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Globalization - markets are global, and connected as never before; natural boundaries and
limits that existed before globalization no longer exist, so problems can reach and spread far
wider than in earlier times.

Technology - the vast modern scale of technologies, and the sheer size of things that
organizations now create and process, in every sector, increases the scale of potential
damage of corporate wrong-doing. For example consider the enormous scale of
manufacturing, production, commodities, machinery, transport, construction, IT, the web, etc.,
compared with a generation ago. The maxim: 'The bigger they are, the harder they fall' is
very apt. When something goes wrong in modern times, the impacts are potentially bigger
than ever in history.

Population - volumes and densities of populations everywhere have increased dramatically
since the late 1900s. Where corporate scandals and disasters happen, the potential to affect
vast numbers of people has never been greater.

Free Market - since the late 1900s the fondness of (mainly 'western') governments for 'free
market' capitalist economics (basically the view that market forces should be kept free from
interference) has encouraged the development of unregulated major risk-taking in
organizational governance - and this style of running organizations has now become deeply
embedded into corporate attitudes. Most corporations are run in an extremely selfish and
greedy manner. Short-term gain, and the enrichment of directors and senior staff continues
to drive corporate strategy and decision-making everywhere. Combined with the other
factors, this creates a potent recipe for disasters of all kinds.