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In this chapter, a brief review of the PN junction diode, its characteristics, its applications in

the different type of rectifier circuits along with filtering circuits and a large number of

university exam questions and problems are being presented. A brief summary of the

formulae listing is also provided.

INTRODUCTION

A diode is a one way device, offering low resistance when diode is forward biased and

high resistance when reverse biased, i.e., conducts in one direction (forward) & does not

Thus, diode can be used as a switch, i.e., ON when forward biased and OFF when

reversed biased. Low current diodes are used in switching circuits.

becomes an electronic device known as a diode & is as shown in the Fig. .

Fig : Diode symbol

In diode symbol, the arrowhead indicates the conventional direction of current flow

The P-side of the diode is always the positive terminal for forward bias and is termed as

the anode.

The N-side negative terminal for forward bias and is termed as cathode.

A PN-junction diode can be destroyed by a high level of forward current overheating the

device and by a large reverse voltage causing the junction to breakdown.

The forward and reverse characteristics of the diode are also called as the v-i

characteristics of the diode.

For silicon diode, the forward current IF remains very low (<A) until the diode forward

Above 0.7 V, IF increases almost linearly with increase in VF. The diode reverse current

IR is very much smaller than its forward current IF. For silicon, IR is normally less

than 100 nA, and it is almost completely independent of the reverse-bias voltage.

IR is due to minority charge carriers and is called reverse saturation current.

When reverse bias voltage VR is sufficiently increased, the diode goes into reverse

Reverse breakdown occurs at 75V as shown in the Fig.

For silicon diode, the forward current IF remains very low (<A) until the diode forward

Above 0.3V, IF increases almost linearly with increase in VF. The diode reverse current

IR is very much smaller than its forward current IF. For silicon diode, IR is normally

IR is due to minority charge carriers and is called reverse saturation current.

When reverse bias voltage VR is sufficiently increased, the diode goes into reverse

Reverse breakdown occurs at 50 V.

Diode parameters:

The diode parameters are :

1) Forward voltage drop V

2) Maximum forward current IF(max)

3) Reverse saturation current IR

4) Reverse breakdown voltage VBR

5) Dynamic resistance rd

Each parameter is explained one below the other as follows

It is the voltage drop across a diode when it conducts, i.e., VF > V then diode conducts. It is

also called as cut-in voltage.

For silicon diode V = 0.7 V and for the germanium diode V = 0.3 V.

2) Maximum forward current (IF(max)):It is the maximum current a diode can pass under forward bias condition, without

permanent damage to PN junction due to over-heating.

3) Reverse Saturation current (IR):The reverse saturation current IR is the nominal current which flows through the diode

when it is reverse biased. For silicon diode, it is in the order of nA and for germanium diode

IR is in the order of A.

4) Reverse Breakdown voltage (VBR):The reverse breakdown voltage VBR is the reverse bias voltage at which the PN junction

breaks down & permanently damages the diode. For silicon diode, VBR is less than 50V and

for germanium diode VBR is about 100V.

5) Dynamic resistance rd or ac resistance:The dynamic resistance rd of a diode is the reciprocal of the slope of the forward

characteristics beyond the knee as shown in the Fig.

Vf

If

Slope of the forward characteristics =

Vf

If

Dynamic resistance rd = reciprocal of slope of forward-characteristics, i.e., rd =

26 mV

If

The dynamic resistance can also be calculated by r =

d

Exam Problem : Calculate the dynamic resistance for a diode passing = 10mA forward

current.

Given : IF = 10 mA

26 mV

26 mV

If

10 mA = 26

Sol : rd =

=

Exam Problem : Determine the dynamic resistance at a forward current of 70 mA for the

diode characteristics given in figure

Sol : Given, IF = 70 mA

From the figure,

Vf

0.25 V

I f = 60 mA = 0.42

rd =

26 mV 26 mV

I f = 70 mA = 0.37

rd =

Exam Problem : Calculate the forward and reverse resistances offered by a silicon diode

with the characteristic in figure at IF = 100 mA when VR = 50V.

Sol : From the figure, at IF = 100 mA, VF = 0.75 V

Vf

0.75 V

I

Forward resistance RF = f = 10 mA = 7.5

At VR = 50 V, IR = 100 A

Vr

50 V

I

r

Reverse resistance RR =

= 100 nA = 500 M

Diode Approximation:

The diode approximations for 3 types of diodes are shown in the figures below.

Fig. : Diode approximations

Zero reverse current (IR = 0) &

Infinite reverse resistance (RR = )

It has low forward resistance.

Germanium diode has

It has low forward resistance.

The straight line approximation of the forward characteristics of a diode (Fig. ) is called

Piecewise linear characteristic is conducted first marking VF on the horizontal axis

(point A) as shown in the Fig. and then a straight line (point B) is drawn with a slope

equal to the diode dynamic resistance.

Fig. : Forward characteristics of a diode

An equivalent circuit is a circuit that represents the device behavior. The diode DC

equivalent circuit consists of voltage sources and resistors.

Fig. : Diode

Fig. : Basic DC eq. circuit of diode

A conducting diode (Fig. 11) can be represented as a voltage source equal to constant

Equivalent circuit includes the diode dynamic resistance rd in series with the constant

voltage source V and ideal diode is also included as shown in Fig.

Fig. : Diode

Exam Problem 4 : Calculate IF for the diode current in the figure assuming that the diode

has VF = 0.7 V and rd = 0 then, recalculate the current taking rd = 0.25 .

Given :i) VF = Vr = 0.7 V, rd = 0

Applying KVL, we get the KVL equation for the equivalent circuit as

V IFR1 VF = 0

If

V VF 1.5v 0.7v

80 mA

R1

10k

IF = 80 mA

V I F R 1 I F rd VF 0

V VF I F R 1 rd 0

I F R 1 rd V VF

IF

V VF

1.5 v 0.7 v

R 1 rd 10 k 0.25

I F 78 mA

DC load line:-

The Fig. shows a diode in series with a resistance R1 and a supply voltage V. The polarity

of V is such that the diode is forward biased, so a diode forward current IF flows.

Applying KVL to the circuit, we get

V IF R1 VF

VF

V IF R1

A DC load line is a straight line on the diode forward characteristics which describes all

the DC conditions that exists in the operation of the circuit as shown in the Fig. .

To determine DC load line points (i.e. A & B) as shown below in the 2 cases.

V = IFR1 + VF

Case (i): Determining point A,

V = VF

V = IF R1

Vf

R

IF = 1

Now, point A & B are joined to get a DC load line.

Q-Point:

Q-Point is the point on the diode forward-characteristics, where the DC load line

Q-Point is also called as Quiescent point or the DC bias point.

