You are on page 1of 9

Annealing

Full annealing is accomplished by heating a hypoeutectoid steel to a


temperature above the UCT (Upper Critical Temperature). In
practice, the steel is heated to about 50 oC above the UCT. It is then
cooled in the furnace very slowly to room temperature. The formation
of austenite destroys all structures that have existed before heating.
Slow cooling yields the original phases of ferrite and pearlite.

Figure 1. Annealing and Spheroidizing Temperatures


Hypereutectoid steels consist of pearlite and cementite. The
cementite forms a brittle network around the pearlite. This
presents difficulty in machining the hypereutectoid steels. To
improve the machinability of the annealed hypereutectoid
steel spheroidize annealing is applied. This process will
produce a spheroidal or globular form of a carbide in a
ferritic matrix which makes the machining easy. Prolonged
time at the elevated temperature will completely break up the
pearlitic structure and cementite network. The structure is
called spheroidite. This structure is desirable when minimum
hardness, maximum ductility and maximum machinability
are required.

Figure 2. Spheroidizing process applied at a temperature


below the LCT.

Figure 3. Spheroidizing process applied at a temperature


below and above the LCT.

Low carbon steels are seldom spheroidized for machining,


because they are excessively soft and gummy in the
spheoridized conditions. The cutting tool will tend to push the
material rather than cut it, causing excessive heat and wear on
the cutting tip.

Figure 4. Spheroidized cementite in a ferrite matrix.


Stress-Relief Annealing is sometimes called subcritical
annealing, is useful in removing residual stresses due to heavy
machining or other cold-working processes. It is usually
carried out at temperatures below the LCT, which is usually
selected around 538o C
The benefits of annealing are:
Improved ductility
Removal of residual stresses that result from cold-working
or machining
Improved machinability
Grain refinement
Full annealing consists of (1) recovery (stress-relief ), (2)
recrystallization, (3) grain growth stages. Annealing reduces
the hardness, yield strength and tensile strength of the steel

Forging
Forging is a manufacturing process where metal is shaped by plastic deformation under
great pressure into high strength parts. Forging or cold forming are metal forming
processes.. Plastic deformation produces an increase in the number of dislocations
resulting in a higher state of internal stress. Indeed, strain hardening is attributed to the
interaction of dislocations with other dislocations and other barriers (such as grain
boundaries). Simultaneously, the shape of primary crystals (dendrites) changes after
plastic working of the metal. Dendrites are stretched in the direction of metal flow
and thus form fibers of increased strength along the direction of flow. We may distinguish
hot working from cold working. Hot working is performed above the recrystallization
temperature old-working is performed below it.
In hot working strain hardening and distorted grain structure are very rapidly
eliminated by the formation of new strain-free grains as the result of recrystallization.
Rapid diffusion at hot working temperatures aids in homogenizing the preform. Initial
porosity can also be significantly reduced, eventually completely healed.
Metallurgical phenomena such as strain hardening and recrystallization are important
because these changes in structure result in an increase in ductility and toughness over the
cast state.

Casting
The casting process consists of pouring or injecting molten metal into a mold containing
a cavity with the desired shape of the casting. Metal casting processes can be classified
either by the type of mold or by the pressure used to fill the mold with liquid metal
Casting is a solidification process.Therefore, the microstructure can be finely tuned, such
as grain structure, phase transformations and precipitation. However, defects such as
shrinkage porosity, cracks and segregation are also intimately linked to solidification.
These defects can lead to lower mechanical properties. A subsequent heat treatment is
often required to reduce residual stresses and optimize mechanical properties.
Strength of forging

Weakness of forging:

Good Mechanical
properties
(yield strength,
ductility,
toughness)
Reliability (used
for critical parts)
No liquid metal
treatment
:

Defects
- Laps
- Die unfill
- Die failure
- Piping
Shape limited when
undercuts or
cored sections are
required Overall cost
usually higher than
casting Multiple steps
often required

Strength of
casting
Large and
complex parts
High production
rate
Design
flexibility

Weakness of casting:
Defects
Shrinkage porosity
Metallic projections
Cracks, hot tearing,
cold shuts Laps, oxides
Misruns, insufficient
Volume inclusions
Requires close process
control and inspections
(porosity may

