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A MC

A e r os p ac e M e ta l C om p o si te s L im i te d
te l : 4 4 1 2 5 2 3 7 50 0 1 fa x : 4 4 1 2 52 3 7 50 0 2
w w w.a m c -m m c .c o .u k

AMC225XE

T e c h n i c a l Da ta

P AR T I C LE R E I N F O R CE D A LU M I N I U M A L L OY
AMC225xe is a high quality aerospace grade aluminium alloy
(AA2124) reinforced with 25% by volume of ultrafine particles of
silicon carbide. It is manufactured by a special powder metallurgy
route using a proprietary high-energy mixing process which ensures excellent particle distribution and enhances mechanical
properties.
The key benefits of AMC225xe for structural applications include:

Weight saving

Increased component stiffness

High fatigue resistance.

AMC powder metallurgy and mechanical alloying techniques are


used to combine the aluminium alloy (AA2124) matrix with fine (23 micron) Silicon Carbide (SiC) particles. Process conditions are
controlled to produce an even distribution of these particles,
whilst maintaining the purity of the matrix alloy. Powders are compacted to fully dense billet by hot isostatic compaction. Billets are
available for direct manufacture to component or for fabrication by
forging, extrusion or rolling techniques. Selection of the process
route depends on property requirements, component shape and
the resulting process cost.
A wide range of machining methods may be applied. High speed
machining with diamond tools achieves excellent surface finish
and tolerances. Where appropriate a range of coating technologies may be applied for additional tribological performance.

AM C640xa
AM C235xe
AM C225xe
AM C217xe

Aluminium
Powder

St eel
T i Al l oy
M g Al l oy
Al Al l oy

Ultrafine SiC
Particles

10

20

30

40

50

M odu l u s t o W ei ght Rat i o

Forging
Hi-Energy
Mixing

Solid State
Compaction

Billet

Extrusion

60

The combination of properties achieved with AMC225xe provides


the potential for outstanding structural performance in a wide
range of markets and applications including:

AMC225xe Typical Properties T4 (QOP041)


Elastic Modulus

115 GPa

Ultimate Tensile Strength

650 MPa

0.2% Yield Strength

480 MPa

Strain to Fail

5%

Poissons Ratio

0.3

Vickers Hardness

210

Thermal Conductivity

150 W/m/C

Thermal Expansion Coefficient

15.5 ppm/C

Heat Capacity

0.836 J/g/C

Solidus

548C

Electrical Conductivity

21 % IACS

Density

2.88 g/cm3

Information is provided for guidance purposes only and does not constitute a guarantee.

Rolling

Motorsport
Performance valve train
Cylinder liners
Pistons
Connecting rods
Brake callipers
Disk Bells
Suspension parts
Aerospace & Defence
Aero engine vanes
Aircraft structure
Brakes and Wheels
Control Systems
Valve Blocks

AM C2 2 5 x e

THERMAL
S TABI L I TY

A e r os p ac e M e ta l C om p o si te s L im i te d
te l : 4 4 1 2 5 2 3 7 50 0 1 fa x : 4 4 1 2 52 3 7 50 0 2
w w w.a m c -m m c .c o .u k

Addition of fine ceramic reinforcement accelerates ageing reactions


in the AMC225xe. Peak strength is achieved by room temperature
ageing (a T4 temper) without the need for artificial ageing. Natural ageing is complete after 100 hours, but significant proportion of
peak strength is attained within a few hours of quenching.

AMC225xe is insensitive to over ageing at temperatures below


150C. However, ageing at more than 200C, precipitate coarsening results in lower retained strength. At temperatures of more
than 300C, the retained room temperature strength is reduced to
a base T1 temper with 0.2% yield strength of 280 to 300 MPa.
(Data courtesy: Dr J Lord & Dr B Roebuck, National Physical Laboratory)

AMC225xe CWQ Natural Ageing


Room Temperature Age Time
(Hours)

% of Maximum Hardness

0.5

85 %

93 %

22

97%

100

100%

A MC225X E T4 - R e ta i ne d R o o m Te mp e r a tur e

Hardness and electrical conductivity provide simple measurements


to confirm heat treatment status and an inspection tool for heat
treatment processes. In addition, for applications where thermal
history is difficult to measure, these properties can help to map a
components thermal history.