V = IFR1 + VF

IFR1 = V VF

V Vf

R

R1

IF = 1

VF V

R

R1

1

IF =

1

V

VF

I F

R1

R1

It is in the form y = mx + c, where y = IF, m =

Exam Problem : Draw the DC load for the circuit in Fig. 20 (a). The diode forward

characteristic is given in Fig. (b).

Fig. (a)

Sol :-

IF

V VF

R1

i) When IF = 0 (Point A)

v = VF

V=5V

Fig. (b)

V

5

50 mA

R

100

1

IF =

IF = 50 mA

Exam Problem 6 : Determine the required load resistance for the circuit in Fig. (a) using

the device characteristics in Fig. (b).

Fig. (a)

Fig. (b)

w.r.t. the circuit,

IF

V VF

R1

IFR1 = V VF

Determining DC load line points,

When IF = 0, V = VF = 5 V (point A) . w.r.t. Fig.

Now plot Q-point in Fig. (b) at IF = 30 mA

VF

5V

IF 37.5 mA

From the load line, R1 =

R1 = 133

The product of voltage drop VF across the diode and the current IF flowing through the

diode gives the power dissipation in a diode.

Fig. : Power temperature curve of a diode

The slope of the curve in Fig (a). defines the de-rating factor as given by

P

Derating factor = T

The equation for the new maximum power dissipation when the temperature changes is

given by

P2 P1 at T1 T derating factor

where the change in temperature is given by T T2 T1 .

Exam Problem : A diode with 700 mW maximum power dissipation at 250C has a 5 mW/C

derating factor. If the forward voltage drop remains constant at 0.7 V, calculate the

maximum forward current at 250C and at 650C temperature.

Given :- P = 700 mw, T1 = 250C, T2 = 650C, derating factor = 5 mw/C, VF = 0.7 V

To find out :- IF = ? at 25 0C & IF = ? at 65 0C

Sol :i) At 25 0C,

VF IF

IF

P 700 mW

VF = 0.7 v

IF

1A

T2 T1 = 65 0C 25 0C

40 0C

P2

P1 at T1 T derating factor

500 mw

IF

P2 500 mW

VF = 0.7 v

IF

714 mA

ii) At 65 0C,

Junction Capacitance:

The junction capacitance is defined as

i)

When diode is reverse biased, depletion layer capacitance or transition capacitance, which

ii) When diode is also forward biased, the diffusion capacitance occurs at the junction, this is

also called as junction capacitance.

i) Depletion or Transition layer capacitance (Cpn):Fig. : Depletion layer capacitance.

When a diode is reverse biased, the depletion region around the junction behaves like a

As reverse voltage is increased, the width of the depletion region increases.

We know that a dielectric between two conducting plates acts as a capacitor and is given

by

C pn

A

d

A is the area of plate in m2

d is the distance between the plates in m.

is the permittivity of the dielectric between the plates.

When a forward biased junction is suddenly reversed, a reverse current flows which is

initially large and slowly decreases to the reverse saturation current level. The effect is

similar to that of the discharge of a capacitor and is called diffusion capacitance Cd.

Cd

dQ

dV

V is the forward bias voltage in volts

AC Equivalent condition:

i) Reverse-biased condition:

A reverse biased diode can be simply represented by the reverse resistance RR in parallel

with the depletion layer capacitance Cpn.

ii) Forward-biased condition:

biased diode.

biased diode.

Fig. : Forward biased condition equivalent circuits

A forward-biased diode is represented by two parallel circuits as shown in figure above.

Fig (a). comprises of forward voltage drop V in series with dynamic resistance rd in parallel

with Cd.

Fig (b). consists of the dynamic resistance rd in parallel with Cd.

Reverse Recovery time:

Consider a voltage pulse with a +ve and ve voltage applied to the diode as shown in Fig. .

When the diode is forward biased, it conducts, i.e., large number of electrons diffuses

from N-side into P-side and vice-versa. So, a large number of minority carriers exists in

Now, if the polarity of the applied bias voltage is suddenly reversed to make the diode

reverse biased, then ideally the diode should change its condition from ON to OFF

instantly.

However, practically this does not happen because of large number of carriers in each

The diode current simply reverses and remains at this value for a certain period of time,

called storage time ts as shown in Fig. . Thus, diode remains in ON condition during

After ts, the minority carriers return to their majority carrier state in the opposite

material, current reduces and reaches its reverse saturation value after certain time

Therefore, the sum of storage time and transition interval is known as reverse recovery

time (trr) for the diode.

i.e.,

trr = Ts + tt

i.e.,

tp >> trr

The reverse-recovery time is kept minimal by ensuring that the fall time tr of the

applied pulse be much larger than the reverse recovery time trr as shown in the Fig. .

i.e.,

usually,

tf >> trr

tf (min) = 10 trr

Exam Question : Define reverse recovery time in a diode. How is the reverse recovery

time kept minimal ?

Reverse recovery time of a diode is defined as the time taken by the diode in reverse bias

condition to turn OFF the diode from the ON state.

Mathematically, Trr = ts + tt

i.e., it is the sum of the storage time and the transition time.

The reverse recovery time is kept minimal by ensuring that the fall time tr of the applied

pulse be much larger than the reverse recovery time trr as shown in Fig. .

i.e.,

Usually,

tf >> trr

tf (min)=10 trr

Fig. : How to keep the reverse recovery time minimal

Exam Problem : Find the minimal fall-time for voltage pulses applied to a diode with

reverse-recovery time of 5 ns.

Given :- trr = 5 ns

Sol: The minimal fall-time is given by

Tf(min) = 10 trr

Tf(min) = 10 5 ns

Tf(min) = 50 ns

Exam Problem : Estimate the reverse-recovery time of a diode for an input with 1 s falltime

Given:- tf = 1 s

Sol:-

tf >> 10 trr

Trr(max) = tf / 10 = 1 s /10

Trr(max) = 0.1 s

The voltage drop across a forward biased pn-junction changes with temperature, i.e.,

i)

ii)

2.02 mV/0C for a germanium diode

The change in the forward voltage drop at any temperature can be calculated as:

VF (T2 ) VF (T1 ) T2 T1 V

where

VF(T1) is the forward voltage drop at temperature T1

VF(T2) is the forward voltage drop at temperature T2

V is the voltage temperature co-efficient.

The dynamic resistance of the diode at 25 0C is given by

rd

26 mV

IF

rd

26 mV T 273

I F 298

Exam Problem : A silicon diode with a 0.7 V forward voltage drop at 25 0C is to be operated

with a constant forward current up to a temperature of 100 0C. Calculate the diode voltage

VF at 100 0C. Also, determine the junction dynamic resistance at 25 0C and at 100 0C if the

forward current is 26 mA.

