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FDTD Solutions

Application Examples
Introduction

Outline
 Recommended workflow
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Setup and parameterization of simulation
Running and analyzing results
Parameter sweeps and optimization
Convergence testing
Using extra computers to make sweeps and optimizations run
faster

 Application examples
: Moth's eye solar cell
: Nanohole array

© 2012 Lumerical Solutions, Inc.

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Outline
 Advanced application examples (Day 2):
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Plasmonics
Silicon Photonics (Grating Coupler, Ring Resonator)
Solar Cells
CMOS Image Sensors
Fluorescence Enhancement
Metamaterials
Bandstructure calculations
Nonlinear/Magneto-Optics/Anisotropy
Other requests?

© 2012 Lumerical Solutions, Inc.

FDTD Solutions Workflow
1. Parameterize the model
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Add structures, simulation, sources, monitors
Parameterize where appropriate

2. Check material fits and simulation memory
requirements
3. Run the simulation
4. Analyze and display the results
5. Repeat if necessary
6. Add parameter sweeps and/or optimization
7. Run parameter sweeps and/or optimization
8. Analyze and display the results

© 2012 Lumerical Solutions, Inc.

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3 . Inc. Inc.Parameterization of your model  Parameterization is essential for optimization  Designs are often complex 3D structures © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. Parameterization of your design  Create your own properties © 2012 Lumerical Solutions.

Parameterization of your design  Parameterization can include position of sources and monitors : Any group can set properties of the children © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. 4 .Parameterization of your design  Construct the design © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. Inc. Inc.

Inc.Parameterization of your design  Essential for : Reproducibility : Easy parameter sweeps : Optimization  Lumerical’s hierarchical group layout and script based parameterization makes almost anything possible  It is worth the initial investment! © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. Inc. 5 . FDTD Solutions Workflow  We will go through the recommended workflow in some advanced examples : Moth's eye design for Silicon AR on solar cell : Nanohole array © 2012 Lumerical Solutions.

Inc. Silicon AR  Assume a square lattice of parabolic silicon structures : Lattice period 500 nm : Structure height 500 nm  Example files : silicon_AR. 061112 (2008).Silicon AR  Moth eye structures have been proposed as a mechanism to reduce reflections from silicon to improve the efficiency of photovoltaic solar cells : Chih-Hung Sun et al.lsf http://docs. APL 92. Inc.lumerical. 6 .html © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings on silicon”.  We will try to simulate the reflection vs wavelength for an example structure : We will then consider where the electromagnetic energy is absorbed and where the photoelectrons are created © 2012 Lumerical Solutions.fsp : silicon_AR..com/en/fdtd/silicon_ar_setup.

5 microns  Use array feature to create square lattice array : 500nm period © 2012 Lumerical Solutions.05 microns : Set z min to 0 and z max to 0. Silicon AR  Surface primitive : Set Kappa to -1 (parabolic surface) • Note that when Kappa is 0 we have a spherical surface : Set radius of curvature to 0.y) = (0. 7 .0) • x span = y span = 4 microns • z min = -2 microns. z max = 0 microns : Add surface primitive • Set to conic surface model only © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. Inc.Silicon AR  Physical structures : Add a Silicon substrate • (x. Inc.

Parameterization  Instead of constructing the device by hand we could create a structure group with the following parameters : Pitch : Radius of curvature : Height  We could then automatically reconstruct the device as we make changes  See example in silicon_AR_parameterized.2 microns • z max = 0.fsp © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. Inc.7 microns : Boundary conditions • x and y to Periodic • Z to PML : Simulation time to 200fs : Mesh accuracy to 1 © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. Inc. 8 . Silicon AR  Simulation region : Geometry • x span = y span = 500nm • z min = -0.

7 microns : Power monitor named “T” at z = 0 © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. Inc. 9 .Silicon AR  Plane wave source : Make sure it is large enough (x span and y span)! : Z position of 600nm : Wavelength range • 350 to 850nm : Direction to Backward © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. Silicon AR  Monitors : Index monitor in x-y plane : Movie monitor in y-z plane • Set field component to “Electric field intensity” : Point time monitor : Power monitor named “R” at z = 0. Inc.

Model parameterization  We could parameterize the model with : Pitch : Height : Radius of curvature  As we adjust the pitch and height : We set the same properties in the moth eye structure : We reposition the z max of the simulation to be 200nm above the surface : We reposition the source to be 100nm above surface : We reposition the reflection monitor to be 200nm above the surface  See examples in silicon_AR_parameterized.8 : Note when the simulation “auto-shutoff” occurs • Can we reduce the maximum simulation time for the next simulation? © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. Inc. Inc. Silicon AR  Check memory requirements!  Check material fits  Save simulation file under name silicon_AR.fsp © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. 10 .fsp  Run simulation : Diverging simulation? • Reduce “dt stability factor” to 0.

