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OBJECTIVESOFINTERNSHIP

Themainobjectivesoftheproject/internshipwere:
1. Understandingbasicprinciplesofproductionoftextiles.
2. Indepthstudyandunderstandingofallprocessinvolvedintextileproductionandthe
machineryandequipmentused.
3. Knowledgeaboutthecompany.
4. Understandingthecompanysprocessflowinproduction
5. Studytheworkenvironmentandpracticesfollowedfortextileproduction.

The project is based on two weeks (i.e., May 25, 2015 to June 6, 2015) internship in
Arvind Mills- Shirting Division, Santej (Gandhinagar) unit. It covers the information
and learning experiences related to manufacturing shirting fabrics and the the
processes involved are:

Spinning
Dyeing
Weaving
Finishing
Testing
Industry Mentor- MR. SUBHANISH MALHOTARA (Chief Manager HR)

OVERVIEWOFINDIANTEXTILEINDUSTRY

The textile industry has been gradually relocated from the developed to the developing
countries, over the last few decades. This phenomenon has increased the opportunity for
developingcountriestoboostmanufacturingandtradeintextiles.Itishighlycompetitiveandits
prospectsarecontinuouslyincreasing.
The Indian textile industry has a significant presence in the economy as well as in the
internationaltextileeconomy.ItscontributiontotheIndianeconomyismanifestedintermsofits
contributiontotheindustrialproduction,employmentgenerationandforeignexchangeearnings.
Itcontributes20percentofindustrialproduction,9percentofexcisecollections,18percentof
employmentintheindustrialsector,nearly20percenttothecountrystotalexportearningand4
percenttotheGrossDomesticProduct. Astrongrawmaterialproductionbase,avastpoolof
skilledandunskilledpersonnel,cheaplabour,goodexportpotentialandlowimportcontentare
someofthesalientfeatures oftheIndiantextileindustry.Thisisatraditional,robust,well
establishedindustry,enjoyingconsiderabledemandinthedomesticaswellasglobalmarkets.

Indiaspresenceintheinternationalmarketissignificantinthe
areasoffabricsandyarnas:

Indiaisthelargestexporterofyarnintheinternationalmarketandhasashareof25%in
worldcottonyarnexports.

Indiaaccountsfor12%oftheworldsproductionoftextilefibresandyarn.

Intermsofspindleage,theIndiantextileindustryisrankedsecond,afterChina,and
accountsfor23%oftheworldsspindlecapacity.

Around6%ofglobalrotorcapacityisinIndia.

Thecountryhasthehighestloomcapacity,includinghandlooms,withashareof61%in
worldloomage.

Indiahasthepotentialtoincreaseitstextileandapparelshareintheworldtradefromthecurrent
levelof4.5%to8%andreachUS$80by2020.

ABOUTTHECOMPANYARVINDLIMITED
TheArvindLimitedisoneofthelargesttextileconglomeratesinAsia.Itsheadquartersisin
Ahmedabad(Gujarat).ItmanufacturesarangeofShirting,Denims,KnitsandBottomweights
(Khakis)fabrics.Thecompanyhasaturnoverofapproximately$500millionandisapartof
over100yearsoldLalbhaiGroup.
ArvindranksintopthreelargestDenimproducersworldwidewithanannualproductionofover
90millionmetersofDenimFabricandExportstoover70countries.Itisalsooneofthelargest
producersinAsiaofhighvaluecottonshirtingfabrics.Ithasacapacityofaround34MMPA
(million meters per annum) of yard dyed shirting and piece dyed shirting fabric including
specialtyFinecountIndigoyarndyedandsolidShirtingfabric.Itproducesapproximately20
MMPAofPieceDyedKhaki'sfabricsandaround16TPD(tonesperday)ofKnitsFabricswhich
isverticallyintegratedintoKnitsGarments.
Arvindstartedwithasharecapitalof2,525,000($55,000)intheyear1931.Withtheaimof
manufacturing the highend superfine fabrics Arvind Limited invested in very sophisticated
technology.With52,560ringspindles,2552doublingspindlesand1122loomsitwasoneofthe
fewcompaniesinthosedaystostartalongwithspinningandweavingfacilitiesinadditionto
fullfledgedfacilities fordyeing,bleaching, finishingandmercerizing. Thesales intheyear
1934,threeyearsafterestablishmentwere45.76lakhandprofitswere2.82lakh.
Inthemid1980sthetextileindustryfacedanothermajorcrisis.Withthepowerloomchurning
outvastquantitiesofinexpensivefabric,manylargecompositemillslosttheirmarkets,andwere
onthevergeofclosure.YetthatperiodsawArvindatitshighestlevelofprofitability.Atthis
pointoftimeArvindsmanagementcoinedanewwordforitnewstrategyRenoVision.It
simplymeantanewwayoflookingatissues,ofseeingmorethantheobviousandthatbecame
thecorporatephilosophy.

The national focus paved way for international focus and Arvinds markets shifted from
domestictoglobal,amarketthatexpectedandacceptedonlyqualitygoods.Cottonswerethe
largestgrowingsegments.Butwhereconventionalwisdompointedtopopularpricedsegments,
Renovisionpointedtohighqualitypremiumniches.Thusin198788Arvindenteredtheexport
marketfortwosections:Denimforleisure&fashionwearandhighqualityfabricforcotton
shirtingandtrousers.By1991Arvindreached1600millionmetersofDenimperyearanditwas
thethirdlargestproducerofDenimintheworld.
In1997Arvindsetupastateoftheartshirting,gabardineandknitsfacility,thelargestofits
kindinIndia,atSantej,Gandhinagar(Gujarat).WithArvindsconcernforenvironmentamost
moderneffluenttreatmentfacilitywithzeroeffluentdischargecapabilitywasalsoestablished.
ArvindenteredintoexportsofgarmentssettingupShirtfactoriesinBangalorein2001.This
modestbeginninghasquicklygrowntoacapacityofaround4.50MillionShirtsperannumand
thelistofcustomersincludesGap,Dockers,Next,Esprit,FCUK,OshKoshandmanyothers.
Arvind'sentryintoJeans/PantswasdelayedduetothetightquotasituationinIndia.Itentered
intoJeansGarmentexportswithitsfirstJeansfactoryTheArvindOverseas(Mauritius)Ltd.,
Mauritius,toofferfullGarmentpackagetoitscustomersinUSAandEurope.Thisfactorywhich
startedinMarch2002wasagoodsteppingstone/pilotplantanddidprogramswithcustomers
whichincludedExpress,Next,M&S,LeeCooper,Rocawearandothers.Withtheworldmoving
intoanewQuotaFreeworld,ArvinddecidedtomovetheGarmentfactorytoBangalore,Indiain
September2004,toofferitscustomersmoreflexibilityandbettercosteffectiveness.Company's
currentJeanscapacityisaround10MillionPiecesperannum.
Year2005wasawatershedyearfortextiles.Withthemulitifiberagreementgettingphasedout
andthedisbandingofquotas,internationaltextiletradewaspoisedforaquantumleap.Inthe
domesticmarkettoo,therationalizingofthecenvatchainandthegrowthoftheorganizedretail
industrywaslikelytomaketextilesandapparelseeanexplosivegrowth.

Arvindhascarvedoutanaggressivestrategytoverticalizeitscurrentoperationsbysettingup
worldscale garmenting facilities andofferingaonestopshopservices,byofferinggarment
packagestoitsinternationalanddomesticcustomers.WithLee,Wrangler,ArrowandTommy
HilfigeranditsowndomesticbrandsofFlyingMachine,Newport,ExcaliburandRuf&Tuf,
ArvindissettingitsvisionofbecomingthelargestapparelbrandscompanyinIndia.Arvindalso
runsavalueretailchain,Megamart,whichstockscompanybrands.Arvindfeatureisthatits
enterprisesareequippedwithhighlyadvancedequipmentofafullcyclefrompaintingthefiber
tothefinishedproduct.
With the best of technology and business acumen, Arvind has become a true Indian
multinational,havingchosentoinveststrategically,wheredemandhasbeenhighandquality
requirementisbeingsuperlative.Arvindhassetthepaceforchangingglobalcustomerdemands
oftextilesandhasfocuseditsattentiononselectedcoreproducts.Suchafocushasenabledthe
companytoplayadominantroleintheglobaltextilearena.Today,TheArvindLimitedisthe
flagshipcompanyof30billionLalbhaiGroup.

CurrentChairmanandManagingDirectorMR.SANJAYS.LALBHAI

Figure1:journeyofArvindLimited

In1930,theworldsufferedatraumaticdepression.Companiesacrosstheglobebeganclosing
down.InUKandinIndia,thetextileindustryinparticular,wasintrouble.Ataboutthistime,
MahatmaGandhichampionedtheSwadeshiMovementandathiscall,peoplefromallIndia
beganboycottingfineandsuperfinefabrics,whichhadsofarbeenimportedfromEngland.In
themidstofthisdepressiononefamilysawopportunity.TheLalbhaisreasonedthatthedemand
forfineandsuperfinefabricsstillexisted.AndanyIndiancompanythatmetthisdemandwould
surelyprosper.Thethreebrothers,Kasturbhai,NarottambhaiandChimanbhaidecidedtoputup
amilltoproducethissuperfinefabricandtheArvindMills(ArvindLimited)wasborn.The
besttechnologyofthattimewasacquiredatamostattractiveprice.

TIMELINE
1931

Arvind Limited is set up by three brothers Kasturbhai, Narottambhai and


ChimanbhaiLalbhaiwithasharecapitalof2,525,000(US$55,000)backedby
stateofthearttechnologyofEngland,withtheaimtoproducehighendsuperfine
fabric.Productsmanufacturedaredhoties,sarees,mulls,dorias,crepes,shirtings,
bra,panties,coatings,printedlawns&voilescambrics,twillsgaberdineetc.

1934

With sales reaching 45.76 Lakhs, and a profit of almost 3 Lakhs, Arvind

1980

Limitedestablishesitselfamongsttheforemosttextileunitsinthecountry.
ArvindLimitedrecordshighestlevelsofprofitability.ThenewstrategyReno
vision,pointsatchangingthebusinessfocusfromlocaltoglobal,towardsahigh

1986

qualitypremiumnichemarket.
An uninterrupted record of not missing out on paying dividend to its
shareholders.

198788

FirstcompanytobringgloballyacceptedfabricsDenim,yarndyedshirting

fabricsandwrinklefreegabardinestoIndia.
ArvindenterstheexportmarketforDenimswithadualfocusDenimfor
leisureandDenimforfashionwear.

1991

AnestablishedleaderinfineandsuperfinecottonfabricsinIndianmarkets.
Arvindreached100millionmetersofdenimperyear.Arvindemergesasthethird

1992

largestmanufacturerofdenimintheworld.
TheCompanyincreasedtheproductionofdenimclothby23,000tonnesperday

1993

bymodernisingtheplantlocatedatKhatrajofAnkurTextiles.
TheCompanyproposedtoexpandthedenimmanufacturingcapacityby
85,00,000metresperannum.

TheCompanyalsoproposedtosetupanewcompositemillforproducing
annually120lakhmetersofhighqualityshirtingfabricstobemarketedin

199394

thedomesticaswellasinternationalmarkets.
FirstCompanytobringInternationalShirtbrandArrowtoIndia.

1995

FirstcompanytostartretailoutletsforArrowbrand.
Theperformanceoftextiledivisionwassignificantlyaffectedduetoan
unprecedentedriseincostofcotton.

1997

GarmentdivisionlaunchedreadytostitchjeanspackunderthebrandRuf

&Tuf.
Indiaslargeststateoftheartfacilityforshirting,gabardineandknitsisset
upatSantej,Gandhinagar(Gujarat).

ThelargestzerodischargegreeneffluenttreatmentplantinIndia.

The marketing and distribution network of Newport brand was


strengthened and the relaunched Flying Machine and Ruggers brand

werestrengthened.

The Company reported a fire in the goodsgodown& folding packing


departmentinNarodaRoadunitofthecompany.

ArvindsetsuptheantipiracycellforthefirsttimeinIndiatocurblarge
scale counterfeiting of their highly successful brands Ruf & Tuf and
Newportjeans.

Arvind Limited adopts the franchisee system for the manufacture and
distributionofRufandTufjeans.

ArvindFashions,doublesitscapacityinthestateoftheartmanufacturing
facilityinBangaloretoproduceLeejeans.

FirstIndiancompanytoverticalizethecottontextilebusinessfromcotton
fieldstoapparelretailing.

1998

1997wasalsotheyearwhenArvindLimitedstartedfacingserioustroubles

financially.
First company to introduce ERP SAP business solutions in their new
manufacturingunitinApril1998.

1999
2000
2001

LargestDenimandShirtinginSouthAsia.
Arvindsetsatwomonthdeadlineforhivingoffitsgarmentsdivisionintoa

separatecompanyandsaleofitsrealestateinDelhi.
CRISILdowngrades thedebentureissues of Arvind Limited, indicating

thattheinstrumentswereindefault.
Arvind entered into exports of garments setting up Shirt factories in
Bangalorein2001.

Arvinddefaultsona$125millionfloatingratenoteissueandputsforward
adebtrestructuringproposalthatcouldsignificantlyreduceitsdebtburden
andsharplyimproveitsfinancialhealth.

2002

Arvind Limited posts a net loss of 44.59 crore for the quarter ended

September30,2001.
ArvindenteredintoJeansGarmentexportsinMarch2002withitsfirst
JeansfactoryTheArvindOverseas(Mauritius)Ltd.,Mauritius,tooffer

2003

2004

fullGarmentpackagetoitscustomersinUSAandEurope.
Forthefourthquarter,Arvindwitnesses280%growthinthenetprofit.

ArvindLimitedisassigneda`P1+`ratingbyCRISIL,whichindicatesa

verystrongratingfortheircommercialpaper.
Companyturnsitselfaroundshowingremarkableimprovementinfinancial
performance.

2005

ArvinddecidedtomovetheDenimGarmentfactorytoBangalore,Indiain

September2004.
Arvindcreatesauniqueonestopshopserviceonaglobalscale,offering
garmentpackagestoreputednationalandinternationalcustomers.

Forthefourthquarterinarow,Arvindhasmanagedtopostaprofitgrowth
inexcessof80percent.

2007
2008

Arvind Limited decides to buy entire stake in Arvind Brands

fromICICIVentures
Arvind expands its presence in the brands and retail segment by

establishingMegaMartOneofIndiaslargestvalueretailchains.
LargestportfolioofInternationalbrands:Lee,Wrangler,Nautica,Jansport,
Kipling, Tommy, Arrow, US Polo, Izod, Pierre Cardin, Palm Beach,

2010

Cherokeeetc.
Arvind Limited launches The Arvind Store, a concept putting the
companysbestfabrics,brandsandbespokestylingandtailoringsolutions
underoneroof.

ArvindbecomesoneofIndiaslargestproducersoffireprotectionfabrics.

COMPANYSVISION

TheyBelieve
Inpeopleandtheirunlimitedpotential;incontentandinfocusonproblemsolving;inteamsfor
effectiveperformance,inthepoweroftheintellect.