Given:- T1 = 25 0C, VF1 = 0.7 V, T2 = 100 0C

To find : VF = ?, rd = ? @ 25 0C & 100 0C

Sol:- For a Silicon diode, V = 1.8 mv/0C

VF (T2 ) VF (T1 ) T2 T1 V

= 0.7 V + (100 0C 25 0C) (1.8 mv/0C)

VF(T2) = 0.565 V

At T = 25 0C, IF = 26 mA

rd

rd

26 mV T 273

I F 298

26 mV 25C 273 C

26 mA

298 C

rd = 1

At T =100 C , IF = 26 mA

rd

26 mV 100 C 273 C

26 mA

298 C

rd = 1.25

Zener Diode

Zener diode as voltage regulator:

Exam Question : With neat circuit diagram, explain zener diode voltage regulator.

Exam Question : Explain how zener diode can be used as a voltage regulator.

The zener diode is called as voltage regulator or diode because it maintains a constant

The I/P voltage Vi the unregulated (varying) DC voltage. The zener diode is used in the

reverse biased region. Under this condition, the current through the diode is very small

i.e., in terms of A.

When sufficient reverse voltage is applied, the zener breakdown occurs (zener diode

conducts) & a large current flows through the diode, which is called as avalanche

breakdown.

The voltage at which zener diode conducts is called zener voltage Vz. Under this

condition, the voltage across the zener is constant & equal to Vz. As Vz is connected

across the load, the load voltage Vo is equal to the zener voltage Vz.

,

V0 = Vz

I

Iz + IL

Iz

I IL .. (1)

Vi V0

R

..(2)

Iz

Vi V0

IL

R

Iz IL

Vi V0

R

Cross-multiplying, we get

Vi V0

Iz IL

RL

V0

IL

Pz max = Iz max Vz

construct DC o/p voltage irrespective of the changes in the line voltage & the load

current.

Most of the electronic circuits require a stable DC voltage for their proper operation.

Hence, it is necessary to regulate the voltage before giving as i/p to the electronic

circuits.

FORMULAS

1)

2)

3)

Zener current IZ = I IL

4)

Vi = IR + V0

5)

Vi V0

R

R

6)

Vi V0

Iz IL

R min

7)

8)

9)

10)

i)

RL

Vi ( max) V0

R max

I z ( max) I L (min)

ii)

V0

IL

I z (max)

Pz (max)

Vz

Iz

Iz (min)

Iz (min) + IL

Vi (min)

IR + V0

IZ

Iz (max)

Vi ( min) V0

I z ( min) I L (max)

Iz (max) + IL

Vi(max)

IR + Vo

Exam Problem : Design a zener regulator to meet the following specifications: Output

voltage 10 V, load current 10 mA, Unregulated DC input voltage = 15 2 V, Zener voltage =

500 mW and Iz (min) = 5 mA.

Given :- V0 = Vz = 10 V, IL = 10 mA

Vi(min) = 13 V,

Vi(min) = 15 2 = 13 V

Vi(max) = 17 V

Vi(max) = 15 + 2 = 17 V

Izmin = 5 mA, Pzmax = 50 mW

ILmax = ILmin = IL = 10 mA, R = ? & RL = ?

Sol :-

RL

V0 10 mV

1 K

I L 10 mA

R max

Vi (min) V0

I z (min) I L (max)

I z (max)

R min

Pz (max)

Vz

13 V 10 V

200

5 mA 10 mA

500 10 -3

50 mA

10

Vi ( max) V0

I z ( max) I L (min)

17 V 10 V

116 .66

50 mA 10 mA

Fig. :

Exam Problem : A 24 V, 600 mW zener diode is used for providing a 24 V stabilized supply

to a variable load. If the input voltage is 32 V, Calculate.

i) The value of series resistance required

ii) Diode current when the load is 1200

Given:- Vz = 24 V, Pz(max) = 600 mW, V0 = 24 V, Vi = 32 V

Sol:-

R

i)

Vin Vz

I z I L ; Since, I & R is not given, so I = 0

L

1

L

Vin Vz

I z(max)

I z(max)

R

Pz(max)

Vz

600 mW

25 mA

24

Vin Vz 32 V 24V

32

I z(max)

25 mA

IL

V0

24 V

20 mA

R L 1200

IL

Vin V0 32 V 20 V

20 mA

R

400

WKT I = IZ + IL

IZ = I IL = 20 mA 20 mA = 0 A

When load is 1200 , current Iz = 0 Amps

Fig.

Exam Problem : Design the zener regulator for the following specifications :

Output voltage = 5V, Load Current = 20 mA, Zener voltage

Pzmin = 500 mW, Input voltage =125 3V

Given :- Vz = V0 = 5 V, IL = ILmin = ILmax = 20 mA, Pzmax = 500 mW

Vi = 12 V 3V, i.e., Vi(min) = 12 V 3V = 9 V

R = ? RL = ? Vi(max) = 12 V + 3 V = 15 V

Sol:-

RL

V0

5V

250

I L 20 mA

I z(max)

R min

Pz(max)

Vz

500 mW

100 mA

5V

Vi(max) V0

I z(max) I L(min)

15 V 5 V

83.33

100 mA 20 mA

Fig.

requirements are 5V & 20 mA. Assuming Iz(min) & Iz(max) as 5 mA and 80 mA, design the zener

diode regulator.

Given:- Vin = 10 V 20 %, V0 = Vz = 5 V, IL = 20 mA

Iz(min) = 5 mA, Iz(max) = 80 mA, Vi(min) = 10 V 2 V = 8 V

Vi(max) = 10 V + 2 V = 12 V & IL = IL(min) = IL(max) = 20 mA

Sol:-

RL

V0

5V

250

I L 20 mA

R min

R max

Vi(max) V0

I z(max) I L(min)

Vi(min) V0

I z(min) I L(max)

12 V 5 V

70

80 mA 20 mA

8V 5V

120

5 mA 20 mA

Fig.

Exam Problem : In the zener voltage regulator shown in Fig., zener ratings are Vz = 10 V at

zener current of 32 mA with R2 = 0. Find the range of RL and IL for load voltage to be

constant. What is the maximum voltage of the diode ?

Fig.

Given : V0 = Vz = 10 V, Iz = 32 mA, Rz = 0 , Vin = 50 V, R = 1 K,

To find out : RL = ?, Pz(max) = ?

