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Geometrical Tolerancing

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nsf/res/

Geometrical_tolerancing_in_practice_EN_10037113

.pdf/$file/

Geometrical_tolerancing_in_practice_EN_10037113

.pdf

-----------------------http://www.jenoptik.com/internet_en_downloads

-----------------------(2013-03-03)

**Form measurement systems
**

from Hommel-Etamic

Geometrical tolerancing in practice

**Precision is our business.
**

DKD-K-02401

A A . if the tolerance applies for the axis or median plane or a point of the element. A A Restriction of the datum to an area of the element as a dot-dash line with dimensioning.01 Toleranced elements Indicating arrow to contour line or subsidiary line (offset from dimension line): Indicating arrow as an extension of the dimension line: if the tolerance refers to the line or area. if the datum is the axis.Drawing entries Tolerance frame 0. A 2 A filled in or empty datum triangle has the same meaning. Datums Datum triangle with datum letters on the contour line of the element or on the subsidiary line: as an extension of the dimension line: if the displayed datum is a line or area. the median plane or an appropriately dimensioned point.01 A Datum letter Tolerance value in mm Symbol for the toleranced characteristic Indicating arrow Toleranced element 0.

1. the dimensions of which correspond to t those of the toleranced area. The circumference line of the toleranced cylinder must be within a circle ring of the zone width 0.1 in every radial section plane.2. Flatness t - 0. It is formed by two coaxial cylinders with the radial distance t. The real workpiece area must be between the two parallel planes at distance t apart. Cylindricity The tolerance zone for 0.1 The toleranced cylindrical area must be between two coaxial cylinders with a radial distance of 0.2 The tolerance zone is limited by two parallel planes at a distance t apart.1. 3 . Roundness 0.1 Every envelope line of the toleranced cylinder surface must be between two parallel lines at a distance apart of 0. Example 0.1 Example 0.Form tolerances according to ISO 1101 Straightness t The tolerance zone is 0.2 The real workpiece area must be between two parallel planes at a distance apart of 0. Every envelope line of the toleranced cylinder must be between these two parallel lines.1 The tolerance zone is limited by two concentric circles at a distance t apart. the straightness of the envelope line and the parallelism of the envelope line to the cylinder axis. Example 0.1 limited by two parallel lines at a distance tt apart. The circumference line of t the toleranced cylinder must be within a circle ring of the zone width t.1 t the cylinder envelope area limits the deviation t of the roundness. Example 0. in every radial section t plane.

1 A 20° A A Coaxiality t A is The tolerance0.1.1 apart.1 and is coaxial to the datum axis A. 0.1 A t A A Every single envelope line of the toleranced area must be between two parallel lines that are at a distance of 0. Example 0. Example All points/circle lines of the toleranced area must be between two parallel planes that are at a distance of 0. The toleranced plane face must be between these two planes. which are perpen-t dicular to the datum axis.1 parallel planes at a distance t t 20° apart at the nominal angle to the datum axis. Perpendicularity 0.1 apart. A 4 Example 0.1 A A The axis of the toleranced cylinder must be within a cylinder that has a diameter of 0.1 A zone is The tolerance limited by two parallel planes at a distance t t apart. 0. .1 A within which the envelope lines of the toleranced cylinder must lie is limited by two parallel lines at a distance t apart which run parallel to the datum plane. The actual axis of the toleranced element must be within the tolerance zone. and are perpendicular to the datum plane.1 zone limited by a cylinder of diameter t. and are parallel to the center axis. Example All points of the toleranced area must be between two parallel planes that are at a distance apart of 0. the axis of which matches the t datum axis.Position tolerances according to ISO 1101 Parallelism t The tolerance zone 0.1 A A A Angularity 20° t The tolerance zone is limited by two A 20° 0. and are angled at 20º to the datum axis.

all points of the surface of the tolerance plane face must be within the tolerance zone. The diameter of the cylinder can adopt any value of the diameter of the plane face. t The circles are in a cylinder. After several rotations around the datum axis and t axial shift of the transducer t all points of the toleranced element 0.1 with their common axis on the datum axis A.1 zone Example A is limited in every radial distance of two 0.1 A A toleranced0.1 A tolerance zone. A The toleranced area must be between two parallel circle planes at a distance apart of 0.1zone is limited Example by two parallel planes at a 0.Run-out tolerances according to ISO 1101 Radial run-out In every radial section plane Example perpendicular to the surface. 5 .1 with their common center point on the datum axis A. the tolerance zone isAlimited by two concentric circles at a distance t apart. A Every circle line of the toleranced area must be between two parallel circle planes at a distance apart of 0. A The toleranced cylindrical area must be between two coaxial cylinders with a radial distance apart of 0. A the axis of which matches the datum axis. Total axial run-out t A The tolerance0. the common center point of which is on the datum axis. Total radial run-out The tolerance zone is limited Example by two coaxial cylinders at a A distance t apart. The radial runt out tolerance applies generallyt for a full revolution of the 0. Axial run-out t The tolerance0.1 A distance t apart. A The circumference line of every radial section plane of the toleranced cylindrical area must be between two concentric circles at a distance apart of 0. the axes of which match the datum axis. which are t A datum perpendicular to the (rotational) axis.1 must A be within the 0. After several rotations around the datum axis and radial shift of the transducer.1element around the datum axis.1 A circles at a distance t apart.1 with their common center point on the datum axis A.1 with their common center point on the datum axis A.

training and service .hommel-etamic.Our global presence. Our service range Metrology Tactile metrology Pneumatic metrology Optical metrology Product range Roughness measurement Contour measurement Form measurement Optical shaft measurement Dimensional measurement Optical surface inspection Inspection process In-process Post-process PLC Final inspection Measuring room www.com 05/2011 · Art-Nr. 10037113 Service System solutions DKD calibration service Consulting.

