Budapest, 2013
ISBN 9789633130889
CONTENTS
Contents
Contents
List of figures
iv
List of tables
Preface
vii
1
1
2
4
7
11
13
13
15
18
18
21
24
46
47
48
49
51
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31
39
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42
44
CONTENTS
2.3
2.4
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54
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80
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92
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112
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123
123
126
126
127
128
130
133
141
141
145
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149
149
150
152
152
153
CONTENTS
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156
158
159
159
160
161
161
162
163
164
172
172
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175
175
177
177
180
181
183
183
186
186
187
190
190
193
194
196
197
199
200
200
201
202
203
205
205
206
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
Earthquake analysis
5.1 Introduction to earthquakes . . . . . .
5.2 Response spectrum of SDOF systems
5.2.1 Response functions . . . . . .
5.2.2 Response spectrum . . . . . .
5.2.3 Design spectrum . . . . . . .
5.3 Response spectrum of MDOF systems
5.3.1 Modal analysis . . . . . . . .
5.4 Earthquake analysis . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.1 Inelastic response of structure
5.4.2 Time history analysis . . . . .
iii
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LIST OF FIGURES
List of Figures
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
1.14
1.15
1.16
1.17
1.18
1.19
2.1
2.2
2.3
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2
3
. 5
. 9
. 11
. 13
. 14
. 16
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17
18
19
20
. 28
. 30
. 34
. 38
. 41
. 43
. 45
LIST OF FIGURES
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15
4.1
4.2
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
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60
63
70
75
Sketch of the deformed shape of a damped beam and the bending moment
diagram due to a dynamic vibration of end i along axis y. . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Assumed stress propagation in the equivalent soil bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Solid and surface waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Response functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Concept of response spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The function (T0 ) of the pseudoacceleration response vs. the natural period.
Forcedeformation diagram of the linear elasticplastic material model and
structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical envelope functions of artificial earthquake records. . . . . . . . . . .
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177
179
181
182
. 187
. 188
A.1 Rod with fixedfree ends with an initial displacement and the travelling waves . 192
LIST OF TABLES
List of Tables
1.1
Harmonic forcing of a threestorey structure. Modal loads, coefficients of resonance, and other parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.1
The first few natural circular frequencies of the frame and all the six natural circular frequencies of the approximate models (with the consistent the diagonally
lumped mass matrices). The dimension of the frequencies is rad/s. . . . . . . . 122
The first six natural circular frequencies of the frame, the projections of the
load vector to the modal shape vectors, and the modal participation factors . . . 130
The natural circular frequencies of the beam with elastic supports for various
spring stiffnesses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
3.2
3.3
4.1
eq
Equivalent spring stiffness ksoil
and damping coefficient ceq
soil of the soil assuming a homogeneous elastic half space corresponding to low and high forcing frequency . Here Ec is the constrainedpmodulus of the soil, A0 is the area
of the rigid plate on the soil surface, cn = Ec / with being the mass density of the soil, while the characteristic depth f is given by (4.43) for a disk,
and the velocity of the travelling wave csd is computed according to (4.51) . . . 168
vi
PREFACE
Preface
This lecture notes of the MSc course Structural Dynamics is devoted for the civil engineering students of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics. The objective of the
course is to introduce the basic concepts of the dynamical analysis of engineering structures.
The topics that are covered in this course are equations of motion of single and multidegreeoffreedom systems, free and steadystate vibrations, analytical and numerical solution techniques, and earthquake loads on structures. Both continuum and discrete mechanical systems
are considered.
In civil engineering practice structures are aimed to be in equilibrium. However, due to
continuous disturbances (effects of wind, heat, traffic, movement of the foundations, etc.), the
structures undergo vibrations. Some of these motions are slow, allowing us to treat them as
a quasistatic kinematic load, and to neglect the inertial effect of the mass of the structure.
But some of them happen fast enough to exert a significant dynamical impact on the structure.
Many of these cases are still handled as a quasistatic load with a proper dynamical factor,
but other cases really require the engineers to accomplish dynamical analysis. The goal of the
semester is to prepare our students for these tasks.
Dynamics play an important role in many fields of structural engineering. Earthquakes, fast
moving trains on bridges, urban traffic generated or machine induced vibrations, etc. Modern materials enable the fabrication of lighter, more flexible structures, where the effects of
vibrations can be significantly high. Additionally, investment companies desire cost effective
structures, which also tends the engineers towards more accurate computations, which implies
dynamical analysis, too.
Not only theory is given in this notes, but there are also many problems solved. The authors
hope that these examples help our students to comprehend all the introduced concepts. In these
problems the calculations are done following the care your units approach. It means that we use
a consistent system of units, which does not require us to carry the units during the operations.
Every number is substituted in the formulae in a common system of units, in SI (International
System of Units), hence the results are also obtained in SI.
We offer these notes to our readers under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercialNoDerivs 3.0 Unported License, in the hope it will help them understand
the basics of structural dynamics. Please feel free to share your thoughts about it with us.
Budapest, 29th August, 2013
vii
Chapter 1
Dynamics of single and
multidegreeoffreedom systems
In this chapter first we repeat the basics of vibration of elastic structures. The motion of
continuous structures is often approximated by the displacements of some of its points. In
these models the mass of the structure is concentrated into discrete points. The concentrated
masses are assumed to be rigid bodies, and the elasticity and the viscoelasticity of the structure
is modeled by massless springs and damping elements, respectively. These models are called
massspringdamper systems.
We introduce the degreeoffreedom (DOF) as the number of independent variables required
to define the displaced positions of all the masses. If there is only one mass, with one direction
of displacement, then we talk about a singledegreeoffreedom (SDOF) system. If there are
more than one masses, or one mass with more than one directions of displacement, then we
have a multidegreeoffreedom (MDOF) system. If we try to describe the deformed shape of
a continuous structure with the displacements of all of (infinitely many of) its points, then we
use a continuum approach, where there are infinitely many degrees of freedom.
In Section 1.1 we start with the free vibration of SDOF systems, then harmonic forced
vibration of SDOF systems, and support vibration of SDOF systems are discussed. Then SDOF
systems excited by a general force are studied in Section 1.2. Section 1.3 is devoted for the free
vibration of MDOF systems. We also present an approximate method capable to solve the
generalized eigenvalue problem occurring in the analysis of MDOF systems. At the end of the
chapter, in Section 1.4 we present a few summation theorems useful to approximate the first
natural frequency of a structure.
1.1
Civil engineering structures are intended in general to be in equilibrium. Despite the common requirements, many of the loading situations result in motion of the structures. The most
simple motion occurs when we can describe it by one single space variable.
Examples for these type of dynamical systems are horizontal girders with a significant mass
(e.g. a machine, where the mass of the girder can be neglected with respect to the mass of the
Figure 1.1: Common examples of singledegreeoffreedom structures: (a) fixed girder, (b) hingedhinged
girder, (c) single frame with mass on rooftop, (d) chimney or watertower, and (e) common mechanical model.
The common in the above examples is that any displacement from the equilibrium state
results a force pulling the DOF back to the initial state. The simplest mechanical model of this
behaviour is the material particle (lumped mass) connected by a linear spring to a rigid wall
(Figure 1.1 (e)).
Figure 1.2: (a) A massspringdamper model: a lumped mass m is connected to a support through a massless
linear spring k and a massless viscous damper c. The mass excited by the time dependent force F (t) undergoing
a singledegreeoffreedom vibration. (b) Free body diagram of the massspringdamper model.
The free body diagram (FBD) of the mass m can be seen in Figure 1.2 (b). Newtons second
law of motion can be written for the body:
F (t) fs (t) fd (t) = ma(t),
(1.1)
where F (t) is the external force, fs (t) is the elastic force from the massless spring, fd (t) is
the damping force from the massless dashpot, m is the mass and a(t) is the acceleration. Assuming a linear spring fs (t) = ku(t), where k is the spring stiffness, and u(t) is the elongation of the spring. Assuming a viscous damping fd (t) = cu(t),
is the derivative of the elongation u(t) with respect to time (i.e. it is the
elongationvelocity). (The dot over a variable denotes differentiation with respect to time.) The
acceleration a(t) is the second derivative of the displacement of the body with respect to time:
a(t) = x(t). So the equation of motion is:
F (t) ku(t) cu(t)
= m
x(t).
(1.2)
(Note: in many textbook authors write a so called kinetic equilibrium equation using the principle
of dAlembert with an inertial force fI = ma(t). Then, Eq. (1.1) would have the form: F (t) fs (t)
fd (t) + fI (t) = 0. In formal calculation it leads to the same result, but during calculations by hand
the correct interpretation of the minus sign in the definition of fI requires a deep understanding of the
concept, at which level writing the classic formula makes no problem. Because of that we will avoid
writing kinetic equilibrium equations. )
In most cases we are interested in the internal deformations and the corresponding internal
forces of the structures. These are represented in this model by the elongation of the spring,
so we have to write the displacement of the body as a function of elongation. If the support is
fixed, then these two values are equal (x(t) = u(t)) and the same applies to their derivatives
(
x(t) = u(t)). Substituting these into Eq. (1.2) we get:
m
u(t) + cu(t)
+ ku(t) = F (t) .
(1.3)
This nonhomogeneous, linear, second order ordinary differential equation of constant coefficients describes the motion of the forced vibration of the damped SDOFsystem.
(1.5)
c2 4mk
.
2m
(1.6)
These roots might be either real or complex valued, depending on the ratio of the system
parameters.
If c 2 km, the discriminant in Eq. (1.6) is nonnegative, thus both 1,2 are negative
real numbers, and the solution of Eq. (1.4) is the sum of two exponential function asymptotically approaching zero. (Figure 1.3 (a) shows some typical graphs of this vibration.)
We callthis damping as heavy damping, the system is an overdamped system. The limit
value 2 km is the critical damping ccr .
If c < 2 km (or c < ccr ), the discriminant is negative, the solution of Eq. (1.5) is a
conjugate pair of complex numbers. Using Eulers formula (e ix = cos x + i sin x) the
solution of Eq. (1.4) can be rewritten in the form:
u0 (t) = e0 t (A cos(0 t) + B sin(0 t)) ,
where
c
c
=
=
ccr
2 km
p
1 2
(1.7)
is the natural circular frequency of the undamped system with the same mass and stiffness. The parameters A and B are two free parameters depending on the initial conditions. (Figure 1.3 (b) shows some typical graphs of this vibration.) We call this case as
underdamped system.
The solution Eq. (1.7) is a harmonic term (A cos(0 t) + B sin(0 t)) multiplied by an
exponential term e0 t . The latter one indicates an exponential decay in the oscillatory
motion of the body, which can be seen as an exponential envelope of the oscillating
harmonic function in Figure 1.3 (b). A higher level of damping has two effect on the
motion. First, the exponential decay will be more significant, second, the damped natural
circular frequency will be lower.
Figure 1.3: Typical timedisplacement diagrams of free vibration of a damped, elastic supported SDOF system.
(a) Overdamped system, no vibration. (b) Underdamped system: harmonic oscillation with the amplitude
decaying exponentially.
There are further quantities in use, to describe the vibration of a SDOF system. Natural
cyclic frequency f is the number of total oscillations done by the body in a unit time: f =
0 /(2). The natural period T0 is the time required to make a full cycle of vibration, i.e.
T0 = 1/f = 2/0 . Both of the above values can be written for the damped system as well,
called the damped natural cyclic frequency fD and the damped natural period TD . They are
interrelated to each other with: fD = 0 /(2) and TD = 1/fD = 2/0 .
Logarithmic decrement
Let us analyse the displacements of a mass during its damped free vibration. We have seen,
that at a given time instant t the displacement is (Eq. (1.7)):
u0 (t) = e0 t (A cos (0 t) + B sin (0 t)) .
5
u0 (t)
2/ 1 2
0 TD
.
(1.8)
=e
=e
u0 (t + TD )
This ratio is constant, and depends only on the damping . Since we did not have any constraint
on t, Eq. (1.8) holds for any two displacements measured in a time distance TD . In practice,
the natural logarithm of Eq. (1.8) is used for the measurement of damping
= ln
p
u0 (t)
= 2/ 1 2 .
u0 (t + TD )
u0 (t)
2.
u0 (t + TD )
(1.9)
A
with the amplitude of the motion C = A2 + B 2 and the phase angle = arctan B
.
6
(1.10)
To solve Eq. (1.10) we assume that the particular solution is of the form:
uf (t) = uf 0 sin (t ) ,
i.e. it is a harmonic function with the same frequency as the forcing, but with a phase shift of
. We substitute our ansatz into Eq. (1.10):
m 2 uf 0 sin (t ) + cuf 0 cos (t ) + kuf 0 sin (t ) = F0 sin (t) .
We apply trigonometrical identities for the sums in the sine and cosine functions:
m 2 uf 0 sin (t) cos() m 2 uf 0 cos (t) sin() + cuf 0 cos (t) cos()
cuf 0 sin (t) sin() + kuf 0 sin (t) cos() + kuf 0 cos (t) sin() = F0 sin (t) .
Now we separate the sinusodial and cosinusoidal parts:
uf 0 cos (t) m 2 sin + c cos k sin
+ uf 0 sin (t) m 2 cos + c sin + k cos = F0 sin (t) .
m 02 2
k m 2
=
,
c
c
(1.11)
with 0 . (See Figure 1.4 (a) for the dependence of phase angle on the ratio of
the forcing and natural frequency.)
When cos (t) = 0, then sin (t) 6= 0, so
must hold.
uf 0 m 2 cos + c sin + k cos = F0
m 2 cot + c + k cot
p
= F0
1 + cot2
1 + cot2 to get
1
(k m 2 )2 + c2 2
F0
q
k
1
1
m 2 2
c2 2
k2
F0
r
k
1
2
02
1
2
+ 4
(1.12)
2 2
02
From the above results the particular solution of the differential equation (1.10) of the harmonically forced vibration is:
2
1
F0
1
02
.
t arccot
r
(1.13)
uf (t) =
sin
2
k
2
2
2
0
1 2 + 4 2 2
0
2
1 2
1
F0
0
r
sin t arccot
u(t) =
2
k
2 0
2
2
1 2 + 4 2 2
0
(1.14)
The second part of Eq. (1.14) becomes very small after a sufficiently long time for any small
damping. That part is called the transient vibration. The first part, which is equivalent to
the particular solution Eq. (1.13), is called the steadystate solution of the problem. Since
the transient vibration decays exponentially with time, on a long time scale the steadystate
vibration determines the dynamics. Usually we are not interested in the phase of the motion,
but in the amplitude of the vibration uf 0 , given by Eq. (1.12). In that formula the quotient F0 /k
can be regarded as the static displacement under a static force F0 (which is the amplitude of
the harmonic forcing). We will refer to it as the static displacement ust . The static displacement
ust = F0 /k is multiplied by a coefficient in Eq. (1.12), which depends on the damping and
on the ratio of the circular frequency of the forcing to the natural circular frequency of the
system. We call this quantity as the response factor, and denote it by . Figure 1.4 (b) shows
the dependence of the response factor on the ratio of frequencies.
Figure 1.4: Responses of a damped SDOF system to a harmonic excitation: (a) phase angle as a function of the
forcing frequency , (b) response factor as a function of the ratio of the forcing and natural frequencies /0 .
F0
k
(1.15)
and
= r
2
02
1
2
.
+
2
4 2 2
0
(1.16)

2
2
0
1 2
0
It is the product of the static displacement and the (undamped) response factor (see Fig. 1.4
(b)). In contrast to the damped case, this response factor has an infinite maximum in the state
of resonance ( = 0 ).
For the phase angle we can conclude from Eq. (1.11) that it is zero when < 0 , and
it is when > 0 (see Fig. 1.4 (a)). In the first case the mass moves inthephase with the
excitation force, in the second case the mass moves outofthephase with the excitation force.
At the resonance state = 0 the phase angle is = /2.
Ideal damping
Analysis of the damped response factor Eq. (1.16)) and its derivative with respect to 0
results that an increasing damping coefficient decreases the location and the value of the
maximum of (see Fig. 1.4 (b)). If reaches 1/ 2, then the location of the maximum reaches
= 0, and the value of the maximum reaches 1. Further increase of the damping decreases
the
response
factor, but the maximum will be always 1 at = 0. This damping value id = 1/ 2
(or cid = 2km) is called the ideal damping.
10
(1.17)
Figure 1.5: Support vibration of an undamped system (a) mechanical model, (b) free body diagram
(1.18)
(1.19)
In the next subsections we will show the solutions of the derived differential equations for
a harmonic support vibration, i.e. ug (t) = ug0 sin(t).
Steadystate solution of the elongation of the spring due to a harmonic support motion
To find the solution of Eq. (1.21) we have to substitute the second derivative of ug (t)
ug (t) = 2 ug0 sin(t)
into Eq. (1.21):
m
u(t) + ku(t) = m 2 ug0 sin(t).
This is the same equation as Eq. (1.10) with c = 0 and F0 = m 2 ug0 . Therefore, the amplitude
of the steadystate solution will be (see Eq. (1.12)):
uf 0 =
m 2 ug0
1
r
k
1
1
2
=
u
.
g0 2
2
0 1 22 
2
0
02
The amplitude of the elongation u(t) will be the amplitude of the support vibration multiplied
by a response factor and by the square of the ratio of the forcing and natural frequencies. The
spring force fS (t) is related to the elongation u(t) of the spring so its amplitude will be:
fSmax = kug0
2
1
1
2
st
=
f
.
2
S
2
2
0 1 2 
0 1 22 
0
fSst
Here
is the static force, which would cause an elongation ug0 in the spring.
Figure 1.6 shows the product of two multipliers ( 2 /02 and 1/1 2 /02 ) as the function
of the ratio of the forcing and natural frequencies.
Steadystate solution of the displacement x(t) for harmonic support vibration
To find the solution of Eq. (1.20) we have to substitute ug (t) into Eq. (1.20):
m
x(t) + kx(t) = kug0 sin(t).
This is the same equation as Eq. (1.10) with c = 0 and F0 = kug0 . Thus, the amplitude of the
steadystate solution is (see Eq. (1.12)):
xf 0 =
1
kug0
r
k
1
1
2 = ug0 1 2  .
2
2
02
12
Figure 1.6: Response factor of the elongation of the spring as a function of the ratio of the forcing and natural
frequencies due to a harmonic support vibration
1.2
(1.22)
contains an arbitrary function q(t) on the right hand side (see Figure 1.7 (a)). We are looking
for the particular solution uf (t) of Eq. (1.22) for the t > 0 interval, with the assumption that
we know the initial displacement and velocity in the time instant t = 0. We denote these two
initial conditions with uf (0) = u0 and u f (0) = v 0 . We remind the reader that the solution
of a nonhomogeneous differential equation always consists of the solution of the complementary equation (the free vibrational part) with free parameters, and a particular solution of the
nonhomogeneous equation. The free vibration follows the classical scheme we presented in
Subsection 1.1.2.
We assumed linear response of the elastic and damping elements (k and c are constants),
so the differential equation is linear,
the rule of superposition holds. If the excitation force
Pand
N
can be written in the form q(t) = i=1 qi (t), then the particular solution can be expressed as
P
uf (t) = N
i=1 uf i (t), where each uf i is a particular solution of the differential equation
m
u(t) + cu(t)
+ ku(t) = qi (t).
Let us choose a sufficiently small time interval at the time instant t = , as shown in
Figure 1.7 (a), and let us examine the effect of the force q( ) during the interval on the
displacement uf (t). This specific part of the forcing is shown in Figure 1.7 (b). We denote
13
Figure 1.7: (a) General timedependent forcing. (b) Small impulse q( ) of the forcing. (c) Increment of
displacement function from the impulse q( ) .
the effect of q( ) on uf (t) by u(t, ). Since is small, the change of the force during the
interval can be neglected, so the impulse transmitted from the force to the mass is q( ) .
From the theorem of change of linear momentum the impulse results a sudden v( ) change
in the velocity:
q( )
mv( ) = q( ) v( ) =
.
(1.23)
m
After this sudden change the force q( ) will be zero, so the massdamperspring system
starts a free vibration with initial velocity v( ). It is reasonable to assume that the force
q( ) does not have any effects on the displacements backwards in time, so we can say that the
displacement of the mass before the force is applied is zero:
u(t, ) = 0,
t .
(1.24)
The time evolution of the increment of displacement u(t, ) is obtained from the previously
derived solution (1.7) of the free vibration of a massdamperspring system. For this specific
case the initial conditions of Eq. (1.22) come from Eqs. (1.23) and (1.24):
q( )
.
(1.25)
u(,
) =
m
The exponentially decaying increment of the displacement u(t, ) comes from Eq. (1.7)
with initial conditions (1.25) fulfilling the differential equation (1.22) and the initial conditions
(1.25) will be:
q( )
0 (t )
sin (0 (t )) .
u(t, ) = e
m0
p
p
(Note that = c/(2 km) and 0 = k/m 1 2 .) This result is shown in Figure 1.7 (c).
If tends to 0, then u(t, ) becomes an elementary increment du(t, ). For any time t
we have to integrate these elementary changes for all the past forces, i.e. for < t:
Z t
q( ) 0 (t )
e
sin (0 (t )) d.
(1.26)
u(t) =
m
0
0
u(, ) = 0,
14
(1.27)
CauchyEuler method
Let us assume, that we know the displacement and the velocity at a given time instant ti ,
and we want to calculate them at the time instant ti+1 . (Let the difference between ti+1 and ti
be a chosen constant t = ti+1 ti .) We denote the displacement and the velocity at ti by ui
and vi . From Eq. (1.27) we can calculate the differences ui /t and vi /t:
ui+1 ui
ui
=
= vi ,
t
t
vi
vi+1 vi
c
k
q(ti )
.
=
= v i ui +
t
t
m
m
m
ui+1 = ui + vi t,
c
k
q(ti )
vi+1 = vi + vi ui +
t.
m
m
m
We can iterate the above map starting with i = 0, i.e. with the given initial values u0 , v0 .
Figure 1.8 (a) shows the concept of the algorithm, and one can see the main problem of
this method as well. Using the CauchyEuler method involves a small error in every step,
accumulating during the calculation. The error depends on the stepsize (t). Smaller stepsize causes smaller error, but it requires more steps to reach the same time. The most important
question of numerical methods is the convergence and the stability, but the discussion of these
properties are beyond the scope of this lecture notes. In order to avoid false solutions and crash
of the procedure, one has to set the time step t sufficiently small.
15
Figure 1.8: Explanation of (a) the CauchyEuler method and (b) the second order RungeKutta method. The
continuous is the exact solution, the arrows represent tangents and increments.
= ui + u0i /2,
1/2
= vi + vi0 /2.
ui
vi
Then we compute the differences at the midpoint (this will be the direction of the actual step):
ui+1 ui
1/2
= vi ,
t
vi+1 vi
c 1/2
k 1/2 q(ti + t/2)
= v i ui +
.
t
m
m
m
1/2
ui+1 = ui + ui = ui + vi t,
c 1/2
k 1/2 q(ti + t/2)
vi+1 = vi + vi = vi + vi ui +
t.
m
m
m
16
Figure 1.9: Explanation of the finite difference approximation of velocity and acceleration using secant lines
(1.28)
(1.29)
k
+
u
i1
t2
2t t2
ui+1 =
.
(1.31)
m
c
+
t2 2t
Eq. (1.31) is the map of the iteration containing only the displacements of the previous two
steps (but no velocities). Therefore, not only the displacement u0 in the initial time instant, but
also the displacement u1 is needed to start the iteration. This latter condition can be computed
from u0 and v0 as
u1 = u0 v0 t.
17
1.3
Behaviour of real life engineering structures usually cannot be described by the displacement of only one point of the structure. In fact, the exact description of the motion requires
an approach considering the structure as a continuum. In many cases however, the motion of
the continua can be reduced to the motion of a finitedegreeoffreedom system. In a multistorey building with rigid slabs the displacements of the ends of the columns depend only on
the displacements of the floors. In a spatial structure this would be three degreeoffreedom
on each level (two translations in the horizontal plane and a rotation around a vertical axis, see
Figure 1.10 (a) for a floor plate of one level). If the building is reduced to a planar problem, the
translation of each level can be regarded as a degree of freedom. (see Figure 1.10 (b)). Even
numerical methods applied in Finite Element programs do the same: they approximate the displacements by interpolating from the displacements of the degrees of freedom. Figure 1.10 (c)
shows a simple mechanical model for a twodegreeoffreedom system: two bodies are connected to each other by a spring, one of the bodies is supported by another spring, the other
body has an excitation force F (t).
Figure 1.10: Examples of multidegreeoffreedom structures (a) three degrees of freedom of one level of a
spatial multistorey building (u and v are the translations, is the rotation), (b) mechanical model of a
threestorey frame structure (planar frame with three degrees of freedom) (c) mechanical model of an undamped
twodegreesoffreedom system excited at its second degree of freedom
(1.32)
The forces in the linear springs depend on the elongation of each spring: fS1 (t) = k1 1 (t),
fS2 (t) = k2 2 (t). For the first spring 1 (t) = x1 (t) (assuming a fixed support) and for the
18
Figure 1.11: Free body diagrams of the model shown in Figure 1.10 (c)
second spring 2 (t) = x2 (t) x1 (t). So the spring forces are: fS1 (t) = k1 x1 (t), fS2 (t) =
k2 (x2 (t) x1 (t)). The acceleration of each body is the second derivative of its translation with
respect to time, i.e.: a1 (t) = x1 (t), a2 (t) = x2 (t). Substituting these results into Eq. (1.32) we
get
k1 x1 (t) + k2 x2 (t) k2 x1 (t) = m1 x1 (t),
k2 x2 (t) + k2 x1 (t) + F (t) = m2 x2 (t),
(1.33)
(1.34)
(1.35)
as a matrix differential equation. Here vector u(t) contains the displacement variables, the
quadratic matrices M and K are the mass and stiffness matrices, respectively, while vector q(t)
contains the external forces acting on each degree of freedom. (For an N degreeoffreedom
system the vectors have N entries, while the size of the matrices is N by N ). Properties
explained after Eq. (1.34) yields that the matrices are symmetric matrices.
19
Figure 1.12: Twostorey frame structure with rigid floors. (a) Mechanical model, (b) free body diagram.
20
(1.36)
(1.37)
i.e. the displacement function u(t) is assumed to be a product of a constant vector u0 describing
the ratio of the degrees of freedom to each other and a harmonic function depending on time,
natural frequency 0 and two parameters a and b. The cases when u0 = 0 or a = b = 0 would
lead to the trivial solution of the Eq. (1.36). We are looking for the nontrivial solutions.
