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IEC/CIGRE UHV symposium

Development and testing of 1100 kV GIS

ABB Switzerland Ltd.
Zrich, Switzerland


Current switchgear projects are strengthening research, development and standardization in
the ultra-high voltage (UHV) sector. Many years of experience at voltage levels of up to
800 kV are available as the basis for developing gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) for 1100 kV.
Nevertheless, the individual components such as circuit breakers and disconnectors differ
greatly from the known designs in some cases. As regards the circuit breaker, for instance, it
emerges that a design with the closing resistor in a parallel tank is advantageous. The VFT
(Very Fast Transient) overvoltages become more important as regards the disconnector
design. However, major challenges for the development and testing of a UHV GIS are posed
not only by the design but also by the limited testing possibilities, in particular for the partial
discharge level, disconnector circuits and power tests. The outlay for development and type
approval tests increases substantially because the tests have to be carried out in different
laboratories distributed across the world. The laboratories' limits are reached - and in some
cases even exceeded - by many of the tests. This also results in new terms of reference for
the standardization sector in order to accommodate the special requirements for the UHV
level. The experience gained by the manufacturers and institutions participating in the UHV
demonstration project may be helpful here.

Ultra-high voltage (UHV), Gas-Insulated Switchgear (GIS), Design and testing of GIS


Current plans by the State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC) to set up 1100 kV high voltage
transmission in China have generated impetus for research and development among research
institutions and plant manufacturers [1], [2], [3]. The first three switchgears in the
'Jingdongnan-Nanyang-Jingmen' UHV demonstration project are partially executed using gasinsulated design (GIS) or as hybrid systems (H-GIS), i.e. as a combination of air-insulated
and gas-insulated components. One of these switchgears is being supplied by ABB / SHIKY
as hybrid switchgear with a 2-circuit breaker layout (Figure 1). The demonstration project will
already start operating by the end of 2008. The switchgear layout comprises virtually all GIS
components such as the circuit breakers with closing resistor, disconnectors, earthing
switches, busbars, insulators, current transformers and bushings. Only the voltage
transformers, surge arrestors and fast earthing devices are not executed as GIS components.
Today, there is no international standardization for rated and test voltages at the 1100 kV
voltage level but CIGR WG A3.22 is currently working on recommendations for
standardization. The rated voltages for the demonstration project are based on an SGCC
specification. This specification was drawn on the basis of extensive grid studies and
investigations of voltage coordination [1], [3]. Together with experience from the
demonstration project, the specified requirements will also form the basis for further projects
in China. The basis for the project is the Chinese Standard DL/T 593-2006, which largely
corresponds to IEC 62271-1 (formerly IEC 60694) with the addition of special Chinese
requirements. The main rated values are given here:

Rated voltage
Nominal operating voltage
Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage to earth
Rated short-duration power frequency withstand voltage to earth
Rated short-duration pfwv across the isolating distance
Rated lightning impulse wv across the isolating distance
Rated switching impulse withstand voltage to earth
Rated switching impulse wv across the isolating distance
Rated frequency
Rated normal current (switching devices)
Rated normal current (busbar)
Rated short-time withstand current
Rated peak withstand current

1100 kV
1000 kV
2400 kV
1100 kV
1100 kV + 635 kV
2400 kV + 900 kV
1800 kV
1675 kV + 900 kV
50 Hz
4000 A
8000 A
50 kA, 3 s
135 kA

Figure 1

Single-line diagram and layout of the 1100 kV hybrid GIS substation 'Jingmen'


ABB has long operational experience with 550 kV GIS systems installed throughout the
world and almost 20 years of operational experience with the 800 kV GIS switchgear,
providing a sound basis for the development of a 1100 kV GIS. Given the technical
requirements and a limited time available for development, the following requirements for
development result:
use of single-phase encapsulation;
use of tried-and-tested parts and technologies;
use of robust manufacturing process
use of 3D calculation tools for electrical and mechanical calculations
The basis for the design is the specified dielectric requirements. The withstand voltages from
IEC 62271-203 are compared with the specified values above in Figure 2. It shows that the
P.U. values for BIL and AC pfwv decrease with increasing rated voltage. If the same
dimensioning field strengths were to be used, the basic dimensions of a UHV GIS for static
components would increase subproportionally to the voltage. When disconnectors are
switched, very fast transient overvoltages occur in SF6-insulated systems (VFT - very fast
transient). As the rated voltage increases, the difference between the rated lightning impulse
withstand voltage and the VFT overvoltage decreases. Hence, VFT overvoltages may become
dielectrically dimensioning at UHV voltage levels.
The choice of the SF6 gas pressure is decisive for most design parameters. For a robust design
on UHV voltage levels the mechanical dimensioning and the sensitivity to particles are key
factors. This suggests to use a rather low SF6 gas pressure compared to modern compact
designs for lower voltage ratings [2].