TheyEndeavour
Toselect,trainandcoachpeopletoobtainhigherresponsibilities;tonurturetalent,andtobuild
leadersforthecorporationsoftomorrow;toreward,celebrateandactivateallintellectual
businesscontributions.

TheyDream
Ofexcellenceinallendeavors;ofmutualbenefitandprosperity;ofmakingtheworldabetter
placetolivein.

EXECUTIVELEADERS

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Corporate

Lifestyle Fabrics

Jayesh Shah
Director & CFO

Aamir Akhtar
CEO, Lifestyle Fabrics - Denim

Anang Lalbhai
MD - Arvind Products

Susheel Kaul
CEO, Knits & Woven Fabrics
PD Chavda
President, Voiles

Lifestyle Apparel
Ashish Kumar
CEO, Lifestyle
Apparel - Jeans &
Shirts

Brands & Retail


J.Suresh
Managing Director - Brands & Retail
(Source:Companyofficialwebsitewww.arvindmills.com)

DIVISIONS
WovenFabrics

SHIRTINGANDBOTTOMWEIGHTS
Arvindsexpertiseinnewageshirtingfabricandbottomweightsisunparalleled.Theirshirting
fabricshaveconsistentlyfetchedapremiuminthelocalandinternationalmarkets.Prominent
productswithinshirtingcategoryincludefabricswithnonironproperties,mechanicalfinishes,
printedfabricsapartfromthecottonandcottonblendsinLinen,Lycra,Polyester,Modal,Silk
etc.withvarietiesinyarndyesandsolids.
Thestateoftheartfacilityiscapableofproducingatotalof65millionmetersperannumof
Shirting (35 million meters) and bottom weight fabrics (30 million meters). It ensures that

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stringent quality standards aremet andproducts remainecofriendly. This capacity is setto


increasereachingatotalof84millionmetersbythenextfinancialyear.
Further,Arvindhasauniqueplantformanufacturingverylightweightindigodyedfabricsin
yarn dyed and solids for top weights. Arvind Shirting has a liquid ammonia based fabric
processingplantandastateoftheartprinthouseafirstforIndiaandoneofthefewinAsia.
They have a dedicated inhouse design team constantly working on product innovation and
fashion forecasts for the domestic and international markets. They also boast of the largest
yardageandsamplingmillinIndia.
Theirspinningsetupcanproduceavarietyofcountsforyarntypeslikecompacts,slubs,signed
yarnetc.Theweavingcapabilities includehighspeedAirjetlooms andRapierlooms.Their
finishingcapabilitiesincludecontinuousbleachinganddyingranges,causticmercerization,and
machineryforvariouschemicalandmechanicalfinishes.
Asophisticatedandsupremelyflexiblepackagedyingfacilitycompletewithvesselsranging
from1Kgto750Kilogramsandstateoftheartprintingfacilitiesarealsoinplace.
InadditiontocottontheynowworkwithavarietyoffibersincludingModal,Tencel,
Excel,Viscose,Bemberg,Lycra,Silk,Linen,PolyesterandNylon.
TheyarehosttoIndiasfirstAmmoniaMercerizationPlant.
Theyusepatentedtechnologytoimpartstructuralstabilityandsuperiorhandfeelforthe
difficulttohandlefiberslikeModal,Tencel,ExcelandViscose.
Overtheyears,theirinhouseR&Ddepartmenthassuccessfullydevelopedandperfected
anumberoffinishesaddingvaluetoourproductsanduniquenesstoourrange.

Other Chemical Finishes: Wrinkle free, Prepress, Everfresh, Easy to Iron, Stain

Repellant,NanoCare,AntiBacterial,Permawhiteetc.
MechanicalFinishes:Aero,Peach,Brush,DiamondEmeryandCarbonium.

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TheirproductrangeiscertifiedbyOekotex,processesarecertifiedbyGOTSforproducing
Organicproducts.TheyarecertifiedproducersofLycraandTeflonbasedvarieties,whiletheir
laboratoryisaccreditedbyMarksandSpencers,Next,GapInc.,Levi's,DuPontandINVISTA.

DENIMS
Thelate1980ssawArvindpioneerthemanufactureofdeniminIndia.Todaywithaninstalled
capacityofover110millionmetersperannum,Arvindisaleadingproducerofdeniminthe
world. It has an export network of 70 countries worldwide. Design, Innovations and
Sustainabilityhavebeentheircorecompetencyandhaveplayedakeyroleinthesuccess.The
useofsophisticatedultramoderntechnologyundertheguidanceofworldrenowneddesigners
hasenabledArvindtodelivermanyfirstsintheinternationalmarkets.Alltheirproductsare
designedandmodeledonthebasisofexpertdesigninputscomingfromourdesignersbasedout
ofIndia,Japan,ItalyandtheUnitedStates.AllArvindDenimproductscomewiththehallmark
ofdistinctivenessandquality.
SomeExamples:

ShuttleloomsforSelvedgedenim

NameselvedgeandStretchselvedge

UniqueFiberslikeExcel,Jute,Silk,Linen

NaturalIndigoandVegetabledyes

UniqueconceptproductslikeIndigovoiles&Handspundenim

Organic,BCI&Sustainabledenim

ThedenimfacilityatArvindisaccreditedwithISO9001,ISO14001,OEKOTEX100,GOTS,
andOrganicexchangestandard.OurlabsarecertifiedbyNABL(ISO17025certification)and
customers likeLevis,Lee,andWrangleretc.Asoneofthelargestdenimproducersinthe

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world,ArvindcaterstoqualitymarketsofEurope,US,WestAsia,theFarEastandtheAsia
Pacific.

KHAKI

ThemanyvirtuesofArvindKhakimeritundividedattention:Anannualcapacityof21million
meterswhichfacilitatesthelaunchoftwonewcollectionsannually;andthedistinctionofbeing
theonlykhakisdivisioninSouthEastAsiatodoso.
Thedivisionprovidesthefinestfabricsinthevariantsof100%Cotton,CottonRichPolyester
Blend,Cotton Lycra,CottonTencel, CottonLinen, etctonameafew.Thedivisionhas an
integratedplantwithweavingandprocessingfacilities.Themostprominentproductsinthis
rangeincludeChinos,Canvas,Ribstop,HBT,Tussore,Cavalry,StructuresandDobbies.

VOILES
Arvind has been well poised as a leading manufacturer of super fine fabrics in India. An
uncontestedmarketleaderinthemanufactureofvoiles,Arvindstillcontinuestomanufacturethe
traditionalfabricforbothdomesticandinternationalmarkets.ThelegacyofArvindtranscends
fromtheoldendaysintoagoldenfuturewithaproductioncapacityof36millionmetersper
annum.Arvindsvoilesareprimarilyusedasblousematerialandaresoldinthedomesticmarket
through an impressive network of around 150 dealers, reaching over 5000 retail outlets
throughoutIndia.HighqualitySwissvoilesareexportedtoSwitzerland,SriLankaandcountries
intheMiddleEast.

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CustomersofWovenFabrics:
BananaRepublic,BrooksBrothers,AnnTaylor,HugoBoss,CalvinKlein,PoloRalph,Eddie
Bauer,Express,JCrew,LouisPhillip,VanHeusen,Arrow,ColorPlus,Esprit,PaulSmith,Park
Avenue

KNITSFABRICS
Arvindsknitsdepartmenthasanannualknittingcapacityof5,000tons.Theknitsverticalhasa
fabricdyeingcapacityof5000tonsperannumandyarndyeingcapacityof1800tonsperannum.
Ithastheabilitytoprocessbothtubularandopenwidthfabricsandoffersspecialtyfinisheslike
mercerization,singeingandvariousformsofbrushingandpeaching.Thedepartmentalsoboasts
ofastateoftheartprintshopequippedwithfullyautomaticplacementprintingcapabilities
Basicknits:

Jersey,Pique,Rib,andInterlock

Specialtyknits:Yarndyed,Autostripers,Jacquards,andStretchfabric

Fibers:Cotton,Excel,Viscose,Modal,Polyester

Finishes:Mercerization,Brushing,Peaching,Aerofinish.

Customers:Marks&SpencerEddieBauerZaraJosephaBank

ADVANCEDMATERIALS
Arvind's Advanced Materials is a certified ISO 9001: 2008 manufacturing facility
producing high performance industrial fabrics with world class technology and
knowhow based on a strong foundation of knowledge, research and market needs.
TheyarecommittedtooffertextilesolutionsforrapidlygrowingsectorslikeGeneral
Industrialmanufacturingandprocessing,infrastructure,transport,energyandpersonal
protection.

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OTHERDIVISIONS
GARMENTEXPORTS
Aworldwithoutboundariesisapromiseofaglobalmarketplace.AtArvind,therangeoffabrics
is universal in appeal. They aim to inspire a diverse mix of customers enriching lifestyles
globally.

Bottoms:7.2millionpiecesofjeansperannum\

Formal&Casualtops:6millionpiecesperannum

Knittops:3.6millionpiecesperannum

Theirspecializedcapabilitiesforaddingvaluetoourproductsinclude;

AutomatedPlacementPrintingMachinery
IndiaslargestwashingfacilitywithTonellomachinesforwetprocesses
BohemianmachinesandLasertechforuniqueandautomateddryprocesses
Skilledartisansforhandprocesses
BRANDS
OWNBRANDS:Mainstream,ExcaliburGant,FlyingMachine
LICENSEDBRANDS:BridgetoLuxury,USA1949,Energie
PREMIUMBRANDS:Arrow,USPA,Izod,Lee,Wrangler,Ruf&Tuf,Cherokee,Mossimo,
NewPortUniversity

ENVIRONMENTALINITIATIVES
ArvindLimitedcommitsitselftocontinuallyimproveourenvironmentalmanagement.Itstrives
togobeyondtherequirementsoftheapplicableenvironmentallaws&otherregulationsthrough:

Optimizingusageofcotton,energy,chemicals&water.

Adopting preventive strategies to reduce the generation of effluents, waste & air
emissions.

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1)

Maximizingtherecyclingofinevitablewastes.

Encouragingsuppliers&buyerstobecomeenvironmentallyresponsible

Maintainingasafeworkingenvironment.

Increasingthegreencover.

Trainingemployeesonenvironmentalissues.
EffluentTreatmentFacilities:

Alltheproduction/processingunitsareprovidedwithadequatewastewater/watertreatment
facilities,tomeettherequirementsofregulatingauthoritiesaswellasourreputedcustomerslike
Levis,Nikeetc.
ArvindLimitedatSantejhasoneofthelargesteffluentrecycleplantsinAsiawithrecycling
capacity10,500m3/day.Thelatest&bestofthetechnologiesavailableinwater/wastewater
treatmentscanbeseeninoperationinthisplant.TheArvindInternational(division)hasEffluent
recyclingfacilitiescomprisingChemical,Biological&tertiarytreatmentanditisof800m3/day
capacity.TheplantalsohasISO9000&ISO14000certification.
ArvindLimitedatthemainsiteatNarodaalsopossesschemical,biologicaltreatmentfacilitiesto
treat 10000 m3/day of effluents to meet the pollution control board norms. Ankur Mills
(division) has Effluent treatment plant of 1600m3/day capacity with chemical & biological
treatment facility to achieve the pollution board norms. Arvind Limited (Garment exports
division) is setting up a new garment unit at Mysore road, Bangalore, along with Effluent
treatment plant of 1450 m3 /day capacity. This plant also possesses chemical, biological &
tertiarytreatmentfacilitiestoachievetheStatePollutionControlBoardnorms.Theuniqueness
ofthisplantisallitsprocesswaterrequirementswillbeattainedthroughrecycledsewage
waterofBangaloreCity.
2)AirpollutionControl:

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Arvind Limited has switched from liquid fuel to Natural gas for all their heating & steam
requirementsinordertoavoidtheairpollution.

3)SolidwasteManagement:
Alltheunits believeinwasteminimizationmeasures.AlltheETPplants areprovidedwith
adequate sludge Dewatering facilities. Units at Santej, Naroda, Arvind International & the
upcomingBangaloreunitareprovidedwithDecanterCentrifugesforsludgedewatering.De
watered sludge is dried in solar evaporation pans for further volume reduction. Waste oil
generatedinalltheunitsisrecycled.Polytheneliners,Discardedcontainersaredisposedoffto
therespectivebuyers.
4)

Afforestation&RainwaterHarvesting:

UnitsatKhatrej&Santejhaveverygoodafforestation&greenbelts.TheSantejunithasmore
than1lakhtrees&othershrubbery.PlantslikeJetropha(seedsusedforBiodieselgeneration)
aregrownextensively.ETPtreatedwaterisusedforthisplantationsoastominimizerawwater
consumption.BeautifullawnswithFountainsarepartofthelandscape.
AttheSantejunitgroundwaterrechargingfacilityisalsodevelopedwhereinyearlyabout40
MLDrainwaterisrechargedintogroundwatertable.Tworechargepondswithacapacityof
about 4000 m3 are made & Rainwater during the monsoon is collected in theseponds &
rechargedintoGroundwatertable.

ORGANICCOTTONPROJECT

Objectives:

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Todevelopandpromoteabusinessmodelthatisenvironmentallysustainable

Toimprovefarmproductivityandfarmerincomes

Toenhancebiodiversityoftherurallandscape

Todevelopalastingsocialinfrastructureandsupportsystemintheregion

OrganicCottonProjectwasbornfromaneedtocreatevaluethroughinnovationacrossthe
supplychainparticularlyintheareaofrawmaterialcotton.Arvindisaleadingcottontextile
manufacturerbasedinIndiawithasignificantglobalpresence.Withitsdominanceacrossthe
textilevaluechain,thecompanyendeavorstobeaonestopshopforleadingapparelbrands.In
ordertocompletethesupplychain,Arvindhasforayedintoorganiccottonproductionthrough
contractfarmingmodelinordertosourceorganiccottonthatisofhighquality;andasocio
environmental need to sustain cotton farming production in a socially fair manner that
promotestheruraleconomyandcreatesahealthyecosystem.
ArvindisworkingcloselywiththefarmersoftheVidarbharegioninAkolatogroworganic
cotton. This initiative has helped to improve the livelihood of the farmers by dramatically
increasing their peracre income.All the organic cotton produced at these organic farms is
certifiedbytheControlUnionCertification,Netherlands.
Withafocusonsecuringmoreandmoresustainablecottonsources,theyhavecloselyinvolved
their selves with the Better Cotton Initiative (BCI), a Swiss association working to reduce
environmentalandsocialimpactsofcottongrowing.Theconceptistogrowcottonwithvery
carefully controlled application of water, chemical fertilizers and pesticides, dramatically
reducingtheenvironmentalfootprintofcottonfarming.Thesetechniquesworkwellinfertile
andirrigatedregionswhereorganicfarmingisnoteconomicallyviable.Theprojectcoversover
10,000acresoffarmlandsandinvolvesworkingcloselywithnearly1200farmers.