The second derivative of the displacement vector u(t) is
(t) = u0 (02 ) (a cos (0 t) + b sin (0 t)) .
u
(t) into the homogeneous differential equation (1.36):
We substitute u(t) and u
Mu0 (02 ) (a cos (0 t) + b sin (0 t)) + Ku0 (a cos (0 t) + b sin (0 t)) = 0.
(1.38)
This equation must hold for any time t, thus either (a cos (0 t) + b sin (0 t)) = 0, or
Mu0 (02 ) + Ku0 = 0. The equation (a cos (0 t) + b sin (0 t)) = 0 holds for all t
only with the trivial solution a = b = 0, therefore the timeindependent matrix equation
Mu0 (02 ) + Ku0 = 0 must be fulfilled, so it is rewritten in the more classical form
K 02 M u0 = 0.
(1.39)
The above equation is a system of a homogeneous, linear equations, which is called a generalized eigenvalue problem in mathematics. It has nontrivial solutions if and only if the matrix of
coefficients is singular, or equivalently if and only if its determinant is zero. The equation:
det K 02 M = 0
21
2
2
2
> T02 =
>, . . . , > T0N =
.
01
02
0N
In the next step we have to find the elements of vector u0 of Eq. (1.37). Since we have
N natural circular frequencies, we will have N different vectors. We will denote the vector
corresponding to 0j by uj . The vector uj must fulfill Eq. (1.39):
2
K 0j
M uj = 0.
(1.40)
2
Because of the matrix K 0j
M is singular, uj has only N 1 independent rows, i.e. it has
not a unique uj solution. If uj is a solution, then the vector uj will be a solution for any realvalued . These vectors are the (generalized) eigenvectors of the system. The meaning of the
jth eigenvector uj is that if we displace the degreesoffreedom in the same proportion as the
elements of the eigenvector, then it will move such a way that the ratios of the displacements
will be the same during the motion with frequency 0j . In this case the structure vibrates in
its jth mode. The shape of the vibration (the modal shape) is described by the eigenvector (or
mode vector).
Normalized eigenvectors
For further calculations we have to make the eigenvector unique. It can be done in different
ways:
making the first element of the vector be equal to 1,
making the largest (in absolute value) element of the vector be equal to 1,
making the length of the vector be equal to 1 (i.e. uTj uj = 1),
making the vector be normalized to the mass matrix (i.e. uTj Muj = 1).
The first method is useful when the calculations are done by hand. The second method has an
important role in numerical solution of the eigenvalue problem. The third method would result
in possible small numbers in the case of a large system. The last method has positive consequences on further results so we assume that the eigenvectors are normalized to the mass matrix.
(If we have a nonnormalized eigenvector uj , we can still calculate the product uTj Muj = j .
It follows from the rules of matrix operations that the vector (1/ j )uj will be normalized to
the mass matrix.)
22
Because of the eigenvector is normalized, the vectormatrixvector product on the left hand side
equals 1, resulting in:
2
uTj Kuj = 0j
.
(1.41)
Orthogonality of eigenvectors
Let us take two different natural circular frequencies 0i 6= 0j , and the corresponding
eigenvectors ui and uj . Then it holds from Eq. (1.40) that
2
Kui = 0i
Mui ,
2
Kuj = 0j Muj .
(1.42)
(1.43)
Multiplying Eq. (1.42) by uTj and Eq. (1.43) by uTi from the left and subtracting the resultant
equations lead to:
2 T
2 T
uTj Kui uTi Kuj = 0i
uj Mui 0j
ui Muj .
Due to the symmetry of matrices K and M
uTj Kui = uTi Kuj ,
so we have:
(1.44)
T
2
2
0 = 0i
0j
uj Mui .
(1.45)
2
, then multiplying the result by uTj from the left,
Dividing both side of Eq. (1.42) by 0i
2
dividing both side of Eq. (1.43) by 0j , then multiplying the result by uTi from the left, finally
subtracting the resultant equations lead to:
1 T
1
u Kui 2 uTi Kuj = uTj Mui uTi Muj .
2 j
0i
0j
Due to Eq. (1.44)
1
1
2
2
0i 0j
uTj Kui = 0,
(1.46)
We refer to this latter properties as the orthogonality of the eigenvectors ui and uj to the
mass matrix (Eq. (1.45)) and to the stiffness matrix (Eq. (1.46)).
23
N
X
(1.47)
j=1
u(t)
=
N
X
(1.48)
j=1
u(t0 ) = u0 ,
By substituting Eq. (1.47) and (1.48) into the above formula 2N constraints are obtained which
can be used to find the parameters aj and bj in the general solution Eq. (1.47). Using the
orthogonal properties of the eigenvectors one can avoid the solution of a system of 2N linear
equations. If we multiply these 2N equations from the left by uTj M, then we get
aj cos (0j t0 ) + bj sin (0j t0 ) = uTj Mu0 ,
0j (aj sin (0j t0 ) + bj cos (0j t0 )) = uTj Mv0 ,
so, varying j from 1 to N we have to solve N system of 2 linear equations instead of a system
of 2N equations for the coefficients aj and bj .
The resultant motion will be the sum of harmonic vibrations, which is not necessarily a
periodic motion!
(1.49)
(1.50)
i.e. it is a harmonic response with the same harmonic term as the forcing, with constant amplitudes given in the vector uf 0 .
The second derivative of Eq. (1.50) with respect to time is:
f (t) = 2 uf 0 sin (t) .
u
(1.51)
Substituting the load, the ansatz and its derivative (Eqs. (1.49), (1.50), and (1.51)) into
Eq. (1.35) we get:
2 Muf 0 sin (t) + Kuf 0 sin (t) = q0 sin (t) .
(1.52)
The above equation fulfills either if sin (t) = 0, or if Kuf 0 2 Muf 0 = q0 . Because the
loading is a real, time dependent harmonic force, the term sin (t) cannot be zero for every
time instant. So, we can write the latter condition as:
K 2 M uf 0 = q0 .
(1.53)
The solution of this nonhomogeneous matrix differential equation for the amplitude uf 0 is
needed. The matrix of coefficients of Eq. (1.53) is quadratic, so it has a solution if and only if
there exists its inverse matrix, i.e. the matrix is nonsingular, or with other words, its determinant is nonzero. In that case we get the solution by multiplying both sides of Eq. (1.53) by the
1
inverse (K 2 M) :
1
uf 0 = K 2 M
q0 .
(1.54)
The particular solution then can be written as:
1
uf (t) = K 2 M
q0 sin (t) .
(1.55)
This is the steadystate part of the vibration. We can see that each degree of freedom vibrates
with the same frequency. Without computing the inverse matrix, we cannot read out directly
whether a degree of freedom is in an inphase or in an outofphase vibration.
25
where functions yi (t) are the modal displacements. The modal shape vectors are invariant in
time, so the second derivative of the displacement is:
f (t) =
u
N
X
uj yi (t).
(1.57)
j=1
Substituting the load, the ansatz and its derivative (Eqs. (1.49), (1.56), and (1.57)) into
Eq. (1.35) we get:
N
N
X
X
M
uj yj (t) + K
uj yj (t) = q0 sin (t) .
(1.58)
j=1
j=1
Let us multiply both sides of Eq. (1.58) from the left by uTi . Using the orthogonality of the
eigenvectors (Eq. (1.45), and (1.46)) we only have nonzero values if j = i:
uTi Mui yi (t) + uTi Kui yi (t) = uTi q0 sin (t) .
2
uTi Kui = 0i
,
26
i = 1, 2, . . . , N.
(1.59)
Substitute these equalities into Eq. (1.59), and solve for arbitrary nonzero sin (t):
2
2 yif 0 + 0i
yif 0 = fi .
If = 0i and fi 6= 0, then the frequency of the load and the ith natural frequency 0i
coincide, thus the system is in the state of resonance. It results in an infinitely large ith modal
displacement. Otherwise, the unique, finite solution is:
yif 0 = fi
2
0i
1
1
= fi 2
2
0i
1
2
1 2
0i
The last term in the above product is a response factor of an undamped oscillatory system
of natural circular frequency 0i , excited by a harmonic force of circular frequency . This
coefficient is denoted by i .
Let us summarise our results. In the absence of resonance the steadystate part of the motion
(the particular solution) can be written in the form:
N
X
1
uf (t) =
2
0i
i=1
1
2
1 2
0i
(1.60)
Checking the terms of the above equation from right to left we can conlude that the response
is harmonic (sin (t)). For each mode the amplitude of the modal load (uTi q0 ) is calculated. It
is then multiplied by the response factor i (but without evaluating the absolute value) which
depends on the ratio of the circular frequency of the forcing and the natural circular frequency
of the corresponding mode. Finally, the amplitude for each mode is divided by the square of
2
the natural circular frequency 0i
of the mode. Due to this last term the effect of higher modes
is usually much smaller, except for the case when the excitation occurs close to one of the
resonant frequencies of the system.
Apparently, the solution of the problem with modal analysis seems to need even more computational effort, than that of the direct solution, beacuse we first have to solve a generalized
eigenvalue problem of the free vibration. For large systems, with many degrees of freedom,
the solution of the eigenvelue problem has high computational needs. However, the parts from
higher modes typically play a less significant role in the solution. There are numerical algorithms which do not compute all the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the generalized eigenvalue
problem, nut only the first few of them. Later in the semester we will show that a reduced set
of mode shape vectors calculated with these methods can be sufficient to approximate well the
motion of the MDOF system.
27
Problem 1.3.1 (Example on harmonic forcing of a threestorey frame structure). Figure 1.13 shows the dynamical model of a threestorey building with rigid girders. On each level the stiffness of the columns is the same
and the levels have the same mass. On the top level a machine exerts a harmonic force on the structure. We are
looking for the amplitudes of each degreeoffreedom in the steadystate motion.
Figure 1.13: Vibration of a threestorey frame structure with rigid interstorey girders and elastic columns. (a)
Dynamical model with system properties k1 = k2 = k3 = 25 MN/m, and m1 = m2 = m3 = 150 t. (b)
Degrees of freedom in a displaced position and the excitation force F0 = 150 kN, = 9 rad/s.
Solution. The matrix differential equation of the motion is:
M
u(t) + Ku(t) = q0 sin (t) ,
where
150
0
0
m1 0
0
150
0
M = 0 m2 0 = 0
0
0
150
0
0 m3
50000 25000
k1 + k2
k2
0
k2 + k3 k3 = 25000 50000
K = k2
0
25000
0
k3
k3
0
25000 kN/m.
25000
Direct solution
The system of linear equations of the problem (Eq. (1.53)) with substitution of K, M and q0 is:
0
37850 25000
0
25000 37850 25000 uf 0 = 0
(1.61)
150
0
25000 12850
The solution of the above equation requires the inverse of the matrix of coefficients:
37850
25000
0
25000
37850
25000
1
0
0.01044
25000 = 0.02419
12850
0.04707
28
0.02419
0.03663
0.07126
0.04707
0.07126 103
0.06082
0.0070604
uf 0 = 0.010689 m.
0.0091234
Modal analysis
This solution requires the solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem:
K 02 M u0 = 0.
(1.62)
(1.63)
2
02
= 259.16,
2
03
= 541.16,
02 = 16.098 rad/s,
03 = 23.263 rad/s.
(The corresponding natural periods are: T01 = 1.0936 s, T02 = 0.39030 s, and T03 = 0.27009 s.)
We show only the calculation of the first eigenvector (u1 ). It must fulfill the equation:
2
K 01
M u1 = 0,
which has the form after substitution of previous results:
u11
50000 150 33.01
25000
0
u12 = 0.
25000
50000 150 33.01
25000
0
25000
25000 150 33.01
u13
T
25000 1 + 20048c3 = 0
c1 = 0.55496
c3 = 1.2470
(The second equation is linearly dependent, but it can be used to check our results both for the natural
circular frequency and the vector elements.)
29
150
0
0
0.55496
T1 M
150
0
1
1 = u
u1 = 0.55496 1 1.2470 0
0
0 150
1.2470
0.55496
= 429.44,
1
= 83.244 150 187.05
1.2470
then the normalized shape vector correspondiong to the first natural mode will be:
1
1 = 0.02678
u1 = u
1
0.04826
T
0.06017
(1.64)
The steps between Eq. (1.13) and (1.64) must be repeated for 02 and for 03 as well, to calculate the
corresponding normalized eigenvectors. The final results of that calculations are:
T
u2 = 0.06017 0.02678 0.04826
and
u3 =
0.04826
0.06017
0.02678
T
Figure 1.14 shows the deformed shape of the structure corresponding to the three modal vector. Now
we can calculate the amplitude vector of the steadystate vibration using the formula of Eq. (1.60). The
terms are summarized in Table 1.1.
Figure 1.14: Mode shapes of the threestorey structure of Figure 1.13 corresponding to the natural
circular frequencies (a) 01 = 5.7455 rad/s, (b) 02 = 16.098 rad/s, and (c) 03 = 23.263 rad/s.
uTi q
9.026
7.238
4.017
0.6879
1.4556
1.176
1
2 i
0i
0.02084
0.005613
0.002173
1
T
2 i ui q
0i
0.1881
0.04053
0.00873
Table 1.1: Harmonic forcing of a threestorey structure. Modal loads, coefficients of resonance, this
coefficient divided by the square of the ith natural circular frequency, participation of the mode in the
steadystate vibration.
30
0.0070604
(1.65)
uf 0 = 0.1881u1 0.04053u2 0.00873u3 = 0.010689 m.
0.0091234
For both solution methods we can conclude, that in the steadystate vibration each level oscillates in a cm range,
the lower two levels are outofphase, the upper level is inphase with the forcing.
(1.66)
Altough we do not know the eigenvectors, v can be written as a linear combination of them
with coefficients j :
N
X
v=
j uj .
j=1
Let us expand the denominator and the numerator of Eq. (1.66). The denominator can be
written as:
!
!T
N
N X
N
N
X
X
X
T
i ui =
M
j uj
j i uTj Mui .
v Mv =
j=1
i=1
31
j=1 i=1
N
X
j2 .
j=1
N
X
j uj
j=1
!T
N
X
i ui
i=1
N X
N
X
j i uTj Kui .
j=1 i=1
Orthogonality of the normalized eigenvectors (Eq. (1.46)) implies that the quadratic product
2
uTj Kui = 0j
if j = i and zero otherwise. Therefore
T
v Kv =
N
X
2
j2 0j
.
j=1
N
X
j=1
N
N
X
X
2
2
2
2
2
2
j2 0j
01
+ h2 01
=
j2 0j
01
+
j2 01
.
j=1
j=1
v Kv =
N
X
2
j2 01
j=1
N
X
j=2
2
2
j2 0j
01
.
If we write the result into the definition of the Rayleigh quotient (1.66) we get:
R=
N
P
j=1
2
j2 01
+
N
P
j=2
N
P
j=1
2
2
j2 0j
01
2
j2 01
2
= 01
+
N
P
j=2
2
2
j2 0j
01
N
P
j=1
2
j2 01
(1.67)
The sum on the right hand side of Eq. (1.67) contains only positive numbers (here we remind,
that 01 is the smallest natural frequency), or zeros (if a specific j is zero). So we can conclude,
that the Rayleigh quotient is always higher than, or equal to the square of the first natural
circular frequency. The accuracy of the result depends naturally on the initial guess on the
mode shape vector (v): the closer the guessed shape vector v is to the exact one u1 , the more
precise 01 is.
2
2
Seeding the 0N
element instead of 01
results in a proof for the Rayleigh quotient to be
smaller than, or equal to the square of the highest natural circular frequency.
32
Problem 1.3.2 (Example on finding an approximate solution for a twostorey frame). Find an approximate
solution of the first natural circular frequency of the twostorey structure shown in Figure 1.12. The masses
of the storeys are m1 = m2 = 2 t, and the stiffness of the columns is given by spring stiffnesses k1 = k2 =
T
50 kN/m. The first mode shape should be assumed as: v = 1 2
Solution. The system has the following mass and stiffness matrices:
100 50
2 0
.
,K =
M=
50 50
0 2
100
50
R=
50
50
1
2
0 50
1
2
1
2
= 10,
= 100.
vT Kv
100
=
= 10,
vT Mv
10
01 3.162 rad/s.
Exercise 1.3.1. Find first natural circular frequency 01 of the above problem with the exact first mode shape
vector:
T
.
u1 = 1 1.618
Problem 1.3.3 (Example on finding an approximate solution for a multistorey frame). Let us find the first
natural circular frequency of a 10storey frame. (See Figure 1.15 (a).) The interstorey stiffnesses and the level
masses are the same on each level, m = 150 t and k = 25000 kN/m respectively.
Solution. The mass matrix of the structure is a 10 10 diagonal matrix, where each element equals m. The
stiffness matrix is
k+k
k
0
... 0
..
..
k
.
.
k+k
k
.
..
K= 0
.
0
k
k
+
k
..
..
..
..
.
.
. k
.
0
...
0
k k
It is a crucial step of the method to find a good assumption of the trial vector. During the drift of the storeys,
the rigid girders are staying horizontal, and so the structure follows a pattern of displacements similar to a rod
with finite shear stiffness. The frame can be treated as a discrete model of the sheared (continuous) column
(Figure 1.15 (b)). A sheared rod has a modal shape of a sinusoidal function with a zero value at the bottom and
a zero tangent at the free end. Similar displacement vector can be used with:
j
,
j = 1, . . . , N.
vj = sin
2N + 1
Displacements are shown in Fig. 1.15 (c). The numerator and the denominator of the Rayleigh quotient
are:
N
N
X
X
2N + 1
j
=m
= 787.5,
sin2
vj mvj = m
vT Mv =
2N
+
1
4
j=1
j=1
33
vT Kv = v1 kv1 +
N
X
j=2
N
X
j=2
2
01
3.723, 01 1.930 rad/s.
Note: in this specific case the supposed shape vector was the actual first mode vector, so in this problem the
accurate solution was obtained.
Figure 1.15: A 10storey frame structure with rigid interstorey girders and elastic columns. (a) Dynamical
model of the structure. (b) Equivalent continuous rod with finite shear stiffness. (c) First modal shape of the
continuous rod.
n
X
c i i .
i=1
Using this trial vector the Rayleigh quotient will depend on the variables c1 , . . ., cn :
R(c1 , . . . , cn ) =
vT (c1 , . . . , cn )Kv(c1 , . . . , cn )
.
vT (c1 , . . . , cn )Mv(c1 , . . . , cn )
We are looking for the possible smallest R in the space of the vectors 1 , . . ., n :
R(c1 , . . . , cn ) = min!
If n = 1:
The quotient depends on one single variable. At the minimum the first derivative vanishes:
dR(c1 )
= 0.
(1.68)
dc1
The solution of the (nonlinear) equation (1.68) results in a possible best result for the trial
vector coefficient c1 in the space of the base vectors.
If n > 1:
The quotient depends on multiple variables. At the minimum the gradient of the quotient
is zero:
R(c1 , . . . , cn )
= 0.
i = 1, . . . , n,
(1.69)
ci
which is a nonlinear system of equations for n variables. This type of equations does
not necessarily have a unique solution, thus solution method must be chosen according
to this.
We mention here, that the RitzRayleigh method is capable of finding the exact solution if
n + 1 = N , i.e., if the base vectors i (i = 0, . . . , n) span the whole N space. Otherwise,
for the trial vector the method minimizes the error to the the exact solution, i.e. it finds the
projection of the exact solution on the space spanned by the base vectors i (i = 0, . . . , n), and
gives the corresponding Rayleigh quotient.
Problem 1.3.4 (Exact solution of a twostorey frame). Find the exact solution for the first natural circular
frequency of the twostorey structure of Problem 1.3.2.
35
c1
100
50
50
50
1
c1
c1
100 50c1
50 + 50c1
vT (c1 )Kv(c1 )
100 100c1 + 50c21
.
=
vT (c1 )Kv(c1 )
2 + 2c21
1
1.618
v2 =
0
0.618
Problem 1.3.5 (Exact solution for a threestorey structure). Find the exact solution for the first natural circular
frequency of the threestorey structure of Problem 1.3.1.
Solution. First we repeat the matrices of the system from Problem 1.3.1:
150
0
0
150
0 ,
M= 0
0
0
150
36
50000 25000
0
K = 25000 50000 25000 .
0
25000 25000
T
Let us assume the trial vector as v(c1 , c2 ) = 1 c1 c2
, i.e. we chose the base vectors:
1
0 = 0 ,
0
0
1 = 1 ,
0
0
2 = 0
1
Here n = 2 and N = 3, so 2 + 1 = 3, i.e. the RitzRayleigh method leads to the exact solutions of the problem.
The numerator and the denominator of the Rayleigh quotient are:
150
0
0
1
150
0 c1
vT (c1 , c2 )Mv(c1 , c2 ) = 1 c1 c2 0
0
0
150
c2
150
= 1 c1 c2 150c1 = 150 1 + c21 + c22 ,
150c2
vT (c1 , c2 )Kv(c1 , c2 ) =
1 c1
c2
50000
25000
0
25000
50000
25000
50000 25000c1
25000 + 50000c1 25000c2
25000c1 + 25000c2
2
= 25000 2 2c1 + 2c1 2c1 c2 + c22 .
1 c1
c2
0
1
25000 c1
25000
c2
(1.70)
R(c1 , c2 )
= 0.
c2
The partial derivatives result a cumbersome system of two equations. However, the solution can be calculated
numerically, resulting in the following solution pairs:
c1 = 1.802, c2 = 2.247,
c1 = 0.445, c2 = 0.802,
c1 = 1.247, c2 = 0.555.
These points are on the surface defined by the Rayleigh quotient over the (c1 , c2 )plane (see Eq. (1.70)). The
shape of the surface is shown in Figure 1.16.
To decide, which one of the above three solution pairs leads to the first natural frequency, we have two
options:
We decide which one of the solution pairs correspond to the minimum point of the surface given by the
function R (c1 , c2 ).
We calculate the Rayleigh quotient with the solution points and pick the smallest one.
37
1
0
0 = 1.5 ,
1 = 0 .
0
1
38
1.4
Summation theorems
Let us study the undamped free vibration of a MDOF, linear mechanical system described
by the matrix differential equation
M
u(t) + Ku(t) = 0.
It leads to the generalised eigenvalue problem
K 02 M u0 = 0,
(1.71)
2
the smallest eigenvalue of which is 01
, the square of the lowest natural circular frequency
of the system. Here both M and K are constant, symmetric, real valued, N byN matrices,
called linear, symmetric operators in mathematics. We deal with simple models of engineering
structures which are not statically overdeterminate. Then the mass matrix M and the stiffness
matrix K are positive definite. 1 Physically it means that the kinetic and elastic energies of the
structure must be positive due to any displacements.
These properties of the system allow us to make use of a few summation theorems. These
theorems are used to get approximate estimates of the lowest natural circular frequency 01 of
a structure by combining natural frequencies of different subproblems. Here we do not provide
the reader with the proofs of the theorems, they can be found in the literature (for instance in
[9]), but we show some simple examples for their applications.
n
X
Mj ,
j=1
X 1
1
2
01
2
j=1 j
(1.72)
allows us to approximate the lowest natural circular frequency 01 of the original problem.
From this the first natural period of vibration is
2
T01
n
X
Tj2 .
j=1
Matrix A is positive definite if vT Av vT v for some > 0, which implies that all the eigenvalues of A
are positive.
1
39
f1 =
1 EI
9 h3
3 EI
k2 =
8 h3
EI
k3 = 3 3
h
k1 =
1 EI
,
9 h 3 m1
3 EI
22 =
,
8 h 3 m2
EI
32 = 3 3 .
h m3
12 =
The estimation of the first natural circular frequency of the original structure is based on (1.72):
8
h3
1
1
thus
9m
+
m
+
m
1
2
3 ,
2
01
EI
3
3
s
3EI
, and
01
h3 {27m1 + 8m2 + m3 }
r
h3 {27m1 + 8m2 + m3 }
T01 2
.
3EI
40
m1
m1
3h
m2
EI
EI
m3
1111111
0000000
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
00000003h
1111111
M
(a)
(b)
2h
EI
EI
F=1
m3
h
F=1
m2
00000
11111
11111
00000
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000 2h
11111
000
111
111
000
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000 h
111
M
(d)
(c)
Figure 1.17: (a) A clamped rod of length 3h and bending stiffness EI with its mass concentrated at three
points of equal distances h. (b) The case when masses m2 and m3 are zero with the corresponding
substructure and the bending moment diagram due to a horizontal unit force F = 1 at the top. (c) The case
when masses m1 and m3 are zero with the corresponding model and the bending moment diagram due to a
horizontal unit force F = 1 acting at h from the top. (d) The case when masses m1 and m2 are zero and the
substructure with the bending moment diagram due to a unit force F = 1 acting at 2h from the top.
41
n
X
Kj .
j=1
(1.74)
j2 .
j=1
n
X
1
T2
j=1 j
!1
Thus this formula states that if the stiffness of the structure is composed of parts, then the
square of the smallest natural circular frequency of the structure is not less than the sum of the
squares of the smallest natural circular frequencies corresponding to the partial stiffnesses.
The formula underestimates the natural circular frequency of the structure, i.e. the result
shows the structure softer than in reality. We refer to this theorem as the effect of stiffening.
Let a structure have S stiffness parameters. We can group these parameters into n sets. If the
structure does not become statically overdeterminate when all but one of the stiffness parameter
sets equal zero, then the Southwell theorem can be applied. Practically, we decrease all but the
jth sets of stiffness parameters to zero and then compute the corresponding smallest natural
circular frequency j for j = 1, 2, . . . , n. Finally, we apply the Southwell formula (1.74).
Problem 1.4.2 (Estimation of the natural circular frequency using Southwell theorem). There is a rigid roof of
mass m supported by two clamped rods of length h and bending stiffnesses EI1 , EI2 . The rods are connected
to the roof through hinges and the mass of the rods is neglected. In addition, there is a linear spring of stiffness
k attached to the roof. The model is shown in Figure 1.18 (a). Estimate the first natural circular frequency of
the structure!