Vin V0 50 V 10 V

40 mA

R

1 K

I Iz IL

I L I I z 40 mA 32 mA 8 mA

RL

V0 10 V

1250

I L 8 mA

V0 = 12 V, Vin = (25 to 35) V, IL = (35 to 55) mA and Iz = (25 to 45) mA

R min

Vi(max) V0

I z(max) I L(min)

35 V 12 V

287.5

45 mA 35 mA

R max

Vi(min) V0

I z(min) I L(max)

R L(max)

R L(min)

V0

I L(max)

V0

I L(min)

25 V 12 V

162.5

25 mA 55 mA

12 V

218.18

55 mA

12 V

342.85

35 mA

Fig.

Exam Problem : A zener diode has a breakdown voltage of 10 V. It is supplied from a

voltage source varying between 20 - 40V in series with a resistance of 820 . Using an

ideal zener model, obtain the minimum and maximum zener currents.

Given : R = 820 , V0 = Vz = 10 V, Vi(min) = 20 V, Vi(max) = 40 V.

To find : Zener equivalent model = ?

I min

I max

Vi(min) V0

R

Vi(max) V0

R

20 V 10 V

12.195 mA

820

40 V 10 V

36.585 mA

820

IL(min) = 0 A, when the o/p terminals are open.

I max I z(max)

I z(max) I max 36.585 mA

Fig.

Exam Question : Explain the difference between Avalanche breakdown & Zener

breakdown w.r.t. zener diodes.

No.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Avalanche Breakdown

Take place in lightly doped diodes

Occurs at higher reverse voltage

Carrier multiplication is present

It destroys the junction

Depletion region is wider

It is gradual

Zener Breakdown

Take place in heavily doped diodes

Occurs at lower resource voltage

Carrier multiplication is absent

It will not destroy the junction

Depletion region is small

It is sharp & sudden

RECTIFIERS

Rectification :

Rectification is the process of converting alternating current (ac) into direct current (dc).

Semiconductor diodes are used as rectifying elements to do this process of conversion from

ac to dc.

1. Half wave rectifier (HWR)

2. Full wave rectifier (FWR)

1. Full wave rectifier using 2 diodes & a centre tapped transformer (FWR).

2. Full wave bridge rectifier using 4 diodes & an ordinary transformer (FWBR).

Fig.

Half wave rectifier consists of a single diode in series with a load resistance & the voltage

across the load can be taken as the output voltage V0. The ac voltage across the secondary

winding A & B of the transformer changes the polarities after every half a cycle.

Operation:

During positive half cycle of the ac input voltage, end A becomes positive with respect to

end B, the diode D is forward biased and acts as a short circuit, thus the current flows in

the circuit as shown in the Fig. 2. The load voltage is then given by V0 = IL RL

Fig 2

Fig 3

During negative half cycle of the ac input voltage, end A becomes negative with respect to

end B, the diode D is reverse biased and acts as a open circuit, thus no current flows in

the circuit as shown in the Fig. 3. The load voltage is given by V0 = 0 RL.

Therefore, V0 = 0 V

The dc output waveform is expected to be straight line, but the half wave rectifier gives the

output in the form of positive sinusoidal pulses. Hence, the output is called as a pulsating

dc waveform.

The load current is given by:

IL

where

Im

I m sin(in , 0 t

0, t 2

Vm

RL

Idc

1

I L d t

2

Idc

1

I m sin t.d t

2

I m sin t.d t

Im

cos( t ) 0

2

Im

cos() cos(0)

2

Im

1 1

2

Im

2

2

Im

Vdc

Idc RL ;

I dc

Im

Vdc

V

Im

Im m

RL

RL ;

Vm

R L . R

L

Vm

3) RMS value of load current (IRMS):- square root of the mean of the square of the

instantaneous values of the current.

2

IRMS

1

I 2L d t

2

1

2

1

2

Im sin t

.d t

I m sin

2

t .d t

sin 2

1 cos2

2

cos 2

sin 2

2

I 2m 1 cos 2 t

.d t

2

2

I 2m

4

1 cos2 t .d t 1 cos2 t .d t

I 2m

sin2 t

4

2

0

I 2m

sin2 t

0

4

2

I 2m

sin2 sin2(0)

4

2

2

I 2m

0 0 0

4

I 2m

; cos 2t = 0

=

=

I 2m

4

Im

2

VRMS

IRMS . RL

Im

RL

2

Vm

.R L

2R L

Vm

2

Im

; IRMS = 2

Vm

R

; Im = L

PDC

2

I dc

.R L

2

I 2m

Im

.R L

.RL

2

=

Vm

1

. .R L

2

RL

Vm2

=

R 2L 2

Vm

.R L

2

1

RL

PAC

I 2RMS . R L

Im

RL

2

7) Rectification efficiency (%):The rectifier efficiency is defined as the ratio of the dc power output to ac power input & is

given by

Pdc

DC o/p power

AC i/p power = Pac

0.406

40.6 %

I 2m

1

.R L

2

1 4

2

2 0.406

2

1

1

Im

4

.R L

= 4

8) Ripple factor:Ripple factor is defined as the ratio of the RMS value of the ac component present in the

rectified output to the dc component present in the rectified output.

WKT

WKT

dc component of o/p

I ac

I dc

IRMS

I 2rms

2

2

I ac

I dc

2

I ac

2

I 2rms I dc

I ac

IDC

.. Eq. (1)

2

2

I ac

I dc

2

I 2rms I dc

.. Eq. (2)

Im

Eq. (3)

I dc

I 2rms

2

I dc

1

1

=

r

Im

1

=

4 1

2

I dc

Im

2

I 2rms I dc

2

I 2rms I dc

I ac

I dc

I 2rms

2

I dc

2

I dc

2

I dc

2

1

4

1.21

This indicates that the amount of ac present in the output is 121 % of the dc voltage.

Peak Inverse voltage (PIV):PIV is the maximum voltage present across the diode, when the diode is reverse biased.

Fig. :

Applying KVL to the circuit, we get.

V2 + Vr IL RL

; IL = 0

V2 + Vr 0 RL

V 2 + Vr

Vr

V2

; V2 = Vm sin(mt)

Vr(max)

[Vm sin(mt)]max

Vr(max)

Vm

Vm

2. No centre-tap is required on the transformer.

3. PIV is same as secondary output voltage.

Disadvantages or demerits of HWR:1. The ripple factor is too high, i.e., = 1.21

2. Rectification efficiency is low i.e. 40.6%

FWR with centre-tapped transformer:Exam Question : Explain with the help of a neat circuit diagram the working of a full

wave rectifier & derive expressions for

i) Idc

ii) Irms

Operation:

During +ve half cycle:

During +ve half cycle of the ac input voltage, and A becomes +ve with respect to end B,

the diode D1 is forward biased and conducts while the diode D2 is reverse biased and

acts as open circuit and will not conduct as shown in Fig 2.

The diode D1 supplies the load current. The conventional current flow is through diode

D1, load resistor RL & the upper half of secondary winding as shown by the dotted

arrows.