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CONTRIBUTIONTOSOCIETY

Arvindpridesitsparticipationinworksthatcontributetothebettermentofsociety.Arvinds
CSRphilosophyisbasedonthenotionthatsocietyandthecorporationareinextricablylinked,
andthatacompanycanimproveitsownfunctioningbyinfluencingtheenvironmentinwhichit
operates.ItisthisphilosophythattranscendsthroughallofArvindsCSRinitiatives.

Education
ThroughSHARDATrust,thecompanysCSRvehicle,Arvindiscommittedtoupgradingthe
standardsofmunicipalschoolsinAhmedabadandworktowardsbuildingapoolofbrightand
employableyouth.Today,over900studentseachyearfromfivemunicipalschoolsbenefitfrom
thesupplementalEnglish,MathematicsandComputereducationprovidedattheirthreelearning
centersthatareequippedwithstateoftheartfacilities.
ItcopioneeredtheworldrenownedIndianInstituteofManagement,Ahmedabad(IIMA),and
helped set up the Ahmedabad Textile Industry Research Association (ATIRA), and The
KasturbhaiLalbhaiTextileTrainingCentertodevelopandenhancetheskillsoftextileworkers.
TheNarottambhaiLalbhaiRuralDevelopmentFundandTheLalbhaiGroupRuralDevelopment
Fundwherefoundedtoundertakespecialprogramsfortheeconomicallydeprived.

Urbaninfrastructure
DevelopmentofCGroadAhmedabadsmostpopularstreetinamannerofferstheurban
dwellerandvisitoraclean,organizedandenjoyablerecreationalexperience.
Upgradingslums
Arvind in a partnership with the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation developed a model to
upgradetheslumsofAhmedabad.Theseslumshouseabout30%ofthecitiespopulationthatlive
inthemostdisadvantagedcircumstances.Inahighlydocumentedandsuccessfulinitiativea

20

dwellingofover181hutments,housing1200people,wasprovidedwithimprovedsurroundings
andaccesstocleandrinkingwaterandpropersanitationfacilitiesinindividualhouses.

VocationalTraining
Weinitiatedvocationaltrainingprogrammestoenhanceanddeveloptheskillofunemployed
youth and help them take up Garment Operative jobs within Arvind and other
garmentmanufacturing firms in Ahmedabad. In another initiative, Arvind has organized
ProgrammesinEnglishandComputerApplicationequipstudentswithrelevantknowledgeand
skills and find suitable job openings for them. This enables the students to seek better
employmentandfunctioneffectivelyintheirrespectiveorganizationalroles.

ORGANIZATIONCHARTOFARVINDMILLSSHIRTINGDIVISION

21

Chairman & Managing Director


(Mr. Sanjay S. Lalbhai)

Chief Executive Officer- Knits and Woven Fabrics


(Mr. Susheel Kaul)

Production
Spinning
HR Department
Weaving
Material Stores
Processing & Finishing
Administration & Accounts
Quality Control
Exports and Domestic
Testing
Packaging

Engineering

Production Planning and Control

22

PROCESSES/DEPARTMENTSOFARVINDMILLS,SANTEJ

PRODUCTIONPROCESSFLOWCHART

23

SPINNING

WEAVING PREPARATION

WEAVING

WET PROCESSING

DYEING/ PRINTING

FINISHING

24

SPINNINGPROCESS

LAYOUTOFSPINNINGDEPARTMENT

SLEEVE ROOM
BLENDOMET
MACHINE

COTTON
GODOWN

FILTER
ROOM

CARDING DEPARTMENT
DRAWFRAMES

AUTOCORO
DEPARTMENT

AUTOCORO
STORAGE

OFFICE

25

Thecottonfibregrowsintheseedpodorboll,ofthecottonplant.Eachfiberisasingle
elongatedcellthatisflat,twisted,andribbonlikewithawideinnerhollow(lumen).Itis
composedofabout90percentcellulose andabout6percentmoisture;theremainder
consistsofnaturalimpurities.Theoutersurfaceofthefibreiscoveredwithaprotective
waxlikecoatingwhichgivesthefiberasomewhatadhesivequality.
Baleofabout165170kgcomesintospinningmill

TypesofcottonArvindMillsuse:

1. Pima(American):Itisaverystrongandextralongcottonfibre.Theaveragesizeof
thisvarietyoffiberis36mm.
2. Pima(Australian):ItisconsideredasoneofthebestvarietyofcottonbyArvind
mill.Ithasaverylowpercentageofwasteitin,mainlyconsistingofdust,seedand
metal.Itaveragesizeis32mm.
3. PakistanCotton
4. J34 SG: It is a selection from nondescriptive hirustum mixtures. Reselection from
BikaneriNarma.ItissowninthemonthsofApril/Mayandthecropisreadyforpicking
byOctober/December..J34RGandSGaregrowninthestatesofPunjab,Haryanaand
Rajasthanandtotalproductionperannumisaround2.6millionbalesofeachof170Kg.)
5. Shankar6Gujaratcotton:ItissowninthemonthofJuneJulyandisreadyforpicking
inNovemberandmayextenduptoFebruary.Itiscultivatedinanareaof4.4million
AcresinthestateofGujarat.
6. Organiccotton
a. (Organic cotton is being produced inhouse by arvind mills, and also being
procured from fully organic certified farms, as some environment conscious
customersprefertouseit.

26

b. Arvindsorganiccottoncontractfarmingprojectislocatedinthecottongrowing
beltdistrictofMaharashtra;Akola.)
5.EgyptianCotton:Seaislandcottonhavingsilky,strongfibers,grownchieflyin
NAfrica.
BLOWROOM
Blowroomisthefirststepinthespinningprocess.Thebasicfunctionofthisprocessistoopen
thefiberfirstandthencleanandmixandevenit.
Intheblowroomprocess,themachineusedisfilledwiththefibers.Thedrumcontainingthe
fibersthusmovesinarotatormotioncreatingahelicaleffectinthefiberandalongwithitthe
suctionpartinthemachinekeeponremovingthedust.Thematerialisthuscleaninthiswayand
thenitistransferredbythedeliveryhopperintothetransportationconduit.
OBJECTIVESOFBLOWROOM:
1.Toopenthecompressedbalesoffibers
2.Removedirtanddust,brokenleaf,seedparticlesoranyotherforeignimpuritiesfromthe
fibers
3.Totransfertheopenedandcleanedfibersintoasheetformofdefinitewidthuniformweight
perunitlengthwhichiscalledlap.
4.Torollthelapofpredeterminedlengthintoacylindricalshapearoundalappin.
5.Totransferthelapfromthelappintoalaprodtoasuitableandfeedittothesubsequentm/c
(carding).

27

PROCESS FLOW OF BLOW ROOM


1. OPENING

2. CLEANING

3.DUSTREMOVAL

4.BLENDING/MIXING

Opening

Openingisthefirstoperationwithintheblowroominthefibersareopenedandseparated
fromeachother.
Thisoperationmainlyfocusesoneverysinglefibertoattainthehighestdegreeof
opennessastoseparateinsmalltufts.
Asthereisopeningoffibers,cleaningalsosimultaneouslytakesplace.
Thefibersarehandledgentlysominimumlossoffiberstakesplace

28

Machine:GBRcottonopeneropensabout400kg/hr

Cleaning

Cleaning is the second step in the blow room.

While carrying out this process it should always be kept in mind that impurities
can be removed from surface of tufts only. So after a short while, new surfaces are
made to clean the fibers properly.

Cotton contains up to 18% trash in most cases. To clean the material it is


unavoidabletoremoveasmuchfiberasmuchwaste.

Thefiberquality(shortfibers,neps)aswellasfiberlossisalwaysnegatively
affectedbymaximumtrashremoval.

Thereforeitisnecessarytomeasuretheamountofthewasteremovedandits
composition.Asitisofhighimportancealsocalledcleaningefficiency.

MachineusedinArvindMills:
Machinemanufacturer:Trutzschler(Germany)

29

Model:0522502
Pressure:5075bar
Majorparts:Twometallicperforatedcylindersandwastecollector

3.Dustremoval
Toextractthecontaminationinthecottonsuchasleaf,stone,ironparticles,jute,poly
propylene,coloredfibers,featherandotherforeignmaterialfromcottonbyopeningand
beating.
o Anoftenunderestimatedtaskoftheblowroomlineistheremovalofdust.
However,itisasimportantastheremovalofimpurities.
o Dedusting in the blow room happens by air suctioning only, either
betweenthemachines,e.g.bydustcages,dustextractors,etc.,orwithin
themachinebynormalairseparation.
o Every blow room machine must be capable of extracting dust, so that
specialdedustingmachinesshouldbeneeded.
o Theefficiencydependsnotonlyonthedevicesbutalsoonthesizeofthe
flocks.Thesmallertheflocks,thehigheristheefficiency.

Machine:

Trutzschler(Germany)

Model:

CVT41600

No.ofmachines:

Cleaningefficiency:

64%

30

Blending\Mixing

Mixing:Itisgenerallymeantastheinterminglingofdifferentclassesoffibersofthe
samegradee.g.USAPimagrade2,CIS
MachineforMixinginArvindMills:
Machine:
Model:
Motorspeed:
Openingrollsspeed:
Numberofchambers:
Output:
Pressure:
Majorparts:

Trutzschler
10236
1750rpm
800850m/min
10
3036%
350bar
Thismachineconsistsofmaterialfeed,reserve

tank,reservetankflaps,opticalsensordelivery,
rollers,andmaterialsuctionfunnel.

Blending:Itismeantastheinterminglingofdifferentkindsoffibersordifferentgradeofsame
fiberse.g.polyester&cotton,Viscose&cotton.
o Blendingoffibermaterialisanessentialpreliminaryintheproductionofa
yarn.
o Fiberscanbeblendedatvariousstagesoftheprocess.Thesepossibilities
shouldalwaysbefullyexploited,forexample,bytransversedoubling.
o However, the starting process is one of the most important stages for
blending, since the components are still separate and therefore can
bemeteredexactlyandwithoutdependenceuponrandomeffects.

31

o A wellassembled bale layout and even (and as far as possible,


simultaneous)extractionoffibersfromallbalesisthereforeofparamount
importance.
Objectivesofmixingorblending

Economy

Processingperformance

Functionalproperties

Machineforblending:Machine:BlendomatmachinebyTruetzschler

Modelno.:

BDT019/2300

Balelayout:

Bothsides(2rows)

Numberofbales:

5060

Weightofbales:

110167kg

Modeofbalelaying:

Manual

Materialinprocess:

Cottonwithseedsandimpurities

22

Evenfeedofmaterialtocard
Touniformfeedingtothenextstagesuchascardingmachine.

22

Recyclingthewastematerial

32

CARDING

OBJECTIVESOFCARDING:
Toopenthetuftoffibers
Tomakethefiberparallel&straight
Toremoveremainingtrashparticles
Toremoveshortfibers
Toremovenaps
Toproducearovelikefibercalledsliver,whichisuniforminperunitlength.
o Cardingisamechanicalprocessthatbreaksuplocksandunorganisedclumpsoffibreand
thenalignstheindividualfibressothattheyaremoreorlessparallelwitheachother.
Cardingcanalsobeusedtocreateblendsofdifferentfibresordifferentcolours.
o Cardingistheprocessofremovingimpuritiesfromfibersandproducingacardedsliver
ofparallelizedandstraightenedfibers.

33

o Beforetherawstockcanbemadeintoyarn,theremainingimpuritiesmustberemoved,
thefibersmustbedisentangles,andtheymustbestraightened.
o ThestraighteningprocessputsthefibersintosomewhatparallelCarding.
o Theworkisdonebycardingmachine.
o The lap is passed through a beater section and drawn on rapidly revolving cylinder
coveredwithveryfinehooksorwirebrushesslowlymovesconcentricallyabovethis
cylinder.
o Asthecylinderrotates,thecottonispulledbythecylinderthroughthesmallgapunder
thebrushes;theteasingactionremovestheremainingtrashes,disentanglesthefibers,
andarrangestheminarelativelyparallelmannerinformofathinweb.
o Thiswebisdrawnthroughafunnelshapeddevicethatmoldsitintoaroundropelike
masscalledcardsliver.
o Cardsliverproducescardedyarnsorcardedcottonsthatareserviceabletoproducedenim
fabrics.
MACHINESINARVINDMILLS:
Numberofmachines:

14

Make:

Trutzschler(Germany)

Model:

DK803

Humidity:

56.5%

Temperature:

33.3degreeCelsius

Production:

80kg/hr.

Cardcleaningefficiency:

6267%

CV%:

1.21.7

FrontDeliveryspeed:

210240metersperminute

Pressure:

325pas

MAINACTIONSOFCARDINGMACHINE

34

Actionbetweenfeeroller&takerin
Actionbetweentakerinandcylinder
Actionbetweencylinderandflat
Actionbetweencylinderanddoffer.

DRAWING

Drawingistheprocesswherethefibresareblended,straightenedandthenumberoffibersinthe
sliver increased in order to achieve the desired linear density in the spinning process. The
drawingprocessalsoimprovestheuniformityorevennessofthesliver.Thenumberofdrawing
passagesutiliseddependsonthespinningsystemusedandtheendproducts.
CardedSliversarefedintotheDrawFrameandarestretched/Straightenedandmadeintoa
singlesliver.Alsofibreblendingcanbedoneatthisstage.Thecansthatcontainthesliverare
placedalongthedrawframefeederrack,usuallyincludingeightpairsofcylinders(eachpairis
abovethespaceoccupiedbyacan),thelowercylinderiscommandedpositively,whiletheupper
onerestsontheloweroneinordertoensuremovementoftherelativesliverthatrunsbetween
thetwo.
TasksofDrawframe:
Drafting
Equalizing
Parallelizing
Blending
Dustremoval.

Drafting: Thereductionofweight/yardofsliverandincreaseinlengthiscalleddrafting.Or
Attenuationofsliverwithoutbreakingiscalleddraft.

35

Breakdraft:Draftb/wthe2ndand3rdrollersiscalledbreakdraft.
Maindraft:Draftb/wthe2ndandfrontrollersiscalledmaindraft.
InArvind,sliverisdrawnthroughthedrawframetwice.
Drawframeused:Padmatex,No.ofDrawframes:12

36

COMBING
Combingisanoperationinwhichdirtandshortfibersareremovedfromsliverlapbyfollowing
ways.

Inaspeciallydesignedjaws,anarrowlapoffiberisfirmlygrippedacrossitswidth

Closelyspacedneedlesarepassedthroughthefiberprojectingfromjaws.

