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Learning improves when the student solves similar tasks over and over again. In
addition, speed of solving tasks also improves. This process is called learning-tolearn it occurs when the tasks to solve are similar so it makes transfer happen. For
example, when a student learns to say her/his name in dialogues and other
activities it is clear that he is transferring this learning from one to the others
activities. In this case, positive transfer has taken place and the student has
learned how to learn.
According to this principle, you need to learn something simple before learning
something else with more complexity. To Gagne, there are eight steps or types of

Signal learning
stimulus-response learning
verbal association
discrimination learning
concept learning
rule learning
problem solving

The lasts ones need the first ones as previous learning to have a real success.
In conclusion, I agree with Gagne when he talks about this hierarchy since
students need to have basic learning in order to solve more complex tasks. For
example, a student has to learn first the numbers in order to learn how to say
his/her age after that.
This process is called after learning because it occurs after having learned
something previously. In this case, after this process the students relearn and
understand better what he has learned first. For example, a student learns first how
to ask about personal information, then he/she learns how to make a dialogue with
a partner in which they have to pretend they don’t know each other and they have
to ask about their personal information, that could be an after-learning because he
understands better how and when to use those questions about personal
information and it is in a communicative situation.
Lacey Lisbeth Conde Carhuancho