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Fluid Mechanics — Homework 1

Concept question
The laminar velocity profile for a Newtonian fluid is shown below.

ENGN 81, Fall 2012
Which figure best describe the variation of shear stress with distance from the plate?
Homework 1: due Monday 9/17 by 5pm in box on B&H 4th floor North
Matlab/Mathematica or other computer programs may be used to solve tough integrals/equations.

Problem 1 (1.13 in text) The volume flow rate of flow, Q, through a pipe containing a slowly moving fluid is given by the
equation
Q=

πR4 ∆p
8µl

(1)

where R is the pipe radius, ∆p is the pressure drop along the pipe, µ is dynamic viscosity, and l is the length of the pipe.
What are the dimensions of the constant π/8? Would you classify the equation as a general homogeneous equation? Explain.

Problem 2 (1.16 in text) Assume that the speed of sound, c, in a fluid depends on an Elastic modulus, Ev , with dimensions
F L− 2, and the fluid density ρ in the form c = (Ev )a (ρ)b . If this is to be a dimensionally homogenous equation, what are the
values for a and b? Is your result consistent with the standard formula for speed of sound?

Problem 3 (1.36 in text) An open, rigid-walled, cylindrical tank contains 4 f t3 of water a 40◦ F . Over a 24-hour period
of time the water temperature varies from 40 to 90◦ F . Make use of the data in Appendix B to determine how much the
volume of water will change. For a tank diameter of 2 ft, would the corresponding change in water depth be very noticeable?
Explain.

Problem 4 (1.42 in text) A liquid when poured into a graduated cylinder is found to weigh 8 N when occupying a volume
of 500 ml. Determine its specific weight, density, and specific gravity.

Problem 5 (1.52 in text) Determine the number of pounds of helium within the volume of a helium-filled blimp used at
sporting events. Its volume is 68,000 f t3 and the temperature and pressure are 80◦ F and 14.2 psia, respectively.

Problem 6 (1.78 in text) A 25-mm-diameter shaft is pulled through a cylindrical bearing as shown in the figure below. A
lubricant that fills the 0.3-mm gap between the shaft and the bearing is n oil having a kinematic viscosity of 8.0 × 10−4 m2 /s
and a specific gravity of 0.91. Determine the force P required to pull the shaft at a velocity of 3 m/s. Assume the velocity
distribution in the gap is linear.

W. (b) The mass of the single-edge blade is 2. 2.100 m/s andpsi)? what percent the volume water decreased if its pressure is increased an equivalent to 3000 atmospheres h =0. 3. apart. 1.64 × 10−3 kg. 5. (a) The mass of the double-edge blade is 0. Determine the force P required to pull the shaft at a velocity of 3 m/s. 2. 1. uses aoffalling to cause Problem1010 (1.91. a Stormer viscometer. The inner cylinder has a radius of 3 in.48 in and a length of 9. The film thickness is 0. Assume the velocity distribution in the gap to be linear. The outer cylinder is fixed. Estimate V if the oil viscosity is 0. and the gap width between cylinders is 0.50 in slides downward with a velocity of V through a vertical pipe.54. parallel. A lubricant that fills the 0. Problem 7 (1.10.49] .5e-3 lb s/ft2). The downward motion is resisted by an oil film between the piston and the pipe wall. clean called glass plates are spaced a distance 2 mmweight.66.61 × 10−3 kg.3-mm gap between the shaft and the bearing is n oil having a kinematic viscosity of 8. the surface tension forces can be strong enough to allow a double-edged steel razor blade to ”float” on water.79 in text) A piston having diameter of 5.81 (1.22. Problem (1.1 By Determine the ismagnitude andofdirection of the shearing stress that the watertoexerts on the fixed surface for U = 2(44. as illustrated in Fig. Problem in text) A layer of water flowsindown an inclined profile shown in in Figtext.88. 0. respectively. 1. but a single-edge blade will sink.81.88) Oneintype of rotating cylinder viscometer. Determine the value of θ required to keep it in equilibrium.79.53. this device the viscosity. P1.85) The space between two 6-in long concentric cylinders is filled with glycerin (viscosity = 8. will thevelocity. obtained using glycerin at 20°C as a calibration liquid.59.78 in text) A 25-mm-diameter shaft is pulled through a cylindrical bearing as shown in the figure below.52 in text) Determine the number of pounds of helium within the volume of a helium-filled blimp used at sporting events.1m Problem 9 (1.016 lbs/f t2. If the plates the rotate how with high an angular ω. Explain why this blade sinks (with the necessary mathematical expressions!) ! Problem 9 (1. Problem8 8(1. Draw the best curve through the plotted points and determine K for the viscometer W (lb) = [0. where K is a constant that depends only on the geometry (including the liquid depth) of the viscometer.2 psia.due 1. water rise between the plates toFor capillary action? related to W and ω through the equation W = Kμω. Assume the velocity distribution in the gap is linear.5 lb. Its volume is 68.20] ω (rev/s) = [0. μ.0 × 10−4 m2 /s and a specific gravity of 0.Problem 5 (1. Plot values of the weight as ordinates and values of the angular velocity as abscissae.83.000 f t3 and the temperature and pressure are 80◦ F and 14. are given below. and the total length of its sides is 154 mm. Assume that the surface tension forces act at an angle θ relative to the water surface as shown in the figure below. The value K is usually determined by using a calibration liquid (a liquid of known viscosity).7. (a) Some data for a particular Sorter viscometer.002 in and the cylinder weighs 0. and the total length of its sides is 206 mm.1 in.110 in text) Read the ”fluids the news” articlefixed titledsurface ”This with waterthe jetvelocity is a blast. Fluid Mechanics — Homework 1 Problem 6 (1. Determine the torque and the power required to rotate the inner cylinder at 180 rev/min.124 in text) As shown in class. Assume the velocity distribution in the gap is linear.130 text) Two vertical.” section 1. of the liquid is arecylinder placed intowater.

0. 7.42] .04.22. W (lb) = [0. 3.89.Fluid Mechanics — Homework 1 (b) A liquid of unknown viscosity is place in the same viscometer used in part (a). and the data given below are obtained. 5.72.73.44.44] ω (rev/s) = [0. Determine the viscosity of this liquid. 1. 0.33.11. 0. 0.