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HSDPA

PART 1

Tee Kok Keong
November 2008

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Agenda

November 2008

1

Introduction

2

Channel Structure

3

Radio Resource Allocation

4

Throughput Management

5

Adaptive Modulation & Coding

6

HARQ

7

Fast Scheduling

8

UE Categories

9

Code Tree Allocation

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Introduction 

High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) concept is a natural extension of the
Downlink Shared Channel where it is mainly intended for non-real time traffic but
can also be used for traffic with tighter delay requirements. 

HSDPA implementation includes advanced techniques such as 

New High Speed Downlink Shared Channel (HS-DSCH) 

Time and code multiplexing of UE 

Fast Scheduling (every 2ms in the Node B) 

Adaptive modulation and coding (QPSK and 16-QAM Modulation) 

Advanced retransmission mechanism (Hybrid ARQ)

November 2008

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Introduction 

With the same radio resources, how is HSDPA capable in providing higher spectral
efficiency?

November 2008

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Key Points

November 2008

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Agenda

November 2008

1

Introduction

2

Channel Structure

3

Radio Resource Allocation

4

Throughput Management

5

Adaptive Modulation & Coding

6

HARQ

7

Fast Scheduling

8

UE Categories

9

Code Tree Allocation

All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2008, TEE

Channel Structure 

Physical Channel 

There are three new physical channels; two for downlink and one for uplink 
Downlink (DL)
1.

High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH) 
QPSK or 16 QAM Modulation 
Fixed Spreading Factor at 16 
Contain Data and 24 bit CRC 
Does not support SHO

2.

High Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH) 
QPSK Modulation 
Spreading Factor at 128 
One UE can listen to a maximum of 4 HS-SCCHs/cell and up to 4 UEs/TTI 
Does not support SHO 

1.

Uplink (UL)
High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH) 
BPSK Modulation 
Spreading Factor at 256 
Contain Ack/Nack and CQI 
Does not support SHO

November 2008

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Channel Structure 

HS-PDSCH
Data
Ndata1 bits
k

Tslot = 2560 chips, M*10*2 bits (k=4)

Slot #0

Slot#1

Slot #2

1 HS-PDSCH subframe: T f = 2 ms      

There are three slots in one TTI where one time slot contains 2560 chips. Depending
on the modulation type, the symbol rate for QPSK and 16 QAM are 2 and 4
respectively.
For QPSK modulation,
4
One time slot = 2 x 10 x 2 = 320 bits
For 16 QAM modulation
4
One time slot = 4 x 10 x 2 = 640 bits

November 2008

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Channel Structure 

HS-SCCH
Data
Ndata1 bits
Tslot = 2560 chips, 40 bits

Slot #0

Slot#1

Slot #2

1 HS-DSCH subframe: T f = 2 ms 

HS-DPCCH
Tslot = 2560 chips

2×Tslot = 5120 chips

HARQ-ACK

CQI

One HS-DPCCH subframe (2 ms)

Subframe #0

Subframe #i

Subframe #4

One radio frame Tf = 10 ms
November 2008

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Channel Structure

November 2008

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Channels Overview

November 2008

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Protocol Stack

November 2008

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Protocol Stack

November 2008

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Agenda

November 2008

1

Introduction

2

Channel Structure

3

Radio Resource Allocation

4

Throughput Management

5

Adaptive Modulation & Coding

6

HARQ

7

Fast Scheduling

8

UE Categories

9

Code Tree Allocation

All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2008, TEE

Radio Resource Allocation 
Why is a shared channel more efficient to carry packet bursty traffic than a
dedicated channel?  

WCDMA / R99 

The WCDMA System normally carries user data over dedicated transport channel, DCH, which
brings maximum system performance with continuous user data. 

The DCH are code multiplexed onto one RF carrier.

HSDPA / R5 

The HSDPA uses a shared channel known as HS-DSCH. 

For bursty traffic, the demand for high data rate is sporadic. When a DCH is
allocated, the resources are then dedicated to the respective UE. On the contrary,
when HS-DSCH is used, the resources are only allocated to the respective UE only
when the UE requests for it, thus maximising the used of the channel.

November 2008

All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2008, TEE

Radio Resource Allocation

November 2008

All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2008, TEE

Agenda

November 2008

1

Introduction

2

Channel Structure

3

Radio Resource Allocation

4

Throughput Management

5

Adaptive Modulation & Coding

6

HARQ

7

Fast Scheduling

8

UE Categories

9

Code Tree Allocation

All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2008, TEE

Throughput Management 

There is no more fast power control for HSDPA. As such, the modulation as well as
the number of codes are changed according to the radio conditions, where as for
R99, it offers constant data rate using power adaptability.

November 2008

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Agenda

November 2008

1

Introduction

2

Channel Structure

3

Radio Resource Allocation

4

Throughput Management

5

Adaptive Modulation & Coding

6

HARQ

7

Fast Scheduling

8

UE Categories

9

Code Tree Allocation

All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2008, TEE

Adaptive Modulation & Coding

November 2008

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Adaptive Modulation & Coding 

The Adaptive Modulation & Coding (AMC) optimises the spectral efficiency depending
on the radio conditions by maximising the user bit rate during it’s transmission time. 