Solution. We apply Southwell theorem, since the structure is such that if we set any 2 stiffness parameters out
of EI1 , EI2 , or k, to zero, then the structure remains stable. First we take EI2 and k to be equal to zero and
compute the natural circular frequency 1 of a clamped, massless rod of length h and bending stiffness EI1
with one lumped mass m at its top (see Figure 1.18 (b) and (e)). Then, we take EI1 and k to be equal to zero
and compute the natural circular frequency 2 of a clamped rod of length h and stiffness EI2 with the mass
m at its the top (see Figure 1.18 (c) and (e)) in a very similar way. Finally, EI1 and EI2 are taken to be zero
42
f1 =
EI1
EI2
k1 =
3EI1
h3
3EI2
k1 =
h3
EI1
3EI1
,
h3 m
3EI2
22 = 3
h m,
12 =
k=0
EI2=0
F=1
(a)
(b)
k=0
111
000
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
h
000
111
000
111
EI1=0
EI2
EI1=0
(e)
EI2=0
(d)
(c)
Figure 1.18: (a) Model of a rigid roof of mass m supported by a linear spring of stiffness k and by two
clamped, massless rods of equal length h and bending stiffnesses EI1 and EI2 . (b) The case when the
stiffness parameters EI2 and k are set to zero. (c) The case when EI1 and k are set to zero. (d) The case when
EI1 and EI2 are taken to be zero. (e) A clamped rod of length h and its bending moment diagram due to a
horizontal unit force at the top.
The estimation of the first natural circular frequency of the original structure following (1.74) is
3EI2
k
3EI1
+ 3 + , thus
h3 s
m
h m
m
1
3
01
{EI1 + EI2 } + k ,
m h3
2 m
T01
.
3
{EI
+
EI
}
+
k
1
2
h3
2
01
43
and
X 1
1
.
2
01
2
j=1 j
(1.76)
n
X
Tj2 .
j=1
h3
1 2 3
h =
2EI 3
3EI
k1 =
3EI
h3
12 =
3EI
,
h3 m
f2 =
h2
s
k2 =
s
h2
22 =
s
.
h2 m
44
EI
EI
EI
F=1
11
00
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00 h
11
00
11
M
(b)
(a)
f2
F=1
EI
Fh=s
s
F=1
(c)
Figure 1.19: (a) A straight, massless rod of length h and bending stiffness EI carrying a lumped mass m at
the top, connected to a fixed hinge and a rotational spring of stiffness s at the bottom. (b) The case when
s (rigidly clamped elastic rod) and the bending moment diagram due to a horizontal unit force acting at
the top. (c) The case when EI (elastically clamped rigid bar) and the free body diagram due to a
horizontal unit force.
The estimation of the first natural circular frequency of the original structure using Eq. (1.76) is
1
h3 m h2 m
+
, thus
2
01
3EI
s
1
, and
01 r
3
h m h2 m
+
3EI
s
r
3
h m h2 m
+
.
T01 2
3EI
s
45
Chapter 2
Dynamics of slender continua
Main load bearing members of engineering structures often have one significant dimension:
the extent of the member along this direction is larger with at least one order of magnitude than
in other (orthogonal) directions. The behaviour of these slender members can be characterized
by fewer variables, than needed for a complete threedimensional description. In this chapter
we derive the equation of motion of some specific slender continuum rods, give the solution for
the free vibrations and, in some cases, forced vibrations are also studied.
First we collect the assumptions used hereafter for the studied rods. Since in engineering
practice the most commonly used structural element is the prismatic rod, which is a slender,
straight rod of uniform crosssections, we restrict our investigations on this type of rods. It is
assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic, and linearly elastic. We neglect the effect of damping.
The axis of the rod in the stressfree state is the straight line connecting the centroids of the
crosssections. In the stressfree state, the axis of the rod coincides with axis x of a left handed
Cartesian coordinate system (see Figure 2.1 (a)). The rod obeys the principle of planar crosssections: during the deformation every crosssection remains plane and undistorted. The crosssection of the rod is assumed to be reflection symmetric to axis y. The displacements are
considered to be small. The length of the studied rod is denoted by , its crosssectional area
is A, the second moment of the crosssection with respect to z is I, and the polar inertia of the
crosssection with respect to axis x is I0 . The material of the rod is characterised by: the mass
density , the Youngs modulus E, the shear modulus G, and the Poissons ratio . 1 The mass
per unit length of the rod is = A.
We analyse the following simple vibration modes:
Longitudinal vibration of prismatic bars. The rod deforms along its axis x, while all the
crosssections remain parallel, thus their motion can be characterised by the translation
u(x, t) of the rod axis. The only nonzero internal force in this case is the normal force
N . A simple model is shown in Figure 2.1 (a), and free vibrations are solved using both
standing and travelling waves in Section 2.1.
Torsional vibration of prismatic shafts. The crosssections of the rod rotate about axis
x and this rotation is denoted by x (x, t). The crosssections remain parallel. The only
1
46
2.1
In this section we analyse the longitudinal vibrations of the prismatic bar, and introduce the
general steps of any continuous modeling.
In the stressfree state, the axis of the bar coincides with axis x of a left handed Cartesian
coordinate system. There is a longitudinal distributed load qn (x, t) acting in the axis of the bar
(see Figure 2.1 (a)). If we restrict buckling, then these conditions imply that the bar undergoes
a rectilinear vibration: the motion of each crosssection of the bar occurs parallel to axis x.
The only displacement is characterized by the translation u(x, t) of the centroid of the crosssections. The deformation of the bar is the normal strain x (x, t): the relative displacement of
two neighbouring crosssections. Assuming small displacements, its value is:
x (x, t) =
u(x, t)
.
x
Since the prismatic bar has planar and homogeneous crosssections, the relationship between
the internal stress (normal stress, x (x, t)) and internal force (normal force, N (x, t)) is:
N (x, t) = x (x, t)A,
where A is the crosssectional area. The linear elastic material response provides the material
equation (Hookes law):
x (x, t) = Ex (x, t),
where E is the elastic (Youngs) modulus of the material. Summarizing the above kinematical,
equilibrium and material equations yield:
N (x, t) = EA
47
u(x, t)
.
x
(2.1)
u(x,t)
x
(a)
(b)
Figure 2.1: Sketch of (a) a prismatic bar subjected to a longitudinal distributed load qn (x, t) and (b) a bar
element of length x subjected to the internal forces and the distributed load. (The deformation of the bar
element is neglected due to the small displacements.)
2 u(x, t)
= qn (x, t)x N (x, t) + N (x + x, t).
t2
(2.2)
N (x, t)
x + O(x2 )
x
2 u(x, t)
N (x, t)
= qn (x, t)x N (x, t) + N (x, t) +
x + O(x2 ).
2
t
x
The symbol O(x2 ) means, that those parts are in the order of magnitude of x2 . We simplify
the above equation as
x
N (x, t)
2 u(x, t)
= qn (x, t)x +
x + O(x2 ),
2
t
x
and divide both sides by x. If we take the limit x 0 of both sides, then the term
O(x2 )/x vanishes, resulting in:
2 u(x, t)
N (x, t)
= qn (x, t) +
.
2
t
x
2 u(x, t)
2 u(x, t)
=
q
(x,
t)
+
EA
,
n
t2
x2
48
(2.3)
c
=
n
2
2
t
x
(2.4)
Equation (2.4) is the differential equation of the longitudinal vibration of the prismatic bar. The
quantity
s
E
(2.5)
cn =
c
=0,
(2.6)
n
t2
x2
thus we deal only with the free vibration of the bar. There exists two methods for finding the
nontrivial solution (i.e. u(x, t) 6= 0) of Eq. (2.6):
solution with standing waves,
solution with travelling waves.
We will show the solution for a bar of length with fixedfixed ends (i.e. with boundary
conditions u(0, t) = u(, t) = 0) using the standingwave method first. In this case we separate
the variables and seek the solution of the form:
u(x, t) = u(x) (a cos (0 t) + b sin (0 t)) .
(2.7)
d2 u(x)
= 0.
dx2
49
(2.8)
If we substitute the above formula and its second derivate with respect to x back into Eq. (2.8),
then we get
2
0
2
2
0 u(x) cn
u(x) = 0,
0 = cn
This second constraint holds in the trivial case (0 = 0) and in the case 0j = j for any
positive integer j. So the shape of the bar during the free vibration will be the sum of sinusoidal
wavefunctions. Different shapes exhibit different natural circular frequencies:
0j =
jcn
.
jx
u(x, t) =
sin
j=1
jcn t
jcn t
aj cos
+ bj sin
(2.9)
with infinitely many parameters aj and bj , which must be determined from the initial conditions.
We note that using the trigonometric identities
cos( ) cos( + )
,
2
sin( ) + sin( + )
sin cos =
2
sin sin =
cos cos =
50
cos( ) + cos( + )
2
(2.10)
X
aj
j=1
+
=
bj
2
X
aj
j=1
aj
2
j
j
sin
(x cn t) + sin
(x + cn t)
j
j
cos
(x cn t) cos
(x + cn t)
bj
j
j
sin
(x + cn t) cos
(x + cn t)
bj
j
j
sin
(x cn t) + cos
(x cn t) ,
u(x, t) =
X
j=1
aj
j
(x + cn t) arccot
sin
2
bj
j
bj
+ cos
.
(x cn t) arccot
aj
a2j + b2j
The above forms coincide with the outcome of the travellingwave method, discussed in details
in Appendix A.1.
u(, t) = 0.
(2.11)
Assuming that the response of the bar is also harmonic in time we can separate the spatial and
temporal variables as
u(x, t) = u(x)f (t).
The harmonic function is f (t) = cos(t)
In the case of f (t) = cos(t) Eq. (2.6) becomes
2
(x)
2
2 d u
cos(t) = 0,
u(x) cn
dx2
yielding the solution
u(x) = A cos
x + B sin
x .
cn
cn
51
+ B sin
=0
u() = cos
cn
cn
B = cot
.
cn
x cot
sin
x
cos(t).
u(x, t) = cos
cn
cn
cn
(2.12)
This is the solution in a standingwave form. However, we can again use trigonometric
identities (2.10) to write a travellingwave form:
=
cos
(x cn t) + cos
(x + cn t)
2
cn
cn
B
sin
(x cn t) + sin
(x + cn t)
+
2
cn
cn
1
=
(x + cn t) + B sin
(x + cn t)
A cos
2
cn
cn
1
+
A cos
(x cn t) + B sin
(x cn t) ,
2
cn
cn
which, using the calculated constants A and B yields
1
u(x, t) =
(x + cn t) cot
sin
(x + cn t)
cos
2
cn
cn
cn
1
+
cos
(x cn t) cot
sin
(x cn t) .
2
cn
cn
cn
The above form can be compacted using the trigonometric identity (A.11):
r
2
1 + cot cn
sin
(x + cn t) sin
(x cn t) . (2.13)
u(x, t) =
2
cn
cn
The harmonic function is f (t) = sin(t)
Now Eq. (2.6) is
yielding again
2
(x)
2
2 d u
u(x) cn
sin(t) = 0,
dx2
u(x) = A cos
x + B sin
x .
cn
cn
52
+ B sin
=0
u() = cos
cn
cn
B = cot
.
cn
x cot
sin
x
sin(t).
u(x, t) = cos
cn
cn
cn
(2.14)
This is the solution in a standingwave form. We can again use trigonometric identities
(2.10) to rewrite a (general) travellingwave form:
x + B sin
x
sin(t)
u(x, t) = u(x) sin(t) = A cos
cn
cn
A
=
sin
(x cn t) + sin
(x + cn t)
2
c
c
n
n
B
+
(x cn t) cos
(x + cn t)
cos
2
cn
cn
1
=
(x + cn t) + A sin
(x + cn t)
B cos
2
cn
cn
1
(x cn t) A sin
(x cn t) ,
B cos
+
2
cn
cn
which, using the appropriate A and B yields
1
u(x, t) =
cos
(x + cn t) + sin
(x + cn t)
cot
2
cn
cn
cn
1
cot
cos
(x cn t) + sin
(x cn t) .
2
cn
cn
cn
The above form can be compacted using the trigonometric identity (A.10):
r
1 + cot2 cn
cos
(x + cn t) cos
(x cn t) .
u(x, t) =
2
cn
cn
2.2
(2.15)
In this section we discuss the torsional vibration of a straight shaft with rigid circular crosssections of radius R. The length of the shaft is , its mass per unit length is = R2 . The
only displacement the crosssections undergo is the rotation x (x, t) about the shaft axis x. The
twist x (x, t) is the first derivative of the rotation with respect to x:
x (x, t) =
x (x, t)
.
x
53
(2.16)
T (x, t)
x + O(x2 ).
x
.
G
x2
t2
Introducing the velocity of shear waves
s
G
cs =
(2.19)
we can write the differential equation of the free torsional vibration of prismatic shafts:
2
2 x (x, t)
2 x (x, t)
c
=0.
s
t2
x2
(2.20)
This is a PDE with similar structure as the PDE (2.6) of the free longitudinal vibration, so the
solution methods are the same.
2.3
In this section we analyse the planar vibration of a beam which is inextensional, unbendable,
but shearable. Considering small displacements the only deformation of the crosssections of
the beam is the translation v(x, t) parallel to axis y (see Figure 2.2 (a)).
54
V(x,t)
(a)
(b)
V(x+x,t)
Figure 2.2: (a) Sketch of an inextensional, unbendable prismatic beam subjected to a transverse distributed load
qt (x, t). (b) A beam element of length x subjected to the internal shear forces and the distributed load.
The material is linearly elastic and homogeneous. Hence, according to Hookes law, the
connection between the shear strain xy and the shear stress xy is:
xy = Gxy .
Here G is the shear modulus of the material which can be computed from the Youngs modulus
E and Poissons ratio as
E
G=
.
2(1 + )
Since the Poissons ratio must be between 0 and 0.5, the shear modulus is between onethird
and onehalf of the Youngs modulus: G = E/3 E/2.
According to earlier studies, the distribution of shear stress xy is constant along the width,
but quadratic along the height of the crosssection [2]. Therefore, the shear strain xy is also
quadratic in y. That would violate the principle of planar crosssections, so based on Timoshenkos method [10], we introduce the effective shear area Aeff of the crosssection. The ratio
ks of the effective shear area Aeff to the area A
ks =
Aeff
A
is called the shear correction factor. For instance, ks = 5/6 for a rectangular crosssection,
while ks = 0.9 for a circular shaft. In this manner, the elastic energy accumulating in a beam
element computed with the quadratic stress and strain distributions equals to the elastic energy
computed with constant strain xy and stress
xy = G xy
distributions. For small displacements the shear strain xy of a beam element is:
xy (x, t) =
v(x, t)
.
x
On any crosssection of the beam the resultant of the shear stress xy must be equal to the
(internal) shear force V (x, t), thus
V (x, t) = xy (x, t)ks A.
55
v(x, t)
.
x
(2.21)
2 v(x, t)
.
t2
(2.22)
V (x, t)
2 v(x, t)
x + O(x2 ) = x
.
x
t2
Dividing both sides by x and taking x 0 leads to
qt (x, t)x +
2 v(x, t)
V (x, t)
=
.
x
t2
Finally we substitute Eq. (2.21) in the above equality to obtain
qt (x, t) +
(2.24)
2 v(x, t)
2 v(x, t)
=
,
x2
t2
which is the second order partial differential equation of shear vibration of the unbendable
beam. If we introduce the velocity of shear waves
s
s
GA
G
=
cs =
,
(2.25)
qt (x, t) + ks GA
k
c
=
.
s
s
2
2
t
x
(2.26)
Formally it is the same PDE as (2.4), except for the coefficient here is ks c2s instead of c2n ,
and that the unknown function is the vertical translation v(x, t) instead of the longitudinal
translation u(x, t) of the axis. Therefore, the solution of (2.26) follows identical derivation as
of the solution of (2.4). When pure shear vibration is needed in structural design is the case
of the vibration of fixedfree shearable beams. It is often used to approximate the dynamical
behaviour of high buildings with rigid slabs and elastic columns. Hence we shortly study the
free shear vibration of a fixedfree beam.
56
k
c
= 0,
s
s
t2
x2
(2.27)
which governs the free shear vibration of the beam. Using the concept of standing waves, we
assume that the solution of (2.27) is of the separated form
X
v(x, t) =
vr (x) {ar cos(0r t) + br sin(0r t)} .
(2.28)
r
d2 vr (x)
2
+ 0r
vr (x) = 0,
dx2
r = 1, 2, . . .
(2.29)
hold. From previous mathematical studies [1], each of the above ODE has the solution
0r
0r
vr (x) = Ar cos
x + Br sin
x .
(2.30)
ks cs
ks cs
Here the coefficients Ar and Br can be computed from two boundary conditions of the beam.
For the studied fixedfree beam we can write the following boundary conditions:
v(0, t) = 0,
V (, t) = ks GA
v(x, t)
= 0,
x x=
(2.31)
i.e. the translation of the fixed end of the beam is restricted and the shear force at the free end
of the beam is zero. It can be easily seen from Eq. (2.27) that
vr (0) = 0
d
vr (x)
=0
dx x=
v(0, t) = 0 and
v(x, t)
= 0.
x x=
It follows from the above statements, Eq. (2.30), and Eq. (2.31) that
=0
=
dx x=
ks cs
ks cs
ks cs
0r
Br cos
= 0.
ks cs
57
o
ks cs n
r
r = 1, 2, . . . , .
(2.32)
Thus there are infinitely many natural circular frequencies 0r of the shear vibration of unbendable
beams. These frequencies form an arithmetic sequence with common difference
Finally, the shear vibration of a prismatic beam is described by the sum of product of
functions
X
{r 0.5}
x
v(x, t) =
Br sin
r=1
(2.34)
p
p
{r 0.5}
{r 0.5}
ks cs
ks cs
ar cos
t + br sin
t
.
GA
s
(b)
(a)
GA
..
M0= I0
GA
Problem 2.3.1 (Elastically clamped, shearable column). Estimate the first natural circular frequency of a inextensional, unbendable column of rectangular crosssection! The length of the column is , its mass per unit
length is . The area of the crosssection is A, the shear modulus of the material is G. The structure is elastically
clamped at the bottom with a rotational spring of stiffness s, and it is free at the top end, as shown in Figure 2.3
(a).
M0=s
(c)
Figure 2.3: (a) Model of an inextensional and unbendable beam which is elastically clamped at one end and
free at the other end. (b) The case when the rotational spring is rigid. (c) The case when the beam is totally
rigid.
58
GA
ks c s
= ks
.
1 =
2
2
Here the shear correction factor ks = 5/6, since the crosssection of the beam is rectangular.
Next we stiffen the beam, i.e. GA , and compute the natural frequency 2 of a rigid beam of length
and mass m = , supported by a rotational spring at one end. That is shown in Figure 2.3 (c). We write the
theorem of angular momentum for the rigid beam:
3
(t) = (t).
3
This second order linear ODE has a solution
(t) = A cos
r
r
3
3
t + B sin
t .
3
3
3
.
3
According to Eq. (1.76), the first natural circular frequency of the original structure is
1
1
1
2+ 2
2
01
1
2
01 s
2.4
3
1
42
+ ,
2
2
01
ks GA
3s
1
42
3
+
2
ks GA
3s
.
The crosssections of the studied beam are reflection symmetric to axis y. There is a transverse distributed load qt (x, t) acting in the plane of symmetry x y of the beam, as shown in
Figure 2.4 (a). If we restrict flexuraltorsional buckling, then these conditions imply that the
beam undergoes planar deformation: the motion of the beam axis occurs in the plane x y.
The beam is assumed to be inextensible and unshearable. The curve v(x, t) describes the
deflection of the beam axis along y at some position x and time t. Since the beam is unshearable, the rotation (x, t) of the crosssections about axis z equals the slope of the axis:
(x, t) = v(x, t)/x. The only deformation which is not constrained is the curvature (x, t)
59
2 v(x, t)
x2
2 !3/2 .
v(x, t)
1+
x
The BernoulliEuler constitutive equation says that the (internal) bending moment M (x, t) is
linear in the change in (x, t), i.e.
M (x, t) = EI(x, t).
Here E is the Youngs modulus of the isotropic material, I is the second moment of the crosssection with respect to z, and their product EI is called the bending stiffness of the beam,
which is constant along x. If the deflection v(x, t) is small, and so is the slope v(x, t)/x,
then we can make the following approximation:
M (x, t) EI
2 v(x, t)
.
x2
(2.35)
Besides, in the case of small displacements, the transverse load causes only transverse translation v(x, t) of the axis, so no translation occurs along axis x.
x
y v(x,t)
M(x+x,t)
M(x,t)
qt (x,t)
x
V(x+x,t)
V(x,t)
l
(a)
(b)
Figure 2.4: Sketch of (a) a prismatic beam subjected to a transverse, distributed load qt (x, t) and (b) a beam
element of length x subjected to the internal forces and the distributed load. (The normal forces are not
indicated, and the deformation of the beam element is neglected due to small displacements.)
60
2 v(x, t)
,
t2
(2.36)
which is evaluated at x = x0 . The Taylor expansion of V (x, t) with respect to x around x0 is:
2 V (x, t) 2
V (x, t)
x +
x + . . .
x
x2
V (x, t)
= V (x, t) +
x + O(x2 )
x
V (x + x, t) = V (x, t) +
(2.37)
If we substitute (2.37) into (2.36), divide it by x and apply x 0, then the following
formula is obtained:
V (x, t)
2 v(x, t)
+ qt (x, t) =
.
(2.38)
x
t2
Now we write the theorem of angular momentum. We approximate the moment of inertia
of the beam element with
Z
Z
I
2
y dm =
y 2 dAx = Ix = x = i20 x,
A
(V )
(A)
p
and its rotation with v(x, t)/x. The quantity i0 = I/A is called the radius of gyration.
The smaller x is, the more precise these approximations are, again. The theorem of angular
momentum states that the angular momentum of the beam element equals the moment exerted
by the (internal and external) forces and couples about the centre of mass, thus
M (x + x, t) + M (x, t) + V (x, t)
x
x
3 v(x, t)
+ V (x + x, t)
= i20 x
.
2
2
xt2
(2.39)
Now we substitute (2.37) and the Taylor expansion of M (x + x, t) in (2.39), divide the result
by x and tend x to zero. The result is
M (x, t)
3 v(x, t)
+ V (x, t) = i20
.
x
xt2
(2.40)
Differentiating the above equation partially with respect to x and combining it with Eqs. (2.35),
(2.38) yields the fourth order, linear, inhomogeneous partial differential equation (PDE):
4
2 v(x, t)
2 v(x, t)
i
0
t2
x2 t2
+ EI
4 v(x, t)
= qt (x, t) .
x4
(2.41)
The above PDE describes the vibration of the beam axis caused by an arbitrary forcing qt (x, t).
It is often reasonable to neglect the effect of rotary inertia (for example when i0 is small).
Then (2.41) simplifies to
4 v(x, t)
2 v(x, t)
+
EI
= qt (x, t) .
t2
x4
61
(2.42)
If the beam is clamped at one end and free at the other one, then it is called fixedfree, as
shown in Figure 2.5 (b). In this case the deflection v(x, t) and the slope = v(x, t)/x are
zero at the clamped end, while the bending moment M (x, t) and the shear force V (x, t) =
EI 3 v(x, t)/x3 (which comes from (2.35), (2.40), neglecting the rotary inertia) are zero at
the free end. These conditions are essentially:
v(x, t)
x=0
= 0,
v(x, t)
= 0,
x x=0
2 v(x, t)
= 0,
x2
x=
3 v(x, t)
= 0.
x3
x=
(2.44)
The beam can be clamped at one end and supported by a roller at the other one, which is
called fixedpinned, as visualised in Figure 2.5 (c). In this case the deflection v(x, t) are zero
at both ends, the slope = v(x, t)/x is zero at the clamped end, and the bending moment
M (x, t) is zero at the pinned end. These conditions yield
v(x, t)x=0 = 0,
v(x, t)
= 0,
x x=0
v(x, t)x= = 0,
2 v(x, t)
= 0.
x2
x=
v(x, t)x=0 = 0,
v(x, t)
= 0,
x x=0
v(x, t)x= = 0,
v(x, t)
= 0.
x x=
(2.45)
The beam can be clamped at both ends, called fixedfixed, shown in Figure 2.5 (d). In this
case the deflection v(x, t) and the slope = v(x, t)/x are zero at both ends, thus
(2.46)
i20 c2n
v(x, t) 2 v(x, t)
+
= 0,
x4
t2
62
v(l,t)=0
M(0,t)=0
M(l,t)=0
(0,t)=0
v(l,t)=0
v(0,t)=0
M(l,t)=0
y v(x,t)
y
(a)
(0,t)=0
V(l,t)=0
v(0,t)=0
M(l,t)=0
v(x,t)
(c)
(0,t)=0
(l,t)=0
v(0,t)=0
v(l,t)=0
y v(x,t)
y v(x,t)
(b)
(d)
Figure 2.5: Common types of supporting modes: (a) pinnedpinned, (b) fixedfree, (c) fixedpinned, and (d)
fixedfixed beams. The corresponding boundary conditions are indicated at the end points.
p
p
where i0 = I/A is the radius of gyration and cn = E/ is the velocity of the travelling
longitudinal waves, which was introduced already in Subsec. 2.1.1 (see Eq. (2.5)).
We search for the solution of PDE (2.47) using the method of separation of variables. That
means that we attempt to find a solution of (2.47) as a sum of products of functions in which
the dependence of v(x, t) on x and t is separated:
X
v(x, t) =
vr (x) {ar cos(0r t) + br sin(0r t)} .
(2.48)
r
It implies that the deflection of all the points of the beam axis varies harmonically with time t.
Here 0r is called the rth natural circular frequency of the free vibration, while the coefficients
ar and br come from initial conditions. It is clear that with the above formalism
4 v(x, t) X d4 vr (x)
=
{ar cos(0r t) + br sin(0r t)} ,
x4
dx4
r
2 v(x, t) X
2
2
=
vr (x) ar 0r
sin(0r t) br 0r
cos(0r t) .
2
t
r
The above equation is fulfilled for any time instant t if the following ordinary differential equation (ODE) holds:
d4 vr (x)
2
0r
vr (x) = 0.
(2.49)
EI
dx4
The solution of the above linear, homogeneous ODE (2.49) is of the form
0r
0r
0r
0r
x + Br sin
x + Cr cosh
x + Dr sinh
x , (2.50)
vr (x) = Ar cos
63
for all r
dn v(x, t)
= 0,
dxn
n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
We substitute (2.50) and the above expression into (2.43) and write the appropriate boundary
conditions in the compact matrix form
F(0r ) cr =
1
0
1
0
2
2
0r
0
0
0r
cos(0r )
sin(0r )
cosh(0r )
sinh(0r )
2
2
2
2
0r
0r
0r
cos(0r ) 0r
sin(0r )
cosh(0r )
sinh(0r )
2
2
2
Ar
(2.51)
Br
= 0.
Cr
Dr
Here F(0r ) is called the frequency matrix and cr stores the coefficients of (2.50). The equation
F(0r ) cr = 0 is satisfied for nontrivial cr 6= 0 if the determinant of F(0r )
det (F(0r )) = 4
20r
sin(0r ) sinh(0r )
2
r2 2
2
EI
64
r = 1, 2, . . . , .