Fig. 3

During ve half cycles of the ac input voltage, end A becomes ve with respect to end B,

the diode D2 is forward biased and conducts while the diode D1 is reverse biased and

The diode D2 supplies the load current. The conventional current flow is through diode

D2, load resistor RL & the lower half of secondary winding as shown by the solid arrows.

From fig 2 & 3 it can be observed that current in the load RL is in the same, direction for

For both the half cycles, the current flows through load in the same direction. Hence we

get half cycles for one complete input signal.

I/O Waveforms:

(a) Secondary waveform (b) &(c) Diode current waveforms

(d) Load current waveform (e) Load voltage waveform

Consider one cycle of the load current IL from 0 to to obtain the average value which is dc

value of load current.

Idc

1

I L d t

1

I m sin t.d t

Im

cos( t) 0

Im

cos() cos(0)

Im

1 1

Idc

Im

2

2I m

Vdc

Vdc

I dc

2 Im

Idc RL ;

V

2 Im

Im m

RL

RL ;

2 Vm

R L . R

L

2 Vm

IRMS

1 2

I L d t

I m sin t

.d t

Im sin

2

t .d t

I 2m 1 cos 2 t

.d t

2

Im

=

1 cos2

2

cos 2

sin 2

2

1 cos 2 t .d t

0

1.d t cos2 t .d t

Im

1

sin2 t

t0

2

2

Im

1

1

2

2

Im

1

1

0 0 0

2

2

= Im

1

2

sin 2

; sin 2t = 0

Im

Im

IRMS

Im

VRMS

IRMS . RL

Im

2

.R L

2 RL

Vm

R

; Im = L

RL

Vm

; IRMS =

Vm

2

=

5) DC output power (Pdc):-

PDC

2I m

; But, Idc =

2

I dc

.R L

2I m

.R L

4I 2m

2

Vm

R

; But, Im = L

.R L

2

Vm

1

. .R L

2

RL

4 Vm2

2 R L

PAC

I 2rms.R L

; But, Irms =

Im

=

Im

.R L

I 2m

.R L

2

7) Rectification efficiency ():- The rectifier efficiency is defined as the ratio of output dc

power to input ac power & is given by

I 2m

4

.R L

2

4 2

2

2 0.812

2

1

1

Im

2

.R L

= 2

4

Pdc

DC o/p power

AC i/p power = Pac

0.812

81.2 %

dc component of o/p

I ac

I dc

Im

I 2rms

2

I dc

1

4

=

r

2 Im

1

=

2 1

1 2

2 4 =

I 2m

4 I 2m

=

2

1

8

0.48

This indicates that the amount of ac present in the output is 0.48% of the dc voltage.

Peak Inverse voltage (PIV):PIV is the maximum voltage across the diode, when the diode is reverse biased.

Applying KVL to the circuit, we get

V2 + V2 Vr

; But, IL = 0

Vr

2 V2

Vr(max)

2 Vm sin mt

2 Vm

PIV

2. The ripple factor is much less than that of HWR

3. The dc output voltage and load current value are twice than HWR.

4. Large dc power output.

2. Cost of centre-tap transformer is higher.

3. Output voltage is half of the secondary voltage.

4. Cost of the FWR is high as it involves more number of components

Operation:During +ve half cycle:-

Fig.

During +ve half cycle of the ac input voltage, end A becomes +ve with respect to end B.

This makes diodes D1 & D2 forward biased, while D3 & D4 are reverse biased.

Therefore only diodes D1 & D2 conducts. The conventional current flows through the

load resistance RL and is shown by the arrows.

Fig.

During ve half cycle of the ac input voltage, end A becomes ve with respect to end B.

This makes diodes D3 &D4 forward biased, while D2 & D2 are reverse biased.

Therefore only diodes D3 &D4 conducts. The conventional current flows through the

For both the half cycles, the current flows through load in the same direction. Hence we

get two half cycles for one complete input signal.

I/O Waveforms:

1) Average or dc load current (Idc or Iac):Consider one cycle of the load current IL from 0 to to obtain the average value which is dc

value of load current.

Idc

1

I L d t

Idc

1

I m sin t.d t

Im

cos( t) 0

Im

cos() cos(0)

Im

1 1

Im

2

2I m

Vdc

Vdc

I dc

2 Im

Idc RL ;

V

2 Im

Im m

RL

RL ;

2 Vm

R L . R

L

2 Vm

IRMS

1 2

I L d t

I m sin t

0

.d t

;

sin 2

1 cos2

2

Im sin

2

t .d t

I 2m 1 cos 2 t

.d t

2

Im

=

sin 2

2

1 cos 2 t .d t

0

1.d t cos2 t .d t

Im

1

sin2 t

t0

2

2

Im

1

1

2

2

Im

1

1

0 0 0

2

2

Im

= Im

1

2

cos 2

; sin 2t = 0

Im

IRMS

Im

VRMS

IRMS . RL

Im

=

Vm

R

; Im = L

RL

Vm

; IRMS =

.R L

2 RL

Vm

PDC

2

I dc

.R L

2I m

; But, Idc =

2I m

.R L

; But, Im =

Vm

RL

4I 2m

.R L

V

1

4 m . 2 .R L

RL

4 Vm2

2 R L

PAC

; But, Irms =

Im

=

Im

I 2rms.R L

.R L

I 2m

.R L

2

7) Rectification efficiency ():- The rectifier efficiency is defined as the ratio of output dc

power to input ac power.

I 2m

4

.R L

2

2 4 2 0.812

1

I 2m

2 1

2

.R L

= 2

4

Pdc

DC o/p power

AC i/p power = Pac

0.812

81.2 %

dc component of o/p

I ac

I dc

Im

I 2rms

=

2

I dc

1

4

=

r

0.48

2 Im

1

=

2 1

1 2

2 4 =

I 2m

4 I 2m

=

2

1

8

2

2

This indicates that the amount of ac present in the output is 0.48% of the dc voltage.

2. The PIV is only Vm.

3. The transformer is less costly.

2. It is quite expensive as it involves more number of components.

Peak Inverse voltages (PIV):PIV is the maximum voltage across the diode, when the diode is reverse biased.

Therefore, for FWBR

PIV

Vm

Rectifiers are used

1. In power supply circuits.

2. In rectifier type meters to convert ac voltage to dc type.

No

Parameter

HWR

FWR

FWBR

.

1.

2.

3.

Peak Voltage

Peak load

current (Ideal)

Peak load

current

Vm 2 V2

5.

Vm

RL

Im

Vm

RL

Im

Vm

RL

Im

Vm

Rf RL

Im

Vm

Rf RL

Im

Vm

2R f R L

I dc

Im

I dc

2I m

I dc

2I m

I dc

Vm

1

.