Ferrous Metals vs Non Ferrous Metals


Ferrous metals and non ferrous metals are subdivisions of metallic elements.. Metals are
divided into two groups called ferrous metals and non ferrous metals. ferrous metals are
those that contain iron in some form and percentage. Because of the presence of iron,
ferrous metals are magnetic in nature and this property differentiates them from non
ferrous metals. . Most, but not all, ferrous metals are magnetic a good example is
stainless steel whitch is non magnetic Ferrous metals also have a high tensile strength.
Some examples of ferrous metals are carbon steel, stainless steel and wrought iron.
Ferrous metals are known for their ability to allow for oxidation which is a property
known as corrosion. Oxidation of ferrous metals can be seen in a reddish brown deposit
on the surface which is an oxide of iron.
Some examples of non ferrous metals are aluminum, brass, copper etc.
Non ferrous metals have properties different from ferrous metals and are used for
industrial applications. They are mainly used because of reduced weight, higher strength,
non magnetic properties, higher melting points and resistance to corrosion, whether
chemical or atmospheric. These non ferrous metals are also ideal for electrical and
electronic applications.
Thus it is clear that non ferrous metal is any metal that does not contain iron or any alloy
of metals which do not contain iron as a component. Most, but not all, ferrous metals are
magnetic in nature but in magnetism, ferrous metals vary depending upon the amount of
iron they contain. Stainless steel, though it contains iron is not magnetic in nature because
of the process that makes it stainless. It is put in nitric acid to get rid of iron and what
remains is a lot of nickel thus making it non magnetic though it still classifies as a ferrous
metal.
FERROUS METALS - Metals that contain iron.
NON-FERROUS METALS - Metals that do not contain iron
SOME FERROUS METALS AND PROPERTIES
NAME
ALLOY OF

PROPERTIES
USES
Mild Steel
Carbon 0.1 - 0.3%
Iron 99.9 - 99.7%
Tough. High tensile strength. Can be case hardened.
Rusts very easily.
Most common metal used in
workshops. Used in general metal products and
engineering.
Carbon Steel
Carbon 0.6 - 1.4%
Iron 99.4 - 98.6%
Tough. Can be hardened and tempered.
tools such as drills.
Stainless steel
rust and stains.
Cast iron

Cutting

Iron, nickel and chromium.


Tough, resistant to
Cutlery, medical instruments.

Carbon 2 - 6%
Iron 98 - 94%
Strong but brittle. Compressive strength very high.
Castings, manhole covers, engines.
Almost 100% iron
Fibrous, tough, ductile,
Ornamental gates and railings. Not in much use

Wrought iron
resistant to rusting.
today.

SOME NON - FERROUS METALS AND PROPERTIES

NAME

ALLOY OF

PROPERTIES

USES

COLOU
R

Aluminiu
m

Ductile, soft, malleable, Window frames,


machines well. Very
aircraft kitchen
light.
ware.

Copper
Brass

Silver

Lead

Reddis
h
brown
Yellow

Not an alloy

Mixture of copper
and zinc 65% 35% most common
ratio.
Whitish Mainly silver but
grey
alloyed with copper
to give sterling
silver.
Bluish
Not an alloy.
grey

Ductile, can be beaten


into shape. Conducts
electricity and heat.
Hard. Casts and
machines well. Surface
tarnishes. Conducts
electricity.
Ductile, Malleable,
solders, resists
corrosion.

Electrical wiring,
tubing, kettles,
bowls, pipes.
Parts for electrical
fittings, exposed
handles.

Soft, heavy, ductile,


loses its shape under
pressure.

Solders, pipes,
batteries, roofing.

solder,
ornaments.

If you use metals as part of a practical project a knowledge of the shape or section of
lengths of metals is important. The diagrams below show examples of solid lengths and
also tubes. When you order metals you need to describe the section you want.

Alloying
Chromium is commonly added to steel to increase corrosion resistance and oxidation
resistance, to increase hardenability, or to improve high-temperature strength. As a
hardening element, Chromium is frequently used with a toughening element such as
nickel to produce superior mechanical properties. At higher temperatures, chromium
contributes increased strength. Chromium is a strong carbide former. Complex
chromium-iron carbides go into solution in austenite slowly;.
Nickel is a ferrite strengthener. Nickel
does not form carbides in steel. It
Chemical composition sus316
remains in solution in ferrite,
strengthening and toughening the ferrite
Element
Weight %
phase. Nickel increases the hardenability
and impact strength of steels.
Molybdenum increases the hardenability
C
0.15
of steel. Molybdenum may produce
Mn
2.00
secondary hardening during the
tempering of quenched steels. It
Si
0.75
enhances the creep strength of low-alloy
Cr
18.0(nom)
steels at elevated temperatures.

Mo
Ni
P
S

03
14(nom)
0.04
0.03

Polymers
A) Thermoplastics such as polyethylene, which soften on heating.
B) Thermosets or resins such as epoxi which harden when two components are heated
together.
C) Elastomers or rubbers D) Natural polymers such as cellulose, lignin and protein,
which provide the mechanical basis of most plant and animal life
it actually encompasses a large class comprising both natural and synthetic materials with
a wide variety of properties.
Elastomers are linear polymers with occasional-cross links. These cross-links
provide a memory so it returns to its original shape on unloading.
Polymers which show rubbery behavior at their operating temperature are called
elastomeric Some elastomeric polymers are thermoplastics & others are thermosetting.
The prototype is natural rubber

Elastomer
Polyisoprene
Polybutadiene
Polychloroprene

use
Natural rubber
Synthetic rubber, ar tyres
Neoprene

.
Advantages of using Elastomers
High Strength
High Resistance to Corrosion and Chemical
High Resistance to Elevated Temperature
High Resistance to Abrasion
Toughness
Fatigue
Light Weight
disadvantages