(2.52)
1
0
1
0
2 2
2 2
Ar
0
0
2
Br
2
= 0.
F(r) cr =
r
Cr
{1}
0
cosh(r)
sinh(r)
r2 2
r2 2
r2 2
Dr
r+1
{1}
0
cosh(r)
sinh(r)
2
2
2
Ar + Cr = 0,
Ar = Cr = 0.
From the 3rd equation Dr = 0. Since det(F(r)) = 0, the 4th equation is linearly dependent.
Therefore the coefficient Br can be chosen arbitrary. Finally, the rth shape function of the free
transverse vibration is
r
vr (x) = Br sin
x .
(2.53)
vp (x)
vr (x) dx =
Bp sin
r
p
x Br sin
x dx
{pr}
{p+r}
sin(
x)
x)
sin(
= 0,
if p 6= r
Bp Br
{pr}
{p+r}
2
2
0
=
x)
1cos( 2r
= Br2 , if p = r.
Br
2
2
0
(2.54)
It is often convenient to normalise the shape functions to the mass of the beam, i.e. to satisfy
vr (x)
vr (x) dx = 1.
(2.55)
This allows us to determine a specific value for Br using Eqs. (2.54), (2.55):
vr (x)
vr (x) dx =
Br2
=1
Br =
2
.
Thus the rth normalised (modal) shape function of the pinnedpinned beam is
r
r
2
sin
x .
vr (x) =
(2.56)
The solution of (2.47) expressed with the normalised shape functions and the corresponding
natural circular frequencies is:
r
r
2 X
x {ar cos(0r t) + br sin(0r t)} .
sin
v(x, t) =
(2.57)
r=1
65
r
2 X
sin
x ar
v(x, 0) =
r=1
r
2 X
sin
x br 0r
v(x,
0) =
r=1
are given functions (fulfilling the boundary conditions). Thus these functions v(x, 0) and
v(x,
0) can be written as purely sine Fourier series. Now we multiply the above equations
by the pth normalised shape function vp (x), integrate the result from 0 to with respect to x,
and apply the orthogonality (2.54):
Z
0
v(x, 0)
vp (x) dx =
v(x,
0)
vp (x) dx =
v(x, 0)
v(x,
0)
p
2
2
sin
x dx = ap
sin2
p
2
2
sin
x dx = bp 0p
Z
0
p
ap
x dx = ,
sin2
p
bp 0p
x dx =
.
From the above formula we can extract the coefficients ap and bp from the known initial deflection function v(x, 0) and initial velocity function v(x,
0) of the beam axis as
ap =
bp =
1
0r
v(x, 0) sin
Z
0
p
x dx,
p
x dx.
v(x,
0) sin
(2.58)
It can be shown that the orthogonality of the shape functions are a general property. Thus
vp (x)
vr (x) = pr
(2.59)
holds for the normalised shape functions in case of other types of boundary conditions, too.
Here the symbol pr is the Kronecker delta, which equals to one if p = r and zero otherwise.
Moreover, the following equality could be derived for arbitrary boundary conditions:
EI
d4 vp (x)
2
vr (x) dx = 0r
pr ,
dx4
66
(2.60)
Z
0
Z
p4 4
d4 vp (x)
vp (x)
vr (x) dx =
vr (x) dx = EI 4
dx4
4 4
p
EI
0 =0
if p 6= r
4
=
4 4
p 1
2
EI
= 0p
if p = r.
4
During the examination of the free vibration of the prismatic beam, we neglected the effect
of the normal force. However, if an axial compression P acts at the ends of the beam, and the
deflection of the originally straight axis is taken into account, an additional moment P v(x, t)
is exerted on the beam element, as indicated in Figure 2.6 (a) and (b). Therefore, the left hand
side of (2.39) must be appended by P v(x, t) to deal with such an effect. Then, instead of
(2.47), the following equation can be derived for the free vibration of the axially compressed
beam:
4 v(x, t)
2 v(x, t)
2 v(x, t)
EI
(2.61)
+
P
+
=0.
x4
x2
t2
(Here we neglected again the effect of rotary inertia.)
Separating the variables as in (2.48), the equation
X
d4 vr (x)
d2 vr (x)
d2 vr (x)
2
EI
{ar cos(0r t) + br sin(0r t)} = 0
+P
0r
4
2
2
dx
dx
dt
r
must be satisfied at any time t. Without going into details of the derivation (which follows
a very similar procedure as in the previous case), we give the formula of the natural circular
frequencies of the pinnedpinned prismatic beam subjected to an axial compression P :
0r = 0r
P
Prcr
r = 1, 2, . . . , .
(2.62)
Here 0r is (2.52) and the rth (Euler) critical load Prcr of the pinnedpinned beam is known
from earlier studies:
EIr2 2
.
(2.63)
Prcr =
2
The constant axial compression thus decreases the natural circular frequencies. At the limit
when P = P1cr 01 becomes zero, thus the first mode of natural vibration about the original,
straight state vanishes, and the beam buckles. The effect of an axial tension is the opposite, it
increases the natural circular frequencies. Just think of a guitar string: the more it is stretched,
the faster it vibrates if twanged slightly.
67
144
500
s
r
4 2 EI
4 2 2 109
02 = 2
=
= 22 01 = 548.31 rad/s,
144
500
s
r
9 2 2 109
9 2 EI
=
= 32 01 = 1233.70 rad/s.
03 = 2
144
500
The normalised shape functions are from (2.56):
r
r 2
2
sin
x =
sin
x = 0.01826 sin (0.2618x) ,
v1 (x) =
500 12
12
r
r
2
2
2
3
v2 (x) =
sin
x =
sin
x = 0.01826 sin (0.5236x) ,
500 12
12
r
r
2
2
3
2
sin
x =
sin
x = 0.01826 sin (0.7854x) .
v3 (x) =
500 12
12
Note, that the argument of function sine is in radian!
For the computation of the effect of the axial compression P = 2107 N, on the natural circular frequencies
first we need to calculate the critical loads from (2.63):
EI 2
= 0.06845EI = 13.71 107 N,
2
EI4 2
=
= 0.2742EI = 54.83 107 N,
2
EI9 2
=
= 0.6169EI = 123.37 107 N.
2
P1cr =
P2cr
P3cr
Since the given axial compression P is smaller than the lowest critical load P1cr , there exists a harmonic free
vibration around the straight equilibrium position of the beam. The first three natural circular frequencies of
this harmonic oscillation are computed using Eq. (2.62):
s
P
02 = 02
03 = 03
P
= 548.31 0.9816 = 538.22 rad/s,
P2cr
P
= 1233.70 0.9919 = 1223.71 rad/s.
P3cr
68
Exercise 2.4.1. Estimate the first natural circular frequency of the beam given in Problem 2.4.1 with and additional lumped mass ml = 2 t at the midspan!
4 v(x, t)
2 v(x, t)
+
sv(x,
t)
+
=0.
x4
t2
(2.64)
Without going into details of the derivation, we give the natural circular frequencies of the free
vibration of the beam laying on a continuous elastic support:
0r = 0r
1+s
4
,
EIr4 4
(2.65)
where 0r is (2.52). Thus the elastic foundation increases the natural frequencies.
The shape functions are not infected by the continuous elastic supports either, so they are
the same as (2.53).
Rayleighs method for estimating natural frequencies
Since we neglected the damping due to internal friction of the elastic body, the total mechanical energy T (t) + U (t) is preserved during the free vibration
T (t) + U (t) = constant.
(2.66)
The kinetic energy T (t) of the prismatic beam expressed with the modal shape functions is
1
T (t) =
2
Z
0
v(x, t)
t
2
dx =
2
Z (X
r
69
vr (x) 0r dr cos(0r t r )
)2
dx.
P
x
y v(x,t)
y v(x,t)
(c)
x
M+M
(a)
x
V+V
qt (x,t)=sv(x,t)
(d)
(b)
Figure 2.6: Sketch of (a) a prismatic beam subjected to an axial compressive force P and (b) a beam element of
length x. (The deformed shape of the beam element is shown, but only the internal normal force N = P is
indicated, the shear force and bending moment are not, they are the same as in (d).) (c) A prismatic beam on an
elastic foundation of stiffness s and (d) a beam element of length x of this case. Deformation of the beam
element is visualised in (b) but not in (d).
(Here we used (2.48), but rewrote the harmonic term ar cos(0r t)+br cos(0r t) as dr sin(0r t
r ).) The potential energy U (t) is
1
U (t) =
2
EI
2 v(x, t)
x2
2
EI
dx =
2
Z (X
0
d2 vr (x)
dr sin(0r t r )
dx2
)2
dx.
Since the modal shape functions vr (x) are orthogonal, if we extract the square of the summation in the above equations, then the definite integrals of the mixed terms vp (x) vr (x) (and
also d2 vp (x)/ dx2 d2 vr (x)/ dx2 ) vanish for p 6= r, therefore
T (t) =
X
r
and
U (t) =
X
r
X 2 2
0r dr cos2 (0r t r )
Tr (t) =
2 r
vr2 (x) dx
2
Z 2
EI X 2 2
d vr (x)
Ur (t) =
dx.
d sin (0r t r )
2 r r
dx2
0
Therefore, if Tr (t) + Ur (t) = constant fulfils for each independent mode r, then it implies
that Eq. (2.66) holds. Let us use the first modal shape function
2
T1 (t) + U1 (t) = 01 d21 cos2 (01 t 1 )
2
v12 (x)2 dx
EI 2 2
+
d sin (01 t 1 )
2 1
Z
0
70
d2 v1 (x)
dx2
2
dx.
(2.67)
If the first modal shape function v1 (x) is not known, but estimated, then the above formula
gives an upper bound solution for 01 . The assumption for v1 (x) can be based on a polynomial
of degree n, if n boundary condition can be written for the beam. An example is shown in the
following problem.
Problem 2.4.2 (Applying Rayleighs method for transverse vibrations). Estimate the first natural circular frequency of a fixedfree beam of length = 12 m, total mass m = 6 t, and bending stiffness EI = 200000 kNm2 .
Solution. Since we can write four boundary conditions for the fixedpinned beam, as it is given by Eq. (2.44),
and also indicated in Figure 2.5 (b), we use the following fourth order polynomial with four unknown coefficients for the estimation of the first shape function:
v1 (x) p(x) = x4 + a3 x3 + a2 x2 + a1 x1 + a0 .
We need the first, second, and third derivatives of p(x) with respect to x:
dp(x)
= 4x3 + 3a3 x2 + 2a2 x + a1 ,
dx
d2 p(x)
= 12x2 + 6a3 x + 2a2 ,
dx2
d3 p(x)
= 24x + 6a3 .
dx3
Using the boundary conditions given by (2.44) the following equations must be solved for the coefficients
a0 , a1 , a2 , a3 :
v1 (0)
d
v1 (x)
dx x=0
2
d v1 (x)
dx2 x=
d3 v1 (x)
dx3 x=
04 + a3 03 + a2 02 + a1 01 + a0 = 0
4 03 + 3a3 02 + 2a2 0 + a1 = 0
a1 = 0,
24 + 6a3 = 0.
71
a0 = 0,
(x)
1,ap
s
s
u
u {12x2 24x + 122 }2 dx
dx
2
u
dx
EI u 0
EI u
u0
=
01,ap =
u R
R
u
t
t
2
2 (x) dx
v1,ap
{x4 4x3 + 62 x2 } dx
=
EI
1445 /5
1049 /45
= 3.530
EI
= 49.03 rad/s.
4
(2.68)
vr (x)r (t) .
(2.69)
r=1
We search for the unknown time dependent functions r (t). Notice that here r (t) is not supposed to be a harmonic function of time t, as it was in the case of the free vibration in Eq. (2.48).
With the aid of (2.69) we reformulate (2.42) as
X
X
d4 vr (x)
d2 r (t)
EI
(t)
+
= qt (x, t).
(2.70)
v
(x)
r
r
dx4
dt2
r=1
r=1
Now we multiply the above equation by vp (x) and integrate the result from 0 to with respect
to x:
Z
Z
Z 4
X
X
d vr (x)
d2 r (t)
vp (x) dx.
vr (x)
vp (x) dx = qt (x, t)
vp (x) dx +
EI
r (t)
4
2
dx
dt
r=1
r=1
0
72
(2.71)
where
Qp (t) =
qt (x, t)
vp (x) dx
(2.72)
Zt
Qp ( ) sin (0p {t }) d.
(2.73)
The first two terms of the right hand side form the homogeneous solution of (2.71), which
vanishes if there is a slight damping in the systemso slight that we neglected it during our
analysis. The third term is Duhamels integral (1.26), the particular solution of (2.71). The
coefficients ap and bp can be determined from the initial conditions. Now we concentrate
only on the particular solution of (2.42), which is the following sum of products of separated
functions:
Zt
X
vp (x)
v(x, t) =
Qp ( ) sin (0p {t }) d.
0p
p=1
0
Some simple examples of forced vibrations and the corresponding particular solutions are given
below.
Prismatic beam under a harmonic force
This example studies a prismatic beam loaded by a transverse harmonic force F sin(t) at
x = a. (See Figure 2.7 (a) in the case of a pinnedpinned beam.) The force qt (x, t) in (2.42)
can be written as
qt (x, t) = F sin(t)(x a).
73
(2.74)
Z+
f ()() d = f (0).
F sin(t)(x a)
vp (x) dx = F sin(t)
vp (a)
Zt
Zt
1
{cos ({ + 0p } 0p t) cos ({ 0p } + 0p t)} d
2
0
t
1 sin ({ + 0p } 0p t) sin ({ 0p } + 0p t)
=
2
+ 0p
0p
0
0p
= 2
sin (t) 2
sin (0p t) .
0p 2
0p 2
(2.75)
The first term of the result is the definite integral evaluated at = t, which is the steadystate
vibration of the forced beam. The second term is from the evaluation at = 0. This and the
first two terms of Eq. (2.73) form the transient solution of the vibration. The initial conditions
can be chosen such that the transient solution is zero. (Besides, this transient vibration vanishes
with time if even a small friction is present.) Therefore, we ignore the second term in Eq. (2.75)
and take the particular solution of this forced vibration to be
v(x, t) = F
X
p=1
X
1
vp (a)
vp (x) sin (t) = F
2
2
0p
2
p=1 0p
74
1
2
1 2
0p
vp (a)
vp (x) sin (t) .
(2.76)
Fsin(t)
vt
F
x
y v(x,t)
y v(x,t)
(a)
vt
(b)
Fsin(t)
vt
q
x
y v(x,t)
y v(x,t)
(c)
(d)
Figure 2.7: Prismatic beam subjected to (a) a harmonic exciting force F sin(t) acting at a fix position x = a,
(b) a constant force F moving with a constant velocity v, (c) a harmonic force F sin(t) moving with a constant
velocity v, and (d) a constant distributed load q moving with a constant velocity v.
Problem 2.4.3 (Machine excited beam). There is a machine installed on the first storey of an industrial building.
It is placed at one fourth of the total length 12 m of a pinnedpinned roof beam. The mass of the beam is
500 kg/m and its bending stiffness is 2 109 Nm2 . Due to the eccentric rotating parts of the machine, it exerts a
harmonic force of amplitude 1500 N and frequency 80 rad/s on the beam. Determine the maximum deflection
of the beam at its mid point! Take only the first three modal shape functions into account!
Solution. The normalised (modal) shape functions and the corresponding natural circular frequencies are from
(2.56) and (2.52):
s
r
p
2
p2 2 EI
vp (x) =
sin
x , 0p = 2
.
(x)
sin(t)
=
x sin(t).
p
4
4
2 2
p=1 p 4 EI 2
p=1 0p
3
2 v(x, t)
2F X
M (x, t) = EI
x2
p=1
p
a
p4 4 EI
2
4
sin
p
p2 2
sin
x sin(t).
2
The given dataset is = 12 m, a = /4, F = 1500 N, = 500 kg/m, EI = 2 109 Nm2 , and = 80 rad/s.
The above formula is evaluated at x = /2 and t = 2k/ to get the maximum deflection of the mid point:
3
p
p
2F X sin a
sin
= 0.02853 103 + 0 0.0002333 103 = 0.02830 103 m,
vmax
4
4
2
p=1 p 4 EI 2
2
75
EI
Mmax
2
p=1
p
a
p4 4 EI
2
4
sin
p
p2 2
= 3911 + 0 287.8 = 3624 Nm.
sin
2
2
Notice that the second mode is intact in this load case because v2 (/2) = 0, and that the third term is smaller
than the first term by two order of magnitude in case of the displacement, and by one order of magnitude in case
of the bending moment. In general it is true that the higher modes have larger influence on the bending moment
than on the displacement.
Finally, we also compute the maximal deflection and bending moment at the point where the machine is
placed, i.e. at x = /4 (and at time t = 2k/ again):
3
2F X
vmax
4
p=1
p
a
p4 4 EI
2
4
sin
sin
p
2
= 0.02204 103 m.
3
2F X
Mmax
EI
4
p=1
p
a
4
4
p EI
2
4
sin
p
p2 2
= 2766 + 931.7 + 203.5 = 3901 Nm.
sin
2
2
We can see here again that the higher modes have greater influence on the bending moment than on the displacement.
F (x vt)
vp (x) dx = F vp (vt)
and p (t)
F
p (t) =
0p
Zt
vp (v ) sin (0p {t }) d
from (2.73) and (2.72), respectively. Finally, the particular solution of this load case is
v(x, t) = F
X
vp (x)
p=1
0p
vp (v ) sin(0p {t })d.
76
(2.77)
Problem 2.4.4 (Vibration of a bridge under a moving vehicle). There is a vehicle going through the bridge with
constant speed v = 130 km/h. This vehicle is modelled with one constant force F = 80 kN. The load bearing
structure is a reinforced concrete beam with a singlecelled box girder cross section. The length of the beam is
= 30 m, its mass is = 8 t/m, and the bending stiffness is EI = 4 107 kNm2 . Compute the deflection of the
mid point of the beam when the force arrives to the middle of the bridge!
Solution. The normalised (modal) shape functions and the corresponding natural circular frequencies of a
pinnedpinned beam are:
s
r
p
p2 2 EI
2
sin
x , 0p = 2
.
vp (x) =
Zt
0
sin
p
v sin(0p {t }) d.
Now, using (2.75), we can simplify the integral in the above equality and obtain
)
(
p
p
p
0p
2 X sin x
v
vt
v(x, t) = F
sin
sin(0p t)
2 p2 2 v 2
2 p2 2 v 2
p=1
0p
0p
0p
2
2
p
p
1
p
2 X
v
x
vt
sin(
t)
sin
sin
=F
0p
2 p2 2 v 2
p=1
0p
0p
2
s
(
!)
p v r
2 2
2 sin p
x
2 X
EI
p
n
o sin
=F
.
vt
sin
t
p=1 p2 2 p2 2 2 EI v 2
p EI
2
It is worth mentioning that the displacement becomes singular if the velocity of the moving force equals to one
of the resonant speeds
s
vpcrit =
EI
= 0p .
The deflection of the mid point (x = /2) of the beam at the time instant when the force arrives to the mid
point, i.e. vt = /2 t = /2/v, can be obtained from back substitution in the above formula. Without
going into details, the result concerning the first three or the first five modes (p = 1, , 3 and p = 1, , 5,
respectively) is
= 1.087 103 m,
,
v
2 2v p=1, ,3
v
= 1.088 103 m.
,
2 2v p=1, ,5
The bending moment is M = EI d2 v(x, t)/ dx2 which gives
M
= 5.253 105 Nm,
,
2 2v p=1, ,3
= 5.446 105 Nm.
,
M
2 2v p=1, ,5
Notice that higher modes have significant effects on the bending moment, but not on the displacement.
77
F 3
= 1.125 mm.
48EI
1.088
= 1.0615
1.025
6.15%.
This can be much higher if the velocity of the force is close to one of the resonant speed of the structure.
F sin(t)(x vt)
vp (x) dx = F sin(t)
vp (vt)
and p (t) is
F
p (t) =
0p
Zt
sin( )
vp (v ) sin (0p {t }) d
due to (2.72) and (2.73). The particular solution of this forced vibration is
v(x, t) = F
X
vp (x)
p=1
0p
sin( )
vp (v ) sin(0p {t }) d.
(2.78)
0, if < 0
1/2, if = 0 ,
H() =
1, if > 0
Z+
Z+
f () d.
f ()H() d =
0
and therefore
Z+
Za
f ()H(){1 H( a)} d = f () d.
Zvt
vp (x) dx.
It means that the distributed load q acts on the beam in between x = 0 and x = vt, which is the
load case when the train arrives on the bridge. The time dependent p (t) comes from (2.73):
Z t Zv
q
vp (x) dx sin (0p {t }) d.
p (t) =
0p
0
Z t Zv
X
vp (x)
vp (x) dx sin (0p {t }) d.
v(x, t) = q
0p
p=1
0
Further interesting problems concerning the dynamics of forced slender continua, vibrations of beams with various boundary conditions, nonuniform beams, coupled beamvehicle
systems, etc. can be found in the literature [5, 6, 11].
79
Chapter 3
Dynamics of planar frame structures
In this chapter we study the dynamics of planar frame structures. Planar frames are widely
used in engineering practice. They can be modeled by slender beam members connected by
hinges, rigid or elastic connections.
The beam members are prismatic. The axes of the beams are in a common plane, the crosssections of the beams and the loads are symmetric to that common plane. We neglect stability
questions, thus the frame remains planar during the deformations. The beams are assumed to
be unshearable, but extensible and bendable. The material of the beams is linearly elastic with
Youngs modulus E. The crosssectional area of a beam is denoted by A, while the second
moment of area with respect to the axis perpendicular to the plane of the frame is I. The beam
is of length , and its mass per unit length is denoted by . In this chapter we neglect the effect
of damping, and we also neglect the effect of rotary inertia of the crosssections.
First we overview the basics about static equilibria of planar frames. The calculation of the
static stiffness matrix of one beam member and of the whole structure are shown. We introduce
two possible models to handle different support conditions.
Then we go on with dynamical effects and demonstrate how to calculate the dynamic stiffness matrix of the structure. We also show approximate methods to generate the dynamic
stiffness matrix. Based on the accurate or on the approximate stiffness matrices, a system of
differential equations of motion can be compiled. These equations can be solved for external
dynamical loadings either directly or by using modal analysis. A special loading very important in structural design is the support vibration, which is also discussed in details. Finally, we
present the reduced modal analysis technique and study its accuracy.
Although planar frames are not the most general structures one can meet in structural design, the concepts shown in this chapter can be generalized to other types of load bearing
structures. The reader can adopt the notations used here for the applications of these methods
to FE modeling readily.
80
3.1
We have already seen in our earlier studies, and also in Section 1.3, that the continuous
structures constructed of slender rods can be approximated by multidegreeoffreedom systems. In the simplest model, we divided the structure into individual (beam) members, and the
displacements of the end points of these members became the degrees of freedom. In the dynamical analysis, we concentrated the masses of each beam into its end points, which resulted
in a diagonal mass matrix. The rotational inertia of the beams was neglected, but sufficiently
short members implied sufficiently accurate results in terms of the vibration of the structure.
The accuracy was comparable to the results of the continuous system. The matrix differential
equation of motion is
M
u(t) + Ku(t) = q(t).
We have also seen, that there are two simple method for the construction of the stiffness matrix
K.
Calculation of the stiffness matrix based on its physical meaning.
The product Ku (stiffness matrix times the displacements of the DOFs) results in the
forces fS needed to be applied on the DOF in order to induce the displacements u. If we
multiply the stiffness matrix by the ith unit vector ei , then the ith column of the stiffness
matrix is obtained. The entries of this column are the forces that act on each degreeoffreedom in such a way, that the displacements of all degreesoffreedom are zero, except
for the ith, which is one. These N constrains make the calculation of the entries of the
ith column of the stiffness matrix possible.
Calculation of the stiffness matrix based on the flexibility matrix.
In contrast to the stiffness matrix, the flexibility matrix F multiplied by the forces fS
results in the displacements caused by the forces. If we substitute the ith unit vector ei
into the vector of forces acting on the nodes, the product F ei , i.e. the ith column of
the flexibility matrix. This column contains the displacements of each degreeoffreedom
caused by a unit force acting on the ith degreeoffreedom, while the others are unloaded.
These displacements can be calculated with various methods of Strength of Materials, or
Structural Analysis. Finally, the stiffness matrix is the inverse of the flexibility matrix:
K = F1 .
For practical purposes the above methods are not recommended, because the degreesoffreedom are connected to each other, so calculations of the inverse of full matrices are needed.
A better approximation can be achieved by the matrix displacement method of frame structures, thoroughly discussed in the field of Structural Analysis Theory [8]. Here we are going
through its main steps only.
Figure 3.1: Comparing various discretization of a fixedfixed beam. (a) Discrete model with three translational
degreesoffreedom. (b) Discrete model with three translational and three rotational degreesoffreedom. (c)
Deformed shape of the 3DOF model due to a displacement of the first DOF. (d) Deformed shape of the 6DOF
model caused by a displacement of the first DOF.
wY = wx sin + wy cos
and
wy = wX sin + wY cos .
(3.1)
We define a local coordinate system for each each beam member. The local reference
system of beam ij is oriented in such a way that axis x points from node i to the node j. (Note,
that i < j holds.) The local axis z is parallel with the global axis Z, and axis y is oriented
accordingly to x and z.
Figure 3.2: (a) Transformation of the components of a planar vector w between the local and the global reference
systems. (b) The local reference system xy of the ijth beam member and the global reference system XY .
The displacements (two components of the translation and one rotation) of node i is collected into the vector ui . In the global reference system these components are
glob
uiX
,
(3.2)
uglob
=
uglob
i
iY
glob
iZ
while in the local reference system of the beam ijth they are
loc
uix
loc
.
ui = uloc
iy
loc
iz
(3.3)
Since axes z and Z coincide, the rotations are the same in both reference systems, i.e. loc
iz =
glob
iZ . Therefore we leave the superscripts loc and glob in the case of the rotations. We
write the relation between the components of the displacement vector in the global and local
systems (Eq. (3.2), (3.3)) as:
T glob
uloc
.
i = Tij ui
uglob
= Tij uloc
i ,
i
(3.4)
In the above equations matrix Tij is called the transformation matrix of the local reference
system of beam ij. Assuming, that the beam ij is rotated by ij with respect to the global
83
cos ij sin ij 0
Tij = sin ij cos ij 0 .
0
0
1
The transformation matrix Tij is a proper orthogonal rotation, so its inverse is its transpose:
cos ij sin ij 0
T
sin ij cos ij 0 .