Rf RL

I dc

2Vm

1

.

Rf RL

I dc

2Vm

1

.

Rf RL

DC load current

Load voltage

Vm 2 V2

Im

(Practical)

4.

Vm 2 V2

Vdc I dc . R L

Vdc I dc . R L

Vdc I dc . R L

RMS load

current

6.

or AC load

current

AC I/P power

7.

(Ideal)

AC I/P power

8.

(practical)

Percentage

9.

10.

regulation

RMS load Voltage

VRMS

I rms

Im

2

I rms

Im

I rms

Im

2

Pac I 2rms . R L

Pac I 2rms . R L

Pac I 2rms . R L

Pac I 2rms . R L R f

Pac I 2rms . R L R f

Pac I 2rms . R L 2R f

Rf

100

RL

Rf

100

RL

2R f

100

RL

Vrms

Vm

2

Vrms

Vm

Vrms

Vm

2

11.

2

Pdc I dc

.R L

12.

% efficiency

Pdc

100 %

Pac

Pdc

100 %

Pac

Pdc

100 %

Pac

13.

PIV

RMS value of the

Vm

2 Vm

Vm

Vac = r Vdc

Vac = r Vdc

Vac = r Vdc

fin

2fin

2fin

14.

15.

V

r ac

Vdc

Ripple frequency

Ripple factor

16.

17.

18.

I ac

Vac

I

V

r = dc = dc

Diodes

Transformer

I rms

I dc

Vrms

Vdc

1

2

1 nos.

No centre tap

2

Pdc I dc

.R L

2

Pdc I dc

.R L

I rms

I dc

Vrms

Vdc

1

2

2 nos.

Centre tap reqd.

I rms

I dc

Vrms

Vdc

1

2

4 nos.

No centre tap

Exam Problem : In a full wave bridge rectifier, the transformer secondary voltage is 100

sint. The forward resistance of each diode is 25 and the load resistance is 950 .

Calculate

i) D.C. output voltage ii) ripple factor iii) Efficiency of rectification iv) PIV across nonconducting diodes.

Given : Vs = 100 sin(t), Rf = 25 , RL = 950

Sol : WKT, Vs = Vm sin(t), where Vm = 100 V

Im

Vm

100

0.1 A

2R f R L = 2 25 950

I rms

Im

0.1

2= 2

0.0707

2I m 2(0.1)

= = 0.063 A

I dc

I rms

I dc

r=

1

=

0.0707

0.063

1 0.048

2

Pdc I dc

. R L = (0.063)2 950 = 3.85 W

Pdc

3.85 W

100 %

100 % 77 %

P

% = ac

= 5W

Exam Problem : In a two diode FWR circuit, the voltage across each half of the transformer

secondary is 100V. The load resistance is 950 and each diode has a forward resistance of

50 . Find the load current and the rms value of the input current.

Given : Vs = 100 V, Rf = 50 , RL = 950

Vs Vrms

Sol :

Im

Vm

2 ; Vm 2 Vs 2 100 141.42 V

Vm

141.42 V

R f R L = 950 50 = 0.141 A

I rms

I dc

Im

2=

0.141

2

0.0997 A

2I m 2(0.141)

=

= 0.090 A

source voltage of 230v, 50Hz. Neglecting the diode resistances, calculate

i) Average DC voltage ii) Average direct currency iii) frequency of output waveform.

Given : Vs = 230 V, RL = 100 , f = 50 Hz

Sol : WKT, Vm 2 Vs 2 230 325 V

Vdc

2Vm 2 325

206 .9 V

Im

Vm 325

3.25 A

R L 100

I dc

2I m 2(3.25)

2.06 A

=

Exam Problem : In a full wave rectifier, the input is from a 30-0-30 v transformer. The load

and diode forward resistance are 100 and 10 respectively. Calculate the average voltage,

rectification efficiency and percentage regulation.

Given : Vs = 30 V, RL = 100 , Rf = 10

Sol : Vm 2 Vs 2 30 42.4264 V

Im

Vm

42.4264 V

0.3856 A

R f R L = 100 10

I dc

2I m 2(0.3856)

0.2455 A

=

I rms

Im

2=

0.3856

2

0.272 A

2

Pdc I dc

. R L = (0.2455)2 100 = 6.027 W

Pdc

6.027 W

100 %

100 % 73.69 %

P

% = ac

= 8.177 W

Rf

100 10 100

R

Percentage regulation = L

= 100

= 10

Exam Problem : A diode with VF=0.7v is connected as a half wave rectifier. The load

resistance is 600 and the (rms) ac input is 24 v. Determine the peak output voltage, the

peak load current and the diode peak reverse voltage.

Given : Vf = 0.7 V, RL = 600 , Vs = 24 V

Sol : Vm 2 Vs 2 24 33.941 V

Im

Vm Vf 33.941 0.7

55.4018 mA

RL

600

PIV = Vm = 33.941 V

or V0 = Vm Vf = 33.941 0.7 = 33.24 V

Exam Question : What is a filter ? Why it is required.

Filter is a circuit used to reduce the ripple content present in the rectified output. The

ripple content of rectified output can be filtered out by connecting a capacitor in parallel

with R1. The output from rectifiers is not pure dc due to ripple content. In HWR ripple

content is 121 %, whereas in FWR it is 48 %. In order to obtain pure dc, filter circuits are

required.

Fig.

During +ve half cycle of the ac input, the diode is forward biased and conducts and charges

the capacitor to the peak value of Vm of the input voltage. When the input voltage to the

diode falls below Vm, the diode will stop conducting. Now, the capacitor starts discharging

through RL and the capacitor voltage decreases. The discharging of capacitor continues till

the diode starts conducting again and charges the capacitor in the next +ve half cycle of the

ac input voltage.

From the Fig. , we find that without capacitor filter, output voltage varies between zero and

Vm. With capacitor filter, the output voltage varies between { Vm Vr(p-p) } and Vm. This clearly

indicates that the shunting of R1 by C reduces the ripple content in the output voltage.

The ripple factor with C filter for a HWR is given by

1

2 3f c R L

During +ve half cycle of the ac input, the diode D1 conducts and charges the capacitor to

the peak value of Vm of the input voltage. When the input voltage falls below Vm, the diode

stops conducting. Now the capacitor starts discharging through RL and the capacitor

voltage decreases. The discharging of the capacitor continuous until the diode D2 starts

conducting again in the next half cycle and charges the capacitor.

Figure shows the waveforms, we find that without capacitor filter, output voltage Vo varies

between zero and Vm. With capacitor filter the output voltage varies { Vm Vr(p-p) } and Vm.