Shortfiberwhichweremoveiscalledcombernoil.Thecombernoilcanberecycledinthe
productionofcardedyarn.Yarnwhichisgetfromcombersliveriscalledcomberyarn.Carded
sliverarecombineintocomberlapinasinglecontinuousprocessstage.Flatsheetoffiberwhich
isgetfromcomberlapisfedintothecomberinanintermediate.
ObjectivesofCombing:
1. Toremove

NecessityofCombing:
Thefollowingqualityoffiberscanonlybeobtainedbycombing

Cleanfinerfiber

Uniformityinlengthoffiber

Absenceofnap

Moreparallelarrangementoffibers

Straightfibers

37

Thesequenceofoperationinacomberisasfollows:
1.Feedingofthelapbyfeedroller
2.Thefedlapisgrippedbythenipper
3.Thegrippedlapiscombedbycircularcomb
4.Thedetachingrollergripsthecombedlapandmovesforward
5.Whilethedetachingrollerdeliversthematerial,topcombcomesintoactiontofurtherclean
thelap.Theshortfibresareremoved.
6.Whilegoingback,nipperopensandreceivesanewbitoflap.Thus,nipperholdsthematerial
whilethecombmovestoandfro.Itpullsthematerial.Therearebrushesthatcleanthe
circularcomb.
Fibresmustbepresentedtothecombersothatleadinghookspredominateinthefeedstock.This
influencesnotonlytheopeningoutofthehooksthemselves,butalsothecleanlinessoftheweb.
Ifthesheetisfedtothecomberinthewrongdirection,thenumberofnepsrisesmarkedly.

Machine: Lakshmi LK 54
Comber
No. of Machines: 10
Input: Ribbon lap/ Super lap
Output: Combed Sliver

38

ROVING

Inpreparationforringspinning,thesliverneedstobecondensedintoafinerstrand
knownasarovingbeforeitcanbespunintoayarn.Therovingframedrawsoutthe
slivertoathicknessofafewmillimetresandinsertsasmallamountoftwisttokeepthe
fibres together. The drafted twisted strand is wound onto a bobbin which is then
transportedtotheringframeandusedasthefeedpackageforspinningyarn.
It is anintermediateprocess in which fibers are converted into low twist lea called
roving.Thesliverwhichistakenfromdrawframeisthickersoitisnotsuitablefor
manufacturingofyarn.Itspurposeistoprepareinputpackagefornextprocess.This
packageistoprepareonasmallcompactpackagecalledbobbins.Rovingmachineis
complicated,liabletofault,causesdefectaddstotheproductioncostsanddeliverthe
product.Inthiswindingoperationthatmakesusrovingframecomplex.
Therearetwomainbasicreasonsforusingrovingframe

Therovingsliveristhickanduntwisted.Becauseofithairinessandflyiscreated.So
draftisneededtoreducethelineardensityofsliver.Theringdraftingarrangementisnot
capablethatitmayprocesstherovingslivertomaketheyarn.

Drawframecanrepresenttheworstconceivablemodeoftransportandpresentationof
feedmaterialtotheringspinningframe.

Themainobjectiveofrovingframearegivenbelow:

AttenuationDraftingthedrawframesliverintoroving.

TwistingToinsertthetwistintotheroving.

WindingWindingthetwistingrovingonbobbin.

packagebuilding.

SPINNING

39

Thefirststepinthemanufacturingofallkindsoffabrici.e.spinningofbalesofrawcottoninto
yarnsofvariouskindssuitedforproducingvarietiesoffabric.
TriviaaboutArvindMills:
Voilefabricismainlyusedforknittingpurposesandformakingsaristoo,butismostly
exportedtothemiddleeast.
Inadditiontocollaborationswithmultinationalapparelgiants,ArvindMillsrunsitsown
brandsofclothinge.g.ExcaliburGant,FlyingMachine,Mainstreametc.
CottonisprocuredfromahostofcountriesincludingfarflungoneslikeEgypt,America
andGermany.
Recently,ArvindMillshascomeupwithitsuniqueproduct,ReadyToStitch(RTS)kits.
Costoffabricaccountsfor~65%ofthecostofrawmaterial.
4500tonnesofyarnisspuneverymonth,anexercisethatcontributes450crorestowards
costing.
Thereareprimarilytwokindsoftechnologiesthatareinpopularusagevisavisspinningofyarn
namelyopenendtechnology,alsocalledrotorspinningowingtoitsbeingthekeycomponentin
themachinesinvolved,andringspinningtechnology.AtSantejunitofArvind,ringtechnology
isused,whichgenerallyresultsinproductionof70tonnesofyarnaday. Restoftheyarnis
requiredforfabricproduction.
InArvind,thecottonspinningisdoneusingthesetechnologies:
1. Ringspinning
2. Openendspinning
OpenEndSpinning:Inthistypeofspinning,twistisintroducedintotheyarnwithouttheneed
forpackagerotation.Allowingforhighertwistingspeedswitharelativelylowpowercost.In
rotorspinningacontinuous supplyoffibresisdeliveredfromdeliveryrollers offadrafting
systemorfromanopeningunit.
The fibres are sucked down a delivery tube and depositedin the grooveof the rotor as a
continuousringoffibre.Thefibrelayerisstrippedofftherotorgrooveandtheresultantyarn

40

woundontoapackage.Thetwistintheyarnbeingdeterminedbytheratiooftherotationalspeed
oftherotorandthelinearspeedoftheyarn.
Sliverisfedintothemachineandcombedandindividualizedbytheopeningroller.Thefibres
arethendepositedintotherotorwhereaircurrentandcentrifugalforcedepositsthemalongthe
grooveoftherotorwheretheyareevenlydistributed.Thefibresaretwistedtogetherbythe
spinningactionoftherotor,andtheyarniscontinuouslydrawnfromthecentreoftherotor.The
resultantyarnisclearedofanydefectsandwoundontopackages.

RingSpinning:

Rovingbobbinsarecreeledinappopriateholders

Guiderodsleavetherovingintothedraftingarrangements

Draftingarrangementsattenuatetherovingtothefinalcount

Thedraftingarangenmentsisinclinedatanangleof45degreesto60degrees.

Uponleavingthefrontrollersthefibrestrandistwistedtoimpartstrength

Eachrotationofthespindleimpartsonetwisttothestrand

Thetwistisgeneratedbythespindlewhichisrotatingathighspeed

Thedirectionsofthetwistiseither"S"or"Z"

Thiscompletesthespinningoftheyarn

41

Theamountoftwistinsertedintheyarniscontrolledbythefrontrollorthedelivery
speedandtravelerrationalspeed

In practice, spindle speed(n spindle) is used instead of traveler speed in the above
equation,thespindlespeedisslightlyhigherthantravelerspeed

YarnWindingisperformedsimulatenouslywithTwisting

Thedifferenceinthespeedbeweentravelerandspindlecausestheyarntowindonthe
package

Thesizeoftheyarnpckageislimitedbytheringdiameter,whichhastobesmallto
increasethespindlerotationatthesametravelerspeed.

42

WEAVING PROCESS
Theweavingdepartmenthas203weavingmachinesenToto,ofthemakeZAXand209i,the
latterbeinganolderversion.Themachines areofthecompanyTSUDAKOMA,aJapanese
concernasopposedtothespinningdepartmentwherethemachineswereofGermancompanies.
TheZAXmachinesworkat750rpmwhereas209imodelmachinesworkat650rpm.Together
theychurnoutalacm2ofclothaday.Intotalthedepartmenthas159ZAXmachinesand44
209i.Therehappentobe261labourersworkingin4shiftsinthedepartmentwith20staff
membersi.e.5ineachshift,outofwhomthereisonesupervisorforeachshift.Abeamcard
keepsalltherecordsofwhatisbeingputonthemachineandunderwhomitissupervised.
Inputsusedfortheweavingdepartmentscanvaryfrom:
1. OEopenend
2. ERevenring
3. URunevenring
Lycraisusedtoincreasetheelasticityofthefiber.Filamentisusedinthefiberwhichisexported
tocountrieswherethelevelofsweatingislowerascomparedtoIndianconditionwheremajorly
cottonisusedforthesamereason.
TheweavingdepartmenthasthedistinctionofbeingthelargestatArvindMillsandexports
closeto95%ofitsmanufacturedfabric.Discussingthedenimfabric,thecorecompetenceof
AM,originaldenimiscomposedof100%cottonbutwithaviewtobringinvariationstothe
materialinconsonancewiththeemergingtrendsinthemarket,variousnaturalfiberslikelinen
and synthetic fibers like filament, lycra, polyesterare addedto cotton. While weavingsuch
mixedfabric,thecoreismadeoftheaddendandoriginalcottoniswoundaroundit.Yarnwoven
verticallyiscalledwarpwhilethatwovenlaterallyistermedasweft.Forweavingpurposesa
cottoncountrangingfrom5to20isgenerallyused.

43

WEAVING
Weavingisinterlacementofwarpwithweftthread.

44

Figure 2 : The flow chart shows various stages in manufacturing of woven fabric:

45

WEAVING PREPARATION
RING FRAME
Yarnisthebasicbuildinginweaving.Therefore,afteryarnmanufacturing,thenextsuccessive
WINDING
stepshouldbetoweavetheyarnintoafabric.However,inpractice,
the conditionofyarn
producedonthespinningmachineisnotalwaysgoodenoughtobeuseddirectlyforfabric
formation.PackageSize,yarnsurfacecharacteristics,andotherfactorsmakeitnecessaryfor
WARP
WEFT
bothfillingyarnandwarpyarntobefurtherprocessedforefficientfabricformation.These
preparatoryprocessesarecalledweavingpreparation.
DYEING
Warpandfillingyarnsaresubjectedtodifferentconditionsandrequirementsduringweaving.
Therefore,thepreparationofwarpandweftyarnsisdifferent.Warpyarnissubjectedtohigher
stresswhichrequireextrapreparation.Dependingupontheweavingmethods,thefillingyarns
REWINDING
maynotbepreparedatall,but,rathertakenstraightoffthespinningprocessandtransportedto
theweavingprocess.However,theringspunyarnshavetogothroughawindingprocessfor
severalreasons.

WARPING
Theprocessesusedtoprepareyarnsforweavingdependonyarntypeaswell.
SECTIONAL WARPING
The warp yarn preparation is more demanding and complicated than the weft yarn
preparation.Eachspotinthewarpyarnmustundergoseveralthousandcyclesofvarious
SIZING
stresses applied by the weaving machine. Weaving stresses include dynamic
tension/contraction,rotation(twist/untwist)andclingingofhairs.Additionally,thereare
metal toyarnandyarntoyarnflexingandmetaltoyarnandyarntoyarnabrasion
DRAWING IN
stresses.

WEAVING
Theoutputofthespinningmachineryisspindlesofshortlengthyarns.Thesespindlescannotbe
usedinthenextproductionprocessbecausetheyareverysmalllengths,becausethereisnot
enoughyarnonthespindleandbecauseitssizeisnotsuitableforweavingprocesses.Winding
producesayarnpackagethatissuitableforfurtherprocessing.

46

47

Figure 3:The flowchart shows the major preparation processes for filling the warp yarns

48

Weft Yarn Preparation

Warp Yarn Preparation

Winding

Winding

Warping

Slashing

Drawing-in or tying-in

Weaving

YARNDYEING
SOFT WINDING

BATCHING

REWINDING

DRYER

YARN DYEING

HYDROEXTRACTOR

Figure 4 : process flow chart of yarn dyeing

SOFT WINDING: Yarns are transferred from paper cones to plastic tubes or steel tubes
(packagedyeing)orbeams(beamdyeing).

49

BATCHING:Yar000000ebatchedaccordingtotheircount,lot,yarntypeandothers.Abatch
cardisformedwhichcontainedtheessentialinformationofthatbatch.
DYEING:Theyarnforspinningroomisinformofspinningbobbins.Fordyeingpurposes,it
hastobepackedin

Springtubes (whichcanbecompressed)orplastic tubes.Thesepackages arenamed


packages,whicharethensentfordyeing

Beamsarepreparedwhicharethensentforyarnbeamdyeing.

SoftPackages
Therequirementsthatayarndyepackagehastomeetcanbesplitinto2majoraspects
-

Demandsfromdyeing.

Demandsfromdownstreamprocessesandqualitycontrol.

Dyeingrelatedrequirements:
Theseincludethebasicphysicalissuesrelating tothefundamentalrequirementofeachand
everyfiberinthedyepackagetobeexposedtoanequalamountofdyeliquoroveranequal
lengthoftime,and,thus,werequire:

Uniformliquorflowwithinapackage

Uniformliquorbetweenpackages(withinbatch)

Uniformliquorflowbetweenpackages(batchtobatch)

Inotherwords,eachandeveryyarndyepackagehastoconformtoaprescribeddensityandthis
densityhastobeuniform frominsidetooutsideandfromtip totoe ofpackage. Similarly,
packagesofidenticaldensityanduniformityhavetobeproducedonanyspindleofawinding
machineatanygiventime,meaningtotalreproducibility.Thedensityofspunyarndyepackages
recommendbyleadingdyeingvesselmanufacturersis:

ForCotton:420g/l

ForCotton/Polyesterblend:460g/l

50

Sincesuchpackages,ascomparedwiththoseintendedforuseinwarpingcreelsorknitting
creels,feelspongier,theyareuniversallyreferredtoassoftpackages.
Apartfromyarndyeingthesepackagesmustalsoconformtocertainpostdyeingrequirements,
thus,

Optimumunwindingproperties

Resistanceofpackagetohandling,areequallyimportantaspectsofsoftpackagewinding.

Afterdyeing,theyarnwillbeusedineitherweavingorknitting,and,thushastobeunwoundfor
furtherprocessing.Therefore,notensionvariationordisturbedyarnlayersmustbepresent,as
thesedefectsarethemajorsourceofyarnhairinessorbreakages.
InArvindMills
Machine
SSM51

Specifications
85%efficiency
60spindles
Speed:10001100m/min.

MachineUsed:4machines

Typesofcones:PaperPlasticTube(PPT),useandthrow(135140g)

Springtubestainlesssteelreusable(165g)

PackageSize:1.2kg.

Thesesoftpackagesareusedfordyeingchecksandstripes.

BeamsforBeamdyeing
Besidestheyarnbeingwoundintheformofsoftpackages,itisalsowoundonbeamsforbeam
dyeingpurpose.Beamdyeingismainlycarriedoutifwewantonecolorinthewarpdirectionof
thefabric.Spinningbobbinsareplacedoncreels,andtheyarnfromeachbobbinisthencollected
andsenttothemachine,whereitiswoundoncylinders.

51

InArvindMills
Machine
BeamDyeingRoute

Specifications
85%efficiency
400500m/hr.speed
30kg/beammax.capacity(1160m.)
Fallerwirestopmotiondevice

Pershift24beams

Thepackagesweremountedonacreel.Eachcreelhasabout700greypackages.One
andahalfhoursarerequiredtochangethecreel.

Acreelhas700cones.Yarnfromeachconepassesthroughaspringbeforepassing
throughthedropwires.Thesespringsaresettoaparticulartensionwhichdetermines
thespeedandtensionatwhichhecheesewillunwind.

Fallerwirestopmotionmechanismisasfollows:Creelhasdropwires(hookshaped),
whichdropasayarnpassingthroughitbreaks.Asensorattached totheDyeing
Beamstopsthemachineassoonasitsensesawiredrop.

Anindicatorattachedtothesideoftherod(towhichdropwiresareattached),is
lighted,therebyindicatingthepointwhereyarnbreakageoccurs.

HYDROEXTRACTORANDDRYER:Excesswaterofthedyedyarnisremoved.