0.2% Yield Strength (MPa)

Str e ngth - Effe ct o f So a k Ti m e


600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0

50

Surface Hardness Hv10

150

200

250

300

350

Soak Temperature (C)


1 Hour

200

100

10 Hours

100 Hours

1000 Hours

Small changes are noted between surface and core hardness as


a result of heat flow during quench treatments. Care must be
taken when comparing hardness to establish whether surface
regions or cut surfaces are measured. Data is compared for extruded bar with a surface Vickers Hardness of 223 and a core
hardness of 205 Hv10kg.

150
100
0

10

15

20

Time at Temperature (Hours)


200C

250C

A M C225X E - T4 CW Q - Su r fa ce to Co r e

300C

H a r d n e ss

Vickers Hardness Hv10 kg

Electrical Conductivity
(%IACS)

150C

26
21
16
0

10

15

20

Time at Temperature (Hours)


150C

200C

250C

Information is provided for guidance purposes only and does not constitute a guarantee.

300C

225
220
215
210
205
200
0

4
6
8
10 12 14 16
Distance from Component Edge (mm)

18

20

AM C2 2 5 x e

THERMAL
PRO P ER TIE S (1 )

A e r os p ac e M e ta l C om p o si te s L im i te d
te l : 4 4 1 2 5 2 3 7 50 0 1 fa x : 4 4 1 2 52 3 7 50 0 2
w w w.a m c -m m c .c o .u k

AMC225xe shows significant strength, fatigue and hardness benefits at elevated temperatures. This enables successful application for
engine components including; valve train, pistons, cylinder liners and connecting rods. Strength and modulus at temperature follow similar trends to other precipitation hardened aluminium alloys, but from a higher room temperature base point. Strength and modulus
benefits feed through to enhanced elevated temperature fatigue performance.

T4 +
Thermal Cycled
200 cycles
50-200C

T4 +
Thermal Exposure
150C for 1000
hours

Test
Temp
C

0.2%
Yield
Strength
(MPa)

Ultimate
Strength
(MPa)

0.2%
Yield
Strength
(MPa)

Ultimate
Strength
(MPa)

0.2%
Yield
Strength
(MPa)

Ultimate
Strength
(MPa)

150

474

616

369

442

343

424

200

448

530

265

343

259

331

260

128

194

125

193

127

198

350

48

65

45

59

49

67

As Fabricated
T1 (QOP041)

T1 +
Thermal Cycled
200 cycles
50-200C

T1 +
Thermal Exposure
150C for 1000
hours

Test
Temp
C

0.2%
Yield
Strength
(MPa)

Ultimate
Strength
(MPa)

0.2%
Yield
Strength
(MPa)

Ultimate
Strength
(MPa)

0.2%
Yield
Strength
(MPa)

Ultimate
Strength
(MPa)

150

321

428

269

348

261

336

200

276

358

187

265

175

253

260

102

200

92

150

99

154

350

48

65

46

56

45

60

Elastic Modulus (GPa)

As Heat Treated
T4 (QOP042)

Physical Properties
Elastic modulus is reduced with temperature following a similar
trend to aluminium alloys, but from a higher room temperature
base point of 115 GPa. Thermal expansion coefficient over a
temperature range of 100 to +100C is approximately 15.5
ppm / C. A temperature sensitivity of 0.0279 per C (mean temperature from range) is calculated from experimental data. Thermal conductivity shows a small temperature sensitivity related to
the state of alloy elements i.e. whether they are present in solid
solution and the size of precipitates.
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

Temperature (C)

20
Thermal Expansion
Coefficient ppm/C

AMC225XE Plate
Tensile Strength at Temperature.

18
16
14

y = 0.0279x + 15.468

12
10

Data Courtesy: Dr P.Pitcher & Dr A.Shakesheff, DERA Farnborough.

-125

-75

-25

25

75

125

50

Thermal Conductivity
W/m/C

Tensile Elongation (%)

Mean Temperature Range (C)

40
30
20
10
0
0

50

100

150 200 250 300 350 400

Test Temperature (C)


Information is provided for guidance purposes only and does not constitute a guarantee.

160
150
140
130
120
110
100
0

200

400

Temperature (C)

600

AM C2 2 5 x e

THERMAL
PRO P ER TIE S (2 )

A e ros p ac e Me t al Co mp o s i t e s Li mit e d
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The data combines softening due to precipitate coarsening with


elevated temperature hardness characteristics. The curve for preheat at 450C for 60 minutes effectively provides lower bound
hardness at temperature. Preheat at 250C for 10 minutes will be
close to an upper bound.