In addition to the dielectric design requirements, additional requirements for switching

devices have to be taken into account. For this reason, the design of the circuit breaker and the
disconnector is discussed in more detail below.
Rated short-duration power frequency withstand voltage
Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage
Rated switching impulse withstand voltage
max. VFTO (H-GIS)
max. VFTO (GIS)


Voltage [p. u.]










Rated voltage [kV]

Figure 2
Dependency of rated withstand voltages and VFT overvoltages on rated
voltage as per IEC 62271-203, specification SGCC; max. VFT overvoltage corresponds to
2.2 p. u. (H-GIS) and 2.7 p. u. (GIS)
To avoid development loops the latest simulation and modeling methods have to be used for
UHV GIS design, such as:

Design, dielectric and mechanical calculations in 3D

dynamic field calculation for circuit breaker contacts to determine voltage
coordination for making and breaking operations
simulation of voltage distribution for the interrupter units,
simulation of earthquake stress,
calculations of the mechanical function chain to determine the load values for the
insulators and moving part
simulation of deflection with static load and in case of short circuit
flow simulation for the interrupter unit to optimize breaking behavior
simulation of forces and temperatures in case of peak and short-time current loads,
internal fault arc simulation
temperature calculation at rated current load, with the help of the thermal network
These simulation tools and methods provide a high likelihood of optimal design with a small
number of development tests and high levels of safety and reliability for the type tests and
during operation.
Design of UHV GIS circuit breaker

It was shown that the drive energy can be minimized, if a 1100 kV circuit breaker consists of
four interrupting units connected in series 0. The obvious choice is therefore to use 300 kV
interrupting units, as successfully used for years in a double stack in 550 kV switches. .The
specified closing resistor can be positioned in parallel or in series to the interrupting chambers
(Figure 3).





Figure 3


Circuit diagram for a circuit breaker (CB) with closing resistor (CR) and
closing resistor switch (CRS) Left: closing resistor parallel with circuit
breaker. Right: closing resistor in series with circuit breaker

When connected in series, the CRS short-circuits the resistor shortly after the circuit breaker
is closed. The CRS must be able to carry the rated current and the short-time current. When
connected in parallel, the CRS closes the resistor shortly before the circuit breaker makes
contact. The auxiliary contact only needs to be able to carry a few kA for a short period.
Different designs are available for the positioning of the drive, see (Figure 4): a center
connection (A) and a series connection (B).
Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 1

Unit 4

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4



Figure 4


Circuit diagram for a circuit breaker with four interrupting chambers

Left: Center connection. Right: Series connection

The drive connected to the center is known from 2-chamber open-air switches. For
1100 kV, one 550 kV switch is positioned to the left and another to the right. The
drive is positioned to the side or below the breaker. Two closing resistors are required,
and it is advantageous to position them in the same tank as the interrupting chambers.
The drawbacks of this solution are the complex voltage control and the very large
diameter of the circuit breaker tank. Moreover, the center gear reduces drive efficiency
and increases the moving mass.
With series connection, all 4 interrupting chambers are positioned behind one another.
Series connection with the closing resistor is not appropriate as the tank would become
very long. This makes it advantageous to position the closing resistor parallel to the
interrupting chambers. In addition to the volume of the closing resistor, the space
requirement for the contact to switch on the resistor must be taken into account.
Therefore, it is useful to place the closing resistor in a separate tank.

For an 1100 kV circuit breaker, the benefits are in favor of a series connection.
Figure 5 shows a size comparison of ABBs circuit breakers at different voltage levels with
different numbers of interrupting units.

