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Cambridge International Examinations

Cambridge International Advanced Subsidiary Level

* 5 3 9 9 1 4 6 0 6 1 *

8291/21

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
Paper 2 Hydrosphere and Biosphere

May/June 2015
1 hour 30 minutes

Additional Materials:

Answer Booklet/Paper

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST


Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
You may use an HB pencil for any diagrams or graphs.
Do not use staples, paper clips, glue or correction fluid.
DO NOT WRITE IN ANY BARCODES.
Electronic calculators may be used.
You may lose marks if you do not show your working or if you do not use appropriate units.
Section A
Answer all questions.
Write your answers in the spaces provided on the question paper.
Section B
Answer one question from this section.
Answer the question on the separate answer paper provided.
At the end of the examination,
1.
fasten all separate answer paper securely to the question paper;
2.
enter the question number from Section B in the grid opposite.

For
Examiners
Use
Section A
1
2
Section B

Total

This document consists of 11 printed pages and 1 blank page.


DC (KN/SW) 91776/3
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Section A
Answer all questions in this section.

(a) Fig. 1.1 shows three different types of aquifers.


Key

permeable layer
impermeable layer

recharge
area

aquifer
water
table

water table
artesian
well

water
table artesian
well
well ground
surface

water
table
well
A

water
table
B

Fig. 1.1
(i)

Identify the type of aquifer at positions A, B and C in Fig. 1.1.


Choose from the list below.
unconfined

confined

perched

A ..........................................................................
B ..........................................................................
C ..........................................................................

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(ii)

With reference to Fig. 1.1, describe the characteristic features of each of these three
different types of aquifers.
perched .............................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
confined .............................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
unconfined .........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
[6]

(iii)

Outline the benefits of extracting water from the aquifers located at A and C in Fig. 1.1.
...........................................................................................................................................
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(b) Fig. 1.2 is adapted from a water cycle report for the Great Artesian Basin in Australia. It shows
losses, gains, stores and flows of water in the area.

evapotranspiration
precipitation

from
irrigated
land

ground
surface

surface
water

runoff

from
non-irrigated
land
aquifer
from
recharge
groundwater gain 323 000

Key
gains to groundwater
losses due to evapotranspiration
other losses from groundwater
in million litres

extraction
from
groundwater
loss 548 700

from
river
channels to river

from
irrigation
channels

groundwater
store
seepage

inflow
gain 107 400

outflow
loss 97 000

Fig. 1.2
(i)

With reference to Fig. 1.2, explain what is meant by the term aquifer recharge.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[2]

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(ii)

With reference to the information in Fig. 1.2, describe how natural processes and human
activity are causing an overall loss of 215 300 million litres from the groundwater store. In
your answer refer to losses, extraction and natural recharge.
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[Total: 20]

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2

(a) Fig. 2.1 shows a food web for some of the organisms living on part of the Galapagos Islands.
Fig. 2.2 shows the locations of some native species on the islands.
sea

land

land
plants

coastal
water
organisms

marine
iguana

land
iguana

herbivorous
insects

tortoise
lava
lizard

predatory
insects

insectivorous
birds
snake

herbivorous
finches

arachnids

centipede

mockingbird

hawk
Fig. 2.1

Isla Isabela
N

Pacific Ocean
Isla Santiago
Equator
Galapagos 960 km
Islands

Isla Fernandina

Key
Galapagos Island native species
marine iguana
Isla Santa Cruz

Galapagos penguin
flightless cormorant

20
km

giant tortoise
Fig. 2.2

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(i)

With reference to Fig. 2.1, complete the four-stage food chain.

land plants
......................

......................

......................
[2]

(ii)

With reference to Fig. 2.1 and Fig. 2.2, explain how the terms habitat and niche can be
applied to the location of species in the Galapagos Islands.
habitat ...............................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
niche ..................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
[4]

(iii)

A marine reserve has been established with a 64 km radius around the islands. With
reference to Fig. 2.1 and Fig. 2.2, explain the need to conserve the Galapagos Islands
habitats and protect their coastal waters.
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(b) (i)

Suggest one way in which tourism can pose a threat to the species in the Galapagos
Islands.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................[2]

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(ii)

Fig. 2.3 shows the Galapagos Island of Santa Cruz. Describe how the strategy shown in
Fig. 2.3 can protect the islands most vulnerable species.

Santa
Rosa
Pacific
Ocean
0

10

Bella
Vista
Charles Darwin
Research
Puerto
Station
Ayora

Key
core area
buffer zone
developed zone
roads
settlements

km
Fig. 2.3
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[Total: 20]
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Section B
Answer one question from this section.

(a) Fig. 3.1 shows the number of threatened tree species in three categories for different regions.

Africa
Asia
Europe
North and Central America
Oceania
South America
0
Key

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

number of tree species


vulnerable tree species
endangered tree species
critically endangered tree species
Fig. 3.1

Briefly describe the regional differences in the data shown in Fig. 3.1.

[10]

(b) Using an example of a biome you have studied, describe the threat to both the extent and
ecological quality of its forest ecosystems. Evaluate the measures that can be used to sustain
the biodiversity of these forest ecosystems.
[30]
[Total: 40]

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4

(a) Fig. 4.1 shows a lake which is enriched with nutrients in A and has subsequently suffered
from the effects of eutrophication in B.
A
algal mat

input of
nutrient

algae
plant and
animal life

dead plants
and animals

organic
sediment
Fig. 4.1
With reference to Fig. 4.1, describe the process of eutrophication and its effects.

[10]

(b) Describe the sources of nutrient enrichment of rivers and lakes. For a river with which you are
familiar, evaluate the measures that have been used to prevent or reduce pollution.
[30]
[Total: 40]

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5

(a) Fig. 5.1 shows the net primary productivity (NPP) of ecosystems and agricultural land.

agricultural land

coniferous forest

temperate forest

tropical forest

wetlands
0

2000

4000

6000

NPP / kcal per

m2

8000

10000

per year

Fig. 5.1
With reference to the data in Fig. 5.1, outline three factors that affect the variations in primary
productivity of ecosystems and agricultural land.
[10]
(b) Fig. 5.2 shows the hectares of productive land and sea needed to resource the lifestyle of one
person.
productive land
and sea / ha

country
United States of America

9.6

Brazil

2.1

China

1.6

India

0.8

Fig. 5.2
Using examples of countries at different levels of economic development, assess the extent to
which the sustainable use of resources can help to resolve issues arising from the increasing
demands of populations.
[30]
[Total: 40]

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