MCCI Minimum Circumscribed Circle Minimum circle circumscribing the roundness profile for outside areas. LSCI Least Square Circle Circle through the roundness profile with minimum sum of profile deviation squares. MICI Maximum Inscribed Circle Maximum circle inscribed in the roundness profile for inside areas. Individual profile peaks influence the center point considerably. Individual profile peaks influence the center point only a little. The method is used for form measurement of the outside diameter.Evaluation method Evaluation method Effect and function of different evaluation methods on the roundness evaluation MZCI Minimum Zone Circle Concentric inner and outer perimeter circles with a minimum radial distance. Gives the least possible form error. and which enclose the roundness profile. Very suitable for stable datum formation. 7 . The method is used for form measurement of the inside diameter.

Specification of cut-off in w/r (waves/revolution).Filtering method Filtering method Definition according to ISO 11562 for roughness and form measurement. Filter characteristic: Gaussian amplitude transmission function Amplitude damping at cut-off λc: 50 % Number of points per wave Roundness measurement: Recommended cut-off numbers: At least 7 points per wave must be selected...5. 250 > 250 50-150 50-500 50-500 150-1500 > 1050 > 3500 > 3500 > 10500 Form only Form and waviness Waviness only 8 .. 25 > 25 .25....8. 15.14 / number of cut-offs Straightness measurement: Specification of cut-off in mm Recommended cut-offs: 0. 2.. 150. 250 > 250 50 150 500 1500 > 350 > 1050 > 3500 > 10500 . 8.. 0.0 mm Recommended filter settings for roundness measurement Workpiece Ø (mm) Number of cut-offs (s/r) Measuring points per circumference ..8 > 8 .. 250 > 250 15 50 150 500 > 105 > 350 > 1050 > 3500 ..... 50.. 25 > 25 .. 500 w/r Conversion of w/r to wavelength: λc = D x 3. 8 > 8 .. 25 > 25 .. The specification is independent of the workpiece diameter.8 > 8 .

04 µm Filter 50 W/R 0.71 µm 9 .71 µm RONt (MZCI) = 0.49 µm RONt (MZCI) = 1.49 µm Filter 150 W/R 1. Gauss filter 50 % No filter 1.91 µm Filter 15 W/R 0.04 µm RONt (MZCI) = 1.Filter stages Filter stages Filter effect of different cut-off numbers on the roundness result.91 µm RONt (MZCI) = 0.

5 Tolerance class K Nominal > 10 > 30 > 100 dimension range .4 0... orientation..0 Tolerance class L Nominal > 10 > 30 > 100 dimension range ...10 . flatness. angularity) between the toleranced element and the datum and form deviation of the toleranced element is limited. symmetry) from its ideal geometrical location.0 1. Form tolerance refers to the tolerance zone that limits the deviation of a form element from its ideal geometry (straightness.. roundness. which must be defined clearly by a datum or a system of datums.1 0. A orientation tolerance refers to a tolerance zone with which the deviation from the general direction (parallelism...100 .10 ..6 1..1000 ..30 .4 0.8 1.1 0.8 0....3000 0.0 0. median plane) of the workpiece must lie..2 0..10 .3000 1..30 .6 0. perpendicularity.1 > 300 > 1000 ..2 0.6 0.6 1.1 0.6 1.5 2.. cylindricity) and is orientated exclusively to the toleranced element.5 > 300 > 1000 .0 Tolerance value corresponds to the diameter tolerance or maximum general tolerance for the radial run-out..4 0. tolerance zones are determined within which the toleranced elements (line. General tolerances according to ISO 2768 part 2 For workpieces produced by cutting All dimensions in mm Tolerance class H Nominal > 10 > 30 > 100 dimension range . Only the tolerances for profile any line and profile any surface require theoretically exact dimension specifications and datums. area. A run-out tolerance refers to a tolerance zone which limits the form and position deviations of envelope areas or plane faces in relation to the rotational axis..4 0..0 0.. location and run-out according to ISO 1101 Using the standardized tolerance specifications.3000 0.05 0.....100 . coaxiality..2 0. Tolerance value corresponds to the maximum value in comparison of the dimension tolerance of the distance dimension with the general tolerance for the straightness or the flatness of the form elements being inspected.2 1.1000 .300 0.4 0...8 1.3 0.3 0.2 0.. Location tolerance refers to the tolerance zone which limits the deviation of the toleranced element (position.8 0.30 .1000 .5 2.. 10 .02 0.300 0.5 0.. point.05 0. axis..6 0. concentricity..100 .2 > 300 > 1000 .300 0.General information Tolerances of form.0 0..

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