Figure 5

ABB 1100 kV circuit breaker with separate closing resistor: size comparison

The closing resistor is positioned in a separate tank, parallel with the interrupting units. The
closing resistor switch (CRS) is operated by the CB drive via a linkage. On closing the CB,
the CRS performs a Close-Open operation. On opening the CB, the CRS does not move at all.
This solution offers several advantages:

The drive has a straight connection to the interrupting units

The CRS does not need to carry rated current or short-circuit current.
The resistor stack can be adapted to specifications, independently of the circuit
The tank diameters become substantially smaller, making them easier to manufacture.
A dedicated gas compartment can be selected for the CR switch and the resistor.
Horizontal positioning in the layout minimizes the switch framework, allowing very
good accessibility to all components without platforms.
Because they are built on at the side, the drive, interrupting chambers, CR switch and
resistor in a system can be inspected independently, without dismantling other GIS

The voltage distribution depends on the number of interrupting chambers, the capacitances
across the contact gap and to earth, and on which side the voltages are applied. To take
optimal advantage of the breaking and making capacity of the individual interrupting
chambers, the objective should be the most homogeneous voltage distribution that is possible.
This can be achieved if grading capacitors are positioned parallel to each interrupting
chamber. To ensure that voltage distribution factor is low, larger grading capacitances are
therefore required for series connection of 4 interrupting chambers as compared to a 2chamber circuit breaker. Figure 6 shows the equivalent circuit diagram to calculate the
grading capacitances Cp required for a voltage stress on one side, at which the maximum
unevenness occurs. Maximum unevenness occurs when the voltage-side capacitor shows the
lowest value, whereas all other grading capacitors are manufactured at the upper tolerance
limit ('worst case').


Unit 1

Unit 2



Figure 6

Unit 3



Unit 4




Equivalent circuit diagram for capacitances in a 4-chamber circuit breaker,

To keep the maximum voltage distribution factor for a chamber as low as possible, i.e. below
10 %, and at the same time to enable the lowest possible capacitances to be used, different
grading capacitor values are used in the 1100 kV circuit breaker. The two outer grading
capacitors have a capacitance value increased by double the manufacturing tolerance values.
By using different grading capacitors according to these rules, the absolute voltage stress of
the first interrupting chamber can also be reduced by over 5 % in the 'worst case'. A similar
effect with identical grading capacitors on all interrupting chambers can only be achieved if
the capacitance value is doubled.
The 'worst case' only occurs with extremely low probability. However, it is the basis for
calculating the voltage stress for power tests in the form of half-pole tests, or on individual
interrupting chambers (quarter-pole test, unit test).
The voltage distribution factor calculations should not only be applicable for rated frequency
voltage stress. In fact, the maximum voltage stress must apply for all types of voltage
occurring in GIS systems, i.e. they must not be higher even for lightning impulse voltage, up
to and including voltages with extremely short rise times (VFT). The voltage distribution
factor is frequency-dependent here, because real grading capacitors include inductances and
resistances. As an example, the dynamic behavior shown in Figure 7 is obtained. By way of
clarification, the voltage stress for individual interrupting chambers for an impulse voltage
stress with a rise time of 400 ns is shown. It could be shown that the individual interrupting
chambers are not overstressed even when subject to VFT overvoltage stresses.
Frequency [Hz]


rel. Voltage [p. u.]



unit 1
unit 2
unit 3
unit 4





rel. Voltage [p. u.]


unit 1
unit 2


unit 3
unit 4







Time [us]

Figure 7
Voltage stress for individual interrupter chambers, in relation to one quarter of
the total voltage with voltage stress from one side. Left: frequency-dependent. Right: for
impulse stress with a rise time of 400 ns

Design of the closing resistor

The thermal capacitance of the resistor material is the basic dimensioning value for the
closing resistor. The temperature- and voltage-dependency of the resistor material need to be
taken into account for this purpose. Both of these factors result in lower resistance values for
higher loads, so the thermal energy Ed increases overproportionally according to Equation 1.

E (t ) =

U (t )
R ( , U ( t ))

Equation 1

Ed(t): converted thermal energy at time t

U(t): voltage at time t
R(, U(t)): resistance at time t
The result from a simulation of two closing operations with phase opposition at 1000 kV is
shown in Figure 8 with the progressions of the resistance value R(t) for a cold resistance of
560 , the accumulated converted energy E(t) and the temperature (t). To allow both closing
operations to be drawn in one chart, cooling was mapped for 30 min by a temperature jump of
40 K at time 15 ms. The resistance progression clearly indicates the dependencies on
temperature as well as voltage. In the least favorable case, the resistance value at the end of
the simulation is about 450 with a temperature increase of 120 K. The converted energy in
this case is 92 MJ for 2 times 11 ms of closing time.

