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15 TO 18
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12 TO 15
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1. Beam sections should be designed for:
a. Moment values at the column face & (not the value at centre line as per
b. Shear values at distance of d from the column face. (not the value at
centre line as per analysis)
c. Moment redistribution is allowed for static loads only.
d. For beams spanning between the columns about the weak axis, the
moments at the end support shall be reduced more and distributed and
the span moments shall be increased accordingly to account for the above
e. Moment distribution shall be done in such a way that 15% of the support
moments shall be added to the span moment without the support
moments getting reduced.
f. The section within the span shall be designed for the increased span
moment which will account for the concentrated & isolated loading that
may act within one span.
g. Moment redistribution is not allowed if
1. moment co-efficient taken from code table
2. designed for earthquake forces and for lateral loads.
2. At least 1/3 of the +ve moment reinforcement in SIMPLE SUPPORTS & ¼
the +ve moment reinforcement in CONTINUOUS MEMBERS shall extend
along the same face of the member into the support, to a length equal to
Ld/3. (Ld-development length)
3. Use higher grade of concrete if most of the beams are doubly reinforced.
Also when Mu/bd^2 goes above 6.0.
4. Try to design a minimum width for beams so that the all beam
reinforcement passes through the columns. This is for the reason that any

120mm. As a short cut. 2. Use a min. B:SLAB EFFECTIVE DEPTH: Sl. 10. . Length of curtailment shall be checked with the required development length. Whenever possible try to use T-beam or L-beam concept so as to avoid compression reinforcement. the bar diameter shall be 10mm for normal spacing. 11.5 35 for L/B>1. One. Slab thickness can be 10mm. Keep the higher diameter bars away from the N.5 40 for L/B=1. Two-way simply supported slabs 4. The kinking of bars shall be shown clearly on the drawing.(Try to avoid the hanger bar if secondary beam has less depth than the main beam.2% for compression reinforcement to aid in controlling the deflection. 13. of 0.150mm. 9. 7. 3. Bars of Secondary beam shall rest on the bars of the Primary beam if the beams are of the same depth. The detailing for the secondary beam shall be done so that it does not induce any TORSION on the main beam.way simply supported slab 2.5 38 for L/B> SLAB 1. etc. bending moment for a beam (partially continuous or fully continuous) can be assumed as wl^2/10 and the same reinforcement can be detailed at span and support. lever arm will be available.(for static loads) 6. This thumb rule should not be applied for simply supported beams. Whenever the slab thickness is 150mm. Hanger bars shall be provided on the main beam whenever heavy secondary beam rests on the main beam.DEPTH 30 35 38 for L/B=1. 8. 12.110mm.reinforcement outside the column will be ineffective in resisting compression.A(i. 5. One-way continuous slabs 3. The maximum spacing of Main bar shall not exceed 200mm(8”) and the distribution bars @ 250mm(10”). Teo-way continuous slabs SPAN/EFFE.5 1.125mm. as there are enough cushions available). creep and other long term deflections. 14. layer nearest to the tension face) so that max.(It can be 8mm at very closely spaced).e. For cantilever beams reinforcement at the support shall be given a little more and the development length shall be given 25% more. Restrict the spacing of stirrups to 8”(200mm) or ¾ of effective depth whichever is less.

lap shall be provided to that side of the junction where the reinforcement is less. Section should be designed for the column moment values at the beam face. 3. 3. Position of lap shall be clearly mentioned in the drawing according to the change in reinforcement. 5. 5. 2. 8. of 0. Check the Factor of Safety used by the Geotechnical engineer for finding the SBC.4. Go for a higher section properties when the moment is predominant. The bed block is provided to keep the sheets in position from WIND. 7. COLUMN: 1. reducing the moments on footings etc. 4. Provide laps at midheight of column to minimize the damage due to moments(Seismic forces). If the roof slab is supported by load bearing wall(without any frames) a bed block of 150/200mm shall be provided along the length of supports which will aid in resisting the lateral forces. Always assume a hinged end support for column footing for analysis unless it is supported by raft and on pile cap. If the roof is of sheet(AC/GI) supported by load bearing wall (without any frames) a bed block of 150/200mm shall be provided along the length of supports except at the eaves. FOOTING: 1. Use higher grade of concrete when the axial load is predominant. The Common assumption of full fixity at the column base may only be valid for columns supported on RIGID RAFT foundations or on individual foundation pads supported by . SBC can be increased depending on the N-value and type of footing that is going to be designed. Avoid KICKER concrete to fix column form work since it is the weakest link due to weak and non compacted part. Detail the reinforcement in column in such a way that it gets maximum lever arm for the axis about which the column moment acts. 2. 5. Provide always PLINTH BEAMS resting on natural ground in orthogonal directions connecting all columns which will help in many respect like reducing the differential settlement of foundations. 6. For the roof slab provide a min. 6. Restrict the maximum % of reinforcement to 3. Never assume the soil bearing capacity and at least have one trial pit to get the real site Bearing capacity value. Whenever there is a change in reinforcement at a junction. 4.24% of slab cross sectional area reinforcement to take care of the temperature and other weathering agent and for the ponding of rain water etc since it is exposed to outside the building enclosure. Vide IS-1893-2000(part-I).