WINDING

YarnpackagescomefromthedyeingunitintheformofpackageswindedinspringorPPtube.
They cant be directly used for warping or for weft yarn on the looms. So the weaving
departmentisequippedwithwindingmachinesandautoconers.Thesemachinesarealsousedto
recycletheleftoverconepackages.Packagesthathavebeenusedforwarpingorasweftonthe
looms,(andareleftwithsomeyarnonthem)arecollectedandconvertedtobiggerpackagesso
theycanbeusedagain.

52

Windingisbasicallytransferringayarnfromonetypeofpackagetoanother.Itisanimportant
andnecessaryprocessthatperformsthefollowingfunctionsespeciallyforringspunyarns.

Windingproducesayarnpackagethatissuitableforfurtherprocessing.Ringspinning
producessmallpackagesofyarn(calledspinnerspackage)orbobbins)whichwouldbe
depletedrelativelyduringfillinginsertionorwarping.Therefore,theamountofyarnon
severalsmallpackagesiscombinedbysplicingorknottingontoasinglepackage.

Thewindingprocessprovidesanopportunitytoclearyarndefects.Thinandhickplaces,
slubs,nepsorloosefibersontheyarnareclearedduringwinding,and,thus,theoverall
qualityofyarnisimproved.Stapleyarnsrequirethisclearingoperationmostbecause
theyhavethesekindsoffaultsmostoften.

OBJECTIVESOFWINDING:
Scanning and faults removing:Electric Scanners (uster) are used forcheckingand
eliminationofyarnfaultsduringwindingprocess.ThisprocessiscalledUsterizationofyarn.
Suchfaultsarecalledscancuts.
Splicingofbrokenorcutyarn:Autosplicingisdoneforbrokenyarnpiecestoeliminate
yarnknotsandbadpiecing.
Biggerandqualitypackage:Conversionofyarnfromsmallringbobbinstobiggeryarn
conesofdifferentinternationalstandardorasperrequirementofcustomer.Duringachieving
aboveobjectivesormakingofwindingconessomefaultsarecreatedduringtheprocess.These
faultsneedtobecontrolledthroughmonitoringandcontinuousstudy.Mostofthewindingfaults
are very dangerous forthe nextsubsequent process which can be warping or knitting or
doubling.Wecanfacecomplainsfromcustomerofbreakageofyarnduringunwindingprocess.

53

In order to avoid anycomplaintsfrom customers of Arvind Mills, faulty winding cones are
separatedduringinspectionbyinspectors.Followingthreedecisionsaretakenatthisstage.

Useasitis:Whenthefaultisofsomeminorcategory,andthereisnoriskofnext
process failure during unwinding. Decision is only taken by some senior person of
quality.

Rewind:Some faults can be removed after rewinding. But rewinding itself is costly
affairandqualityofconesalsodetritusafterreprocessing.

DegradedasBgrade:Iffaultisofsuchnaturethatrewindingcantremovethatfault
andthereisdoubtforcustomerstocomplainsthensuchconesaredowngradedtolower
grade.Degradingconesintolowergradeisagainfinanciallosstothecompany.

HowqualityismaintainedinArvindMills?
Followingpointareconsideredfromqualitypointofview

Windingspeedshouldbe1200meterperminuteforgettinggoodquality.

Forgettinggoodquality,yarnfaultclearersdevicesettingshouldbeascloseaspossible
inordertoeliminatethedisturbingyarnfaults.

Inordertogetgoodqualityofyarncountchannelsettingshouldbelessthan7%.

Conewhichweprepareforweavingpurposeshouldhaveminimumfaultforgettinggood
quality,especiallyinthelongthinplacesandlongthickplaces.

For getting good quality yarn, splice strength must be 75% more than of the yarn
strength.

Spliceappearanceshouldbegood.Splicedeviceshouldbecheckedtwiceinaweek.

Togetbetterefficiency,coneweightshouldbe1.8to2.4.

Yarn winding tension mustnot be high during winding. Ifwewill keepit highthen
tensilepropertieswillbeaffectedsuchaselongationandtenacity.

Ifwaxingattachmentisbelowtheclearers,theclearersshouldbecleanatleastonceina
day.

Waxrollershouldrotateproperly

54

Properlyformedpackagesofdefectfreespunyarnareanevenmorecriticalfactor.Package
considerationincludeconditionofthepassagecore,theproperprovisionofyarntransfertails;
properlyformedsplicesorknots;eliminationofinternaldefectssuchasslubs,sloughs,tangles,
wild yarn, scuffs, etc.; and elimination of external defects such as cobwebs, abrasion, poor
packageshapeorbuild,properdensity(hardness)andunwindstability.
PRECISIONWINDING:
Byprecisionwindingsuccessivecoilsofyarnarelaidclosetogetherinaparallelornearparallel
manner.Bythisprocessitispossibletoproduceverydensepackagewithmaximumamountof
yarnstoredinagivenvolume.
Features:
Packagearewoundwithareciprocatingtraverse
Patterningandrubbingcausesdamageofpackages
Packagecontainsmoreyarn
Packageislessstable
Thepackageishardandcompact
Thepackageisdense
Rateofunwindingofpackageislowandtheprocessofunwindingishard
Theunwoundcoilisarrangedinaparallelornearparallelmanner.
Non Precision Winding:By this type of winding the package is formed by asingle
threadwhichislaidonthepackageatappreciablehelixanglesothatthelayerscrossoneanother
andgivestabilitytothepackage.Thepackagesformedbythistypeofwindingarelessdensebut
ismorestable.
Features:

Onlyonecoilisusedtomakethispackages

Crosswindingtechniqueisused

Thepackagedensityislow

55

Minimumnumberofyarniswound

Thepackageformedissoftandlesscompact

Thestabilityishigh

Flangesarenotrequired

Therateofunwindingishighandtheprocessiseasy

Thepackagesformedhavelowdensity

FORWINDING
MACHINE
Smew

NO.OFM/C
3

Muratec(Mach
Coner)
Muratec(Mach

FEATURES
HandKnotting

OUTPUT
50Cones50

Splicing

packages
50Cones50

FisherKnot

packages
50Cones50

10
2

Coner)

packages

REWINDINGOFLEFTOVERS
MACHINE
Muratec(machmini)

NO.OFM/C
2

FEATURE
15conesfrom1packageand
15packagescanbemadein
11/2hrs.

WARPING
Warpingis transferring manyyarns from creel ofsingleend packageformingparallel
sheetofyarnwoundontobeabeamorsectionbeam.Warpingmachinescanprocessalltype

56

ofmaterials includingcoarseandfinefilamentandstapleyarns,monofilament,texturedand
smoothyarns,silkandothersyntheticyarnsuchasglass.
Awarpbeamthatisinstalledonweavingmachineisknownasweaverbeam.Aweaverbeam
containthousandofends,butindenimproductionabeamobtainfromwarpingisknownas
section beam because denim is made from dyed yarn thats why first section beam can be
obtainedandthenthesesectionbeamarecombinedonthestagedyeingandsizingtogetrequired
numberofendsforweavingprocess.Indenimproductioninitiallytheyarnsarefirstdyedand
thenweavingprocessiscarriedout.
WARPINGMACHINESINSHIRTINGDIVISIONOFARVIND

BENNINGERSWARPINGMACHINE
MODEL

AGCH9240

57

Maximumcreelcapacity

640(VCreelused)

Minimumcreelcapacity

334

Speed

20/min.to1200/min.

TensionerType

Electronic

Pressure

200daNto600daN

ManufacturingCountry

Germany

NumberofMachines

58

VAMATEXWARPINGMACHINE
Maximumcreelcapacity

600(VCreelused)

Minimumcreelcapacity

250

Speed

20/min.to800/min.

TensionerType

SemiAutomatic

Pressure

200daNto600daN

ManufacturingCountry

India

NumberofMachines

UKILSWARPINGMACHINE
Maximumcreelcapacity

700(VCreelused)

Minimumcreelcapacity

350

Speed

15/min.to1400/min.

59

TensionerType

Electronic

Pressure

200daNto600daN

ManufacturingCountry

Japan

NumberofMachines

SIZING
Sizingisacomplementaryoperationwhichiscarriedoutonwarpsformedbyspunyarnswith
insufficienttenacityorbycontinuousfilamentyarnswithzerotwist.Ingeneral,whensizingis
necessary,theyarnisbeamwarped,thereforeallbeamscorrespondingtothebeamsarefed,as
soonaswarpingiscompleted,tothesizingmachinewheretheyareassembled.Sizingconsistsof
impregnatingtheyarnwithparticularsubstanceswhichformontheyarnsurfaceafilmwiththe
aimofimprovingyarnsmoothnessandtenacityduringthesubsequentweavingstage.It
improvesyarntenacityandelasticity,sothattheyarncanstandwithoutproblemsthetensions
andtherubbingcausedbyweaving.
Inthesizingprocess,acoatingofastarchbasedadhesiveisappliedtothesheetofyarnto
improveitsweavability.Itincreasesyarnstrength;italsoreduceshairiness,whichminimizesthe
abrasion that occurs between the warp threads and the various parts of loom, and between
threadsthatareadjacenttoeachother.
Arvind generally source sizing chemicals (Seycofilm, Seycobond etc.) from Refnol
Resins&Chemicals,Ahmedabad(Gujarat).
ThefourmainpartsofSizingmachinesare:

CREELThishousesthewarpersbeamsandshouldensurethatthereisauniformityof
tension throughout the ends on the weavers beam by strict controlling the tension
appliedtothesheetofyarnfromeachbackbeam.

THESIZEBOXThesheetofyarnfromthebackbeamsisguidedintothesizeliquor
where an immersion roller ensures that there is adequate facility for the yarn to be
thoroughlysaturated.Squeezerollerensuresthatthereisadequatepenetrationandexcess
isremoved.

60

DRYINGCylindersarepreferredbecausetheyaremoreefficientwhenuseinmultiples,
although when compared with hotair systems, they do tend to flatten the yarn and
requiremoresoftenerinthesizemixinordertoensureanacceptablelevelofpliability.

HEADSTOCKTheheadstockcomprisesanumberofdifferentpartsthat,insequence,
can be used for waxing, moisture regain measurement, sheet splittin, measuring and
marking,beamdrivesandstretchcontrol.

MACHINE
Hacobassuckermuller

NO.OFM/C
4

TIME
1beam11/2hrs.

61

MACHINE
BenningerGermany1996

NO.OFM/C
3

TIME
1beam50minutes

DRAWINGIN(REEDING)

Theonebyonethreadingofthewarpyarnsthroughthespacesbetweenthedentsofthe
reedisanoperationwhichisreferredtoasdrawinginorreeding.Theprocessof
passingwarpthreadsthroughhealdeyesandreeddentsaccordingtothedesireddesignis
calleddrawingordenting.

PROCEDURE:

Beamreleasedfromwarpingisbroughtinthissection.

Warpendsaredrawnthroughhealdeyesofframesasinstructedinthedraftby
Designdepartment.

Endsaresimultaneouslydrawnthroughreeddentsalso.

Endsaretakenoverserratedbarsanddroppinsareputoneachindividualend.

Theyarnsendsaretiedtogethertoavidentanglingandremovalfromhealedeyes.

Thewholeassembly(ofbeam,serratedbarswithdroppins,healdframesandreed)
isputonatrolleyandtakentoloomsbybeamgettersforgaitingbyjobbers.

62

InArvinddrawnginisdoneintwoways:

Manualdrawingin
Automaticdrawingin

MACHINE
Staublidelta200
Manualdrawinin

NO.OFM/C
2
7

TIME
1hrs.1beam
12hrs.1beam

63

WEAVINGMECHANISM

PRIMARYMOTION
Therearethreeprimarymotionsofloominaweavingcycle.
SheddingItinvolvesrisingand(or)descendingofwarpyarnstocreateaspaceamongst
thewarpyarnsforweftdirection.
PickingPickingreferstoweftinsertion.Itismeansbywhichtheweftisprojected
throughtheshed.
BeatingItispushingofnewlyinsertedpicktofellofcloth.
TYPEOFLOOM
AIRJET

RAPIER

SHEDDING
Positiveelectronic

PICKING
Highspeed

BEATING
Straightreedmounted

STAUBLIdobby

compressedair.

onsley.

type.
Positiveelectronic

Doublerapiersystem.

Straightreedmounted

STAUBLIdobbytype

onsley.

SHEDDINGPOSITIVEELECTRONICDOBBY
Dobbysystemsnormallycontrolamaximumof6to32healdshaft.
Itusescomputersintowhichdesiredliftingplanisfed.
Thisisthenenteredontoadiscthatissubsequentlyfedtothedobby,wherethepatternis
readandmemorizedbyanelectronicsystem.
Thissystemeliminatesthepossibilityofmissliftsresultingfrombrokenpegsandtorn
patternsheets.
Asadisccanberemovedfromthedobbyafterthepatternhasbeenmemorized,itcanbe
usedforanumberofloomssoremovingtheneedtomakeduplicatepatterns.
PICKINGAIRJETINSERTION

64

Highspeedcompressedairisused.
Itcouldrunathigherspeedsofaround400picksperminute.
Nowidthrestrictions.
Weftinsertionratesof1500+metersperminute.
Includesweftpatterningaswellasdobbyandjacquardshedding.
PICKINGDOUBLERAPIERSYSTEM
Workingwidthof3000nm.
Speed800metersperminute.
Weftpatterningisachieved,moreeasily.
Popularforfancyweaving,especiallywhenpatternchangesarefrequent.
Tworapiersareused.
Onecarriesthewefttothecentreoftheloomwhereitmeetstheotherandtransfersthe
gripholdonthetipoftheyarn.
Thesecondrapierthencompletesthepickinsertionastherapiersarewithdrawn.
BEATINGUP
Thereciprocatingredisresponsibleforpushingthepickintothebfelloftheclothfor
beatup.

SECONDARYMOTION
Therearethreesecondarymotionsinweaving.
Letoff:Thesheetofthewarpyarniscontrolledbykeepingitundertension.
Takeup:Theclothtakeupmotionwithdrawsclothfromthefellandthenstoresitatthe
frontoftheloom.
WeftSelection:Aweftselectionorpatterningmechanismisonlynecessarywhenitis
desiredtovarytheweftbeinginserted.
LETOFF

65

Theamountoftensionappliedtothewarpaffectstheendbreakagerate,thewarpand
weftcrimpratiosandtherebythewidthandlengthofthefabric,thegeneralappearance
ofthefabricandselvedge.
Mechanismstoemnsurethatthewarpisunderthecorrecttensionwllrestricttherotation
ofthebeameitherby(i)applyingabrakingforce(negativeletoff)or(ii)bydrivingthe
beamthroughamechanism(automaticletoff)
TAKEUP
Therearethreeaspectsofcontrollingtheclothonceitleavesthefell;
Thetemple(aclothcontrolguide,oneateithersideoftheloom)isessentialinholding
theclothcorrectlyjustinfrontofthefell.
Thepickdensityisdeterminedbythespeedofrotationofthetakeuproller.
Theclothmustthenbestoredattheloomuntilthedesiredlengthasbeenwoven.
WEFTSELECTIONORPATTERNING
Inrapierweaving,theweftispickedupbuaguidrewhichmovestheyarnacrossthepath
oftherapierheadjustoutsidetheselvedgeonthesupplysideoftheloom.
Inairjetweaving,uptofourjetpointingareusedattheentrypointoftheshed.Selection
determineswhichofthejetswilloperateandsowhichweftwillbeinsertedoneachpick.