[ ]






Cooling down by 40 K (within 30 min)


First closing opeartion

(11 ms duration)

Figure 8

Second closing operation

(11 ms duration)

Resistance, energy and temperature during 2 times 11 ms closing time

Design of the disconnector

Layout studies for GIS and H-GIS systems have shown that a 90-angled disconnector offers
most layout options and at the same time requires the lowest number of GIS components. This
disconnector design is therefore used for the UHV GIS 0. Optionally, the disconnector can
also be equipped with an earthing switch if one is required in the layout. For 1100 kV GIS
and H-GIS systems, the phase distance is typically 10 m to 15 m, so a three-pole drive with a
linkage between the phases is no longer appropriate.

When disconnectors in gas-insulated systems are switched, very fast overvoltages (VFTs) are
produced. As shown in Figure 2, the VFT overvoltages in the UHV range can be dielectrically
dimensioned. Additional damping resistors in the disconnector can be used to damp the
overvoltages which occur. Various studies prove that a UHV GIS disconnector does not
require a VFT damping resistor if the highest VFT overvoltages are below the rated lightning
impulse voltage, corresponding to 2.66 p. u. 0. On the basis of numerous VFT calculations, it
has been proven that maximum VFT overvoltages of 2.2 p. u. occur for the ABB UHV GIS
with any desired GIS or H-GIS layouts.

Development- and type tests at 1100 kV voltage level are a challenge to test laboratories. So
far, no laboratory is able to carry out all the necessary tests. Therefore, the tests have to take
place in different laboratories. ABB has carried out the type tests at the XIHARI Laboratories
in Xi`an, China to a big extend. In addition, the STRI laboratory in Sweden and ABB's
laboratories in Germany, Switzerland and Sweden have been involved. The time required for
setting up tests and gas handling is much higher than for 550 kV systems.
Dielectric testing

The dimensions of the test objects require the availability of considerable space in the highvoltage and high power laboratories. For high-voltage tests with combined alternating and
switching impulse voltages, for example, a minimum distance between bushings of 13 m must
be maintained. The distance between live parts and walls must not be less than 10 m. These
requirements already exceed the limits of most high-voltage laboratories. The size of the test
objects (see e.g. Figure 9 below) substantially increases the capacitance of the test objects as
compared to 550 kV systems, i.e. high-performance high-voltage transformers must be
Partial discharge (PD) measurements are an element of the dielectric type tests. These values
are measured conventionally as per IEC 60270, i.e. via a coupling capacitor. The apparent
charge depends on the dimensions of the test object. Compared to a 550 kV GIS, the apparent
charge for an identical defect is lower by a factor of 2 3. To attain similar sensitivity with
maximum alternating test voltage, the background noise should be in the range from 0.1 pC to
0.2 pC. In this case, the background noise level is dependent on the size of the coupling
capacitor and on the electromagnetic shielding of the high-voltage lab. The experimental setup shown in Figure 9 has a test capacitance of about 3 nF. The transformer's power limit
requires the capacitance of the coupling capacitors to be relatively low, at 0.35 nF. Due to
external interference from the test systems and corona, this experimental set-up results in a
background noise level of about 7 pC at 1000 kV. A lower background level could be attained
through the use of SF6-insulated alternating voltage transformers.
To achieve high sensitivity for the laboratory measurements, acoustic and UHF PD
measurement have been used. PD measurement in the UHF range has become established as
an acceptance criterion for on-site testing in recent decades [4], [5]. To use the UHF method,
it is necessary to install several field sensors which were integrated into the test object (Figure
9). One apparent 'drawback' of the UHF measurement is that the UHF signal cannot be
unambiguously correlated to the apparent charge from the PD source, so calibration as per
IEC 60270 is impossible for physical reasons and factors related to measurement technology.
However, a so-called 'sensitivity verification' of the UHF sensors is possible [6].


Sensor 3

Sensor 4

Sensor 1

Figure 9

Sensor 2

High-voltage type test in the XIHARI high-voltage laboratory Left:

Experimental set-up. Right: UHF partial discharge sensor

The UHF-PD measurement not only allows very sensitive measurements but also localization
of the PD source by means of a time-of-flight measurement.
Impulse generators are not usually designed for the dimensions of 1100 kV test objects. As a
result, overshoots of 7% to 10% occur in the peak range during the test with lightning impulse
voltage. The overshoots are therefore greater than the definition in IEC 60060. For SF6insulated systems, compensation of the lightning impulse voltage according to the revision of
IEC 60060-1 in IEC TC42 is considered correct also for larger overshoots. As testing with the
existing impulse generators will have to continue in the future, the recommendation is still
that the requirement for dielectric type tests for the special requirements in the case of
1100 kV should be taken into account in the standardization. CIGR TF D1.33.08 is currently
working on this topic.
Combined voltage tests should be conducted across open isolating distance and across open
switching device. For this purpose, alternating voltage is applied on one side and an impulse
voltage on the other. In the case of 1100 kV, this test sets special requirements for the testing
technology. The relatively high switch capacitance causes overcoupling of the impulse
voltage on the alternating voltage transformer during the combined voltage tests. The voltage
drop must be compensated by a voltage increase.
The overcoupling can be reduced by additional lumped capacitances on the alternating
voltage side. Several nF are required. The potential capacitance value is nevertheless
restricted by the power limit of the transformer. During the type tests, maximum overcoupling
of 20% of the impulse voltage occurred. The overcoupling can be compensated on the
impulse voltage side or the alternating voltage side. In case of compensation on the impulse
voltage side, the insulation to earth is stressed beyond the rated values. Full compensation on
the alternating voltage side leads to very long voltage stress close to the rated short-time
power frequency withstand voltage. Combined tests with low voltage losses require
alternating voltage transformers with current from 3 A to 4 A on the high-voltage side. In this
case too, the special requirements for 1100 kV must be discussed in connection with

Switching capacity of the disconnector

Disconnectors must be able to switch busbars (bus-transfer current) and capacitive charging
currents (bus-charging current). When switching between busbars, very large voltages occur
in 1100 kV systems which have been specified for this purpose. Since the length of the arc
increases more or less proportionally to the voltage, contact erosion and the likelihood of
thermal drift of the arc are increased. Suitable designing of the arcing contacts can counteract
this phenomenon.

Figure 10
Experimental set-up for switching grading capacitors in the circuit breaker by
means of a disconnector as per IEC 62271-102 in the STRI high-voltage laboratory
When switching capacitive currents, the focus is on VFT overvoltages in particular. In
addition to the requirements for the disconnector, the overvoltages that occur represent a
major challenge in relation to the EMC of the measurement and control equipment. The
experimental set-up is shown in Figure 10. According to IEC 62271-102, VFT amplitudes of
at least 1.4 p. u. are required without pre-charging. The VFT amplitude depends on the
experimental set-up and the support capacitors on the alternating voltage side. The capacitive
sensors shown in Figure 9 were used to measure the voltage. During disconnector switching,
VFT overvoltages of 2 MV occur, corresponding to a p. u. value of 2.23. This value is above
the VFT overvoltages which occur in real operation. The test results therefore confirm that no
VFT damping resistors are required for the selected design.


Power tests for circuit breaker

So far, no power laboratory has the ability to carry out all the power tests required as per IEC
62271-100 (short-circuit interruptions and closing operations) for 1100 kV. Synthetic test
equipment for rated voltages of 550 kV is usually available. Alternatively, some tests can be
carried out as half-pole or unit tests. To enable generation of an equivalent stress to the fullpole test for the switch, and hence a flow of current through all interrupting chambers, it is
possible to work with two synthetics [8], [9]. The corresponding possibilities are indicated in
IEC 62271-101. For this purpose, a special circuit breaker with a central connection and / or
to set the circuit breaker tank to potential and insulate it to earth is required(Figure 11).

Figure 11
1100 kV Circuit breaker at the power test site during a full pole test with
insulated encapsulation
The voltage distribution factor must be indicated by the manufacturer in order to calculate the
TRV (transient recovery voltage) values in half-pole tests. The voltage distribution factor
depends on:
how many interrupting chambers are included in the test, and which ones;
whether a central connection is present;
the bushings where the voltage is connected; and
whether a combination of several synthetic circuits is used. In this case, different
voltage distribution factors must be respected for the individual partial voltages.
The voltage distribution factor for an interrupting chamber with a voltage stress on one side is
8.6 % ('worst case').
For half-pole tests, the TRV level corresponds to the level for tests on 550 kV circuit
breakers. Synthetic systems are not generally optimized for these tests. In particular, the
relatively flat rate of rise of TRV (RRRV) as compared to 550 kV is difficult to reach. The
implementable RRRV causes higher dielectric stress after the short-circuit interruption in
some cases (Figure 12).

voltage [kV]



requirement half pole test


prospective TRV





time [us]