For example, when a SNR > y dB, the AMC selects 16 QAM as the modulation type
and a coding rate of ¾ and when a SNR < y dB, the AMC selects QPSK and a coding
rate of ½.

November 2008

All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2008, TEE

Agenda

November 2008

1

Introduction

2

Channel Structure

3

Radio Resource Allocation

4

Throughput Management

5

Adaptive Modulation & Coding

6

HARQ

7

Fast Scheduling

8

UE Categories

9

Code Tree Allocation

All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2008, TEE

Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ)

November 2008

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Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ)

November 2008

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Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ)

November 2008

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Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ)

November 2008

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Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ)

November 2008

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Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ)

November 2008

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Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ)

November 2008

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HARQ - Parameter 

This parameter is used to stop the retransmission of MAC-hs PDU. 

This parameter defines the maximum number of MAC-hs retransmission. 

This parameter defines the time to live for a MAC-hs SDU starting from the instant of
its arrival into an HSDPA PQ

November 2008

All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2008, TEE

Agenda

November 2008

1

Introduction

2

Channel Structure

3

Radio Resource Allocation

4

Throughput Management

5

Adaptive Modulation & Coding

6

HARQ

7

Fast Scheduling

8

UE Categories

9

Code Tree Allocation

All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2008, TEE

Fast Scheduling

November 2008

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Fast Scheduling

DTCH

Node B

November 2008

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Fast Scheduling – First Stage

November 2008

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Fast Scheduling – First Stage 

There are 5 types of scheduler (Proportional Fair, Alcatel Lucent Proportional Fair,
Max C/I, Round Robin and Fair) that can be employed in HSDPA. However, only two
types of scheduler are able to be used in UA5.1 namely Proportional Fair and Nortel
Proportional Fair. 

Depending on the scheduler type, the scheduler will first select the Priority Queue
(PQ) based on the followings:  

Priority of the PQ (Priority 15 = Highest Priority, Priority 0 = Lowest Priority) 

The number of Queue IDs (QID) present in the PQ 

Cost function of the PQ (The evaluation of the cost relies on the credits of the queue and the
total number of PDUs already transmitted during past rounds. The PQ with the lowest cost
function is selected)

Once the selection of the PQ is done, then the scheduler will assign the
corresponding credits to the respective PQ. The highest priority will be given the
greatest credit and the lowest priority will be give the smallest credit.

November 2008

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Fast Scheduling – Second Stage

November 2008

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Fast Scheduling – Second Stage  

In the second stage, the aim is to share the resources among all users of the same
priority. In the PQ, there are at least one QID and as such some PQs may have more
than one QID. The selection of the QID is based on the followings: 

Scheduler Type 

SPI and UE category

When the QID is selected, it will then determine the amount of data to transfer, the
number of codes and the power to use.

November 2008

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Fast Scheduling

November 2008

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Fast Scheduling

1. Alcatel Lucent Proportional Fair 

Users are chosen according to the number of transmitted bits and the reported CQI.

2. Proportional Fair 

Users are chosen according to the instantaneous CQI versus the average CQI.

3. Round Robin 

Users are chosen one after the other.

4. Max C/I 

Users with the best CQI are scheduled first.

5. Fair 

November 2008

Users with the lowest throughput are scheduled first.

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Scheduling - Parameter 

This parameter defines the forgetting factor of the averaging window used by the cost
function of the scheduler 

This parameter allows the user to chose the scheduler type whether Alcatel Lucent
Proportional Fair, Proportional Fair, Round Robin, Max CQI and Fair. In UA5.1, only
Alcatel Lucent Proportional Fair and Proportional Fair are used. 

This parameter is used to determine the relative throughput per SPI.

November 2008

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Scheduling - Parameter 

This parameter defines the UE category management. When ueCategoryEquity is
chosen, then all UE categories will reach the same throughput in average at the same
CQI. When ueCategoryProportionality is chosen, then the UEs’ throughput depend on
their category.

November 2008

All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2008, TEE

Agenda

November 2008

1

Introduction

2

Channel Structure

3

Radio Resource Allocation

4

Throughput Management

5

Adaptive Modulation & Coding

6

HARQ

7

Fast Scheduling

8

UE Categories

9

Code Tree Allocation

All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2008, TEE

UE Categories 

There are 12 categories defined by 3GPP where the number of HS-DSCH codes and
modulation types vary from one category to another.

November 2008

All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2008, TEE

Agenda

November 2008

1

Introduction

2

Channel Structure

3

Radio Resource Allocation

4

Throughput Management

5

Adaptive Modulation & Coding

6

HARQ

7

Fast Scheduling

8

UE Categories

9

Code Tree Allocation

All Rights Reserved © Alcatel-Lucent 2008, TEE

Code Tree Allocation 

November 2008

Other Common Channels such as CPICH, PICH,
AICH and P-CCPCH are at SF256.
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www.alcatel-lucent.com

November 2008

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