ANCILLARYMOTION
Theancillarymotionincludes:
WarpStopMotion:Ithalttheloomwhenadropwirefallsastheresultofanendbreak.
WeftStopMotion:Ithalttheloomintheeventofabreakintheweftyarn.
InArvind,piezoelementisused.Itcreatesvibrationwhichgeneratesapulseinan
electronicunit.Ifthisunitfailstoreceiveasignalwhentheweftisbeinginserted,itwill
actthoroughtheelectronicunittostoptheloombeforebeatupcanoccur.

66

MACHINE
PICANOLAirjet

NO.OFM/C

YEAROF

FEATURES

98

CONSTRUCTION
1999

Workingwidth3400

weavingloomtype

mm,6colours,

OMNI6R340

positiveelectronic
STAUBLIdobby
type2861,upto16
shafts,380V50Hz,1

PICANOLRapier

72

2004

reed
Workingwidth3600

loomstypeGamMax

mm,4colours,

4R360

positiveelectronic
STAUBLIdobby
type2861withpre
equippedforbatching
motionbutwithout
thebatcher

67

PROCESSING

Singeing:
Thedirect,veryintensiveflame,theshortcontacttimebetweenflameandfabric,theignition
flametemperaturenecessaryforthevaporizationofpolyesterandthevarioussingeingpositions
representthedecisiveadvantagesoftheosthoffsengesingeingsystem.

Singeingpositions

ONTOFREEGUIDEDFABRIC
Flamemeetsrightangleontodensewovenfabricfreelyguidedbetween2rollers,recommended
fornaturalfibresandblendsweighingmorethan125g/m

ONTOWATERCOOLEDROLLER
Flamemeetsrightangleontothefabricbendedoverawatercooledroller.Recommendedfor
fabricsoftemperaturesensitivefibres,thoseofopenweave,blendedonesweighinglessthan
125g/m

68

TANGENTIALSINGEING
Flamepassestangentiallyoverthefabricbendedoverawatercooledrollerrecommendablefor
fabricswhichcannottoleratedirectexposuretoflameandforrepairoffilamentation

FLAMESHEARING
Flamepassestangentiallyoverthefabricbendedoverasingeingsword,withminimizedcontact
time,singeingeffectonfibretiponly

69

Companyname:

osthoffsenge

No.ofmachines:

Fabricspeed125m/min
Workingwidth:340cm
Rubberbeltsectionfacewidth2170mm
Watercoolingrollers2

Desizing
Desizingisdoneinordertoremovethesizefromthewarpyarnsofthewovenfabrics.Warp
yarnsarecoatedwithsizingagentspriortoweavinginordertoreducetheirfrictionalproperties,
decrease yarn breakages on the loom and improve weaving productivity by increasing weft
insertionspeeds.Thesizingmaterialpresentonthewarpyarnscanactasaresisttowardsdyes
andchemicalsintextilewetprocessing.Itmust,therefore,beremovedbeforeanysubsequent
wetprocessingofthefabric.
If the fabric is woven from sizedyarn,desizingisessentialbeforesubjectingittoother
treatments. For this, the fabric must be soaked in 0.5% aqueous solution of amylase
enzymefor8hoursensuringthatitiscompletelyimmersedinthesolution.Afterthesize
hasbeenremoved,thefabricissubjectedtoahotandcoldwaterwash.

70

Thefactors,onwhichtheefficiencyofsizeremovaldepends,areasfollows:
Typeandamountofsizeapplied
Viscosityofthesizeinsolution
Easeofdissolutionofthesizefilmontheyarn
Natureandtheamountoftheplasticizers
Fabricconstruction
Methodofdesizing,and
DifferentmethodsofDesizing:
Enzymaticdesizing
Oxidativedesizing
Acidsteeping
Rotsteeping
Desizingwithhotcausticsodatreatment,and
Hotwashingwithdetergents
Themostcommonlyusedmethodsforcottonareenzymaticdesizingandoxidativedesizing.
Acidsteepingisariskyprocessandmayresultinthedegradationofcottoncellulosewhilerot
steeping,hotcausticsodatreatmentandhotwashingwithdetergentsarelessefficientforthe
removalofthestarchsizes.
1.Enzymaticdesizing
Enzymaticdesizingconsistsofthreemainsteps:applicationoftheenzyme,digestionofthe
starchandremovalofthedigestionproducts.Thecommoncomponentsofanenzymaticdesizing
bathareasfollows:

Amylaseenzyme
pHstabilizer
Chelatingagent
Salt
Surfactant,and
Opticalbrightener
AdvantagesOfEnzymaticdesizing
Nodamagetothefibre
Nousageofaggressivechemicals
Widevarietyofapplicationprocesses,and
Highbiodegradability
Disadvantages:
Loweradditionalcleaningeffecttowardsotherimpurities,noeffectoncertainstarches(e.g.
tapiocastarch)andpossiblelossofeffectivenessthroughenzymepoisons.

71

2.Oxidativedesizing
Oxidativedesizingcanbeeffectedebyhydrogenperoxide,chlorites,hypochlorites,bromites,
perboratesorpersulphates.Twoimportantoxidativedesizingprocessesare:thecoldpadbatch
processbasedonhydrogenperoxidewithorwithouttheadditionofpersulphate;andthe
oxidativepadsteamalkalinecrackingprocesswithhydrogenperoxideorpersulphate.
Theadvantagesofferedbyoxidativedesizingare
Supplementarycleaningeffect
Effectivenessfortapiocastarches
Nolossineffectivenessduetoenzymepoisons.
Somedisadvantagesofoxidativedesizingincludepossibilityoffibreattack,useofaggressive
chemicalsandlessvarietyofapplicationmethods.

SCOURING

The term scouring applies to the removal of impurities such as oils, was, gums, soluble
impuritiesandsolddirtcommonlyfoundintextilematerialandproduceahydrophilicandclean
cloth.

ObjectivesofScouring:
1. Toremovenaturalaswellasaddedimpuritiesofessentiallyhydrophobiccharacteras
completelyaspossible
2. Toincreaseabsorbencyoftextilematerial
3. Toleavethefabricinahighlyhydrophilicconditionwithoutundergoingchemicalor
physicaldamagesignificantly.
Scouringprocessdependson:
1. Thetypeofcotton
2. Thecolorofcotton
3. Thecleanlinessofcotton
4. Thetwistandcountoftheyarn

72

5. Theconstructionofthefabric.

Description

and

Working

Principle

of

Scouring

Process:

Kierboilerisalongmildsteelorcastironcylindricalvesselprovidedwithtwoperforatedtube
sheets(discwithanumberofholes).Oneisplacedatthebottomandanotheristop.Thesediscs
areconnectedbyanumberoftuneswhichcarrytheliquorfromthebottomcompartmenttothe
upperone.Inthemiddlecompartmentsteamispassed.Thusthetubescarryingtheliquorare
surrounded

by

steam

which

heats

them.

Thehotliquorfromthemultitublarheaterissprayedoverthecloth,packedinthekier,througha
hollowperforatedring.Theliquidpassesslowlyoverthepackedcloth,collectsbelowthefalse
bottom,fromwhereitispumpedintotheauxiliaryheaterbyacentrifugalpumpandthecycle
repeats.

Precaution:
1. Kierboilershouldbecleaned.
2. Materialshouldbepackedevenly.
3. Completeimmersionofthefabricneed.
4. Afterboilingtheliquorshouldberemovedinabsenceofwater.
5. Beforestartingallthejoiningpartsshouldbechecked.
6. Fabricshouldalwayskeepunderscouringsolution.

BLEACHING

73

Bleachingischemicaltreatmentemployedfortheremovalofnaturalcoloringmatterfromthe
substrate.Thesourceofnaturalcolorisorganiccompoundswithconjugateddoublebonds,by
doingchemicalbleachingthediscolorationtakesplacebythebreakingthechromophore,most
likelydestroyingtheoneormoredoublebondswithinthisconjugatedsystem.Thematerial
appearswhiterafterthebleaching

DYEINGANDPRINTING

BENNINGERPADDRYCONTINUOUSDYEINGMACHINE
Brand
Benninger
Width
180cm.
Year
2002
Model
SIMATICOP27
Speed
3060meters/min.

74


BASTIAN COLD PAD BATCH DYEING
MACHINE
Mangle Pressure (L M R): 1.5, 1.3, 1.45
Cold Pad Batch: 20-24 hrs.
Threading Length: 10 m

Dyeabsorption:
Whenfibreisimmersedindyeliquor,anelectrolyteisaddedtoassisttheexhaustionofdye.
HereNaClisusedastheelectrolyte.Thiselectrolyteneutralizeabsorption.Sowhenthetextile
materialisintroducestodyeliquorthedyeisexhaustedontothefibre.
Fixation:
FixationofdyemeansthereactionofreactivegroupofdyewithterminalOHorNH2groupof
fibreandthusformingstrongcovalentbondwiththefibreandthusformingstrongcovalentbond
withthefibre.Thisisanimportantphase,whichiscontrolledbymaintainingproperpHby
addingalkali.ThealkaliusedforthiscreateproperpHindyebathanddoasthedyefixing
agent.Thereactiontakesplaceinthisstageisshownbelow:
1.DSO2CH2CH2OSO3Na+OHCell=DSO2CH2CH2OCell+NaHSO3
2.DSO2CH2CH2OSO3Na+OHWool=DSO2CH2CH2OWool+NaHSO3
3.Washoff:
Asthedyeingiscompleted,agoodwashmustbeappliedtothematerialtoremoveextraand
unfixeddyesfrommaterialsurface.Thisisnecessaryforleveldyeingandgoodwashfastness.It

75

is done by a series of hot wash, cold wash and soap solution wash.
Applicationmethod:
Theseare3applicationproceduresavailable:
1.Discontinuousmethod
Conventionalmethod
Exhaustorconstanttemperaturemethod
Hightemperaturemethod
Hotcriticalmethod.
2.Cotinuousmethod
Padsteammethod
Paddrymethod
Padthermofixmethod
3.Semicontinuousmethod

Padrollmethod
Padjigmethod

76

PRINTING

ZIMMERAUSTRALIAROLLERPRINTINGMACHINE
NUMBEROFROLLERS
12
CAPACITY
10000meters
SPEED
40meters/min.
TYPE
TRCompactHC
YEAROFCONSTRUCTION
2013

ICHINOSE ROLLER SCREEN


PRINTING MACHINE

Manufacturer : Japan

No. of Rollers: 12

No. of Machines: 3

Year of Construction: 2006

77

LAXMI SCREEN PRINTING


MACHINE

Manufacturer: India

Speed: 30-35 m./min.

Length: 18 meters

No. of heads: 12

No. of Machines: 2

DYEWASHINGMACHINE
STANDARDOPERATINGPROCEDURESFORYAMUNAWASHINGMACHINE
Reactive

Speed
30m./

Tank1
Cold

Tank2
Temp.:

Tank3
Temp.:

Tank4
Temp.:

Tank5
Temp.:

Tank6A
Cold

Tank6B
Cold

Drying
Temp.

Washing

min.

Wash

85C
Overflow

95C
Overflow

95C
Deskol

85C
Overflow

Wash

Wash

upto

Acetic

Overflow

dry

Overflow

Discharge

30

Cold

Temp:

Temp.:

Washing

m./min.

Wash

60C

8085C

Overflow

Peroxide:2

Overflow

5g/l.

dosing:

Acid

3to5

Dosing

G/L
Temp.:
80
85C
Deskol

fabric

Temp.:

Cold

Cold

Temp.
upto
dry
fabric

8085C

Wash

Wash

Overflow

Overflow

Overflow

Temp.:

Cold

Cold

Temp.

90C

Wash

Wash

upto

Dosing:
0.1to1

Disperse

25

Cold

Temp.:

Temp.:

G/L
Temp.:

Washing

m./min.

Wash

80C

70to

70to

80C
Caustic:

80C
Caustic:

3g/l

3g/l

Acid

Hydro:
3g/l

Hydro:

Dosing

Overflow

Overflow

dry
Overflow

Acetic

Overflow

fabric

3g/l

78

FINISHINGPROCESS
Thedepartmentchurnsout300000metersoffinisheddenimclothaday.Whathappenstothefabricthathascome
offloomiscalledsurfacefinishingthatentailssofteningoffabric,thusmakingitfittowear.Further,desizingis
doneinordertoreducetensionintheknityarn,toensurethatitdoesntbreakoutofunduetension.toaccomplish
theprocess,therearethreebasicmechanismsinvolvednamelydesizedfinishing,desizedmercerizedfinishingand
desizedmercerizedtintfinishing.Inyesteryears,thereexistedademandforlonglastingcolorsindenimapparel,
whichisnolongerpresent.Consumersarebecomingmoreinclinedtowardsdenimthatlosescolorinafew
washes.Forsuchemergingneedsandchoices,doubledyeingconcepthasbeenadoptedthatrendersdenimfabric
variouseffectsaftersubsequentwashes.
Theprocessisasfollows
Singeingisdoneandthehairinessofthefabricisburnedbyflames.
Desizingremovesthesizerputonbythesukermullerinthedyeingdepartmenttoincreasethe
strengthofthefabric(amixtureofdesizingagent,alcozymeandaceticacidisusedforthesame).
Mercerizingistheprocessofcausticwashandtheunitstudiesisgpl(gramperliter).
Stenterisusedtosettlethewidthshrinkageandtoadjusttheelasticitybykillingtheelastic
propertiesoflycrainthefabricwhichistothetuneof30to40%earlierandcanbedropped
downto3to8%aspercustomerrequirement.
Finishingtechniquesusedinarvindmillsare:
Glazefinishing
Padding
Curing
Montfortfinishing
Foamfinishing
Inadditionthereisaninterveningsingeingandwashingprocessthatbringsinmoresoftnessinthefabric.The
productiswashedoffwatersolublechemicalremnants,steamdriedandthencaustedthatleadtoswellingofthe
material.Earlierfoamtechnologywasusedforthispurpose,whichhasnowbeenreplacedbywettechnologythat
givesmoresoftnessandbindingtofabric.

79

Thisisthefollowedbymovingthefabricthroughcenteringmachinesthatkillextrapercentageofinbuiltlycrato
pegelasticityatthedesiredlevelasdemandedbythecustomers.Temporizingisthenextprocesstobecarriedout
withthehelpofrubberandleadstopermanentshrinkageofthefabric.