Fatigue at Temperature
Rotating bend fatigue tests (Kt=1, R=-1) have been used to compare fatigue strength at elevated temperature between 225xe
and 2618 alloys. The test is completed at 2800 rpm, leading to a
5.95 hour test for 1 million fatigue cycles. Heat flow is calibrated
for the fatigue test to provide a sample surface temperature as
detailed below.

R o ta ti n g B e n d F a ti gu e Li m i t a t 1 M i l l i o n
Cy cl e s.

Maximum Bend
Stress (MPa)

Hardness at Temperature
Figures below provide Vickers Hardness measurements for
AMC225xe T4 at elevated temperature. Samples are preheated for
10 or 60 minutes and hardness is measured during controlled sample cooling. Transfer from the furnace means that it is impossible
to measure hardness at the soak temperature. Measurements are
typically started at 30 to 60C below the soak temperature.

400

225xe - T4

200

2618 - T6

0
24

300

350

Sample Surface Temperature C

AMC225x e T4 - Pr e he a t 10 mi nute s

R o ta ti n g B e n d F a ti gu e Li m i t a t 10 M i l l i o n

200

Cy cl e s.

Preheat 250C

150

Preheat 350C

100
Preheat 450C
50

Maximum Bend
Stress (MPa)

Vickers Hardness (HV)

150

400
300
200
100
0

225xe - T4

2618 - T6
24

0
0

100

200

300

400

150

300

350

Sample Surface Temperature C

500

Temperature C

Compressive Flow at Temperature


Cylindrical samples are compressed at elevated temperature to
provide flow stress data at varied strain rates. This information is
particularly useful for modelling of extrusion or forging processes.
(Data courtesy: Dr R Dashwood & R Thackray, Imperial College of Science, Technology & Medicine)

Co m pr e ssi ve F l o w Str e ss - Effe ct o f Str a i n


R a te

200

200
Preheat 250C

150

Preheat 350C

100

Preheat 450C

50

Flow Stress (MPa)

Vickers Hardness (HV)

AM C225xe T4 - P reheat 60 m i n u t es

150

1/sec

100

0.1/sec

50
0

0
0

100

200
300
Temperature C

400

Information is provided for guidance purposes only and does not constitute a guarantee.

500

300

350

400
450
Temperature C

500

550

AM C2 2 5 x e

FATI GUE
PROP ER TIE S

A e ros p ac e Me t al Co mp o s i t e s Li mit e d
C om
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7o
50
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w w.a
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A ewros
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Heat Treatment Condition.

Product Form & Degree of Fabrication Work.

Fatigue Conditions.

Component Design, Shape & Finish.

For general guidance, maximum fatigue performance will be


achieved with peak strength heat treatments, with highly worked
product and avoidance of notch factors in design.
Heat Treatment
Heat treatment to a T4 temper (QOP042) is recommended to
maximise fatigue strength. See heat treatment guidelines for full
details of process conditions and their effect on fatigue characteristics.

Fatigue Conditions
A comparison of rotating bend and tension - tension fatigue
curves for forged plate in a T4 (QOP042) heat treatment is given
below:

500

Maximum Stress (MPa)

AMC225XE offers significant fatigue advantages for structural


applications at ambient and elevated temperature conditions.
Fatigue properties for AMC225xe are controlled by similar factors
to other aluminium alloys:

y = -14Ln(x) + 592.86

400
300
y = -16.204Ln(x) + 569.85

200
100
0

1.E+03 1.E+04 1.E+05 1.E+06 1.E+07 1.E+08


No of Cycles
Rotating Bend R=-1

Product Form
A greater degree of fabrication work generally enhances fatigue
performance. A comparison of as HIP billet, forged plate and
extruded product is given below for a T4 (QOP042) condition.
This data is for a rotating bend test (kt=1, R=-1) and shows the
fatigue limit stress at 10 million cycles.

Tension R=0.1

Notched Fatigue
The chart below provides a comparison of notched (Kt=2.7) and
un-notched (Kt=1) tensiontension (R=0.1) fatigue curves for
extruded bar in a T4 polymer glycol quench (QOP044) heat treatment.

Extrusion 30:1

500

Forged Plate
As HIP Billet
0

100

200

300

400

500

Maximum Bend Stress (MPa)

Maximum Stress (MPa)

Extrusion 10:1

y = -17.445Ln(x) + 614.03

400
300

y = -18.648Ln(x) + 464.22

200
100
0

Component Design, Shape & Finish.