T1
ij = Tij =
0
0
1
The displacements of the nodes of beam ij given in the local reference system are
loc
uix
uloc
loc iy
iz
ui
uloc
=
=
ij
uloc .
uloc
j
jx
uloc
jy
jz
(3.5)
An example on the above modeling steps are presented in Figure 3.3. The structure in
Figure 3.3 (a) is divided into five members and five nodes. This decomposition is shown in
Figure 3.3 (b) alongside with the global and the local reference systems. The supports are
replaced by (support) nodes 1 and 5. They are treated equivalently with the internal nodes
during the compilation of the total stiffness matrix. The support conditions (whether they are
fixed, hinged, or elastic) are counted for in the total stiffness matrix.
Figure 3.3: (a) Mechanical model of a planar frame structure. (b) Nodes and members of the structure (a) with
the global and local reference systems.
Finally, we define two further rules that we follow during the model building process.
We set three degreesoffreedom to every node, and there is at least one member rigidly
connected to every node (see node 3 of the frame in Fig. 3.3(b)).
Elastic supports are modeled by introducing additional supporting nodes.
84
fijloc
loc
fix
fiyloc
wiz
loc
fjx
loc
fjy
wjz
loc
= Kloc
ij uij .
(3.6)
These are called the endofbeam internal forces. The opposite of these forces act on the nodes.
The elementary (static) stiffness matrix Kloc
ij of beam ij can be derived in several ways.
In matrix Kloc
,
entry
p,r
(i.e.,
the
pth
element
of the rth column of the matrix) denotes the
ij
endofbeam internal force in the pth DOF due to a unit displacement applied at the rth DOF.
The first DOF of beam ij is the translation of the starting end i along the beam axis x. Due
to a unit displacement of this DOF, the deformed shape of the beam axis is denoted by uix (x).
The corresponding endofbeam internal forces are assigned by Niix , Viix , Miix at end i and
Njix , Vjix , Mjix at end j. Thus the notation of these internal forces are such that the first subscript refers to the place, while the rest are for the cause. These endofbeam internal forces
define the first column of the elementary stiffness matrix of beam ij in the local reference system. The second DOF of the beam is the translation of end i along axis y. The second column
of the elementary stiffness matrix thus contains the endofbeam internal forces due to a unit
translation of its starting end i along y. This is visualised in Figure 3.4 (a): the unit translation
of end i induces deformation and internal forces in the beam. The positive definition of the
internal forces are well known from Statics. The endofbeam internal forces and a sketch of
the bending moment diagram are shown in Figure 3.4 (b). The positive definition of the entries
of the columns of the stiffness matrix corresponds to the right handed coordinate system xyz,
as indicated in Figure 3.4 (c). The internal forces at the ends of the beam due to the unit translation of end ialong y are denoted by Niiy , Viiy , Miiy , Njiy , Vjiy , Mjiy , while the corresponding
deformed shape of the axis of the beam is assigned by viy (x). The third DOF of beam ij is the
rotation of end i. A unit rotation of end i induces the deformation vi (x) of the beam axis, and
the corresponding endofbeam internal forces are: Nii , Vii , Mii , Nji , Vji , Mji . The same
notation is used for the other 3DOF of the beam. The fourth, and the fifth DOF of beam ij are
the translations of end j along x and y, respectively. Unit translations corresponded to these
DOF are used to construct the fourth and fifth column of the elementary stiffness matrix. At lat,
the sixth DOF is the rotation of end j. The deformed beam axis due to a unit rotation of end j
is denoted by vj (x), and the corresponding endofbeam internal forces are Nij , Vij , Mij at
end i and Nji , Vji , Mji at end j. These are the entries of the sixth column of the elementary
stiffness matrix given in the local reference system of beam ij.
We show two methods for the calculation of the entries of Kloc
ij .
85
viy(lij)=0
viy(lij)=0
viy(x)
lij
(a)
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(b)
Miiy Viiy
Niiy
iy
jiy
loc
Kij,22
loc
Kij,12
Njiy
jiy
loc
Kij,52
loc
ij,42
loc
Kij,32
j
loc
Kij,62
(c)
Figure 3.4: (a) Sketch of the deformed shape of a fixedfixed beam ij due to a unit translation of end i along axis
y. (b) The bending moment diagram and the positive definition of the internal forces at the ends of the beam. (c)
Physical meaning and positive definition of the entries of the second column of the elementary stiffness matrix.
(3.7)
(3.8)
Here the unknown coefficients B0 , B1 can be computed from two prescribed boundary conditions. These are
uix (0) = 1, uix () = 0
(3.9)
for the first column and
ujx (0) = 0,
ujx () = 1
(3.10)
for the fourth column. The solution uix (x) is the deformed shape of the beam caused by a unit
translation of end i along x. The corresponding endof.beam internal forces are
Niix = EAuix (0),
Njix = EAuix (),
Viix = 0,
Vjix = 0,
Miix = 0,
Mjix = 0.
(3.11)
86
(3.12)
B0 = 1,
B1 = 1/
(3.13)
1
uix (x) = .
Now, according to (3.11) and (3.12), the entries of the first column of Kloc
ij are
loc
Kij,11
= EAuix (0) =
EA
,
loc
Kij,21
= 0,
loc
Kij,31
= 0,
loc
Kij,41
= EAuix () =
EA
,
loc
Kij,51
= 0,
loc
Kij,61
= 0.
We can compute an entry of the second, third, fifth, or sixth columns of the elementary
stiffness matrix by solving the differential equation of the bent beam (Eq. (2.47) with = 0)
EIv (x) = 0.
(3.14)
(3.15)
The unknown coefficients A0 , A1 , A2 , A3 can be computed from four prescribed boundary conditions. For the second column, these conditions are
viy (0) = 1,
viy
(0) = 0,
viy () = 0,
87
viy
() = 0,
(3.16)
vi (0) = 0, vi
(0) = 1, vi () = 0, vi
() = 0
(3.17)
(no translations at the ends, unit rotation at end i, zero rotation at the other end j). For the fifth
and the sixth columns, we have to use
vjy (0) = 0,
vj (0) = 0,
vjy
(0) = 0,
vj
(0) = 0,
vjy () = 1,
vj () = 0,
vjy
() = 0 and
vj
() = 1,
(3.18)
respectively. The endofbeam internal forces due to, for instance, a unit translation of end i
are:
Niiy = 0,
Njiy = 0,
Viiy = EIviy
(0),
Vjiy = EIviy
(),
Miiy = EIviy
(0),
Mjiy = EIviy
().
(3.19)
The entries of the second column of the elementary stiffness matrix are then
T
kloc
ij,2 = [0, Viiy , Miiy , 0, Vjiy , Mjiy ] .
The positive definition of the internal forces and the entries of the stiffness matrix is visualized
in Figure 3.4 (b) and (c).
The whole stiffness matrix has the following structure:
Nijx
0
0
Niix
0
0
0
0
Vijy Vij
Viiy Vii
0
Miiy
Mii
0
Mijy
Mij
loc
.
(3.20)
Kij =
N
0
0
N
0
0
jix
jjx
0
Vjiy
Vji
0
Vjjy
Vjj
0
Mjiy Mji
0
Mjjy Mjj
Problem 3.1.2 (Entries of the third column of the elementary stiffness matrix). Beam ij is of length , normal
stiffness EA, bending stiffness EI, and mass per unit length . Determine the entries of the third column of its
elementary stiffness matrix!
Solution. Entries of the third column of the elementary stiffness matrix are the endofbeam internal forces
caused by a unit rotation of end i. Figure 3.5 shows (a) the model, (b) the internal forces at the ends, and (c) the
positive definition of the corresponding entries of the stiffness matrix.
First we need to compute the shape function vi (x), which is the deformation of the beam due to a unit
rotation of end i, i.e. the solution of (3.14) with boundary conditions (3.17). The solution of (3.14) is (3.15).
Here the unknown coefficients A0 , A1 , A2 , A3 are from boundary conditions (3.17). We write these boundary
conditions using (3.15):
vi (0) = A3 03 + A2 02 + A1 0 + A0 = 0
vi
(0) = 3A3 02 + 2A2 0 + A1 = 1
vi () = A3 3 + A2 2 + = 0
vi
() = 3A3 2 + 2(1/ A3 ) + 1 = 0
88
A0
A1
A2
A3
= 0,
= 1,
= 1/ A3 ,
= 1/2 .
n o
n x o2 x
x 3
1 3 2 2
.
2
+
x
x
+
x
=
(3.21)
vi (x) = 2 .
vi
(x) =
vi (0)=0
vi (0)=1
vi (x)
vj (l)=0
vj (l)=0
y
l
(a)
Mii Vii
N
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Nii
Mi
ji
ji
ji
(b)
loc
Kij,23
loc
Kij,13
loc
Kij,53
loc
ij,43
loc
Kij,33
(c)
j
loc
Kij,63
Figure 3.5: (a) Sketch of the deformed shape of a fixedfixed beam ij due to a unit rotation of end i. (b) The
bending moment diagram and the positive definition of the internal forces at the ends of the beam. (c) Physical
meaning and positive definition of the entries of the third column of the elementary stiffness matrix.
Finally, according to (3.19) and (3.20), the entries of the third column of the stiffness matrix of the fixedfixed
beam ij are
loc
Kij,13
= 0,
6EI
,
2
4EI
= EIvi
(0) =
,
= 0,
6EI
= EIvi
() = 2 ,
2EI
.
= EIvi () =
loc
Kij,23
= EIvi
(0) =
loc
Kij,33
loc
Kij,43
loc
Kij,53
loc
Kij,63
89
viy
(x)vi
(x) dx = 0.
Thus
loc
Kij,32
= Miiy = EI
viy
(x)vi
(x) dx .
We can also take the force system corresponds to a unit rotation of end i as statically admissible, and consider the displacement system shown in Figure 3.4 (b) as virtual and apply the
principle of virtual displacements. We get
Wss = Vii 1
vi
(x)viy
(x) dx = 0,
thus
loc
Kij,23
= Vii = EI
loc
vi
(x)viy
(x) dx = Kij,32
.
(3.22)
d
0
(3.24)
L = dx
d2
0 2
dx
and denote the product of L and N by B:
B = LN.
(3.25)
Now, we collect the normal and the bending stiffnesses of the member in matrix D:
EA 0
.
D=
0 EI
(3.26)
Finally, with the aid of these matrices, the elementary stiffness matrix Kloc
ij of the beam can be
written as
Z
loc
Kij = BT DB dx .
(3.27)
0
From this formulation it can be easily seen, that the stiffness matrix is symmetric.
Problem 3.1.3 (Entry 3,5 of the elementary stiffness matrix). There is a fixedfixed beam ij of length , normal
stiffness EA, bending stiffness EI, and mass per unit length . Determine the entry 3,5 of its elementary
stiffness matrix!
Solution. Entry 3,5 is the bending moment at end i due to a unit translation of end j. From Eq. (3.27) we need
only the 3rd row and the 5th column.
loc
Kij,35
bT3 Db5
dx =
Z
0
vi
(x)
EA 0
0
EI
vjy
(x)
dx = EI
vi
(x)vjy
(x) dx.
Here vi (x) is the deformation of beam due to a unit rotation of end i, i.e. it is the solution of (3.14) with
boundary conditions (3.17). The deformation of the beam due to a unit translation of end j is denoted by
vjy (x), which is the solution of (3.14) with boundary conditions (3.18). The former shape function vi (x) was
already determined (see Eq. (3.21) in Problem 3.1.2):
vi (x) =
1 3 2 2
x x + x.
2
vi
(x)(x) =
1
2
4
6
x .
2
If we used FE approximations, these function would be the shape functions of the corresponding member.
This is called the strain matrix in FE modelling.
91
vjy
(0) = 3A3 02 + 2A2 0 + A1 = 0
vjy () = A3 3 + A2 2 = 1
vjy
() = 3A3 2 + 2(1/2 A3 ) = 0
Thus the shape function is
vjy (x) =
A0
A1
A2
A3
= 0,
= 0,
= 1/2 A3 ,
= 2/3 .
2 3
3
x + 2 x2 .
3
vjy
(x) =
12
6
x + 2.
3
vi
(x)vjy
(x) dx = EI
= EI
Z
0
Z
4
6
x
2
12
6
3 x + 2 dx
84x 24
42x2
24x
24x3
6EI
72x2
+ 4 3 dx = EI
+ 4 3
= 2
5
Whether we apply one method or the other, it makes no difference in the final result. The
entries of the elementary static stiffness matrix of a fixedfixed beam of length , mass per unit
length , normal stiffness EA, and bending stiffness EI are
Kloc
ij
EA
EA
EA
12EI
3
6EI
2
6EI
2
4EI
12EI
3
6EI
2
6EI
2
2EI
0
12EI
3
6EI
2
EA
12EI
3
6EI
2
6EI
2EI
6EI
2
4EI
(3.28)
i
v (0)=0
y q
vq (0)=0
vq (x)
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Miq Viq
N iq
jq
N jq
jq
First we determine the equivalent nodal moment at end i, namely Miq . For this we write the
virtual work done by the force system on the virtual displacement system due to a unit rotation
of end i (see Figure 3.5):
Wqs = Miq 1 +
qt (x)vi (x) dx
= Miq +
Mq (x)i (x) dx
qt (x)vi (x) dx EI
vq (x)vi
(x) dx = 0.
Now the virtual work done by the force system due to a unit rotation of end i on the virtual
displacement system caused by loading qt (x) is formulated:
Wsq =
Mi (x)q (x) dx = EI
(x)vq (x) dx = 0.
vi
This is the endofbeam moment at end i originated from the transverse load qt (x). The
opposite of this moment acts on the node, thus the third entry of the equivalent nodal force is:
q3 =
93
NT Q dx.
(3.29)
If there acts also a distributed moment m(x) on the beam, then matrix N needs to be
appended by an extra row carrying the tangent of the shape functions corresponding to the
transverse translation. This extended matrix is
uix (x)
0
0
ujx (x)
0
0
viy (x) vi (x)
0
vjy (x) vj (x) ,
(3.30)
Next = 0
0
viy (x) vi (x)
0
vjy (x) vj (x)
while the distributed loads are collected in the vector Qext = [qn (x), qt (x), m(x)]T . With the
above notations the formula for computing the nodal forces is
q=
(3.31)
In the case a concentrated force F , denoted by two components F = [Fx , Fy ]T , acts on the
beam at x = a, the equivalent nodal force is
q = NT x=a F,
(3.32)
(3.33)
Problem 3.1.4 (Static nodal forces of a fixedfixed beam under a constant transverse distributed load). There is
fixedfixed a beam of length , loaded by a constant transverse distributed load qt (x) = q0 . Determine the static
nodal force vector q!
Solution. We apply formula (3.29) with load vector Q = [0, q0 ]T . The entries of N are give in Appendix A.2.
q=
N Q dx = q0
0
= q0
Z
0
= q0
"
0
0
Z
0
0
0
viy (x)
0
vi (x)
0
0
0
vjy (x)
0
vj (x)
0
0
3
2
0 2 x3 3 x2 + 1
1 x4
2 3
0
3
x2 + x
x3
2
0
0
2
2 x + x 0
0
1 x4
4 2
2 x3
3
+ 21 x2
0
3
2
2 x3 + 3 x2
0
0
1 x4
0 2 3 +
94
x3
2
T
x3
2
dx
1 x4
4 2
x2
T
1 x3
3
dx
T #
= q0
0
/2
2 /12
0
/2
2 /12
r1 0 0 0 0 0
0 r2 0 0 0 0
0 0 r3 0 0 0
R=
0 0 0 r4 0 0
0 0 0 0 r5 0
0 0 0 0 0 r6
qi
qj
i
qi
qi
qj
q j
j
qi
qj
0
Figure 3.7: A beam with its ends 0 and are elastically connected to the coinciding nodes i and j through
linearly elastic springs
First we use fictitious nodes 0 and at the ends of the beam, connected rigidly to the beam.
The equilibrium equation of these nodes are:
K0 u0 = q0 + qi .
(3.34)
Here K0 is the static stiffness matrix of the fixedfixed beam, u0 contains the displacements
of ends 0 and , q0 collect the force components reduced to nodes 0 and from the load of
the beam, and qi contains the spring forces acting on nodes 0 and . The spring forces should
satisfy
ui u0 = Rqi ,
(3.35)
where ui contains the displacements of nodes i and j. Let us express u0 from (3.35) and
substitute it in (3.34):
K0 ui = q0 + (I + K0 R)qi .
95
(3.37)
is the nodal force, the beam loads reduced to nodes i and j. In this way we have managed to
eliminate the fictitious nodes 0 and .
Let us study now the case when only one degree of freedom of the ends of the beam is
connected elastically, the others are rigidly connected. This degree of freedom is denoted by p
(1 p 6). Matrix R has only one nonzero in its diagonal, the pth one. The matrix can be
therefore easily formulated as
(3.38)
R = rp ep eTp .
Here the entries of vector ep are all zero except for its pth entry, it is 1. The product ep eTp gives
a 6by6 matrix, called a dyad, which in this special case has only one nonzero entry: its entry
p,p is one. Using (3.38) K0 R yields
K0 R = rp kp eTp ,
where kp is the pth column of matrix K0 .
If a dyad vwT is added to a matrix A, then the inverse of the resulting matrix can be
computed as
1
A1 vwT A1
A + vwT
= A1
.
1 + wT A1 v
Applying this rule to the matrix inverse in (3.36), using (3.1.5), with the substitution A I,
vwT rp kp eTp , yields
I rp kp eTp
1
= I rp
kp eTp
rp
1
=I
kp eTp = I
T
1 + rp e p k p
1 + rp kpp
kpp +
1
rp
kp eTp .
(3.39)
With the above formula we can simplify the stiffness matrix (3.36) for a beam which has its
pthe degree of freedom elastically connected to the adjacent node as:
K = K0
1
1
kpp +
rp
kp kTp .
(3.40)
kp .
(3.41)
qp
kpp +
96
1
rp
Problem 3.1.5 (Elementary static stiffness matrix of a fixedpinned beam). There is a beam of length , normal
stiffness EA, bending stiffness EI, and mass per unit length . The beam is fixed at end i and pinned at end j.
(It is fixedpinned.) Determine its elementary static stiffness matrix Kloc,fp
!
ij
Solution. We start with the stiffness matrix Kloc
ij of the fixedfixed beam member detailed by (3.28). Because
of the rotation of end j (the sixth degreeoffreedom of the member) is relaxed, p = 6 and rp . Thus the
entry 6,6 and the 6th column of Kloc
ij are needed. We apply formula (3.40) with these input data:
1
Kloc,fp
= Kloc
k6 kT6
ij
ij
k66
EA
0
EA
0
0
0
0
6EI
12EI
6EI
6EI
0
0
12EI
3
2
3
2
2
2EI
6EI
6EI 2EI
4EI
0
0
=
4EI
EA
EA
0
0
0
0
0
6EI
12EI
12EI
6EI
6EI
2
0
3
2
3
2
6EI
2
2EI
6EI
2
Kloc,fp
ij
EA
4EI
4EI
3EI
3EI
0
3
2
3EI
3EI
0
2
EA 0
0
3EI
0
3EI
3 2
0
0
0
0
EA
3EI
3
3EI
2
EA
3EI
3
6EI
2
2EI
6EI
2
4EI
Problem 3.1.6 (Elementary static stiffness matrix of a pinnedpinned beam). There is a beam of length ,
normal stiffness EA, bending stiffness EI, and mass per unit length . The beam is pinned at both ends i and
j. (It is pinnedpinned.) Determine the elementary static stiffness matrix Kloc,pp
!
ij
Solution. We start with the stiffness matrix Kloc,fp
of the fixedpinned beam detailed by Problem 3.1.5. Beij
cause of the rotation of end i (the third degreeoffreedom of the member) is relaxed, p = 3 and rp .
97
ij
ij
k33
EA
EA
0
0
3EI
3EI
0
0
3
2
3EI
3EI
0
0
2
EA
EA 0
0
3EI
0
3EI
0
3 2
0
0
0
0
EA
0
0 EA
3EI
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
EA
EA
0
0
0
3EI
0
0
3EI
0
0
0
2
0
3EI
3
3EI
2
0
3EI
3
0
0
3EI
3
0
0
3EI
3
3EI
2
3EI
3EI
3EI
0
0
3EI
0
0
0
3EI
2
3EI
2
0
3EI
2
3EI
3EI
0
2
3EI
Problem 3.1.7 (Nodal forces from a fixedpinned beam under constant distributed load qt ). There is a beam of
length , normal stiffness EA, bending stiffness EI, and mass per unit length . The beam is fixed at end i,
pinned at end j, and loaded by a constant transverse load qt (x) = q0 . Determine the nodal force vector qloc,fp !
Solution. We start with the nodal force vector qloc,ff = q0 [0, /2, 2 /12, 0, /2, 2 /12]T of the fixedfixed
beam. (See Problem 3.1.4.) Because of the rotation of end i (the third degreeoffreedom of the member) is
relaxed, p = 3 and rp . Therefore the vector qloc,ff and its third entry are needed in formula (3.41)
alongside with the entry 3,3 and the 3rd column of Kloc,ff
:
ij
qloc,fp = qloc,ff
q3loc,ff
loc,ff
k33
kloc,ff
3
0
q0
2
q0 2
12
0
q0
2
q0 2
12
98
q0 2
12
4EI
0
6EI
2
2EI
0
6EI
2
4EI
0
5q0
8
q0 2
= 8
0
3q0
8
0
glob
uloc
ij = Tij uij ,
TTij 0
0 TTij
glob
loc
loc
fijloc = Kloc
ij uij = Kij Tij uij
(3.42)
glob
Tij fijloc = fijglob = Tij Kloc
ij Tij uij .
T
glob
In the above formula the matrix product Tij Kloc
ij Tij transforms the nodal displacements uij
into the nodal forces fijglob . Therefore, the elementary stiffness matrix in the global reference
system (the global stiffness matrix, for short) is
T
Kglob
= Tij Kloc
ij Tij ,
ij
(3.43)
The matrix product (3.43) can be written in a simpler form using the hypermatrix structure:
# "
#
"
glob,ii
loc,ii T
loc,ij T
glob,ij
K
T
K
T
T
K
T
K
ij ij
ij ij
ij
ij
ij
ij
=
.
Kglob
=
loc,jj T
glob,ji
glob,jj
ij
T
Tij Kloc,ji
T
T
K
T
K
K
ij ij
ij
ij
ij
ij
ij
We cannot stress enough the physical meaning of the stiffness matrix. Entry p, r of matrix
(i.e. the entry of Kglob
ij,pr in the intersection of the pth row and rth column) is multiplied
by the displacement (rotation, if r = 3 or 6, and translation otherwise) of the rth degreeoffreedom the beam ij. The result is the force or the moment (moment, if p = 3 or 6, and force
component otherwise) acting on the pth degree of freedom of beam ij arising from the elastic
deformation of the beam member ij.
Kglob
ij
99
...
i
..
.
j
..
.
Kglob,ii
Kglob,ij
ij
ij
Kij =
..
..
.
.
.
.
.
glob,jj
Kglob,ji
Kij
ij
..
..
...
.
.
i
(3.44)
j
The matrix Kij represents the effect of beam ij to all nodes. The total stiffness matrix of the
structure can be constructed as the sum of the expanded stiffness matrices of all the beams of
the structure:
X
K=
Kij .
Technically, it is more practical to carry out the compilation by adding the blocks of the elementary stiffness matrix Kglob
to the corresponding blocks of the total stiffness matrix K with
ij
the scheme shown in Eq. (3.44).
PP
qP
u
K
KP q KP R
KqP k qq KqR uq = qq + rq
KRP KRq KRR
uR
qR
(3.45)
P
PP
qP
u
K
KP R KP q
KRP KRR KRq uR = qR .
KqP KqR k qq
uq
q q + rq
Once we find the unknown displacements uP and uR , the last row of the matrix equation can
be used to calculate the unknown reaction force rq . The first P +R equations can be partitioned
into a known and an unknown part:
PP
P P Pq
K
KP R
u
q
K
=
uq .
(3.46)
KRP KRR
uR
qR
KRq
The matrix on the left hand side of Eq. (3.46) can be regarded as the stiffness matrix of the
reduced system, the vector on the left hand side is the vector of the unknown displacements,
while the vector sum on the right hand side is the reduced load vector, which also contains the
kinematical load caused by the support displacement uq . The resulting equations can be written
in the classic form Ku = q, but K and u are of reduced size, and q contains the kinematical
loads as well.
Further supports can be treated in a similar way, only the above steps need to be repeated
on the already reduced equation Ku = q.
101
X
0
0
X
0
0
0
Y
0
0
Y
0
0
0
0
0
glob
.
Kig =
X
0
0
X
0
0
0
0
Y
0
Y
0
0
0
0
0
The displacements of the supporting node g are prescribed (here zero), so we can use the
method described in the previous subsubsection to eliminate it from the system of equations.
We note, that in the spring model we need to add the spring stiffnesses directly to the
corresponding main diagonal entries of the total stiffness matrix. (In the case of rigid supports,
springs of numerically large stiffnesses need to be used.) Support displacements are taken into
account by external forces applied on the node, resulting in exactly the prescribed displacement.
Figure 3.8: (a) Spring model: the ith supported node of a frame structure constrained against translations and
rotation by the equivalent springs X , Y , and . (b) Fixed support model with an elastically supported node i.
Kinematical loads arising from the support displacements are applied on the supporting node g. (The supporting
node g is drawn in a distance from the supported node i in order to make the connecting springs visible.)
102
3.2
Let us have an undamped MDOF dynamical system governed by the system of ordinary
differential equations
M
u(t) + Ku(t) = q(t).
(3.47)
Here dot denotes differentiation with respect to time. The mass matrix M and the (static)
stiffness matrix K are of size N by N , where N is the total degreesoffreedom of the system.
Vector u(t) is of size N and it contains the unknown displacements of the nodes. Force vector
q(t) is a given vector of size N : it contains the forces reduced to the nodes. The pth entry of
force q(t) is workcompatible with the pth entry of u(t).
If the force is harmonic, for instance q(t) = q0 sin(t), then the steadystate response of
the undamped system is also harmonic. We have seen that in this case the particular solution of
the forced vibration is uf (t) = uf 0 sin(t) and the equation to solve for uf 0 is:
K 2 M uf 0 = q0 .
= K 2 M and write the above
We can alternatively introduce the dynamic stiffness matrix K
equation as
f 0 = q0 .
Ku
(3.48)
The question here is that how we can formulate the mass matrix M, or, equivalently, how
We can follow three different approaches.
we can compose the dynamic stiffness matrix K?
