure that wind on &
wind off data belongs to pure aerodynamic data and not corrupted by additional
cooling water mass- applicable for force measurement tests only.
2. Operate MIM system during wind off condition. Record the tare values of model
bound sensors while sweep- applicable for force measurement tests only.
3. Check whether model is at safe position Feedback
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4. Open the valve VIV and mechanically latch it - Feedback


5. Open the valves HSV7/ 8, HSV1/3, EGV5/6/7, EGV4 in sequence- Feedback
6. Open PRV1 (or PRV 2 or PRV 3 as per mass flow requirement) 5% and allow hot air to
pass through HSV7/8 for few seconds to ensure dust particles are exhausted if present.
7. Close the valve HSV7/8 and allow pressure to build up in space above pebble bed in
heater. Monitor the heater pressure at the up stream of HSV7/8.
8. Check for the condition as heater pressure desired pressure.
9. If the step 8 is satisfied, start acquiring the data of facility parameters at predefined
sampling rate and simultaneously switch on video recording.
10. Open the valve HSV2/4 - Feedback
11. Operate the PRV by considering settling chamber pressure (P0) as a feedback signal.
12. Check for the following conditions.
a. Steady state error 1% of set value.
b. PRV opening position less than 90%.
13. If the step 12(a) is satisfied in the pre-defined elapsed time and step 12(b) is satisfied
then go to step 14 else go to step 24.
14. Monitor settling chamber pressure, settling chamber temperature and nozzle exit
pressure.
15. Check for the Mach number establishment in the test section.
16. If the step 15 satisfied, a) give signal to model injection system to inject the model and
b) simultaneously start acquisition of model bound parameters transient data at predefined sampling rate. Continue the transient data acquisition until the transients settle
down over the model.
Note: step 16(b) is to be executed only for force measurement tests.
17. Check for the condition as =0 0.05 deg.
18. If the step 17 satisfied then a) start the data acquisition of model bound parameters at
pre-defined sampling rate b) start the count down timer with the pre-defined value c)
activate the model incidence mechanism and d) perform the sweep operation as per the
pre-defined sequence.
19. Continuously monitor the test section parameters (pressure, temperature) and timer
values. Check for the following conditions. A) Parametric conditions are satisfied while
sweep operation B) Model sweep operation is over when the timer indicates zero value.
If both are satisfied, go to step 21 else go to step 20.

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III. TEST STOPING SEQUENCE:


20. Abort the model incidence system sequence. Issue the command to bring the model into
tunnel axis ( =00). Model should come back to the tunnel axis with in the pre-defined
time. If it is satisfied, then go to step 21. If not, go to step 22.
21. Activate model injection system for with drawing of model into tunnel off-axis. Ensure
that the model is at safe location and go to step 23.
22. Bring the model into tunnel off-axis by manual override. Ensure that the model is at safe
location and go to step 23.
23. Stop the data acquisition of model bound parameters.
24. Close the valve EGV4 Ensure
25. Video Recording OFF.
26. Close the valve EGV5/6/7.
27. Close the valve HSV2/4 Ensure
28. Open the valve HSV7/8 for let out of trapped air to atmosphere.
29. Close the valve HSV7/8 when heater pressure reaches ambient.
30. Close PRV1/2/3
31. Close HSV1/3
32. Close the valve VIV.
33. Close the cooling water pipe lines after ensuring the segments are sufficiently close to
desired temperature level.
34. Stop the data acquisition of tunnel parameters.

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CHAPTER 6 Acceptance Test Plan


The Wind tunnel System will be accepted based on the Acceptance Tests carried out as
per ATP document. ATP tests will be carried out at Contractors site and Departments site.
A brief description of ATP is given below. However, a mutually agreed ATP document will
be prepared by the Vendor and Department before erection and commissioning the system.

Factory Acceptance Tests


These tests shall be facilitated by Contractor at the place of manufacture / assembly
at periodic intervals depending on the progress of work, as mutually agreed upon
between DRDL and Contractor.

Installation tests
This refers to satisfactory installation of equipments at the Hypersonic Wind Tunnel
Project site, to the satisfaction of DRDL.

Commissioning tests
This refers to the demonstration of actual performance of individual systems and
subsystems at the tunnel site, after successful completion of installation.

Site Acceptance Tests


The following tests shall be performed by Contractor
o Software simulation tests (wind-off condition)
o Shakedown blowdowns
o Test section Mach number measurements to establish flow uniformity, using
standard measurement techniques
o Aerodynamic Force measurements on standard calibration model (AGARD) to
assess flow angularity and reproducibility of results within 1 with respect to
international reference data

Note: The entire tunnel will be deemed to be commissioned when four successful
tests out of five are conducted for each Mach number at the maximum pressure and
temperature condition for a steady duration of minimum 20 seconds. All the
consumables during Installation, Commissioning and Testing should be provided by
the vendor.

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