Design guidelines follow the same outline as for other conventional metallic alloys. Sharp notches should be avoided where
possible, especially in high stress regions. Good surface finish
will help to enhance fatigue characteristics for finished components.
Information is provided for guidance purposes only and does not constitute a guarantee.

1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05
No of Cycles
Kt =1

Kt = 2.7

1.E+06

1.E+07

AM C2 2 5 x e

H E AT
T RE ATM E NT

A e r os p ac e M e ta l C om p o si te s L im i te d
te l : 4 4 1 2 5 2 3 7 50 0 1 fa x : 4 4 1 2 52 3 7 50 0 2
w w w.a m c -m m c .c o .u k

AMC225xe is based on a 2124 precipitate hardened aluminium alloy, reinforced with 25 volume % of 2-3 micron Silicon Carbide particles. The alloy responds to conventional solution treatment, quench and age treatments to achieve high strength and fatigue performance. However, certain heat treatment conditions are modified as a result of the powder metallurgy manufacturing route and the presence of the fine reinforcement.
Solution Heat Treatment

Heat Treatment Designation

- 505C for a time dependent on section thickness.

QOP041 - Designation: T1 Air cooled from elevated temperature


forming process. Suitable for low stress parts or those subject to
high temperature soak in operation. Suitable as a supply condition for material that will be further processed (forged, rolled or
extruded) and heat treated.

Use a minimum time of 1 hour at temperature for up to 25mm


thick section. Increase this solution treatment time pro-rata for
thicker sections
Preferred tolerance for furnace control is +/- 5C. To avoid formation of intermetallic phases, the solidus at 548C should not be
exceed during heat treatment or fabrication processes. Significant
reduction in solution heat treat temperature and time will result in
incomplete solid solution of alloy elements and the presence of
intermetallic phases in the final microstructure. Such phases will
reduce strength because a lower fraction of strengthening precipitate will be formed; they can also reduce fatigue performance in the
composite.
Quench Processes
The quench medium and conditions may be selected to balance
strength and residual stress.
Maximum quench rate will result in:
Maximum strength and fatigue performance.
Residual stress that may cause distortion for complex
parts and / or for close tolerance machining processes.
For general guidance; to maximise quench rate, transfer time from
furnace to quench medium should be minimised, especially for thin
section parts.

QOP042 - Designation: T4 (CWQ) Solution Heat Treated.


Quenched in Cold water. Aged at Room Temperature. Ageing
Time: stable condition is achieved after 100 hours. Suitable for
thin section and / or symmetrical parts. Maximum properties,
but some risk of distortion during quench or during subsequent
machining.
QOP043 - Designation: T6 (CWQ) Solution Heat Treated.
Quenched in Cold water. Ageing / Stabilisation Temperature:
150C. Ageing / Stabilisation Time: 1 hour. Reduces distortion
risk. No effect on properties.
QOP044 - Designation: T4 (PGQ) Solution Heat Treated.
Quenched in 25% Polymer Glycol Solution. Ageing Temperature:
Room Temperature. Ageing Time: stable condition is achieved
after 100 hours. Softer quench reduces risk of distortion on
complex or thick section components. Lower quench rate
causes some reduction in fatigue properties, depending on section.
QOP045 - Designation: T6 (PGQ) Solution Heat Treated.
Quenched in 25% Polymer Glycol Solution. Ageing / Stabilisation
Temperature: 150C. Ageing / Stabilisation Time: 1 hour.
Potentially provides greater reduction in distortion risk.

Effect of Heat Treatment - AMC225xe Measured Values on Forged Plate 15mm thick.
505C Solution Treated
Quench Treatment

Ultimate
Strength
(MPa)

0.2% Yield
Strength
(MPa)

Strain
to Fail
(%)

Core
Vickers
Hardness
(Hv5kg)

Electrical
Conductivity
(%IACS)

Surface
Residual
Stress *
(MPa)

Fatigue Limit
1x106 Cycles
R=0.1, Kt=1. *
(MPa)

Air Cool

446

283

5.2

142

26.4

281

Polymer Glycol Quench

616

410

5.1

188

23.3

-36

350

Hot Water Quench

649

469

3.3

205

21.8

-116

387

Cold Water Quench

670

468

4.3

211

21.2

-120

399

* Data courtesy: Dr M.Fitzpatrick, Open University.


Information is provided for guidance purposes only and does not constitute a guarantee.