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Turbochargers in Diesel Engines Marine

Engineering
November 25, 2015 3:43 pm | Leave a Comment | Frozee

Supercharging is the process of the increasing of the weight of the charged air

by increasing the density of the charged air.


Turbocharging is one kind of supercharging by using exhaust gas turbocharger. In which
the energy in the exhaust gas expelled from the engine cylinder is utilized in driven in
gas turbine, which is connected to a centrifugal air blower and air is supplied to
scavenge air trunk.

Constant Pressure System Turbocharging

Exhaust gas from all cylinders into a common large manifold where pulse energy
is largely dissipated.
The gas flow will steady rather than intermittent and at a constant pressure at
turbine inlet.

Turbocharger Arrangement in Constant Pressure System

No exhaust grouping

Exhaust gases enter into large common manifold and then to turbine
Firing order not considered

Advantages and Disadvantages for Constant Pressure System


Advantages
1.
Good performance in high load (Efficient when Bmep is above 8 bar)
2.
3.

More suitable for high output engine.


There is no need to group the cylinders exhaust into multiple of three. (Simple

piping system)
4.
No exhaust grouping
5.
6.

High turbine efficiency due to steady flow of exhaust.


The work transfer at the turbine wheel is smooth.

7.
Reduction in SFOC (Specific Fuel Oil Consumption) of 5% 7%
Disadvantages
1.

When running at reduced speed and starting up low available energy at turbine.
Thus it supplies inadequately air quantity of the scavenge pressure necessary for

efficient scavenging and combustion.


2.
It require scavenge assistant (Auxiliary Blowers).
3.

Poor response in changing load.

Pulse System of Turbocharging

Makes full use of the higher pressure and temperature of the exhaust gas during

the blow down period


While rapidly opening the exhaust valves, exhaust gas leave the cylinder at high
velocity as pressure energy is converted into kinetic energy to create the pressure

wave or pulse in exhaust


These pressure waves or pulses are lead directly to the turbocharger
Exhaust pipe, so constructed in small diameter, is quickly pressurized and
boosted up to form pressure pulse or wave
Pressure waves reach to turbine nozzles and further expansion takes place.

Turbocharger Arrangement in Pulse System

Interference exists between exhausting and scavenging among cylinders

To prevent this, cylinders are grouped relatively with connections to two or more

exhaust pipes
Pipes are arranged, in small diameter to boost up pressure pulse and in short,

straight length to prevent energy loss


Number of exhaust branch depends upon firing order, number of cylinders and
turbocharger design

Advantages and Disadvantages of Pulse System


Advantages
1.
At low load and low speed it is more efficient (Still efficient when Bmep is < 8
bar)
2.
No need assistant of scavenge pump and blower at any load change.
3.
4.
5.

It is highly response to change engine condition giving good performance of all


speed of engines.
High available energy at turbine
Good turbocharger acceleration

Disadvantages
1.
The exhaust grouping is complicated.
2.
3.

Different sizes of exhaust pipes are needed for spare.


High pressure exhaust from one cylinder would pass back into another cylinder
during the low pressure scavenging period thus adversely effecting the combustion
efficiency.

Under Piston Pressure Supercharging

It is a type of constant pressure charging system


Air charged by turbocharger is passed through CAC into first stage manifold, and
then through non-return valves into second stage and under piston space
In down stroke, piston under side compress further the scavenge air

Differential pressure shuts the inlet non-return valves as scavenge ports are
uncovered, and a pulse effect is given to cylinder

Advantages

Assist tangential swirl and ensure complete evacuation of remaining exhaust gas

No auxiliary blower may be required, during manoeuvring

Turbocharger Surging

When the discharge volute pressure exceed the pressure built up in the diffuser
and the impeller, it produces a back flow of air from discharge to suction and it is
characterized by noise and vibration of turbocharger.

Causes of Turbocharger Surging


1.
2.

Suddenly load change by heavy sea


Scavenge space fire / Exhaust trunking fire

3.
4.

Poor power balance


Dirty nozzle and blades

5.
6.

Individual cylinder misfire


Chocked scavenge /exhaust ports

7.
8.

Incorrect matching of turbocharger to engine.


Poor scavenging or leaky exhaust valve

What is exhaust tuning ?

Exhaust tuning means arranging the exhaust pipes with suitable length and

suitable valve timing to exhaust into the same pipe without disturbance.
When the exhaust valve of a diesel engine opens, the cylinder rapidly expands,

and gain velocity and kinetic energy as they pass into the exhaust pipe.
The kinetic energy of the mass of exhaust gas carries it along the exhaust pipe,
and causes a pressure build up ahead of the mass of gas and a partial vacuum

behind it.
This principle is used in a tuned exhaust system. The partial vacuum created by

exhaust from one cylinder is used to help exhaust expulsion from the following
cylinder.
Grouping of exhaust pipes depends upon the firing order, length & diameter of
exhaust pipe.