Figure 12
1100 kV Circuit breaker at the XIHARI power test site. Left: Experimental setup. Right: Required and prospective TRV for terminal fault, T100s
Likewise, no test equipment is available for short-circuit making with full voltage (T100s(a)).
The following methods are possible in order to perform the making operations without or with
synthetic closing circuits for 550 kV:
With the ignition wire method, a wire is fitted on a contact. The length of the wire
corresponds to the expected pre-arcing distance. This method is no longer permitted
according to IEC 62271-100. Before starting the test, it is necessary to determine the
pre-strike characteristic and to install the ignition wire.
Two interrupting chambers are solidly short-circuited. The drive load is less during
making operation. After the test, the short-circuit must be removed.
Two interrupting chambers are short-circuited via an ignition wire. The pre-ignition
wire vaporizes during the closing operation. The pre-arcing distance can be respected.
The ignition wire must be installed before the test starts.
The closing operation is performed with reduced gas pressure. With a proven prearcing distance, the closing operation can be performed with a 550 kV synthetic
making circuit. This variant is regarded as the preferred method.
Power tests for the closing resistor

As mentioned in the section on the design of the closing resistor, performing two closing
operations at phase opposition condictions withing 30 min have to be tested. For the required
phase opposition at 1100 kV, the test laboratory would have to be able to provide voltage of
1270 kV with 3.2 kA current (taking account of the non-linearity of the resistor material). As
no power lab can provide such high voltage values, the voltage stress and the current load
must have been applied on a reduced stack of resistor discs of the closing resistor.

The development of gas-insulated switchgear constitutes a demanding task, even though it is

possible to draw on a very broad knowledge and product base. By utilizing the latest
simulation and development technologies in conjunction with design criteria based on
empirical values, the development time can be kept short while increasing the safety and
reliability of the design.
The switching components require specific attention. For the circuit breaker, it emerges that a
design with 4 interrupting chambers in series and a closing resistor in a parallel tank is

advantageous. Suitable selection of the grading capacitances enables a substantial reduction in

overall capacitance. The closing resistor is a special challenge with regard to the thermal
capacitance. With the selected disconnector design, no additional resistors are needed to damp
the VFT overvoltages.
Tests on UHV equipment represent a major challenge for the laboratories. Many tests reach and in some cases exceed - the limits of the laboratories. This poses new problems also for the
standardization sector, in order to take into account the special requirements for the UHV
level. The experience gained by the manufacturers and institutions participating in the UHV
demonstration project are of help here.

2006 Int. Conference of UHV Power Transmission Technology, Peking, 2006

Holaus, W.; Sologuren, D.; Krsi, U.; Riechert, U.; Xia Wen; Jiang Hong: Development
of 1100 kV GIS equipment: Uprating of existing design vs. specific UHV design, IECCIGR UHV Symposium, Beijing, China, July 18-21, 2007
[3] 2007 Symposium on Int. Standards for Ultra-high voltage, Peking, 2007
[4] Riechert, U.; Linn, Th.; Winkler, M.; Pietsch, R.: Reasonable Application of UHF-Partial
Discharge Measurements in Development, Production and Service of Gas Insulated
Switchgear (GIS), CIGR Study Committee 15, Materials for Electrotechnology, Gas
Insulated Systems Symposium, May 9, 2001, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, Conference
Proceedings pp. 66-72
[5] Riechert, U.; Kudoke, M.; Strehl, Th.: Monitoring und Diagnose von gasisolierten
Schaltanlagen Sinnvoller Einsatz von Teilentladungsmessungen HighVolt
Kolloquium 2003, Mai 22-23, 2003, Dresden, Konferenzband, paper 7.4,
Konferenzband, Seite 249-258
[6] CIGR, Joint Task Force 15/33/03.05: Partial Discharge Detection System for GIS:
Sensitivity Verification for the UHF Method and the Acoustic Method, lectra, No. 183,
April 1999, pp. 75 - 87
[7] Hoeck, S.; Bornowski, M.; Tenbohlen, S.; Strehl, T.; Riechert, U.:Partial Discharge
Hochspannungssymposium 2008
[8] Wei Du; Si-li Yao, Peng Li, Shen Hong: Study on high-power test techniques for UHF
circuit breaker, IEC-CIGR UHV Symposium, Beijing, China, July 18-21, 2007
[9] Kim, I. K.; Lee, Y.- H.; Jung, J. K.; Kweon, K.Y.; Song, W. P.; Kim, D. S.: Design of the
Circuit-Breaker for 1100 kV Gas Insulated Switchgear, The Research and
Development of 1100 kV GIS, 2006, Int. Conference of UHV Power Transmission
Technology, Peking, 2006
[10] Hemmi, R. of VFTO and its reduction by parallel resistor during
switching operation of disconnector switch in future UHV GIS substations, 2006 Int.
Conference of UHV Power Transmission Technology, Peking, 2006