This clearly indicates that the shunting of RL and C reduces the ripple content in the output

voltage. The ripple factor with C filter for a FWR is given by

1

4 3f c R L

T1 capacitor charging time

T2 capacitor discharging time

Operation :

During the +ve half cycle of the ac input, the diodes D1 & D2 conducts and charges the

capacitor to the peak value of Vm of the input voltage. When the input voltage falls below Vm,

the diode stops conducting. Now the capacitor starts discharging through RL and the

capacitor voltage decreases. The discharging of the capacitor continues until the diodes D1

& D2 starts conducting again in the next half cycle and charges the capacitor. Figure 2

shows the waveforms, we find that without capacitor filter, output voltage V0 varies between

zero and Vm. With capacitor filter the output voltage varies between { Vm Vr(p-p) } and Vm.

This clearly indicates that the shunting of RL and C reduces the ripple content in the output

voltage. The ripple factor with C filter for a bridge rectifier is given by

r

I/O Waveforms

T1 Capacitor charging time

T2 Capacitor discharging time

1

4 3f c R L

Note:Let,

T Time period of the ac input voltage.

T T/2 + T/2

T1 Time for which diode is conducting.

T2 Time for which diode is non-conducting.

During T1, capacitor gets charged. This process is very fast.

During T2, capacitor gets discharged through RL. Since time constant RLC is very large,

discharging process is very slow.

Let Vr be the peak to peak value of ripple voltage, which is assumed to be triangular wave.

Vr (rms)

Vdc

(1)

RMS value of a triangular wave is

Vr (rms)

Vr

2 3 (2)

To find the value of Vr:WKT the rate of change of charging is equal to the rate of change of discharging.

i.e.,

Q(charging)

Q = CV

Q=IT

w.r.t. charging

CVr

WKT

Q(dis-charging)

w.r.t. time

=

Idc T2

Vr

I dc T2

C .. (3)

T1 + T2

T2

>> T1

T2

1

f .. (4)

T2

Vr

I dc

V

I dc dc

f C ; Since,

RL

Vr

Vdc

f C R L . (5)

Vr

Vr(rms)

2 3

Vdc

2 3 f C R L .. (6)

Vdc

r

2 3 f C RL

1

Vdc

1

r

2 3 f C RL

T Time period of the ac input voltage.

T T/2 +T/2

T1 Time for which diode is conducting.

T2 Time for which diode is non-conducting.

During T1, capacitor gets charged. This process is very fast.

During T2, capacitor gets discharged through RL. Since time constant RLC is very large,

discharging process is very slow.

Let Vr be the peak to peak value of ripple voltage, which is assumed to be triangular wave.

Vr (rms)

Vdc

(1)

RMS value of the triangular wave is

Vr (rms)

Vr

2 3 (2)

To find the value of Vr :WKT the rate of change of charging is equal to the rate of change of discharging,

i.e.,

Q(charging)

Q = CV

Q=IT

w.r.t. charging

CVr

WKT

Q(dis-charging)

w.r.t. time

=

Idc T2

Vr

I dc T2

C .. (3)

T1 + T2

T2

>> T1

T2

T

2

1

f

1

2f .. (4)

T

T2

Vr

Vr

I dc

V

I dc dc

2 f C ; Since,

RL

Vdc

2 f C R L . (5)

Vr

Vr(rms)

2 3

Vdc

2 f C RL2 3

Vdc

Vr(rms)

4 3 f C R L .. (6)

Vdc

r

4 3 f C RL

1

Vdc

1

r

4 3 f C RL

Exam Question : With necessary circuit and wave forms, explain a bridge rectifier circuit

with capacitor filter. Derive an expression for the ripple factor.

Exam Question : Draw the circuit of a full wave bridge rectifier with capacitor filter and

explain its operation. Derive an expression for its ripple factor.

Exam Question : Draw the circuit diagram of a bridge rectifier with capacitor filter. Plot its

input and out waveforms. Derive an expression for its ripple factor.

Ans. :

Fig. : Full wave bridge rectifier with capacitor filter

Operation:

During the +ve half cycle of the ac input, the diodes D1 & D2 conducts and charges the

capacitor to the peak value of Vm of the input voltage. When the input voltage falls below Vm,

the diode stops conducting. Now, the capacitor starts discharging through RL and the

capacitor voltage decreases. The discharging of the capacitor continues until the diodes

D1&D2 starts conducting again in the next half cycle and charges the capacitor. Figure 2

shows the waveforms; we find that without capacitor filter, output voltage Vo varies between

zero and Vm. With capacitor filter the output voltage varies between { Vm Vr(p-p) } & Vm. This

clearly indicates that the shunting of RL and C reduces the ripple content in the output

voltage.

The ripple factor C filter is given by

1

r =

4 3 f C RL

I/O Waveform:

T1 Capacitor charging time

T2 Capacitor discharging time

Note :Let,

T

T/2 +T/2

T/2 T1 + T2

T1

T2

During T2, capacitor gets discharged through RL. Since time constant RLC is very large,

discharging process is very slow.

Let Vr be the peak to peak value of ripple voltage, which is assumed to be triangular wave.

Vr (rms)

Vdc

(1)

RMS value of the triangular wave is

Vr (rms)

Vr

2 3 (2)

To find the value of Vr:WKT the rate of change of charging is equal to the rate of change of discharging.

i.e.,

Q(charging)

Q = CV

Q=IT

w.r.t. charging

CVr

Vr

WKT

where

T1 + T2

Q(dis-charging)

w.r.t. time

=

Idc T2

I dc T2

C .. (3)

T

2

T2

>> T1

T2

T

2

1

f

1

2f .. (4)

T

T2

Vr

Vr

I dc

V

I dc dc

2 f C ; Since,

RL

Vdc

2 f C R L . (5)

Vr

Vr(rms)

2 3

Vdc

2 f C RL2 3

Vdc

Vr(rms)

4 3 f C R L .. (6)

Vdc

r

4 3 f C RL

1

Vdc

1

r

4 3 f C RL

No.