Softeningfinish:Thismachineproducessoft&smooth/silkyfeeltothefabric.
Machinename:biancalani'sairo24
Numberofmachine1

Companyname:
Model:
No.ofmachines:

biancalani
airo24
1

Airo24,fromthemastersoftheairpower,thenewrevolutioninthefabricfinishing
sectorafterAiro,airflowdryingsofteningandfinishingmachineforfabricincontinuous
andopenwidthform.

80

Microsandingfinish

Thefabricmovesunder2ormorerollerswithfineemerypaperonfirstrollertomore
abrasivepaperineachsuccessiveroller.

Abradesthesurfacecausingfibrilstosplitfromthefibres.

Abrasiongenerateheatmaycauseharshnessonsyntheticfabric.

Decreasethestrengthby60%.
Companyname:

laffer(Italy)

Model:

Waterrepellentfinish
Water

repellency

depends on surface

laffer2

No.ofmachines:

Machinetype:Diomandemmerizingcarbosent

tension & fabric

Fabricwidth1800mm

penetrability.

Rollerwidth2000mm

Itisdifferentfromthe
waterprooffinishes,asthosefinishesareimpermeabletoairalso
Fabricresistwettingbutair/moisturecanpenetrate.
Itisachievedbycombinationoffabricstructure&finish.
Commonlyusedchemicalsare:paraffinwax,paraffinwaxwithAlorCrsalt,pyridinum
salt,reactivesiliconresins,fluorocarbonemulsion.
Thesechemicalsfillthegapsb/wyarnsinfabric.
Companyname:
Model:
No.ofmachines:

brcknerandpleva
stenterframe
1(amd)

81

Highest drying performance due to the wellengineered and patented splitflowair


circulationsystem

Upto35%energysavingthankstoeconomicalheatrecoveryandenergysavingconcepts

Absolutelyhomogeneousdistributionofairflowandtemperatureduetothealternating
airflowinthethermozones(every1.5m)

Theflexible splitflowaircirculationsystemallowsaprocesscontrolwhichisfine
tunedtotheparticularfinishingrequirementsofallkindsoffabric

Optimumstraighteningresultsduetoaninnovative,integratedstraightenerwithshortest
possiblefabricpathtothepinonpoint

Extremelyrobustandlowmaintenancechains,chainrailsaswellaspinbarcarriersand
clips

Exactly reproducible finishing results thanks to full automation and the recipe
administrationoftheline

Calenderingfinish
Compressionofthefabricb/w2heavyrollstogiveflattened,smoothappearanceofthefabricbythe
actionofheat&pressure.
Surfaceoftherollercanbeeithersmoothorengraved.
Onerollisusuallymetalandtheotherisusuallycoveredwithpaperorfabric.
Moistureintheformofwaterorsteammaybeusedtoachieveadesiredluster.
Resinsrequiredtobeusedtomakecalendaringdurableoncellulosicfabrics.Withouttheresintheeffect
lastsonlyonelaundering

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Companyname:
Model:

ramischguarneri
Nipcoicalender

No.ofmachines:

Fabricspeed70m/min
Type:3rollsystemwith2cottonrollsandonesteelroll
Temperature70C
Pressure70N/mm

83

Thismachineisatypicalexampleofanunusuallyflexibleandefficientcalendersolution.itsadvantages
lieinitsdiverserangeofapplications,particularlywhenspecialeffectsarerequired,e.g.Smoothness,
lustre,highglazeandairpermeability.aninnovativedevelopmentwithsignificantefficientbenefits,the
hydropneumaticwidthadjustment,whichcanberesetinaflyingchangewhenoperatingpressureor
fabricwidthschange.

Thisreducesnonproductivetimes,makesproductionevenmoreflexibleandincreasesefficiency.

FlameLaminationfinish
Flamelaminatingmachinesareusedtojointhermoplasticmaterialslikefoammadeofpolyester,
polyether,polyethylenorvariousadhesivefoilsandtextile,pvcfoils,artificialleather,nonwovens,
papersorothermaterials.
Dependingonthemachineconstruction,singleorsandwichlaminationscanbemade.Thematerialsare
takenfrombalesorplates(flatbaselaminatingmachine).
Alinegasburnerwhichisinstalledacrossthewholeworkingwidth,ismeltingthefoam,resultinginan
adhesivefilm.Insidethecalander,thefoamandthetopfabric,resp.Thebackliningarepermanently
joinedtogetherwhenrunningthroughthelaminatinggap.

Companyname:

Schmitt

No.ofmachines:

Fabricspeed60m/min
Workingwidth:upto2000mm

84

Shrinkagecontrolfinish
Itispreshrinkingfinishing
Impartshrinkagetothefabricandimprovelusterofthefabric.
Maximumshrinkageisfirstcalculated.
Fabricdampenedandpassedthroughcontinuousthickrubberbeltwherepreshrinkingtakesplacewhich
isfurthersetbywoolen/feltblanket.

Companyname:

monfortsmonfortexsanforiser

No.ofmachines:

Fabricspeed50m/min
Workingwidth:2000mm
Rubberbeltsectionfacewidth2170mm
Watercoolingrollers2

85

Chemicalpadding:
Thedenimfabricisthenpaddedtoapplyfinishtothefabric.Herethefabricpassesintoafullimmersionpadand
finishisaddedathighwetpickup.Thefinishisnecessarytoproperlylubricatefabricforthesubsequentskewing
operation.

Desizing(dhall):
Continuousdesizingrangesaresuitableforeliminatingthesizematerialfromdenimfabricwiththehelpofrapid
enzymesintheimpregnatortank.Itisthendevelopedinthesteamerforsuitabletime.Itisthensubjectedto
intensivewashing,andfollowedbycylinderdrier.theinletisintoscray

Skewing:
Afterchemicalpadding,thefabricisstretchedbypassingthroughtwopullingdevicesandthenpassesthrougha
skewingunit,whereitisskewed.now,skewingbeinganimportantissueshallbedealtwithmoredetails.
Skewnessintwillfabric:theskewnessindenimfabric,particularlyintwillweavecreatesaseriousproblem
insubsequentgarmentmanufacturinganditswashing.Legtwistisamajorproblemindenimmanufacturing.Due
tothisproblemthelegisrotatedintheoppositedirectionofthetwillofthefabricafterlaundering.
Legtwistisassumedtobehappenduetothedirectionalyarnstresses.theseareinherentinregulartwillweave
fabricsanddevelopedduringweaving.Duringwashingtheyarnstressesisrelaxedwhichchangetheregular
positionofinterlacementbetweenwarpandfillingyarns.Duetothisreasonthelegsaretwisted.Normallyleg
twistnotshownongarmentstage.
Itonlyobservedafterlaunderingofthegarment.Althoughlegtwistappearsafterfirstlaunderinganditincreases
progressivelywithrepeatedlaunderings.ideallywarpandweftshouldbeatrightangletoeachotherinnormal
fabric.Skewinthefabricoccurswhenthewarparedisplacedfromtheirverticalpositionorwhentheweftare
displacedfromtheirhorizontalposition.
Wovenfabricskewness
Thedegreeofskewmovementdependsuponyarncharacteristics,weavingtensions,andthefabricstructures

Predrying:

86

Thefabricisthenpassesthroughdryingcylindersforpartialdryingofthefabric.Here7585%moistureare
removed.Thesteamcylindersdrivemoistureintothecoreoftheyarnsandreducingittothe1517%whichis
requiredforoptimalsanforizing.

Compressiveshrinking:
Subsequently,thedenimfabricpassesthroughacompressiveshrinkingunitwherethedenimfabricispreshrunk
accordingtothegreypotentialshrinkageofthefabric,sothattheresidualshrinkageshouldbeundertolerance
limit.100%cottondenimmayrequireabout14%moistureforeffectivepreshrinkage.Moistureshouldbe
uniformthoroughoutthelength,width,anddepthoffabricforeffectiveshrinking.thecompressiveshrinkageunit
consistsofaheatedandpolishedstainlesssteelcylinder,tensionroller,pressurerollerandguiderollers.Boththe
tensionrollerandthepressurecanbeadjustedasperrequirement.Arubberbeltcoolingdeviceisfittedwitha
watersprayingarrangementonbothfacesoftherubberbelt.Rubberbeltunitisequippedwithbeltgrindingroller
andasuctiondevicefordustremovalfromthebeltgrindingdevice.
Palmercylinder:
Afterthecompressiveshrinkageunit,thefabricispassesthroughapalmerunit,wherethefabricisdriedandiron.
Thefunctionsofthepalmercylinderis:todrythedenimfabrictoalevelofabout4%relativehumidityandset
shrinkage,adjusttheshrinkage,tocompareincomingandoutgoingfabrictensionanddeterminefabricshrinkage,
Ithelpsinpreciseadjustmentoffabricshrinkage.Itpullsthefabricandpreciselycontroltensiononthefabric.it
givesapressingandcalendaringeffectonthepreshrunkfabric

Stainresistancefinish
Arvindmillsisoneoftheveryfewmillsintheworldtohaveachievedsuchsuperiorstain
resistantfinisheswithhighdegreeofpostgarmentwashperformance.Thoughthescotchgardtm
rangeofchemicalshavebeeninthemarketforover40years,veryfewcompanieshavebeen
abletoachievesuchoutstandingstainresistantpropertiesoncottonfabrics.

Coolingunit
Attheexitofthepalmerthereisacoolingcan.Theunitconsistsofone,twoorthreestainlesssteeljacketed
cylindersequippedwithchilledwatercirculationtocoolthehotfabricasitcomesoutofthepalmerunit.

Deliveryunit

87

Thedeliveryunitconsistsofbigbatchingarrangementandaplaitingdevice.Astainlesssteelscraycanbe
equippedforcontinuousoperation.

Technicaladvancementsinfinishing
Arvind Ltd has diversified into the Advanced Textiles Business and has envisioned world
leadershipinthefieldofadvancedmaterialsofferinghightechtextilesolutionsforcriticaland
compositeapplications.

ToservicethisemergingmarketArvindhassetupastateoftheartmanufacturingfacilityat
Santejformanufacturing highendIndustrialFabrics.Thisfacilitycanmakeproducefabrics
fromhighperformanceMultifilaments,MonofilamentsandSpunYarns.Typicalapplication
will be in SolidLiquid Filtration, Industrial Belting, Coating Substrates, Outdoor and other
Industrialapplication.IthasfurtherdiversifiedintomanufacturingofAntiBallisticfabrics,for
useinBulletProofVestsandHelmets.ArvindoffersrangeofNylonfabricsforthedefence
applications.

Arvind'snewfacility(JointVenturewithPDGroup,Germany)tomanufactureGlass,Carbon
andAramidfabricsisundercommissioning.ThesefabricswillbewovenandMultiaxialasper
customerspecifications,whichwillbesolutionstovariousindustrialandadvancescomposite
applicationslikewindmillblades,automotive,aerospace,infrastructureetc.

AboutPRO1
Pro1 range of branded fabrics and composite textiles includes solutions for growing
industrialsectorslikePersonalProtection,IndustrialFiltration,WindEnergy,Defense,
AutoComponents,Transportation,andHousing&Infrastructure.

ForthefirsttimeinIndiaArvindintroducesProbanfabricswhichcomewithreliability
assurancefromRhodia,UK.ProbanmeetsInternationalFireSafetyStandardssuchas
EN533/ISO14116:2008,EN531/ISO11612:2008,NFPA70E,NFPA2112.Probanhas

88

provenperformanceformorethan50yearsnow.ArvindLimitedistheonlylicensed
manufacturer of this product for sale in select 17 countries in Asia Pacific, North
America,SouthAmerica,Canada&SouthAfrica.

Inashortspanoftime,ArvindhasestablisheditselfasthelargestFireProtectionFabric
producerinIndia.ApartfromPROBANArvindrangeofFireResistantFabricsconsists
ofPYROVATEX,MetaAramid(NOMEXfromDuPont),Modacrylics,FRViscoseand
itsblends.

89

PRO1RangeFireProtectionSolution

ChemicallyTreatedFlameRetardantFabrics

PROBAN
Arvind has been licensed by Rhodia, Novecare to manufacture and sell PROBAN treated
fabricsandgarmentsin17countriesofAsiapacific,NorthAmerica,SouthAmerica,Canadaand
SouthAfrica.PROBANgivescottonandcottonrichfabricsdurableflameretardantproperties
thatmeetEuropeanfiresafetyregulationsandofferprotectionforthelifetimeofthearticles.
Thereisnochemicalreactionwithinthefibrehencethefabricremainsunaffected.Everylotof
PROBAN treated fabric ofArvind is tested andcertified byRhodia's UKAS & ISO 17025
accreditedfacilitiesintheUKandmeetsthestringentrequirementofthelateststandardsofISO
11612.

PYROVATEX
PYROVATEXTreatedFabricsoffersprotectionagainstflame.Thesefabricsareavailablein
combinationofcotton,cotton/Nylonblend.Arvindisexpertiseintreatingcottonfabricsensures
that PYROVATEX Fabrics maintain their original softness and comfort to wearer.
PYROVATEXTreatedFabricsassureslonglastingFRproperties.ArvindoffersPYROVATEX
Fabricsincombinationwithantistatic,waterandoilrepellentfunctionalitypermittingcreationof
multifunctionalfabrics.

90

InherentFireResistantFabrics

NOMEX
ArvindhasbeenlicensedtomanufactureandmarketNomexbrandedfireresistantfabricsand
garments by E.I.Dupont for consumption within Indian sub continent. These fabrics have
excellentFRperformanceforthelifetimeofthearticlewithgoodcolorfastness.Ithasverygood
resistancetochemicalandexcellentthermalinsulationproperties.Nomexmeetsthestringent
requirementsoffiresafetystandardssuchasISO11612,ISO14116,NFPA70EandNFPA
2112.

PROTEX
ArvindusesinherentlyflameretardantPROTEXModacrylicFiberfromKanekaCorporation,
Japan.ItexhibitsahighLOIvalueandisdesignedtoblendperfectlywithnaturalormanmade
fibrestoproducehighqualitytextileswithsuperbhandle,drapeandappearance.Itdoesnotmelt
ordripwhenignited.Protexblendedfabricwillselfextinguishandcharbarrierwillformthat
worksasashieldtominimizefiredamage.Itisalsoavailableinhivisibilitycolourscertifiedas
perEN471standard.

91

PRO1RangeHighTechFabrics
FiltrationFabric
Arvindspecializesinmanufacturingwovenfabricsforsolidliquidseparation.Thesearemadeof
multi filaments, monofilaments, spun yarns and in combinations. Latest generation
manufacturingtechnologyhelpsinmonitoringtheconsistentpermeabilityinthefabricsforthese
criticalapplications.Arvind'sfiltrationfabricshavereputationofuniformdistributionofpore
size,dimensionalstabilitybetterstrengthanddurability.

AntiBallisticFabric
Arvind'santiballisticfabricsaremadefromworldfamousTWARONParaaramidfilaments
suppliedbyTeijinAramid,Netherlands.Arvindmakes1100dtexand3300dtexplainwoven
fabrics. These are used for manufacturing Bullet Proof Vests and Bullet Proof Helmets for
defenceapplications.