The first, easier way is to apportion the mass of the members of the frame into the nodes,
which results in a total diagonally lumped mass matrix. This is a rough approximation. The
second way is to derive the elementary dynamic stiffness matrix of a beam with continuous
mass distribution, and then to compile the total dynamic stiffness matrix of the frame in the
same manner as for the static analysis. This approach leads to the exact frequencydependent
mass matrix of the frame. The main difficulty of this method is that it requires the dynamic
shape functions of the beam. In practice, dynamic shape functions are often substituted by the
static shape functions. In that case, the shape function system used for the computation of the
static stiffness matrix is consistent with the shape functions applied to approximate the mass
matrix. This third approach leads to the construction of a simpler consistent mass matrix, which
is an estimation of the accurate dynamic mass matrix.
We review these methods in the following subsections. We always deal with an unshearable
beam of length , mass per unit length , bending stiffness EI. The ends of the studied beam
member are denoted by i and j, and the member itself is referred to as beam ij.
(3.49)
We show two methods suitable to calculate the endofbeam internal forces, which are used to
construct the dynamic stiffness matrix of the beam.
Solving the differential equations of motion
The entries of the first and the fourth columns of the elementary dynamic stiffness matrix
loc are computed from the differential equation of the stretched bar (see Eq. (2.6))
K
ij
(3.50)
u(, t) = 0, or
u(, t) = 1 sin(t).
(3.51)
(3.52)
Boundary conditions (3.51) express that end i of the bar vibrates harmonically along x with a
unit amplitude, while end j is fixed. The other two boundary conditions (3.52) mean that end j
vibrates while end i is kept fixed.
104
(3.53)
x + D2 sin
x ,
u(x) = D1 cos
where
(3.54)
2
.
EA
The unknown coefficients D1 , D2 can be computed from two prescribed boundary conditions.
According to (3.51) and (3.52) these are
=
uix (0) = 1,
ujx (0) = 0,
uix () = 0,
ujx () = 1
and
(3.55)
(3.56)
for the first and the fourth columns, respectively. The amplitudes of the internal forces at the
ends of the bar are
iix = EA
N
uix (0),
jix = EA
N
uix (),
Viix = 0,
Vjix = 0,
iix = 0,
M
jix = 0.
M
The entries of the first column of the dynamic stiffness matrix are
loc = [N
iix , 0, 0, N
jix , 0, 0]T ,
k
ij,1
while the fourth column is composed of
loc = [N
ijx , 0, 0, N
jjx , 0, 0]T .
k
ij,4
Problem 3.2.1 (The fourth column of the elementary dynamic stiffness matrix). There is a fixedfixed beam
ij, which is of length , normal stiffness EA, bending stiffness EI, and mass per unit length . Determine the
entries of the fourth column of its elementary dynamic stiffness matrix!
Solution. Entries of column 4 are the endofbeam internal forces due to a harmonic translation of unit amplitude of end j along the axis of the beam. Since the translation along the beam axis induces only normal forces,
the entries 2,4 (shear at end i), 3,4 (bending moment at end i), 5,4 (shear at end j), and 6,4 (moment at end j)
are all zero:
loc
loc
loc
loc
ij,24
ij,34
ij,54
ij,64
K
= 0, K
= 0, K
= 0, K
= 0.
Entry 1,4 is the normal force at end i
loc = N
ijx = EA
K
ujx (0),
ij,14
105
Here u
jx (x) is the solution of (3.53) with boundary conditions (3.56), i.e. it is the dynamic shape function of
the bar due to a harmonic translation of unit amplitude of end j. The solution of (3.53) is (3.54). Here the
unknown coefficients D1 and D2 are from the boundary conditions (3.56). We write these boundary conditions
using (3.54):
u
jx (0) = D1 cos(0) + D2 sin(0) = 0, D1 = 0,
+ D2 sin
= 1, D2 = 1/ sin () .
u
jx (x) = D1 cos
(Here we suppose that sin () 6= 0, i.e. the system is not in the state of resonance.) The dynamic displacement
function is:
1
u
jx (x) =
sin
x .
(3.57)
sin ()
It is differentiated with respect to x, multiplied by EA, and evaluated at end i (x = 0) and j (x = ). Positive
value of the result is a tension. However, a compression at end i, and a tension at end j coincide with the
positive direction of x. Thus
1
EA
loc
Kij,14 = EA
ujx (0) = EA
cos
0 =
,
sin()
sin()
EA
1
loc = EA
K
ujx () = EA
cos
=
cot().
ij,44
sin()
loc and K
loc as a function of the forcing frequency in the domain = 0 . . . 1001 !
Exercise 3.2.1. Draw K
ij,14
ij,44
An entry of the second, third, fifth, or sixth columns of the elementary dynamic stiffness
loc can be obtained from the differential equation of the transverse vibration of the
matrix K
ij
beam (2.47), which is repeated here:
(3.58)
Here dot and prime denote partial differentiation with respect to t and x, respectively. There
are again harmonic boundary conditions defined for (3.58):
viy
(, t) = 0, or
vi
(, t) = 0, or
vjy (, t) = 0, or
vj
(, t) = sin(t).
(3.59)
The first four conditions express that there is a harmonic transverse translation of unit amplitude
at end i, while the rotations of the ends, and the translation of end j are zero. The next four
conditions are for a harmonic rotation of unit amplitude of end i, then the next four correspond
to the harmonic transverse translation of unit amplitude of end j, while the last four are devoted
for the harmonic rotation of unit amplitude of end j.
viy
(0, t) = 0,
vi (0, t) = sin(t),
vjy
(0, t) = 0,
vj (0, t) = 0,
viy (, t) = 0,
vi (, t) = 0,
vjy (, t) = sin(t),
vj (, t) = 0,
106
(3.60)
x + C2 sin
x + C3 cosh
x + C4 sinh
x ,
v(x) = C1 cos
where
(3.61)
2
,
EI
similarly to Eq. (2.50). The unknown coefficients C1 , C2 , C3 , C4 can be computed from four
prescribed boundary conditions. According to (3.59), these conditions for the computation of
the second column of Kloc
ij are
=
viy (0) = 1,
viy
(0) = 0,
viy () = 0,
viy
() = 0.
(3.62)
vi
(0) = 1, vi () = 0, vi
() = 0,
vj
(0) = 0, vj () = 0, vj
() = 1
(3.63)
and
for the third, fifth and sixth columns, respectively. Then the amplitudes of the internal forces at
the ends are evaluated as
iiy = 0,
N
jiy = 0,
N
(0),
Viiy = EI viy
(),
Vjiy = EI viy
iiy = EI viy
M
(0),
jiy = EI viy
M
().
in the case of boundary conditions (3.62), i.e. for the second column of the dynamic stiffness
matrix. The entries of the second column of the stiffness matrix are
loc = [0, Viiy , M
iiy , 0, Vjiy , M
jiy ]T .
k
ij,2
The positive definition of the endofbeam internal forces and the entries of the dynamic stiffness matrix are the same as in the case of the static stiffness matrix, which is shown in Figure 3.4
(c). Therefore, the dynamic stiffness matrix has the same structure as the static one (3.20):
ijx
iix
N
0
0
N
0
0
0
0
Vijy Vij
Viiy Vii
0
M
M
0
M
M
iiy
ii
ijy
ij
loc =
K
(3.64)
.
ij
jix
jjx
N
0
0
N
0
0
0
0
Vjjy
Vjj
Vjiy
Vji
jjy M
jj
jiy M
ji
0
M
0
M
107
(3.65)
These internal forces and the bending moment diagram at a certain time instant are sketched at
the bottom of Figure 3.9.
qt (x,t)=aiy(x,t)
j
i
y
viy(0,t)=1.sin( t)
viy(0,t)=0
l
^
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
M
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
V M
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
^
Miiy Viiy
^
N iiy
iy
^
jiy
N jiy
jiy
Figure 3.9: (top) Sketch of the deformed shape of beam ij due to a harmonic translation of unit amplitude of end
i along axis y. (bottom) The corresponding bending moment diagram and the positive definition of the internal
forces at the ends of the beam.
iiy , Viiy , M
iiy ,
Our aim is to determine the amplitudes of the endofbeam internal forces N
jiy , Vjiy , M
jiy due to a harmonic translation of unit amplitude of end i. From these values
N
loc can
the entries of the second column of the 6by6 elementary dynamic stiffness matrix K
ij
be obtained following (3.64).
The computation of the endofbeam internal forces of the beam is based on the principle of virtual displacements. At any time instant t, we apply the fictitious inertial force
qt (x, t) = aiy (x, t) as shown in Figure 3.9. Thus we have a statically admissible force system: the internal forces and the fictitious inertial force are in equilibrium. We take the (static)
displacement system vi (x), which is caused by a unit translation of end i (shown in Figure 3.5)
as the virtual displacement system. We compute the virtual work that the force system shown
in Figure 3.9 does on this virtual displacement system at time instant t:
Wds = Miy (0, t) 1 +
Miy (x, t)
Mi (x)
dx = 0.
EI
Here the first term is the work done by the moment Miy (0, t) on the unit rotation of end i.
The last term is the internal work done by the bending moment Miy (x, t) on the curvature
i (x) = Mi (x)/EI. The second term is the work done by the (distributed) inertia force
aiy (x, t) =
viy (x, t) = 2 viy (x) sin(t)
108
Z
Z
Mi (x)
2
dx sin(t) = 0. (3.66)
Wds = Miiy +
viy (x)vi (x) dx Miy (x)
EI
0
Next, we express the virtual work that the static force system (shown in Figure 3.5) does on
the dynamic displacement system (sketched in Figure 3.9) at certain time instant t:
Wsd = Vii {1 sin(t)}
Mi (x)
M iy (x, t)
dx = 0.
EI
Miy (x)
dx sin(t) = 0.
Wsd = Vii Mi (x)
EI
(3.67)
Both Eqs. (3.66) and (3.67) have zero on the right hand side. Therefore their left hand sides are
equal, which implies that the terms in the curl brackets are equal, yielding
iiy + 2
M
In the above expression Vii equals the entry 2, 3 of the static stiffness matrix of the beam by
definition. In addition, and due to the symmetry (3.22) of the static stiffness matrix, Vii =
loc
loc
Kij,23
= Kij,32
.
Finally, we can express the amplitude of the dynamic bending moment at end i caused by a
loc :
harmonic translation of the same end, i.e. the entry 3,2 of the dynamic stiffness matrix K
ij
loc
ij,32
K
iiy =
=M
loc
Kij,32
We can derive all the endofbeam internal forces due to longitudinal and transverse (harmonic)
translations and (harmonic) rotations of unit amplitudes of the ends in a similar way. We can
construct a matrix similar to (3.23):
uix (x)
0
0
ujx (x)
0
0
.
(3.68)
N=
0
viy (x) vi (x)
0
vjy (x) vj (x)
Here uix (x) is the dynamic shape function of the beam due to a harmonic translation of unit
amplitude of end i along x. This is the solution of (3.53) with boundary conditions (3.55). The
shape function viy (x) is due to a harmonic translation of unit amplitude of end i along y, i.e.
109
(3.69)
loc
Here Kloc
ij is its elementary static stiffness matrix of beam ij, and Mij () is the elementary
mass matrix:
Z
loc
() = N
T N dx,
M
(3.70)
ij
0
which depends on the circular frequency of the external forcing. As a conclusion, we can
say that the elementary dynamic stiffness matrix equals to the elementary static stiffness matrix
minus the mass matrix (3.70) times the square of the forcing frequency. This dynamic stiffness
loc ()
matrix is frequency dependent. From Eq. (3.70) it can be verified that the mass matrix M
ij
loc (), which is evident from Eq. (3.69).
is symmetric, and so is the dynamic stiffness matrix K
ij
Problem 3.2.2 (Entry 1,4 of the elementary dynamic stiffness matrix). The fixedfixed beam ij is of length ,
normal stiffness EA, bending stiffness EI, and mass per unit length . Determine the entry 1,4 of its elementary
dynamic stiffness matrix!
Solution. Entry 1,4 is the normal force at end i due to a harmonic translation of unit amplitude of end j along
the axis of the beam:
Z
loc
loc
2
ij,14 = Kij,14 u
jx (x)uix (x) dx.
K
0
Here u
jx (x) is the dynamic shape function due to the harmonic (axial) vibration of end j, while uix (x) is the
(static) deformation of the bar caused by an axial unit translation of end i. The former function u
jx (x) was
already determined in Problem 3.2.1, its is given by Eq. (3.57), which is repeated here:
1
u
jx (x) =
sin
x .
sin ()
The function uix (x) was derived in Problem 3.1.1, its is given by Eq. (3.13) as:
1
uix (x) = B0 + B1 x = 1 x.
Entry 4,1 of the static stiffness matrix was also computed in Problem 3.1.1. Due to the symmetry of the stiffness
matrix, entries 4,1 and 1,4 are equal:
EA
loc
loc
Kij,14
= Kij,41
=
.
110
EA
2
sin
x
1 x dx
u
jx (x)uix (x) dx =
sin ()
0
0
EA
EA EA 2
EA EA
2
EA
=
=
2
2 =
sin
EA sin
2
sin
EA
.
=
sin
loc
loc
ij,14
K
= Kij,14
2
The entries of the elementary dynamic stiffness matrix of beam ij of length , mass per unit
length , normal stiffness EA, and bending stiffness EI are
loc
K
ij
EA
cot
EA
sin
0
EI
F6 ()
3
EI
F4 ()
2
EI
F3 ()
2
EI
F4 ()
2
EI
F2 ()
0
EI
F5 ()
3
EI
F3 ()
2
EI
F1 ()
EA
sin
0
0
0
EI
F5 ()
3
EI
F3 ()
2
EA
cot
EI
F6 ()
3
EI
F4 ()
2
EI
F
()
EI
F1 ()
EI
F4 ()
EI
F2 ()
(3.71)
cos
sinh
sin
F3 () = 2
, F4 () = 2
,
cos cosh 1
cos cosh 1
cosh sin + sinh cos
sinh + sin
,
F6 () = 3
,
F5 () = 3
cos cosh 1
cos cosh 1
r
r
2
2
4
=
, =
.
EA
EI
F1 () =
We have to note here that if the forcing frequency coincides with one of the natural
circular frequencies 0j of the longitudinal vibration of the clampedclamped bar, then = j,
therefore cot and / sin become singular. Besides, if coincides with one of the natural
circular frequencies 0i of the transverse vibration of the clampedclamped beam, then all the
loc cannot be inverted in
functions F1 (), F2 (), . . . , F6 () become singular. Thus matrix K
ij
these special cases. This phenomenon is the resonance.
An alternative way to construct the elementary stiffness matrix purely from dynamic shape
functions is given in Appendix A.4.
111
3.3
Construction of the elementary dynamic stiffness matrix of a member of the planar frame
was discussed in the previous subsection, and an explicit formula (3.69) was derived.
The drawback of that approach is that the mass matrix (3.70) is frequencydependent.
Therefore, if someone needs to analyse a structure subjected to different loading (frequencies), they need to compile the mass matrix for each load frequency for the same structure.
Another weak point is that the calculation of the mass matrix assumed that each nodal force
has the same frequency . If it is not the case, for instance when the nodal forces have different
frequencies, or they are not harmonic functions of time, then there does not exists a frequency
which can be used for the calculation of the entries of the mass matrix. In fact, the whole
procedure, assuming that the response of the structure follows the same frequency , fails in
those cases.
Hence, in practice, the elementary mass matrix is approximated by using purely static shape
functions (which are frequency independent) instead of the dynamic ones. That estimation
leads to the construction of the socalled consistent mass matrix
Mloc
cons,ij =
NT N dx .
(3.72)
Since here we use the same static shape functions as for the computation of the static stiffness
matrix (3.27), this composition of the mass matrix is consistent with the static stiffness matrix,
therefore it is often called the stiffness consistent mass matrix.
Problem 3.3.1 (Entry 1,1 of the consistent mass matrix). The fixedfixed beam ij is of length , normal stiffness
EA, bending stiffness EI, and mass per unit length . Determine entry 1,1 of its elementary consistent mass
matrix!
Solution. Entry 1,1 is of the consistent mass matrix according to (3.72) and (3.23) is
loc
Mcons,ij,11
Here uix (x) is the deformation of the bar caused by an axial unit translation of end i. This function uix (x) was
already derived in Problem 3.1.1, its is given by Eq. (3.13) as:
uix (x) = 1
x
.
= x
x
x
+ 2
Z
0
= .
3
112
x 2
dx =
1
Z
0
12
x x2
+ 2 dx
loc
Mloc
cons,ij = Mij
1
3
1
6
13
35
11
210
9
70
11
210
1 2
105
13
420
1
6
1
3
9
70
13
420
13
35
13
420
1 2
140
11
210
13
420
1 2
140
11
210
1 2
105
(3.73)
In further analysis we use the consistent mass matrix M, even if the structure is subjected to
a general loading (forces that are arbitrary functions of time, or harmonic forces with different
frequencies).
u0 = (I + RK0 )1 ui ,
thus
u(x) = N0 (x)(I + RK0 )1 ui ,
113
N N dx =
= (I + RK0 )T
(Note that I, R, and K0 are independent of x.) Here M0 is the consistent mass matrix of the
fixedfixed beam.
If only one degree of freedom (the pth) of the beam ends is connected elastically to the
adjacent node, then matrix R can be written in the dyadic form (3.38), and
RK0 = rp ep kTp ,
According to (3.39)
I rp ep kTp
Hence
1
=I
1
kpp +
1
rp
ep kTp .
!T
1
1
T
M0 I
M = (I + RK0 )T M0 (I + RK0 )1 = I
1 ep k p
kpp + rp
kpp +
1
1
T
T
T
T
k
e
M
+
M
e
k
+
= M0
2 kp ep M0 ep kp ,
0
0
p
p
p
p
1
kpp + rp
kpp + r1p
1
rp
ep kTp
which yields
M = M0
1
kpp +
1
rp
mpp
T
kp mTp + mp kTp +
2 k p k p .
1
kpp +
rp
(3.74)
Problem 3.3.2 (Elementary consistent mass matrix of a fixedpinned beam). The beam ij of length , normal
stiffness EA, bending stiffness EI, and mass per unit length is fixed at end i and pinned at end j. (It is
fixedpinned.) Determine its elementary consistent mass matrix Mloc,fp
!
ij
Solution. We use Eq. (3.74) for the construction of the mass matrix. We start with the static stiffness matrix
loc
Kloc
ij and the consistent mass matrix Mij of the fixedfixed beam, given by (3.28) and (3.73), respectively.
Because of the rotation of end j (the sixth degree of freedom of the beam) is relaxed, p = 6 and r6 . Thus
loc
the entries 6,6 and the 6th column of Kloc
ij and Mij are needed:
3
4EI
, m66 =
105
2EI
4EI
kT6 = 0 6EI
0 6EI
2
h
2
3
2
mT6 = 0 13
0 11
420
140
210
k66 =
114
3
105
0
132
420
3
1
140
loc
2EI
= Mij 4EI
0 6EI
0 6EI
2
2
0
2
11
210
Mloc,fp
= Mloc
ij
ij
3
105
6EI
2
2EI
1
4EI
0
6EI
2
4EI
3
105
4EI 2
0 132
420
6EI
2
2EI
0
6EI
2
0
4EI
1
3
17
35
35
1
6
0
0
6EI
2
140
0 11
210
0 6EI
2
2EI
1
6
35
39
280
2 2
105
11
280
1
3
39
280
11
280
33
140
4EI
3
105
4EI
M
.
(Here
M
is
the
elementary
consistent
mass matrix.)
ij
ij
ij
115
cos cosh 1
The Taylor expansion of the above function with respect to is
EI
loc
ij,36
2 + 0.7143 102 4 + 0.1570 104 8 + 0.3182 107 12 + O(16 ) .
K
=
2
loc
Entry 3,6 of Kloc
ij Mij is
2EI
2EI EI
1 2
loc
loc
2
loc
2
140
4
2
2 = EI 4 .
EI
As we can see, governs the magnitude of the error: it appears on the power of higher than
seven in the error. Hence, decreasing the value of makes the approximation of the dynamic
stiffness matrix more accurate. Usually we cannot decrease the mass or increase the bending
stiffness, because those are given parameters of the structure. What we can do in order to
obtain a better accuracy is reducing the length of the members, i.e. applying more nodes. It
is important to note that higher forcing frequency increases , thus it also increases the error,
i.e. decreases the accuracy of the approximate stiffness matrix. Thus, the higher the forcing
frequency is, the shorter members (i.e. more nodes) we have to use for the same accuracy.
A good rule of thumb is that the approximate model built with the consistent mass matrix is
usually accurate enough if the smallest natural circular frequency of the applied beam members
is larger than the largest natural circular frequency of the whole model.
=
members
structure
0,min
> 0,max
,
members
structure
T0,max
< T0,min
m 0 0
0 m 0
Mglob
add =
0 0 I0
is to be added to the corresponding block of the total mass matrix of the structure. Here I0 is
the moment of inertia of the mass with respect to the node.
Concentrate additional mass on a beam
Let a mass m be on the beam at x = a. An additional (consistent) mass matrix can be
computed as
T
Mloc
add = m N x=a Nx=a .
3.4
If there is a dynamic, distributed load f (x, t) = [fx (x, t), fy (x, t)]T (whose components
are given by an axial load fx (x, t) and a transverse load fy (x, t)) acting on beam ij between
x = a and x = b, then an equivalent nodal load qeq,ij (t) must be determined for the matrix
displacement method. Without going into details of the derivations, this equivalent nodal load
can be approximated as
Z
b
qdis
eq,ij (t)
NT f (x, t) dx.
(3.75)
Here vector qeq,ij (t) = [qeq,i (t), qeq,j (t)]T contains the equivalent loads on the ends i and j of
the beam member. The static shape functions are collected in N (see (3.23)).
In the case of a concentrated force F(t) = [Fx (t), Fy (t)]T acting at x = a, the equivalent
load is estimated as
T
qcon
(3.76)
eq,ij (t) = N x=a F(t).
117
l
P sin( t)
x 12
4/5 l
24
13
q2sin( t)
X
Y
4
3/5 l
(a)
(b)
Figure 3.10: (a) Sketch of a simple planar frame. (b) Mechanical model for the matrix displacement method.
K()u
f 0 = q0
1 ()q0 .
uf 0 = K
Here uf 0 is the amplitude of the vibration of the nodes of the structure. The steadystate vibration is then
governed by
uf (t) = uf 0 sin(t).
We also compute two approximate solutions by using the consistent mass matrix M and the diagonally lumped
mass matrix Mlum . With the aid of these matrices the dynamic stiffness matrix can be estimated as
K()
K 2 M, and K()
K 2 Mlum .
For these approximations we need to compile the total static stiffness matrix K of the frame, too.
First we start with the nodal decomposition of the frame, then we define the local and global reference
systems, and the coordinate transformations. We apply four nodes, as shown in Figure 3.10 (b). Nodes 1 and 2
are internal nodes, while nodes 3 and 4 are supported nodes. Since there is not any support motion, we exclude
these external nodes from the compilation of the total (stiffness, mass, and dynamic stiffness) matrices. The
global reference system is the left handed one XY Z shown in Figure 3.10 (b). There are local reference systems
xyz attached to each beam member, as indicated in Figure 3.10 (b). The vector of the unknown displacements
of the internal nodes 1 and 2 in the global reference system is
u1X (t)
u1Y (t)
1 (t)
u(t) =
u2X (t) .
u2Y (t)
2 (t)
The force vector acting on the internal nodes 1 and 2 in the global reference system is
0
0
F1X (t)
F1Y (t)
0
0
M1 (t)
0
0
q(t) =
F2X (t) = P/ 2 sin(t) q0 = P/ 2
P/ 2
F2Y (t) P/ 2
M2 (t)
0
0
118
T12
1 0
= 0 1
0 0
0
0 ,
1
T13
0 1
= 1 0
0 0
0
0 ,
1
T24
3/5
= 4/5
0
4/5
3/5
0
0
0 .
1
All the three beams are fixedfixed, and they have the same geometrical and physical properties. This
implies, that they have the same elementary stiffness and mass matrices in the local systems.
The elementary static stiffness matrix of the beams in the local system is
loc
loc
Kloc
12 = K13 = K24
625000
=
625000
0
0
EA
EA
0
0
2344
9375
0
2344
9375
EA
12EI
3
6EI
2
6EI
2
4EI
EA
12EI
6EI
2
3
6EI
2EI
0
2
0
625000
0
9375
0
2344
50000
0
9375
0
625000
0
9375
0
2344
25000
0
9375
12EI 6EI
2EI
6EI
0
0
12EI
6EI
2
6EI
4EI
2
0
9375
25000
0
9375
50000
The (exact) elementary dynamic stiffness matrix of the beams in the local system comes from (3.71). The
general formula of this matrix is fairly long and complicated. That is one of the drawbacks of using the (exact)
dynamic stiffness matrix. Therefore we only provide the reader with the entries of the matrix evaluated at the
given forcing frequency = 40 rad/s:
loc ( = 40) = K
loc ( = 40) = K
loc ( = 40)
K
12
13
24
615805
0
0
0
545972
587067
0
587067 305208
=
1406846
0
0
0
820788 613717
0
613717 458874
119
1406846
0
0
615805
0
0
0
820788
613717
0
545973
587067
0
613717
458874
0
587067
305208
1
1
0
0
0
0
3
6
13
9
11
13
0
0
35
210
70
420
11
13
1 2
1 2
0
0
210
105
420
140
loc
loc
Mloc
12 = M13 = M24 =
1
1
0
0
0
0
6
3
9
13
13
11
0
0
70
420
35
210
13
11
1 2
1 2
0
420
140
210
105
533.3
0
0
266.7
0
0
0
594.3
670.5
0
205.7
396.2
0
670.5
975.2
0
396.2 731.4
.
0
0
533.3
0
0
266.7
0
0
594.3 670.5
205.7
396.2
0
670.5 975.2
0
396.2 731.4
We also compose the diagonally lumped mass matrix Mlum . We directly construct the total mass matrix
in the global system. Entries 1,1 and 2,2 correspond to the horizontal and vertical translations of node 1. The
values of these entries thus the sum of masses of the halves of (the connecting) beams 12 and 13. Entry 3,3
corresponds to the rotation of node 1, thus it is the rotary inertia of the halves of (the connecting) beams 12 and
13. Similarly, entries 4,4 and 5,5 correspond to the translations of node 2, thus they are the sum of masses of
the halves of beams 12 and 24. Entry 6,6 is the rotary inertia of the halves of beams 12 and 24. Therefore the
total diagonally lumped mass matrix of the structure is
2 /2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2 /2
0
0
0
2
(/2)
/3
0
0
0
Mlum =
0
0
0
2
/2
0
0
0
0
0
0
2 /2
0
0
0
0
0
0
2 (/2)3 /3
1600
0
0
0
0
0
0
1600
0
0
0
0
0
0
8533
0
0
0
.