1)

Parameter

Ripple factor

2)

DC o/p voltage

3)

Load resistance

HWR

1

2 3 f C RL

Vdc Vm

I dc

2f C

RL

1

4 3 f C RL

Vdc Vm

I dc

4f C

RL

4)

Load resistance

2 3f Cr

V

RL m

I dc

5)

Vm 2 V2(rms)

6)

7)

% Regulation

R0

100

RL

R0

100

RL

8)

R

Vm Vdc 1 0

RL

R

Vm Vdc 1 0

RL

I

Vm Vdc dc

4f C

Vdc I dc .R L

Vdc I dc .R L

11)

Vr (rms)

12)

13)

14)

15)

Vr(rms)

Ripple factor

Vm 2 V2(rms)

R0

9)

10)

4 3f Cr

V

RL m

I dc

Vr

Vr (rms)

2 3

Vdc

2 3 f C RL

Vr (rms)

Vr(rms)

r

Vdc

Vr (rms) r Vdc

Vr (rms)

1

4f C

I dc

2 3f C

Vr

2 3

Vdc

4 3 f C RL

Vr (rms)

Vdc

Vr (rms) r Vdc

Vr (rms)

I dc

4 3f C

Exam Problem : A full wave rectifier using centre tapped transformer supplies a resistive

load of 1K. The transformer secondary end to end voltage is 60 V rms at 50 Hz. The filter

capacitance is 500 F. Calculate:

i) Ripple factor ii) Output resistance of the filter (R0) iii) Vdc iv) Idc v) regulation

Given : RL = 1 K

Vrms = 60 V

r

Sol : Ripple factor,

f = 50 Hz

C = 500 F

4 3 f C R L = 4 3 1 10 3 50 500 10 6

00058

1

1

10

4f C = 4 50 500 10 6

R0

Vm 2 Vrms 2 30 42.42 V

R

Vm Vdc 1 0

RL

I dc

Vdc

Vm

R

1 0

RL

42.42

10

1

1 10 3 = 42 V

Vdc

42

42 mA

R L 1 10 3

R0

10

100

100 1 %

3

R

% regulation = L

= 1 10

Exam Problem : Design a full wave rectifier with C-filter for the following specification:

Output dc voltage = 35V; Maximum load current = 250mA: Ripple factor < 0.06

Given : Vdc = 35 V

Sol :

RL

r 0.06 f = 50 hz

Vdc

35

140

I dc 250 10 3

1

4 3 f C R L ; ,

Vm Vdc

Idc = 230 mA

1

4 3 f r RL

1

4 3 50 140 0.06

250 10 3

I dc

35

38.53 V

4 50 343.66

4f C =

Vm 2 Vrms , ,

Vrms

Vm

2

38.53

27.3 V

2

Fig.

343 .66 F

Exam Problem : A full wave bridge rectifier is supplied from the transformer secondary

voltage of 100 V. Calculate the dc output voltage and peak inverse voltage of the diodes

employed.

Given : Vrms = 100 V

To find : Vdc = ?

PIV = ?

Vdc

90 V

PIV = Vm = 141.42 V

Exam Problem : Draw the circuit diagram of a full wave rectifier with capacitor filter. The

circuit uses a capacitor of 1000 F and provides a dc load current of 500 mA at 2 % ripple.

Assume f = 50Hz.

Calculate: i) D.C output voltage ii) Peak rectified voltage and % regulation.

Given : C = 1000 F

r

Sol : Ripple factor,

RL

Idc = IL = 500 mA

f = 50 hz

1

4 3 f C RL

1

r = 2 % = 0.02

4 3f Cr = 4 3f Cr

1

4 3 50 1000 0.02

144 .34

Vm Vdc

500 10 3

I dc

72.17

74.67 V

4f C =

4 50 500 10 3

or

R

Vm Vdc 1 0

RL

72.17 1

74.67 V

144.34

=

R0

1

1

5

4f C = 4 50 1000 10 6

R0

5

100

100 3.64 %

R

L

144.34

% regulation =

=

Exam Problem : Design a FWR with a capacitor filter to meet the following specifications.

DC output voltage =15V, Load resistance =1 K. RMS ripple voltage on capacitor <1% of

DC output voltage. Assume the AC supply voltage as 230 V, 50 Hz.

Given : Vdc = 15 V RL = 1 K

r = 1 % = 0 .01

f = 50 hz

Vrms = 1 % of Vdc

1

4 3 f C R L ; ,

I dc

1

4 3 f r RL

1

4 3 50 1 10 3 0.01

288 .675 F

Vdc

15

15 mA

R L 1 10 3

Vdc Vm

WKT

Vrms

Vm

2

I dc

15 10 3

I dc 15

15 .25 V

V Vdc

4f C ; , m

4 50 288 .675

4f C =

15.25

2

10.31 V

Fig.

Exam Problem : Design a power supply using a FWR with capacitance filter to give an

output voltage of 10V at 10 mA from a 220 V, 50 Hz supply. The ripple factor must be less

than 0.01, i.e., 1 %.

Given : V0 = Vdc = 10 V

IL = 10 mA

f = 50 hz

r < 0.01

To find : RL = ? C = ?

Sol :

RL

V0

10

1 K

I L 10 10 3

1

4 3 f C R L ; ,

1

4 3 f r RL

1

4 3 50 1 10 3 0.01

288 .675 F

Fig.

Exam Problem : In a FWR with a capacitor filter, the load current from the circuit

operating from 230 V, 50 Hz supply is 10 mA. Estimate the value of capacitor required to

keep the ripple factor less than 1 %.

Given : V2 = 230 V

f = 50 Hz IL = 10 mA

Sol : Vm 2 V2 =

RL

Vdc

IL

RL

Vdc

207 .07

20.70 K

I L 10 10 3

r = 1 % = 0.01

Vdc

2Vm

Vdc

2 325.269

207 .07 V

1

4 3 f C R L ; ,

1

4 3 f r RL

1

4 3 50 20 .70 10 3 0.01

13.94 F

Exam Problem : A full-wave bridge rectifier supplies a load of 400 in parallel with a

capacitor of 500F. If the ac supply voltage is 230v sin 314t v, find the i) Ripple factor and

ii) D.C load current.

Given : RL = 400

Vm = 230 V

r

Sol :

C = 500 F

= 314 ; 2 f = 314

314

50 hz

2

4 3 f C R L = 4 3 50 400 500 10 6

I dc

2I m

I dc

2I m 2Vm 2 230

0.366 A

R L 400

0.0144 1.44 %

Exam Problem : A full wave rectifier has a load of 2 k. The AC voltage applied to the

diodes is 200-0-200 V. Assuming ideal diodes,

Calculate i) Average DC current ii) average DC voltage and iii) Ripple voltage.

If a capacitor of value 500 F is connected across the load, what is the new value of the

ripple voltage? Assume f = 50 Hz.

Given : RL = 2 K

Vs = 200 V

f = 50 hz

C = 500 F

Im

Vm

282.842

0.1414 A

R L = 2 10 3

I dc

2I m 2 0.1414

0.09 A

=

Vac

Vdc ; , V = r V

ac

dc

Vac = 0.48 180.03 = 86.4 V

If now a capacitor filter of C = 500 F is used, then

4 3 f C R L = 4 3 50 2 10 3 500 10 6

r

WKT

Vr(rms)

2.8867 10 3

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