b) 0.0025 of cross sectional area for other types of bars. Maximum horizontal spacing for the vertical reinforcement shall neither exceed three times the wall thickness nor 450mm. c) 0.0015 of cross sectional area for other types of bars. where He is the effective height of the wall and t is the thickness of the RC wall.N.J. resulting in column forces in the bottom storey quite different from those resulting from the assumption of a rigid base.0012 of cross sectional area for deformed bars not larger than 16mm in diameter and with characteristic strength 415 N/mm^2 or greater. c) 0. Vertical reinforcement: a) 0. The minimum reinforcement for the RCC wall subject to BM shall be as follows: A. a) 0. He for a braced wall will be : .C.C. Maximum vertical l spacing for the vertical reinforcement shall neither exceed three times the wall thickness nor 450mm. (Ref:page 164-Seismic design of Reinforced concrete and Masonry buildings by T. b) 0. In such cases the column base should be modeled by a rotational springs.Paulay & M.0020 of cross sectional area for deformed bars not larger than 16mm in diameter and with characteristic strength 415 N/mm^2 or greater.) Also refer the Reinforced concrete Designer’s Handbook by Reynold where it is clearly mention about the column base support. Horizontal reinforcement. The He/t for a RCC wall shall not exceed 30 as per IS:456=2000. NOTE: The minimum reinforcement may not always be sufficient to provide adequate resistance to effects of shrinkage and temperature. B.0020 of cross sectional area for welded fabric not larger than 16mm in diameter.WALLS: 1. Foundation pads supported on deformable soil may have considerable rotational flexibility.short stiff piles or by foundation walls in Basement. R. 2. The consequences can be unexpected column HINGES at the top of lower storey columns under seismic lateral forces.0012 of cross sectional area for welded fabric not larger than 16mm in diameter.Priestley.

if the rotations are restrained at the ends by floors where h is the height of the wall. The same principle applies to trusses. 1. . 4. Although forces in the CHORDS decrease with increasing depth. CABLE: A structure in pure TENSION having the funicular shape of its load is termed as Cable. The point is now above the chord joining the end points by the same amount it was previously below it. TRUSS: The Depth to span ratio for a truss is h/L=10. 4. b) 1.a) 0. 3. A structure built according to the funicular shape in COMPRESSION is termed as an ARCH.75 H. An optimal depth/span ratio for a planar truss is approximately 1/10. forces in the WEB are practically UNCHANGED and increasing the depth increases the lengths of these members. that is the sag at any point is turned into a rise. VIERENDEEL GIRDER: The span to depth ratio=1/8 to 1/10 are typical.ARCH: Let us now invert the shape of a cable under a given load. increase in structural depth increases weight.0h . Beyond a certain optimal value. Approximately half the web members are in COMPRESSION and increasing their lengths reduces their efficiency due to the increased susceptibility to BUCKLING. MISCELLANEOUS: Ref: (Principle of structures by Ariel Hanaor). The compression on top chord or tension in the bottom chord for a UDL loading is C=T= qL^2/8h where q is the udl and h is the depth.

The depth to span ratio of an arch is usually in the range of 1/40 -1/70. 6. A depth /span ratio of 1/5-1/4 is a common value which is near optimal for many applications. FLAT PLATE RIBBED SLAB: Typical depth of flat plate ribbed slabs are in the range of 1/20-1/17 of the lesser effective span. FLATE PLATE: A typical depth of a solid FLAT PLATE is 1/22 -1/18 of the effective span. 7. FOLDED PLATE: The typical depth /span ratio is in the range from 1/15 to 1/10. TWO-WAY RIBBED SLAB: Supported on continuous stiff supports are in the range of 1/30-1/25 of the lesser effective span. 5. DOMES: The structural depth of DOMES is the full height of the dome from base to crown. 9. Depth to span ratio range from as low as 1/8 for shallow domes to ½ for deep domes. *************************************************************** *************************************************************** .The optional rise to span ratio for an arch is in the range of 1/6-1/4. 8.