=
0
0
1600
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1600
0
0
0
0
0
0
8533
Now we compile the total dynamic stiffness matrix, the total static stiffness matrix, and the total consistent
mass matrices of the structure. The block structure of the total static stiffness matrix of the frame is
#
"
glob,12
glob,11
glob,11
K12
K12
+ K13
K=
glob,21
glob,22
glob,22
K12
K12
+ K24
Here the blocks are transformed from the local to the global system as
glob,11
K13
= T13 Kloc,11
TT13 ,
13
120
glob,22
K24
= T24 Kloc,22
TT24 .
24
glob,22
K12
= Kloc,22
,
12
glob,12
glob,12
K12
= K12
,
glob,21
glob,21
K12
= K12
,
since T12 is the identity matrix. The transformation follows the same procedure in the cases of the consistent
mass matrix, and of the dynamic stiffness matrix. We just need to substitute the corresponding blocks of
the elementary static stiffness matrix with the elementary consistent or with the elementary dynamic stiffness
matrices.
The total stiffness matrix of the structure is
627344
0
9375 625000
0
0
0
2344
9375
0
627344
9375
9375
9375
100000
0
9375 25000
,
K=
625000
0
0
851500 298875 7500
0
2344 9375
298875 403188 3750
0
9375
25000
7500
3750 100000
1128
0
0
1128
670.5 670.5
M=
266.7
0
0
205.7
0
396.2
670.5
670.5
1950
0
396.2
731.4
266.7
0
0
1106
29.26
536.4
0
205.7
396.2
29.26
1150
268.2
0
396.2
731.4
536.4
268.2
1950
The total dynamic stiffness matrix of the structure evaluated at the forcing frequency = 40 rad/s is
69832
0
587067 1406846
0
0
0
820788 613717
0
69832 587067
587067
587067
610416
0
613717 458874
K( = 40) =
0
0
488072 557653 469654
1406846
0
820788 613717 557653
348407
234827
469654
234827 610416
0
613717 458874
1176847
0
1063387
0
1176847
1063387
K()
K 2 M =
1051667
0
0
0
331487
643280
0
643280
1195286
1051667
0
0
917582
345686
850710
0
331487
643280
345686
1436112
425355
0
643280
1195286
850710
425355
3020762
Another, less accurate approximation of this dynamic stiffness matrix uses the diagonally lumped mass matrix:
1932656
0
9375
625000
0
0
0
2344
9375
0
1932656
9375
9375
9375
13553333
0
9375
25000
2
K() K Mlum =
625000
0
0
1708500
298875
7500
0
2344
9375
298875
2156813
3750
0
9375
25000
7500
3750
13553333
(Both approximations are evaluated at the given frequency = 40 rad/s.)
The first natural circular frequency of the structure, according to the exact dynamic stiffness matrix, is
01 = 4.499 rad/s. In fact, there are infinitely many natural circular frequencies of the structure if we use the
121
01
4.499
1.437
1.310
02
7.862
5.320
2.964
03
15.57
11.25
3.825
04
19.00
19.88
16.81
05
20.16
27.16
19.80
06
22.01
47.47
29.87
07
35.89
08
38.49
09
41.44
...
...
Table 3.1: The first few natural circular frequencies of the frame and all the six natural circular frequencies of
the approximate models (with the consistent the diagonally lumped mass matrices). The dimension of the
frequencies is rad/s.
In practice, the approximate model is usually accurate enough if the smallest natural frequency of the applied
beam members is larger than the largest circular frequency of the model. The first natural frequency of the
fixedfixed beam members of the studied frame is [11]
s
EI
ffbeam
01
= 22.4
= 7.826 rad/s.
4
This is evidently not larger than the largest natural frequency of the approximate models (see Table 3.1). Therefore, we should introduce additional nodes along the frame members, i.e. we should divide the structure into
more beam members. (Our nodes are not dense enough.) We skip doing so, and go on with the computation
to show, what differences appear between the final results of the exact and the approximate models.
The final result, the amplitudes of the translations and rotations of nodes 1 and 2, are computed as
1 q0 ,
uf 0 = K
uf 0 (K 2 M)1 q0 ,
uf 0 (K 2 Mlum )1 q0
0.02723
0.06894
0.1218
.
uf 0 =
0.05219
0.09695
0.2383
0.063101
0.02154
0.04293
uf 0
0.02720
0.07163
0.005344
while it follows from the usage of the diagonally lumped matrix that
0.01345
0.00003283
0.00002799
.
uf 0
0.04158
0.02702
0.00001546
122
3.5
In this section we deal with the support vibration of planar frame structures. Several kinematical forcing of structures comes from the motion of the underlying ground (e.g. earthquakes,
ground vibration from underground and road trafic etc.). We follow a similar approach to the
one presented in the statical analysis. In the upcoming subsections we analyse the effect of rigid
supports on the applied model, the calculation of elastically supported structures, the harmonic
support vibration, and the support vibration equal at each supported node.
(3.79)
which is the matrixdifferential equation of the forced, undamped vibration of a MDOF system
(see Eq. (3.47)) with the forcing vector:
g (t) Kig ug (t).
qi (t) = qi (t) Mig u
(3.80)
The solution of the matrix differential equation (3.79) can be obttained by any of the known
solution methods.
Fixed supports as prescribed motion
Some of the supports have prescribed zero valued displacements. The accelerations of
those supports are zero as well. These are called fixed supports. The corresponding elements
g (t) are zero in Eq. (3.80), thus the corresponding columns of matrices
of vectors ug (t) and u
ig
ig
M and K are cancelled. Nonmoving supports creates no vibration of the structure, so it is
easier to exclude them from the calculations.
We can follow the strategy, that we make the reduction into the form of Eq. (3.79) in two
steps. In the first step, we eliminate only the fixed supports which cause no vibration of the
structure. In this step the second and third terms on the right hand side of Eq. (3.80) become
zero. In the second step, we eliminate the vibrating supported nodes from the previously reduced system. Here the load vector is modified by the support vibration according to Eq. (3.80).
A rigorous analysis of the above steps makes it possible to create the final matrix equation
of motion in one single step. This is illustrated in Figure 3.11, where two degreesoffreedom
have the prescribed nonzero displacements ug1 (t) and ug2 (t) while one degreeoffreedom is
fixed to ug0 = 0. The matrix block structure are shown before and after the elimination process
in Figure 3.11 (a) and (b), respectively.
Elastically supported nodes
In Subsubsection 3.1.8 we have seen, that in the fixed support model a massless supporting
node is used in order to model the elastic support. The prescribed motion of a support can be
applied on the supporting node. Then we can eliminate the supporting node, while its motion
results in an excess load given by the last two terms of Eq. (3.80).
124
(a) The block structure of the matrix equation of motion with fixed support ug0 = 0
and vibrating supports ug1 (t) and ug2 (t)
A
(t)
u
MAA mAg1 MAB mAg0 MAC mAg2 MAD
g1 A
g1 g1
g1 B
g1 g0
g1 C
g1 g2
g1 D g1
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
u
(t)
BA
Bg
BB
Bg
BC
Bg
BD
1
0
2
u
M
(t)
m
M
m
M
m
M
g0 A
g0 g1
g0 B
g0 g0
g0 C
g0 g2
g0 D
g0
m
m
m
m
m
m
u
DA
Dg1
DB
Dg0
DC
Dg2
DD
D
(t)
M
m
M
m
M
m
M
u
AA
k g1 g1 k g1 B k g1 g0 k g1 C k g1 g2 k g1 D
u (t) q1 (t) + r1 (t)
BA
K
kBg1 KBB kBg0 KBC kBg2 KBD uB (t)
qB (t)
DA
Dg1
DB
Dg0
DC
Dg2
DD
D
D
K
k
K
k
K
k
K
u (t)
q (t)
(t)
K
KAB KAC KAD
u
MAA MAB MAC MAD
B
(t)
qD (t)
mDg1 mDg2
D (t)
u
KDA KDB
Ag1
kAg2
k
#
"
Bg1
kBg2
k
ug1 (t)
kDg1 kDg2
KDC KDD
#
" g1
u (t)
ug2 (t)
uA (t)
B
u (t)
uC (t)
uD (t)
Figure 3.11: The change of the block structure of the matrix equation of motion during the elimination of the
prescribed motion of supports.
125
(3.81)
Earthquakes induce sudden changes in the shape of the earth crust. An earthquake causes
discontinuity in the displacements. This discontinuity travels in the continuum with the velocity
of the travelling waves. In contrast to the travelling waves shown in Subsection 2.1.1, the waves
in the solid continuum have a decreasing amplitude due to their propagation along an inflating
sphere. Hence the amplitude of the ground motion is affected by the distance from the location
of the earthquake, too. The discontinuities travel as pressure and as shear waves. Pressure
waves travel faster in the solid materials than shear waves.
In a typical engineering structure on a typical solid ground, distances between the supported
nodes are small enough. Therefore the differences between the amplitudes of the support motions, and the phase differences are often neglected. So, the vector of prescribed displacements
can be written as
ug (t) = ug (t)rg ,
where rg is an index vector selecting the vibrating supported nodes. Here we assume that each
support vibrates in the same direction. The acceleration of the supported nodes is
g (t) = ug (t)rg .
u
The matrix equation of motion is now
i (t) + Kii ui (t) = Mig ug (t)rg Kig ug (t)rg .
Mii u
(3.82)
We remind the reader, that the unknowns in Eq. (3.82) are displacements. These displacements are the components of vector ui (t) in the global reference system. The displacements
can be written as the sum of the displacements of the supports in the direction of the support
vibration (ug (t)) and the excess elastic deformation (uel (t)):
ui (t) = uel (t) + ug (t)ri .
(3.83)
The influence vector ri in the above equation describes the displacements of the internal
degreesoffreedom if we apply a unit displacement in the direction of the support vibration.
126
Mii Mig
"
ri
rg
ug (t)
Kii Kig
"
ri
rg
. (3.84)
We already observed, that vectors ri and rg represent a rigid body translation of the whole
structure. A rigid body motion causes no internal forces in the structure, so the last term in
Eq.(3.84) is zero independently of the support vibration ug (t):
" i #
r
ii
K Kig
= 0.
rg
Let us define the vector of forced masses mg as
mg =
Mii Mig
"
ri
rg
= Mi r.
(3.85)
3.6
(3.86)
In the previous section we presented how to compile the system of differential equations
of an undamped planar frame structure. The elastic properties of the beams were incorporated
into the stiffness matrix K, while the loads were reduced to the nodal load vector q(t). The
masses of the structural elements were collected into the consistent mass matrix M. With these
components we can write the differential equations of motion in the matrix form:
M
u(t) + Ku(t) = q(t).
(3.87)
In this section we show how to solve the above equation in the case of an arbitrary load
function q(t), and how the internal forces of the structure can be calculated.
127
N
X
uj yj (t).
(3.88)
j=1
We collect the eigenvectors into the modal matrix U and the modal displacements into the
vector y(t):
U = [u1
u2
...
uN ] ,
...
yN (t)] ,
(3.89)
(3.90)
We substitute the particular solution (3.90) into Eq. (3.87) and multiply both sides from the left
by the transpose of the modal matrix (UT ):
UT MU
y(t) + UT KUu(t) = UT q(t).
(3.91)
(Here we used the fact, that the eigenvectors, and so the modal matrix U are independent of
(t) = U
time, hence the derivative of u(t) depends only on the derivative of y(t): u
y(t).)
The orthogonality of the eigenvectors on the mass and the stiffness matrices (see
Eqns. (1.45), (1.46)) implies that UT MU and UT KU are diagonal matrices. Moreover, the
matrix UT MU is a unit matrix, while the matrix UT KU contains the squares of the natural
circular frequencies of the structure in its main diagonal (see Eq. (1.41)):
2
2
2
UT MU = I,
and
UT KU = 01
02
. . . 0N
= 2 .
(3.92)
The matrix is called the spectral matrix. Now we can write Eq. (3.91) as:
(t) + 2 y(t) = f (t),
y
128
(3.93)
(3.94)
Due to the diagonal structure of the spectral matrix 2 , the system of differential equations
(3.87) falls apart into N = 3M independent differential equations of SDOF oscillators in
Eq. (3.93). The differential equation of the jth mode is:
2
yj (t) + 0j
yj (t) = fj (t).
(3.95)
2
, so we
The above ODE is an undamped version of Eq. (1.22) with m = 1, c = 0, and k = 0j
can write its solution with a Duhamels integral:
yj (t) =
Zt
0
fj ( )
sin (0 (t )) d.
0
(3.96)
This equality can be used in Eq. (3.88) with the nodal load (3.94):
uf (t) =
N
X
j=1
uj
t
0
uTj q( )
sin (0j (t )) d .
0j
(3.97)
One can see in the formula (3.97), that the vibration of each mode is divided by the corresponding natural circular frequency. It results in a decrease of the effect of the higher modal shapes in
the final sum, just like we had in the case of the harmonic excitation of MDOF systems (1.60).
Problem 3.6.1 (Undamped planar frame with an impulse load). Let us analyse the structure already shown in
Problem 3.4.1. The forcing is an impulse load acting on the first node in the horizontal direction at t = 0. We
solve the problem with modal analysis.
Solution. We do not repeat the calculation of the system matrices, the details are in Problem 3.4.1. The total
stiffness matrix is
627343.75
0
9375 625000
0
0
0
627343.75
9375
0
2343.75
9375
9375
0
9375
25000
9375
100000
,
K=
625000
0
0
851500
298875
7500
298875
403187.5 3750
0
2343.75 9375
0
9375
25000
7500
3750
100000
and the total consistent mass matrix is
1128
0
0
1128
670.5 670.5
M=
266.7
0
0
205.7
0
396.2
670.5
670.5
1950
0
396.2
731.4
266.7
0
0
1106
29.26
536.4
0
205.7
396.2
29.26
1150
268.2
0
396.2
731.4
536.4
268.2
1950
The force vector is an impulse on the first node in the horizontal direction at time instant t = 0
1000
0
q(t) =
0 (t) = q0 (t),
0
0
129
We can calculate the timedependent part of integral Eq. (3.97) for every mode:
Zt
0
We have to calculate the modal participation factor pj = uTj q0 /0j for each node. The results are summarized in Table 3.2. It can be seen that the first mode has the biggest participation in the motion.
j
0j
uTj q0
pj = uTj q0 /0j
01
1.4365
17.056
11.873
02
5.3204
3.0770
0.5783
03
11.253
8.0102
0.7119
04
19.882
14.277
0.7181
05
27.163
3.5051
0.1290
06
47.469
27.266
0.5744
Table 3.2: The first six natural circular frequencies of the frame, the projections of the load vector to the
modal shape vectors, and the modal participation factors
Finally, the steadystate vibration of the structure caused by the impulse at t = 0 is
uf (t) =
N
X
uj pj sin (0j t) .
j=1
"
uglob
f,i (t)
uglob
f,j (t)
130
EA
loc
EA
u
0
0
0
0
N
i
ix
12EI
12EI
6EI
6EI loc
0
uiy
0
Vi
3
2
3
2
6EI
6EI
4EI
2EI
+Mi
0
0
iz
2
2
loc loc
loc =
Kij uij =
EA
EA
u +Nj . (3.98)
0
0
0
0
jx
12EI
6EI
6EI loc
12EI
0
+V
0
u
j
jy
3
2
3
2
6EI
6EI
2EI
4EI
Mj
0
0
jz
2
The internal forces along the rod are calculated from their end values and the distributed load
along the beam. For further details see [8].
In a dynamical analysis of harmonically excited MDOF systems we have seen that the
elementary mass matrix depends on the circular frequency of the harmonic excitation. That
If we follow a finite element approach, and calculate the internal forces from the strains of the crosssections,
which are obtained from the displacement functions approximated by the static shape functions N(x), then we
still have the same problem, because without a circular frequency we cannot use the dynamic shape functions
N(x)
only the static shape functions N(x).
131
t
0
uTj q( )
sin (0j (t )) d,
0j
and its maximum in a given time interval, which we will denote by yj,max .
The endofbeam internal forces can be calculated from the displacements of the end nodes
of any given beam. One have to transform the endofbeam displacements into the local reference system, and then use the local displacements in Eq. (3.98). The mode shape vector uj
contains the displacements of each node in the vibration with the jth natural circular frequency.
We have to calculate the endofbeam internal forces from the displacement vector uj with the
above method. We denote the internal force in question by Cj , where j represents the jth mode,
and C can be any of Ni , Vi , Mi , Nj , Vj , Mj in Eq. (3.98), or any internal force in any other
crosssection.
During the forced vibration tha maximal modal internal force in the jth mode will be the
product of Cj from the modal shape and yj,max from the modal load
Cj,max = Cj yj,max .
The question arises, how should we sum up the maximal modal internal forces.
We can take the sum of absolute values (ABSSUM):
Cmax =
N
X
j=1
Cj,max .
(3.99)
This is on the safe side, it is very unlikely, that each maximum occurs at the same time.
If the natural circular frequencies are separated, we can take the square root of the sum of
squares (SRSS)
v
u N
uX
2
Cmax = t
Cj,max
.
(3.100)
j=1
132
The root square of the sum of squares can be written in matrix form:
p
Cmax = CTmax ICmax .
(3.101)
If there is a damping in the structure, the modes are coupled. In that case one can use the
complete quadratic combination rule (CQC)
p
(3.102)
Cmax = CTmax Cmax ,
where the correlation matrix represents the coupling between the modes. Its entries are calculated by minimizing the error between the calculated responses of the structure to a random
forcing with broad spectrum (white noise) obtained by numerical integration and by modal
analysis. The entries in the correlation matrix are
3/2
0i
0i
8 2 1 + 0j
0j
ij =
2 2
2 .
0i
0i
1 0j
+ 4 2 1 + 0j
The natural circular frequencies are well separated, when the smallest relative difference between any two frequencies is more than 10%. In an undamped system = I.
3.7
We have seen in many examples about the forced vibration of MDOF systems that higher
modes play a less significant role in the dynamics of the structure. This statement holds only if
the natural circular frequencies of higher modes are sufficiently far from the circular frequency
of the forcing. Otherwise, we have to take care of the state of resonance.
It is enough to have a look at Eqs. (1.60), (2.73), (2.76), (3.97) to realize that the natural circular frequency appears in the denominator in each formula even on higher powers, depending
on the type of forcing.
Discretization of continuous structures into a finer mesh (more nodes) leads to more DOFs
and, consequently, more natural circular frequencies. The more nodes we introduce, the better
approximations we get for the lower modes. But the accuracy of the higher frequencies is poor.
The application of the higher, inaccurate frequencies is therefore unnecessary, and pointless.
133
...
u2
un ] ,
(3.103)
and approximate the displacement with the first n modal displacements yj (t):
(t) = Uy(t).
u
A crucial question of every iterative method is its accuracy. In this case we have to find out,
what number n is sufficient to perform an accurate calculation. To analyse this, we recall the
orthogonality of the massmatrixnormalized eigenvectors to the mass matrix. Eq. (1.45) with
the modal matrix U is
UT MU = IN ,
(3.104)
where IN is the N byN identity matrix. UT is a quadratic matrix of linearly independent rows.
It has the inverse with the property
1
UT UT
= IN ,
so, we can conclude from Eq. (3.104), that
UT
1
= MU,
and using this inverse matrix in the computation of the product MUUT we obtain the identity
1 T
MUUT = UT
U = IN ,
(3.105)
If we use the partial solution of the eigenvalue problem, the eigenvectors are still orthogonal
and normalized, so
T MU
= In ,
U
T nor MU
is quadratic, i.e.
where In is a the smaller, nbyn identity matrix. Now, neither U
they cannot be inverted, but we still can calculate their product
U
T
MU
(3.106)
as a pseudounit matrix. The better the approximation is with only n modes is, the closer the
above matrix is to the unit matrix.4 The accuracy is analysed in accordance with the load vector
and the structure.
4
Here, close refers here to the result of the transformation that the matrix does. A unitmatrix transforms any
vector into itself. A pseudounit matrix transforms a subspace of the N space into itself.
134
(3.107)
(Note, that if all the eigenvectors are used, the MUUT = I, and q(t) = MUUT q(t) holds
evidently.) The neglected part of the load vector is the difference between the effective and the
real load vector:
U
T q(t).
(t) = q(t) MU
q(t) = q(t) q
The magnitude of q(t) compared to q(t) gives an estimation of the error of the calculation
with n natural mode on behalf of the load vector.
Problem 3.7.1 (Excited vibration of a fixedfixed beam). Let us analyse the structure shown in Figure 3.12
(a). It is a fixedfixed beam of length = 6 m, bending stiffness EI = 18000 Nm2 , mass per unit length
= 420 kg/m. The beam is taken to be inextensible, so no longitudinal displacements occur. This allows us to
take only two degreesoffreedom per nodes (the vertical translation and the rotation) into account. The beam
is excited by the concentrated force q(t) in its midspan.
Figure 3.12: (a) Sketch of a fixedfixed beam. (b) Mechanical model for the matrix displacement method
(fixed support model).
Divide the structure into four equal members, and analyse the accuracy of the reduced modal analysis using
various number n of eigenvectors!
Solution. Figure 3.12 (a) shows the beam members, and the used internal nodes. Each beam is the same and
the local and global reference systems coincide. So, there is no need for the transformation between the local
and global systems. We do not have displacements and forces in the horizontal directions, so the first and fourth
rows and columns can be omitted from Eq. (3.28) and (3.73). Thus the elementary stiffness and consistent mass
matrices are
12EI
6EI
6EI
12EI
64
48 64 48
3
2
3
2
4EI
2EI
6EI
6EI
48 48 24
2
48
glob
1000,
Kloc
=
=
ij = Kij
12EI
6EI
6EI
12EI
64
48
64
48
3
2
3
2
6EI
6EI
2EI
4EI
48
24
48
48
2
2
13
11
13
9
234
49.5
81
29.25
420
35
210
70
1 2
1 2
13
13.5
29.25 10.125
11
140
49.5
210
105
420
Mloc
=
=
.
13
11
9
13
ij
81
29.25
234
49.5
70
420
35
210
11
13
1 2
1 2
420
140
210
29.25
10.125
49.5
13.5
105
135
00
K0i
K04
M0i
M04
K
M00
i0
ii
i4
ii
i4
Mi0
K
K
K
M
M
K=
,
M
=
(3.108)
40
4i
44
40
4i
44
K
K
K
M
M
M
by canceling the first and third block rows and columns.
Mii , which are referred to as K and M hereafter:
128000
0
64000
0
96000
48000
0
0
64000
48000
0
0
468
0
81
0
27
29.25
81
29.25
468
M=
29.25 10.125
0
0
0
81
0
0
29.25
0
0
0
0
0
64000 48000
,
96000 48000 24000
48000 128000
0
24000
0
96000
29.25
0
0
10.125
0
0
0
81
29.25
.
27
29.25 10.125
29.25
468
0
10.125
0
27
The natural circular frequencies and the corresponding massmatrixnormalized eigenvectors are:
01 = 4.0739 rad/s,
02 = 11.319 rad/s,
03 = 22.456 rad/s,
04 = 42.484 rad/s,
05 = 70.262 rad/s,
06 = 113.21 rad/s,
(3.109)
We can observe, that there are reflection symmetric and antisymmetric modal shapes. The load is reflection
symmetric:
T
q(t),
q(t) = 0 0 1 0 0 0
so the antisymmetric modes will not participate in the motion. The results of a calculation with the reduced
mode number n = 2 is equivalent with the results of n = 1. The result of the calculation carried out with
n = 4 eigenvector is equivalent with the results of n = 3 eigenvectors. The results using n = 6 eigenvectors is
n (t) for odd numbers are:
equivalent with n = 5 eigenvectors. The effective load vector q
0
0.01449
0.3374
0.08631
0.04322
0
1.0000
0.8967
0.5894
q(t).
q(t), q
1 (t) =
q(t),
q
(t)
=
(t)
=
q
5
3
0
0
0
0.01449
0.3374
0
0
0.08631
0.04322
136
(3.110)
and
mY = MrY
(3.111)
represent the total masses vibrating in the degreesoffreedom along the directions X and Y ,
respectively. The quasistatic, rigid body translation of the structure requires the displacement
of the supported nodes as well, so the influence vectors must refer to the supported degreesoffreedom of the structure, too. Therefore, the directional mass vector must be calculated in
accordance with Eq. (3.85). The further calculations are the same for both directions X and Y ,
so we show the upcoming steps of the calculation without those indexes.
The modal participation of the jth mode is the projection of the directional mass vector on
the modal shape vector uj . We can collect all the products uTj Mr in the modal participation
vector:
= UT Mr = UT m.
(3.112)
137
j = 1, 2, . . . , N.
The sum of all effective masses corresponding to a given influence vector r gives the total mass
of the structure:
N
X
m=
meff,j = T .
j=1
If we use a partial solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem, we can calculate a reduced
modal participation vector:
=U
T Mr = U
T m.
The partial solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem evidently provides the same modal
are the same as the first
shape vectors for the first n natural modes, therefore the elements of
n elements of . The effective masses are calculated in the same way as in the case of the total
solution of the eigenvalue problem, but for smaller number of modes:
2j ,
m
eff,j = meff,j =
j = 1, 2, . . . , n.
The reduced effective mass of the structure using the reduced set of eigenvectors is
m
eff =
n
X
T .
meff,j =
j=1
We can substitute the modal participation vector into the above formula:
m
eff
T
T
T
U
T Mr.
U Mr = rT MU
= U Mr
We can conclude, that the total effective mass of the structure can be calculated using the
reduced mass matrix Eq. (3.110) and the influence vector with the quadratic formula:
m
eff = rT Mr.
The ratio of m
eff to the total mass m gives the estimation on the ratio of the used mass. As
we mentioned earlier, this ratio must exceed 90% in the case of earthquake analysis.
Problem 3.7.2 (Support vibration of a fixedfixed beam). Let us analyse the reduced modal analysis for support
vibration of the structure shown in Figure 3.13 (a). It is the same fixedfixed beam of length = 6 m, bending
stiffness EI = 18000 Nm2 , mass per unit length = 420 kg/m as we had in Problem 3.7.1. The beam is
inextensible, so no longitudinal displacements occur. This allows us to take only two degreesoffreedom per
nodes (the vertical translation and the rotation) into account. The beam is excited by support vibration vg (t) at
its both supports. Calculate the effective mass of the normal modes!