Advantages of Inter Cooling the Charged Air

The effect of cooling reduces the scavenge air temperature and increase the
density of air delivered to the cylinders, thus increasing the power out put delivered

by the engine.
It can increase the output by about 10%.

Cooled scavenge air reduces cylinder and exhaust gas temperature at a given
power level and these temperatures thus remain within the acceptable limits.

Types of Turbocharger Lube Oil System


1.
2.

Own sump
External lube oil supply system

Types of Turbocharger Bearings


Ball type bearing (rolling type)

These are used in turbocharger lube oil from the sumps on both air and exhaust
sides is sprayed onto the bearing by means of attached rotor driven gear type
pumps.

Sleeve type bearings

These are lubricated by external L.O supply system.

By gravity from independent header tank situated about six meters above
the bearings. The tank capacity must supply for about 15 minutes after engine is

stopped or
From a main L.O pump lead to the bearings with a separate L.O pipe line. It has
also gravity tank incase of failure of L.O supply. (Under main engine L.O system)

Function of Labyrinth Seals

The bearings are separated from the blower and turbine by labyrinth seals.

These seals are sealed by air supply from the discharge of blower to prevent oil

entering the blower and to prevent contamination of the oil by the exhaust gas.
In case of defective labyrinth seals on blower side, oil is leaked into the air
system the cooling surfaces are covered with oil which are insulators and the

cooling efficiency will be reduced. Also there will be deposits on the blower and the
blower efficiency will be reduced.
In case of defective labyrinth seals on turbine side, the oil is leaked into the
exhaust side and there will be carbon deposits on the nozzle and turbine
blades. Reduce blower efficiency and fire in the exhaust piping. It will cause
turbocharger surging. Oil will contaminate with exhaust gas.

How will you know turbocharger air filter chocked ?

It can be known by comparing the manometer difference. If manometer


difference is greater than normal, turbocharger air filter may be choke.
It can cause reduced engine power
Black smoke will emit from the funnel
Scavenge pressure will reduce

Function of nozzle ring in turbocharger

To change pressure energy to velocity (kinetic energy)

Function of shroud ring in turbocharger

Shroud ring is a component in turbochargers which forms a part of the inner

exhaust gas casing adjacent to the turbine.


The area around the turbine is always in contact with highly corrosive exhaust
gases. If no shroud ring is fitted, the turbine inner casing will be slowly wasted and
complete housing to be renewed for repair. Otherwise only shroud ring can be

replaced with new one.


Minimize maintenance cost.
The radial clearance between turbine blades and shroud ring to be maintained
within manufacture tolerance limits. This is very difficult in absence of shroud ring
since casing can go for uneven wear.

Purpose of inducer in turbochargers ?

To feed the shock less air flow to the impeller or


To guide the air smoothly into the eye of impeller

Function of Diffuser in turbochargers ?

To direct the air smoothly into volute casing


Convert kinetic energy to pressure energy inlet air

What is K value in turbochargers ?

It is a distance between the rotor shaft end and the flange of bearing cover
measured by blower side.

Purpose of K value in turbochargers ?

To ensure that rotating impeller does not to touch the stationary blower casing
cover in case of thrust bearing worn out.

How will you run engine in case of turbocharger failure ?

Rotor to be blocked
Exhaust gas to be by-passed the turbocharger

Run engine with reduced speed with remaining turbocharger


Use Auxiliary Blower

Maintain all temperature and pressure of fuel, cooling water and lubrication
within limit

How to Cut off Damaged Turbochargers for Engine Operation


Engines with one turbocharger (Engines with exhaust by-pass)
1.
2.

Stop the engine.


Lock the turbocharger rotor.

3.
4.

Remove the blanking plate from the exhaust by-pass pipe.


Remove the compensator between the compressor outlet and the scavenge air

duct. This reduces the suction resistance.


5.
Run engine with 15% of MCR load and 53% speed.

Engines with one turbocharger (Engines without exhaust by-pass)


1.
2.

Stop the engine.


Remove the rotor and nozzle ring of the turbocharger.

3.
4.

Insert blanking plates.


Remove the compensator between the compressor outlet and the scavenge air

duct. This reduces the suction resistance.


5.
Run engine with 15% of MCR load and 53% speed.

Engines with two or more turbochargers


1.
2.
3.

Stop the engine.


Lock the rotor of the defective turbocharger.
Insert orifice plates in the compressor outlet and the turbine inlet. (A small air
flow is required to cool the impeller, and a small gas flow is desirable to prevent

corrosion)
4.
Run engine with 20% of MCR load and 58% speed.