NylonandOtherIndustrialFabrics
ArvindmanufacturesfabricsmadeofhightenacityNylon6/Nylon6.6filaments.Thesefabrics
aresometimescoatedorlaminatedasperspecificrequirementsindefence,outerwearandhigh
altitudeclothing.

92

Arvind also offers fabrics for other industrial applications like Belting, Coating Substrates,
Outdooretc.

Carbon,Glass&AramidFabrics
Arvind'snewfacility(JVCompanywithPDGroupGermany)offerswovenandmultiaxial
fabricsolutionsmadeofGlass,CarbonandAramid.Thisfacilityprovidestextilesolutionsto
various industrial and advanced composite applications like wind mills blades, automotive,
aerospace,infrastructureetc.

Coatingsubstrates: Arvind manufacturefabricsupto350cmusingHigh


Tenacity,LowShrinkageandSuperLowShrinkagePolyesterfilaments.

93

Glasswovenrovings:ThesearecomposedofdirectRovingswoveninto
a fabric. The input Rovings have excellent wetout and laminate properties. A variety of
constructionsgivebidirectionalreinforcementandthestrengthofcontinuousfilaments.Woven
Rovings from Arvind PD Composites is ideal for hand and machine production of boats,
containers,automotiveparts,sportsequipment,corrosionresistanttanks,etc,.Therangeincludes
widthupto3.6mfromavarietyofRovingsofdifferenttex.

Multiaxial fabric: Sometimes known as NonCrimp Fabrics


producedusingatechnologywhereinproductionallowsfabricconstructionwithuptofivelayers
offibresorientedindifferentdirectionsandstitchedtogetherbyaninterlockingsystemtoforma
singlereinforcement.Thesecanbeacombinationofnonwovenfabrics,choppedstrandmatsor
otherfabricsgivinganunlimitedcombinationofvariousindividualfibres.Thisproductrange
allowsdistributionofstrengthdependingontheorientationoffibres.Thisproductisalsofinding
bigapplicationsinautomotive,aerospace,transportation,sports&leisure,construction,medical
andmarineindustry.

94

Heatandcutresistantfabrics: Heat&Cutprotectionfabricsare
manufacturedusingKevlarparaaramidstaplefiberfromDuPont.Arvindistheexclusive
licenseeformanufacturingKevlarfabricsforHeat&Cutprotectionapplicationslikehand
gloves,aprons,safetyshoes,garmentreinforcementsetc.Thesefabricsareavailableinboth
Woven(330gsm,450gsm,600gsmand750gsm)andKnits(210gsmRib,270gsmdoubleknit
withcotton)forms.ThesefabricsaretestedasperEN388(Cutresistance)andEN407(contact
heat)standards.

PRODUCTIONPLANNINGANDCONTROLDEPARTMENT
TheproductionPlanningandControldepartmentistheonethatmaterializestheproductionflow
andmonitorsit.Themainobjectiveoftheproductionplanningdepartmentistoexecutemass
production.Thedepartmentplanseachandeverystepoftheproductionprocess,anditisits
responsibilitytodeliverhighqualityproductsatthepromisedtime.

95

Sometimesthebuyerselectsthedesignsthathewantstogetmassproducedfromthefabric
databaseofover8000designcollectiondevelopedbytheresearchandDevelopmentdepartment
ofArvindMills.Thespecificationsandproceduresforsuchdesignsarealreadylistedinthe
databaseandnowtheworkofthePPCdepartmentistoefficientlycarryoutthoseprocedures.
Othertimesthecustomersendssamplesandrequiresthemassproductionforit.Insuchcases,
theResearchandDevelopmentdepartmentdevelopstheproceduresinvolvedforproductionof
thatsamplebyreverseengineering.
The PPC department then allots the machinery and time required for fulfillment of each
procedureaccordingly.TheleadtimeisalsodecidedbyPPConthebasedofordersize,machine
availability,profitsinvolvedandtheurgencyaspertheconsumer.
Incaseofordersoflowerquantities,thePPChastostrategisetheexecutionoftheorderandplan
whetherornottoacceptit,sincedyeingmachinesofslasherandropedyehavelimitationsasto
theminimumamountofdyeing,forbestresultsandavoidanceofwastage.

96

The PPC department also plans separately for orders of export and domestic market as the
demandvaryfromregiontoregion.Thebottleneckoperationthatdeterminestheleadtimefor
theproductionistheweavingprocedure.Theloomcapacitydependsonthefollowingfactors:

Constructionoffabric
LoomSpeed
Efficiency

Theproductionplanningteamneedstocoherentlyworkondecidingwhetherthecapacityofthe
plantisenoughtofulfilltheorderinthegivenleadtime.
Usuallytheleadtimeforanyparticularorderis50to55days,includingallqualitychecks
inspectionetc.
Thethumbruleforcalculationofleadtime:

Prespinningprocedures:3days
Spinning:1520days
Warpinganddyeing3days
Foreveryweavingcycle3to4days(weavingcyclesdependontheorderquantity

andabovementionedfactors)
Usuallyforoneorderabout8to10weavingcyclesrequired
Finishingprocesses1dayforeachprocess,ifnotcoveredintheintegratedfinish

processingmachine
Inspection2to3days
Washing2to3days

COSTING

Spinning:
Rs1.10/kg/count(avg.weight650gram/mtr)
Weaving:
Rs0.21/pick
Dyeing:
Rs4/mtr
Finishing: Rs0.04/mtr
Coating:
Rs4/mtr
Power:
Rs2.25/unit
Laborwage:Rs6000to8,500/month

97

Inspection:Rs0.65/mtr

RAWMATERIAL:

Cotton
100kilocotton=88kiloofyarn(forcombedyarn)(75%yarnrealisation)
Loss:1%sizing,2.3to2.5%weaving,1%warping(total4to4.5%)

TheproductionplanningprocessforshirtinginArvindisdoneonexcel.Thoughanattemptwas
made previously toemploy anERP system, theproject failed causing major loss ofcapital
becauseanERPsystemdoesnotworkforsuchahugecompanywithsuchdiversificationinthe
process.
Processcontrolisnotpossibleaseachorderhasadifferentrequirementandhenceadifferentset
ofprocessestobeexecuted.Moreover,theleadtimeandcostcalculations,thataresupposedto
betakencareofbytheERPsystem,cannottakeintoaccountofallthepossiblefactorsataplant
ashugeasArvindShirtingunit.

QUALITYASSURANCEDEPARTMENT
Inthemoderndayqualityassurancehasawiderscopeanditincludesactivitieslikeprocess
ownership and calibration where in the department ownership is given to a person and it
becomeshis/herdutytodealwithitinthemostefficientmanner.
QualityassuranceatArvindmillshasthefollowinglabs.:
1. Cottonlaboratory
2. Physicaltestinglaboratory

98

3.
4.
5.
6.

Chemicaltestinglaboratory
Callibarationlaboratory
Colourquestlaboratory
Clearancedepartment

COTTONLABORTARY:
Cottonisheldforthe70%costofthefabriccostonlyandhencebecomesamajorfactor
whichifcontrolledwilladdmaximumcontributiontothestrengthofArvindmills.
Thecoefficientofvarianceiscalculatedforthewidth,diameterandhairinessofthefibre.
ThemachineusedforthispurposeisUSTERTESTER5.thefibreispassedataspeedof
400m/min and the variance is hence calculated. The variance is calculated against
internationalorthepresetArvindstandards
Thelength,weightandtheexactcountofthefibreisalsocalculatedandtheCASCADE
machineisusedforthispurposewhichensuredtherightthingattherighttimeasper
customerdemands.
PHYSICALTESTINGLABORTARY
Thistestinghappensattheyarnmanufacturingstageandtheyarnistestedforits
1. Length
2. Elongation
3. Elasticityetc
Theyarnshouldbetestedinawaysoastoknowwhethertheyarncantakeallthe
loadingsornotandifyestowhatextentcanittake.
Thishelpsindecidingwhatprocessestheyarncanfaceandwhateffectscabbe
deduced.
SingleyarnstrengthanditselongationsismeasuredusingtheUSTERTENSORPAID3machine
whichisthemosttrustednameinthefieldandcomesfromSwitzerland.
INSTRON4465isusedtocheckthetensilestrengthofthefibreandthetearstrengthisalso
calculatedingrams.
Foralltheabovewrittentestingsthestandardlabconditionsaremadeatatemperatureof60+/
2fandthehumiditylevelismaintainedat65%+/2%
Factorslikestretchabliltyskewandshrinkagearetestedaftermarkingisdonefollowedbythree
washingsofthefabric;thefabricistonnedtotheenvironmentafterkeepingitinthestandard
environment.

99

CHEMICALTESTINGLABORTARY:
Inthechemicallaboratorytheycheckallthefuels,dyes,andallthechemicalsthatareusedin
theproductionprocess.Theyevencheckthedenimifitiswashedwithbleachhowmuchitfades
thecolour.Theytrydifferentprocesslikehowthedenimwouldreactindifferentconditionslike
incaseofperspiration,saltwater,normalwater,inextremetemperature.
COLOURQUESTLABORTARY:
Inthecolourquesttheytrytofindoutthedifferentshadesandtheyseetoitthatafterthe
washinganddryingprocessdoestheshadematchtherequirementofthecustomerornot.
CALIBRATIONLABORATORY:
Definition:
Calibrationisaspecializedmeasurementprocesswhereinonecomparestestandmeasuring
instruments/equipmentsofunknownstatustowelldefinedstandardsofgreateraccuracyinorder
todetect/eliminateerrorbyadjustments&reportanyvariationinaccuracycapability.
CALIBRATIONACTIVITY
Calibrationthroughinhousefacility
Calibrationthroughoutsideagencies

93%
7%

CALIBRATIONFACILITYATCALIBRATIONLABORATORY
PARAMETERS

INSTRUMENT&FUNCTIONS

Temperature

Mercurythermometer,temperatureindicator&controllers,temperature
switches,temperaturegauges,temperaturetransmitters.

Pressure

Pressuregauge,vacuumgauge,pressuretransmitter,pressureswitch.

Mass

Analyticalweighingbalance

100

Electrical

AC/OC voltage, AC/DC current, single phase power, frequency,


resistancecapacitance,conductance,logicpulses,logiclevels.
Digital & analogue amateur, multimeters, panel meters, frequency
meters.

Dimensional

Measuretape,steelscale,verniarcapture,micrometer,dialgauge.

Gaslabinstruments

Labinstrumentsusedforqualityconformancetests&physicaltesting
lab&chemicaltestinglab.

CHECKPOINTSINGREYFABRICINSPECTION(ARVINDSHIRTING):
LoomStopMark
MorePick
DoublePick
TightWarp
PackageChange
SloughOff
BrokenPick
TemperatureCrack
MultiBreak
Black/OilStain

101

PROFORMAOFFABRICINSPECTIONREPORT(ARVINDSHIRTING)

ARVINDLIMITED
QUALITYASSURANCEDEPT.
ARVINDSHIRTING
P.O.Khatraj,Tal.Kalol,Dist.Gandhinagar,Pincode382721,Gujarat,India

FABRICTESTRESULTS
S.O.NO.
I.B.NO.
COUNT
CUSTOMER

SHADE
FINISH
DESCRIPTION
MTRS.

PHYSICALTESTS
Test

Method

Std.

Unit

Result

Notes

102

Warp

Threads/Inch

Weft
FabricWeight
OverallWidth
UsableWidth
TensileStrength

ASTMD5034

G/m
Cm.
Cm.
Kg.Warp

ASTMD1424

Weft
gWarp

ASTMD434

Weft
KgWarp

Dimensional

AATCC135

Weft
%Warp

Stbility
Martindale

ASTMD4996

Weft
Revs.

TearStrength
SeamSlippage

ASTMD3776

Abrasion

COLORFASTNESSTESTS
ColourFastness
Washing@49C
Water@37C
DryRub
WetRub
HeatDrypressed
Acidperspiration

AATCC612A
AATCC107
AATCC8
AATCC8
AATCC133
AATCC15

4C,3S
4C,3S
4S
3S
5C
4C,3S

OTHERREQUIREMENTS
Crease

AATCC66

Recovery

WarpFF
BB
WeftFF
BB

DPRating
Bow/Skew

AATCC124
%

Pass/Fail:TestedBy:
HEADOFDEPARTMENTDate:

103

MACHINESUSEDFORQUALITYTESTING

104

Specimens are tumbled in the test chamber by aluminum impellers rotating at a


constant speed of approximately 1200 rpm for periods of up to 60 minutes. After
each test period the specimen is removed, lightly cleaned and subjectively
evaluated. Susceptible fabrics will develop lint pills typical of everyday wear.
Users have also found high quantitative Correlation for surface appearance,
changes in appearance, scuffing, fuzzing and loss of color.

SPECIFICATIONS
Four Chamber (PT-4)

Dimensions: 47 cm x 68 cm x 39 cm
(18.5 W x 26.8 H x 15.5 D)

Weight: 57 kg (125 lbs )

Electrical: 120 V/60 Hz, 10A


230 V/50 Hz, 5A

Accreditations

Air: 1.9 L/s @ 21 kPa

TEST CHAMBER

(4 cfm @ 3 psi)
Iso9001:2000Bybvqi (india) pvt.Ltd., mumbaiindia, formanufacture andsupply of
denimfabrics.the
Iso9000
Family of standards is related to quality management systems anddesigned to help
organizationsensurethattheymeettheneedsofcustomersandotherstakeholdersWhile
meetingstatutoryandregulatoryrequirementsrelatedTotheproduct.
Iso9001:2000versionsoughttomakearadicalchangeinthinkingbyactuallyplacingthe
concept of process management front and center ("processmanagement" was the
monitoringandoptimisationofacompany'stasksandactivities,insteadofjustinspection
ofthefinalproduct).
Is014000:

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Provides environment management standards to help organisations minimize


theirnegative impact on the environment environment management system (ems)
mandatorycertificationcarriedoutbythirdpartyfocusesonprocessasincaseofiso9000
Oekotexstandard100
Byshirleytechnologiesltd.,uk,forblackandindigodyeddenimfabrics,black/indigo
printeddenimfabricIncludingstretchdenims.theoekotexstandard100isaglobally
uniformtestingandcertificationsystemfortextilerawmaterials,intermediateandend
productsatallstagesofproduction.thetestsforharmfulsubstancescomprisesubstances
whichareprohibitedorregulatedbylaw,chemicalswhichareknowntobeharmfulto
health,andparameterswhichareincludedasaprecautionarymeasuretosafeguardhealth.
Bycontrolunioncertifications,thenetherlands,forprocessingoforganiccotton.
global organic textile standards, control union certifications, the netherlands,For
processingoffibresfromcertifiedorganicagriculture.
National accreditation board for laboratories, delhi, india,for chemical & mechanical
disciplinesoftesting.Premieraccreditationschemebymarks&spencer,
Testmethodsandconditionssetforth,laboratory,shirtingdivisionbusiness,thearvind
millsltd.
Lizclaiborneintlltd.,testingauditperformance,laboratory,shirtingbusinessDivision,
thearvindmillsltd.
Labscertifiedbydupont

106