11 . Inc.y Reflection vs wavelength Transmission vs wavelength movie_silicon_AR. plot : : : : Ex vs t from the time monitor Refractive index vs x. Silicon AR  Scripting analysis : Run file silicon_AR.mpg © 2012 Lumerical Solutions.Silicon AR  Using the GUI.lsf Compare results to a flat Si surface without the motheye patterning © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. Inc.

Inc. the results change a small amount Mesh accuracy 1 Mesh accuracy 2 © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. Silicon AR  If we rerun at a mesh accuracy of 2. Inc.Silicon AR  We can look at the distribution of |E|2 at z=0 : Distribution changes with wavelength © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. 12 .

Inc. Nanohole arrays  Nanohole arrays in metallic films can have : Resonant transmission : Extremely high local field intensities  We will try to simulate the reflection and transmission vs wavelength for an example structure : We will then consider some near field profiles © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. 13 . Inc.Silicon AR Mesh accuracy 1 Mesh accuracy 2 © 2012 Lumerical Solutions.

z max = -0. Inc.45 Gold material “Au (Gold) – CRC”  Example files : nanohole_array.05 microns.05 microns Mesh order = 3 Refractive index of 1. 14 .4 mm Radius 100 nm Substrate index 1.y) = (0.fsp : nanohole_array. Inc.45 : Add gold film • • • • • • (x.lsf http://docs.y) = (0.html © 2012 Lumerical Solutions.0) x span = y span = 1 micron z min = -1 microns.Nanohole arrays  Assume a square lattice of nanoholes in a 100nm thick layer of gold on a glass substrate : : : : Lattice period 0. z max = 0.05 microns Material = “Au (Gold) – CRC” Mesh order = 2 Make transparent for easier viewing © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. Nanohole arrays  Physical structures : Add a glass substrate • • • • • (x.com/en/previous_fdtd/sp_nanohole_array.lumerical.0) x span = y span = 1 microns z min = -0.

15 .05 microns.3 microns • z max = 0. Inc. z max = 0. Inc.05 microns Mesh order = 1 Material = etch  Use array feature to create square lattice array : 400 nm period © 2012 Lumerical Solutions.Nanohole arrays  Add circles : : : : Radius = 100 nm z min = -0.3 microns : Boundary conditions • x and y to Periodic • Z to PML : Simulation time to 100fs : Mesh accuracy to 2 © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. Nanohole arrays  Simulation region : Geometry • x span = y span = 400 nm • z min = -0.

Inc. 16 . Inc.2 microns : Wavelength range • 400 to 750nm © 2012 Lumerical Solutions.05 microns • z max = 0.05 microns : General • dx=dy=dz=10nm © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. Nanohole arrays  Plane wave source : Make sure it is large enough (x span and y span)! : Z position of -0.Nanohole arrays  Mesh override region : Geometry • x span = y span = 200 nm • z min = -0.

fsp  Run simulation : Note when the simulation “auto-shutoff” occurs • Does the auto-shutoff occur? • Check time monitors © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. “T” at z = ±0. Nanohole arrays  Check memory requirements!  Check material fits  Save simulation file under name nanohole_array. Inc. “profile_at_675nm_T” and “profile_at_675nm_xz_plane” • Only 1 frequency point  Set global monitor properties : 100 frequency points : “use linear wavelength spacing” © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. 17 . Inc. wavelength 675 nm • Names “profile_at_675nm_R”.3 microns • Record ONLY “power” (reduce fsp file size) : Profile monitors at z = ±60 nm. and in x-z plane.Nanohole arrays  Monitors : Index monitor in x-y plane : Movie monitor in x-z plane • Set field component to “Electric field intensity” : Point time monitors : Power monitor named “R”.

y at both sides of metal film © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. Nanohole arrays  Scripting analysis : Run file nanohole_array. plot : : : : : Ex vs t from the time monitors Refractive index vs x. 18 .Nanohole arrays  Using the GUI. Inc.lsf © 2012 Lumerical Solutions.y Reflection vs wavelength Transmission vs wavelength |E|2 vs x. Inc.

max(|E|2/|Einc|2) by looking at the profile in the x-z plane at y=0 : Adjusting the color bar allows us to see the region where a 10x enhancement is achieved © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. Inc.Nanohole arrays  We can look at the distribution of |E|2 at the metal film surface at the resonant wavelength (675nm) © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. Nanohole arrays  We can consider the maximum field enhancement. 19 . Inc.

lumerical. 20 .Help Menu . Inc. Silver nano-wire  Study surface plasmons © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. Inc.Getting Started Examples  Silver nano-wire (2D)  Photonic crystal cavity (3D)  Ring resonator (3D)  Examples files are included with every installation  Detailed instruction are provided in the Getting Started Guide : http://www.com/fdtd_online_help/ (online) : FDTD Solutions .Getting Started (PDF) © 2012 Lumerical Solutions.

Inc. Ring resonator  Calculate ring resonator Through and Drop frequencies  Parameter sweep © 2012 Lumerical Solutions. Inc. 21 .Photonic crystal cavity  Determine resonant frequencies of PC cavity  Design optimization © 2012 Lumerical Solutions.