138
Figure 3.13: (a) Sketch of a fixedfixed beam. (b) Mechanical model for the matrix displacement method
(spring model).
Solution (Using the fixed support model). The structure has the same stiffness and mass matrices as in Problem
3.7.1, so the natural circular frequencies are the same as we have seen in Eq. (3.109).
In the influence vector rY we must take the supported nodes 0 and 4 into account as well (see Fig.3.12 (b)
for these excess nodes). Since we do not use the horizontal translations, the applied influence vector is
rTY = [1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0] .
We must use the mass matrix of the unconstrained
structure in Eq. (3.111). In our case it is the middle block row
in Eq. (3.108): Mi0 Mii Mi4 . The blocks are compiled from the elementary consistent mass matrices
Mloc
ij of Problem 3.7.1:
Mi0 Mii Mi4 =
468
0
81
29.25
0
0
0
0
81
29.5
29.25 10.125
0
27
29.25 10.125
0
0
0
0
0
0
81
29.25
468
0
81
29.25
0
0
0
0
29.25
10.125
0
27
29.25
10.125
0
0
0
0
0
0
81
29.25
468
0
81
29.25
0
0
29.25 10.125
0
27
29.25 10.125
0
0
The directional mass vector is finally:
mY =
Mi0
Mii
Mi4
630
0
630
.
rY =
630
0
17.44
10.14
T
It is easy to spot that the antisymmetric (odd) modal shapes contribute no mass to this support vibration. The
effective modal masses are:
meff,1 = 1739 kg,
The total mass of the structure is m = = 2520 kg. The effective mass appearing in the modal analysis is:
meff = meff,1 + meff,3 + meff,5 = 2146.1 kg.
139
64000
48000
K=
0
0
0
48000
48000 +
64000
48000
48000
24000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
48000
24000
128000
0
0
96000
64000
48000
48000
24000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
64000
48000
48000
24000
128000
0
0
96000
64000
48000
48000
24000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
64000
48000
48000
24000
128000
0
0
96000
64000
48000
48000
24000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
64000
48000
48000
24000
64000 + Y
48000
48000
48000 +
49.5
13.5
81
29.25
29.25
10.125
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
29.25
10.125
468
0
0
27
81
29.25
29.25
10.125
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
81
29.25
29.25
10.125
468
0
0
27
81
29.25
29.25
10.125
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
81
29.25
29.25
10.125
468
0
0
27
81
29.25
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
81
29.25
29.25
10.125
234
49.5
81
29.25
M=
0
0
0
0
0
.
0
29.25
10.125
49.5
13.5
0
0
The results of the solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem is summarized in Table 3.3. It worth
realizing, that if the spring stiffnesses are below 107 , then the first six natural frequencies are affected. If the
spring stiffnesses are equal to or larger than 107 , then there is a significant effect only on the last four natural
frequencies. So, if we want to model the system with spring support, we have to take this value into account
when choosing a sufficiently large spring stiffness.
The analysis of the efficient modal masses can be done on the actual mass matrix with the same influence
vector as we used in the previous solution.
Y =
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
010
104
1.9480
4.2419
7.5605
14.132
24.586
43.230
67.054
102.95
178.53
193.41
105
3.4599
8.6133
14.748
22.307
31.827
50.547
77.019
115.07
282.09
292.01
106
3.9976
10.955
21.328
38.351
56.479
75.025
94.437
123.79
755.84
771.06
107
4.0661
11.281
22.343
42.109
69.183
111.12
232.66
236.59
2344.3
2387.7
108
4.0732
11.315
22.444
42.447
70.160
113.04
722.18
728.36
7398.7
7534.6
109
4.0739
11.318
22.455
42.480
70.252
113.19
2279.7
2297.9
23392.
23821.
1010
4.0739
11.319
22.456
42.484
70.261
113.21
7207.7
7264.8
73971.
75329.
Table 3.3: The natural circular frequencies of the beam with elastic supports for various spring stiffnesses.
140
3.8
In this section we analyse the effects of the rotational inertia and the normal force to the
dynamical stiffness matrix of the beam.
iiy sin(t),
Miy (0, t) = M
jiy sin(t).
Miy (, t) = M
(3.113)
These internal forces and the bending moment diagram at a certain time instant are sketched at
the bottom of Figure 3.14.
qt (x,t)=aiy(x,t)
j
mi (x,t)=I iy(x,t)
y
viy(0,t)=1.sin( t)
viy(0,t)=0
l
^
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
M
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
V M
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
^
Miiy Viiy
^
N iiy
iy
^
jiy
N jiy
jiy
Figure 3.14: (top) Sketch of the deformed shape of beam ij due to a harmonic translation of unit amplitude of
end i along axis y. (bottom) The corresponding bending moment diagram and the positive definition of the
endofbeam internal forces.
iiy , Viiy , M
iiy , N
jiy , Vjiy , M
jiy )
We need to determine the amplitudes of the internal forces (N
due to a harmonic vertical translation of unit amplitude of end i with the rotational inertia of
the crosssection taken into account.
141
Here the first term is the work done by the shear force Viy (0, t) on the translation of end i.
The last term is the internal work done by the bending moment Miy (x, t) on the curvature
iy (x) = Miy (x)/EI. The second term is the work done by the (distributed) inertia force
aiy (x, t) =
viy (x, t) = 2 viy sin(t)
on the translation viy (x) along the whole length of the beam. The third term is the work done
by the (distributed) inertia moment
on the rotation viy (x) along the whole length of the beam. This, Eq. (3.49), and Eq (3.65)
implies that the above work is
Z
Z
2
2
2
Wds = Viiy +
viy (x)viy (x) dx + i0
viy (x)viy (x) dx
0
0
(3.114)
Z
EI
0
Next, we express the virtual work that the statical force system (shown in Figure 3.4) does
on the dynamical displacement system (sketched in Figure 3.14) at certain time instant t:
Wsd = Viiy (0) {1 sin(t)}
Z
0
142
Miy (x)
M iy (x, t)
dx = 0.
EI
Miy (x)
dx sin(t) = 0.
Wsd = Viiy Miy (x)
EI
(3.115)
Both Eqs. (3.114) and (3.115) have zero on the right hand side. Therefore, their left hand sides
divided by sin(t) 6= 0, are equal:
Viiy +
i20 2
Miy (x)
iy (x)
M
dx.
EI
Miy (x)
iy (x)
M
dx.
EI
Finally, we can express the amplitude of the dynamical bending moment at end i caused by a
harmonic translation of the same end. This is the entry 2,2 of the dynamical stiffness matrix
loc :
K
ij
loc
ij,22
K
= Viiy = Viiy 2
loc
= Kij,22
2
We can derive all the internal forces at the ends of the beam due to longitudinal and transverse (harmonic) translations and (harmonic) rotations of unit amplitudes of the ends in a similar way. mass related matrix. We can construct a matrix similar to (3.23):
= 0 v (x) v (x) 0 v (x) v (x) .
(3.116)
N
j
jy
i
iy
Here prime denotes derivation with respect to x. The shape function viy (x) is due to a harmonic
translation of unit amplitude of end i along y, i.e. the solution of the homogeneous part of
(2.41):
2
4
4 v(x, t)
v(x, t)
2 v(x, t)
+
EI
i
= 0.
(3.117)
0
t2
x2 t2
x4
with v(x, t) = v sin(t) and boundary conditions (3.62). The shape function vi (x) describes
the deformed shape of the beam caused by a harmonic rotation of unit amplitude of end i. It
143
frequencydependent!
Now we can write the elementary dynamical stiffness matrix of beam ij in the short form
loc () + M
loc () .
loc () = Kloc 2 M
K
ij
ij
ij
ij
(3.118)
loc
Here Kloc
ij is the elementary statical stiffness matrix of beam ij, Mij () is the elementary mass
matrix
Z
loc
() = N
T N dx,
M
(3.119)
ij
0
and
loc ()
M
ij
i20
T N dx.
N
(3.120)
These mass matrices depend on the circular frequency of the external forcing. Concluding
the results, we can say, that the dynamical elementary stiffness matrix equals to the statical
elementary stiffness matrix minus the sum of the mass matrices (3.119), (3.120) times the
square of the forcing frequency. This dynamical stiffness matrix is frequencydependent! From
loc () and M
loc () are symmetric, and
Eq. (3.118) it can be verified, that the mass matrices M
ij
ij
loc ().
so is the dynamical stiffness matrix K
ij
Similar to the translational mass matrix, the rotational mass matrix can be approximated by
is estimated by
a consistent rotational mass matrix, if necessary. In that case the matrix N
N =
= i20
NT N dx.
144
iiy sin(t),
Miy (0, t) = M
jiy sin(t).
Miy (, t) = M
(3.121)
iiy , Viiy , M
iiy , N
jiy , Vjiy , M
jiy ) due to a harmonic
The amplitudes of the internal forces (N
translation of unit amplitude of end i of the beam can be determined using the principle of
virtual displacements.
This time we take the moment that the normal force S exerts on the (rotated) elementary beam segment into account, which is shown in Figure 3.15. The rotation of the segment
causes an eccentricity of the normal force, which indicates a distributed moment mS (x, t) =
Figure 3.15: Demonstration of the moment caused by the normal force S on a rotated elementary segment of the
beam.
At time instant t, we apply the fictitious inertia force qt (x, t) = aiy (x, t), the fictitious inertia moment mi (x, t) = I iy (x, t) = i20 iy (x, t) and the distributed moment
mS (x, t) = Sviy (x, t) to the beam. The internal forces, the fictitious inertia force, the fictitious inertia moment and the distributed moment caused by the force S are in equilibrium. We
take the (statical) displacement system viy (x) due to a unit translation of end i (which is shown
in Figure 3.4) as the virtual displacement system. The virtual work that the (dynamical) force
145
Here the first term is the work done by the shear force Viy (0, t) on the translation of end i.
The last term is the internal work done by the bending moment Miy (x, t) on the curvature
iy (x) = Miy (x)/EI. The second term is the work done by the (distributed) inertia force
aiy (x, t) = v iy (x, t) = 2 viy sin(t)
on the translation viy (x). The third term is the work done by the (distributed) inertia moment
on the rotation viy (x) along the whole length of the beam just as before. The new, fourth term
is the work done by the distributed moment from the normal force
Sviy (x, t) = S
viy sin(t)
Z
Z
2
2
2
viy (x)viy (x) dx
viy (x)viy (x) dx + i0 S
Wds = Viiy +
0
0
Z
Miy (x)
Miy (x)
dx sin(t) = 0.
EI
(3.122)
Therefore, the amplitude of the dynamical shear force at end i caused by a harmonic translation
loc is
of the same end, i.e. the entry 2,2 of the dynamical stiffness matrix K
ij
loc
ij,22
K
= Viiy = Viiy 2
loc
= Kij,22
+S
Z
0
Z
0
146
Z
0
(3.123)
locG
Here Kloc
ij is the elementary statical stiffness matrix of beam ij, Kij () is the elementary
geometrical stiffness matrix and
locG ()
K
ij
=S
T N dx,
N
(3.124)
with the matrix of shape functions Eq. (3.116). This matrix related to the change of the geometry with respect to the straight unloaded case, and modifies the stiffness of the beam element.
loc () is the elementary mass matrix
M
ij
loc ()
M
ij
T N dx,
N
(3.125)
i20
T N dx.
N
(3.126)
Finally we can say, that the dynamical elementary stiffness matrix equals to the statical
elementary stiffness matrix plus the geometrical elementary stiffness matrix (3.124) minus the
sum of the mass matrices (3.119), (3.120) times the square of the forcing frequency. This
dynamical stiffness matrix is frequencydependent! From Eq. (3.123) it can be verified, that the
locG (), M
loc () and M
loc () are symmetric and frequency dependent, and
mass matrices K
ij
ij
ij
loc ().
so is the dynamical stiffness matrix K
ij
The calculation of the geometric stiffness matrix can be approximated with the static displacement functions. In this case we have to use the same matrix
Z
0
147
NT N dx,
(3.127)
Here we have to call the attention of the reader, that in the absence of harmonic forcing (i.e.
= 0) the above stiffness matrix simplifies to
loc () = Kloc + KlocG ,
K
ij
ij
cons,ij
which can be used for (statical) stability analysis of the structure. Eq. (3.127) provides the
exact geometric stiffness matrix (however it requires the normal force S for its calculation
which leads to an iterative solution in some cases). This sum of statical and geometric stiffness
matrices allows stability analysis of a structure.
148
Chapter 4
Damping in structural dynamics
In real structures the energy of the vibrating system dissipates through various mechanisms,
such as thermal effects of cyclic loading, internal friction of the body, friction at connections,
opening and closing of microcracks, etc. [3]. It is very difficult to model all of these effects.
Instead, in practice, a socalled equivalent viscous damping is often used, which stands for all
the important energy dissipating components while remains still fairly easy to handle (see [3]
for further details). In the case of viscous dampings, the energy dissipation is proportional to
the loading frequency. However, laboratory cyclic loading experiments on structural metals,
and vibration tests of real structures within the usual range of loading frequency show that the
energy dissipation is essentially independent of the loading frequency. This observation has led
to the development of rateindependent (linear) damping in structural design. (This damping is
also called as structural damping, solid damping, or hysteretic damping [3].) Rateindependent
damping is mainly associated with static hysteresis, which can arise from plastic strain, localized plastic deformations within the global elastic limit of the structure, for example [3]. Apart
from the internal energy dissipation properties of the material, the friction of connections, etc.,
there can be real dashpots built in or attached to the structure. Even the surrounding soil has
damping effects, which are often worth considering [6].
In this chapter we introduce some important concepts regarding the effects of damping
on the vibrations of structures. We show how the steadystate vibration of a harmonically
excited, damped MDOF system can be obtained by direct solution techniques. The idea of
mass and stiffnessproportional damping is shown, which makes real modal analysis of the
structure possible. Rateindependent damping is originated directly from the results of the real
modal analysis of proportionally damped systems. Later on the damping effects of soil and the
phenomenon of radiation damping is revealed. Finally, a widely used numerical procedure, the
Newmark method is discussed.
4.1
The system of differential equations of a (linearly) damped, forced MDOF system is given
in the matrix form
M
u(t) + Cu(t)
+ Ku(t) = q(t) .
(4.1)
149
M
u(t) + Cu(t)
+ Ku(t) = q0 sin(t).
(4.2)
(4.3)
i.e. as a linear combination of sine and cosine functions with the same frequency as the
forcing. If we substitute the trial function (4.3) into Eq. (4.2), then we get
2 M (uf 1 sin(t) + uf 2 cos(t)) + C (uf 1 cos(t) uf 2 sin(t))
+ K (uf 1 sin(t) + uf 2 cos(t)) = q0 sin(t).
(4.4)
Collecting the coefficients of sine and cosine in both sides we can define the following two
equations:
2 Muf 1 Cuf 2 + Kuf 1 sin(t) = q0 sin(t)
2 Muf 2 + Cuf 1 + Kuf 2 cos(t) = 0.
The latter equation can be solved for uf 2 , and it is substituted back into the former one:
1
uf 2 = K 2 M
C uf 1 ,
1
K 2M + 2C K 2M
C uf 1 = q0
1 1
2
2
2
uf 1 = K M + C K M
C
q0 .
Therefore the particular solution of this forced vibration is given by the formula
1 1
uf (t) = K 2 M + 2 C K 2 M
C
q0 sin(t)
1
1 1
K 2M
C K 2M + 2C K 2M
C
q0 cos(t).
150
(4.5)
M
u(t) + Cu(t)
+ Ku(t) = q0 cos(t)
(4.6)
goes in a very similar way. The solution is searched for in the separated form
uf (t) = uf 1 sin(t) + uf 2 cos(t)
(4.7)
(4.8)
Collecting the coefficients of sine and cosine in both sides we can define the equations:
2 Muf 1 Cuf 2 + Kuf 1 sin(t) = 0
2 Muf 2 + Cuf 1 + Kuf 2 cos(t) = q0 cos(t).
The former equation can be solved for uf 1 , and it is substituted back into the latter one. Thus
1
uf 1 = K 2 M
C uf 2 ,
1
K 2M + 2C K 2M
C uf 2 = q0
1 1
uf 2 = K 2 M + 2 C K 2 M
C
q0 .
Therefore the particular solution of this forced vibration is given by the formula
1
1 1
2
2
2
2
uf (t) = K M
C K M+ C K M
C
q0 sin(t)
1
1
+ K 2M + 2C K 2M
C
q0 cos(t).
(4.9)
Now the coefficient of the trial function (4.11) can be obtained by inversion:
1
e f 0 = 2 M + iC + K
u
q0 .
e 1 q0 e it ,
e f (t) = K
u
(4.11)
(4.12)
(4.13)
(4.14)
e = K 2 M + iC
K
is the complex dynamic stiffness matrix of the damped system. The real and imaginary parts of
solution (4.14) correspond to the cosine and sine forcing, respectively. This abstract approach
leads to a much simpler formalism, therefore we use it often hereafter. However, we have to
note that a complex matrix must be inverted in Eq. (4.13), thus the computation is not much
easier than in the previous cases when sine and cosine forcing were separately studied. If the
reader is further interested in how to invert a complex matrix and whether these results really
coincide with the previous ones, then they may read Appendix A.8.
As a conclusion, we can state that the use of complex functions leads to simpler formalism,
but requires us to be familiar with complex algebra to obtain the final results. In these cases,
the complex algebra appeared because of the damping: the first derivative of the trial function
(4.11) introduced the imaginary unit i into (4.10). We hardly need to say now that damping
makes the investigation of structures much more difficult in general.
However, if the damping matrix is special, then both the homogeneous and the particular
solutions of the forced system can be obtained using the massmatrixnormalized modal shape
vectors of the same system without damping. Here, a special damping matrix means that it is
proportional to the mass and/or stiffness matrices. In the following subsection we demonstrate
the physical origin of this proportionality.
4.2
Here is a material parameter, and E is the (internal) viscous damping of the material. This
equation can also be applied to shear stresses. However, our beams are unshearable, so we only
deal with the normal stresses.
152
t) .
(4.15)
The dynamic shape function veiy (x) can be complex in the presence of damping. It is distinguished with an overtilde from the realvalued dynamic shape function of the undamped case
(for which a hat was used instead). The endofbeam internal forces can also be written in
separated forms:
eiiy e it ,
Niy (0, t) = N
ejiy e it ,
Niy (, t) = N
fiiy e it ,
Miy (0, t) = M
fjiy e it .
Miy (, t) = M
(4.16)
These endofbeam forces and the bending moment diagram at a certain time instant t are
sketched at the bottom of Figure 4.1.
The computation of the endofbeam shear force Veiiy is based on the principle of virtual
displacements. At time instant t, we apply the fictitious force
qt (x, t) =
viy (x, t) v iy (x, t)
originated from the inertial mass and the damping, as shown in Figure 4.1. Thus we have a
statically admissible force system: the internal forces and the fictitious force are in equilibrium.
We take the (static) displacement system viy (x) caused by a unit translation of end i (shown
in Figure 3.4) as the virtual displacement system. We compute the virtual work that the force
system shown in Figure 4.1 does on this (virtual) displacement system at time instant t:
Wds = Viy (0, t) (1) +
{
viy (x, t) v iy (x, t)}viy (x) dx
Note that upright i denotes the imaginary unit, while italic subscript i refers to end i of the beam.
153
i
y
viy(x,t)=viy(x) e
viy(0,t)=1.e i t
viy(0,t)=0
i t
viy(l,t)=0
viy(l,t)=0
l
M
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
V M
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
Miiy Viiy
N iiy
iy
jiy
N jiy
jiy
Figure 4.1: (top) Sketch of the deformed shape of a beam due to a dynamic vibration of end i along axis y. The
beam is continuously damped with a viscous damping of coefficient . (bottom) The corresponding bending
moment diagram and the positive definition of the internal forces at the ends of the beam.
Here the first term is the work done by the shear force Viy (0, t) on the virtual translation of end
i. The last term is the internal work done by the bending moment Miy (x, t) = EIiy (x, t) +
on the virtual translation viy (x) along the whole length of the beam. Thus, the above work can
be written as
Z
Z
0
0
(4.17)
Z
Z
(x)viy
(x) dx e it = 0.
(x)viy
(x) dx iEI veiy
EI veiy
Finally, we can express the amplitude of the dynamic shear force at end i caused by the vibration
e it of end i. Due to the positive definition of the endofbeam internal forces, and of the entries
of the elementary stiffness matrix (see (3.64)), this shear force is the opposite of entry 2,2 of
the dynamic stiffness matrix:
loc
e ij,22
K
= Veiiy =EI
Z
0
veiy
(x)viy
(x) dx 2
+ iEI
Z
0
Z
0
veiy
(x)viy
(x) dx + i
Z
0
As we can see, the dynamic stiffness is complex, which originates from the damping effects.
That is the reason why we distinguish the elementary dynamic stiffness matrix by an overtilde
for the damped case.
154
e = LN,
e the whole
Following the earlier used definitions (3.23)(3.27) and the notation B
elementary dynamic stiffness matrix of beam ij is
where
e loc ()
K
ij
= (1 + i)
Z
0
eT
B DB dx ( i)
Z
0
e T N dx,
N
(4.19)
= /.
We can substitute the (damped) dynamic shape functions with the static ones in order to
approximate the stiffness matrix as
e loc () (1 + i)Kloc ( 2 i)Mloc
K
ij
ij
cons,ij .
(4.20)
loc
Here Kloc
ij and Mcons,ij are the static stiffness and the consistent mass matrices of the beam,
respectively. The complex part of the approximate stiffness matrix is the (approximate) elementary damping matrix
loc
loc
Cloc
(4.21)
ij = Kij + Mcons,ij .
Since this (approximate) damping matrix is proportional both to the static stiffness matrix
(3.27) and to the consistent mass matrix (3.72), it is often called the mass and stiffnessproportional damping matrix. If this approximate version of the dynamic stiffness matrix is
applied, then we have to use beam members short enough to estimate the dynamic behaviour
of the structure accurately. If the structure is not subjected to harmonic excitation, but to an
arbitrary forcing, we can still use the approximate, (stiffness) consistent mass matrix, the static
stiffness matrix, and the proportional damping matrix (4.21) with sufficiently short beam members.
Finally, it is worth noting that the stiffnessproportional damping is originated from the
material behaviour, while the massproportional damping is due to external viscous damping.
The massproportional damping appears for example when the structure is in viscous fluid (in
water, for instance).
If all the frame members are of the same (KelvinVoigt) material (thus is the same for
each beam), and the external damping is also the same for each member (therefore is also
the same for all of the members), then the total damping matrix of the structure is proportional
to both the total stiffness and mass matrices of the structure. In this special case, the system of
equations of motion (4.1) is simplified to the form
M
u(t) + (K + M) u(t)
+ Ku(t) = q(t) .
(4.22)
The advantage of this formulation is that it can be solved with (real) modal analysis, as shortly
reviewed in the next subsection.
155
(4.23)
These SDOF, damped, free vibrations can be solved for yhj (t). If the damping is small for every
j, then the previously derived solution of each damped SDOF system (repeated from Eq. (1.7))
t + Bj sin 0j
t
yhj (t) = ej 0j t Aj cos 0j
can be used with the substitutions
mj = 1,
2
cj = 0j
+ ,
cj
j = p
=
2 kj mj
2
0j
20j
2
kj = 0j
,
0j = 0j 1 j2 = 0j
2
0j
+
20j
2
(4.24)
.
Thus the free vibrations in the modal space (if all the modal oscillators are underdamped, i.e.
j < 1) is:
2
2
2
0j
0j
yhj (t) = e 2 t Aj cos 0j 1
t
20j
s
(4.25)
2
2
0j +
+Bj sin 0j 1
t .
20j
yhj (t)
j
=
= 2 q
yhj (t + T0j )
1 2
j
156
0j
2
0j
+
2 .
2
0j +
1
20j
(4.26)
mj 0j
Zt
0
fj ( ) ej 0j {t } sin 0j
{t } d
Zt
1
2
2
0j +
1
20j
uTj q( ) e
2
0j
{t }
2
sin 0j
2
0j
+
20j
2
{t } d.
Harmonic forcing If the loading q(t) in Eq. (4.27) is harmonic, for instance if
q(t) = q0 sin(t),
then Eq. (4.27) becomes
2
2
yf j (t) + 0j
+ y f j (t) + 0j
yf j (t) = uTj q0 sin(t),
157
j = 1, 2, , N.
(4.28)
2
1 2
0j
uTj q0
1
s
sin t arccot
yf j (t) =
2
2
kj
2j
2
0j
1 2
+ 2j
0j
0j
(4.29)
2
1 2
0j
uTj q0
1
= 2 s
t
arccot
sin
2
2
0j
+ 2
2
0j
+ + 2
1 2
0j
0j
If we have solved Eq. (4.27) for a given load, then the particular solution of the original
system of equations (4.22) is obtained simply by transforming the results back from the modal
space:
uf (t) = Uyf (t).
If one needs to take initial conditions into account, then the sum of the homogeneous and
particular solutions are needed, and the initial conditions should be used to determine the free
parameters of the homogeneous solution. (Modal analysis is the recommended tool for this.)
4.3
Rateindependent damping
Damping of structural materials are considered to be small and frequency independent according to experiments. Laboratory tests and onsite measurements recorded that the logarithmic decrement (the rate of the vibration amplitude decaying) is frequency independent. For
example, the same logarithmic decrement, 0.01, is measured in case of steel beams of
different natural circular frequencies (i.e. different lengths and crosssections). For standard
structural materials it is around = 0.01 . . . 0.1.
Previously we assumed that the damping is proportional to the mass and stiffness matrices.
This led to frequencydependent logarithmic decrement (4.26) for each vibration component in
the modal space. If we want to take our result closer to the reality, first we set = 0, since the
massproportional damping was originated from external dampers, and now we are interested
in the damping properties of the building material. If = 0, then the logarithmic decrement
(4.26) simplifies to
0j
j = r
2 .
0j
1
2
Second, we formally set
2
:=
.
(4.30)
0j
(This is a rude step, it should be thought of as if the frequency dependency of the logarithmic decrement were punished.) With these assumptions the logarithmic decrement really
158
2
.
j = p
1 2
Here is called the structural damping coefficient. It depends only on the material type. It
has small values for building materials
p (it is around 0.01 for reinforced concrete, for example). Therefore, we can approximate 1 2 1, and we can estimate from the measured
logarithmic decrement as
j
.
2
(Note that in BSc Dynamics we used := j / 2 as structural damping coefficient.)
0j
= 0j
1 2 .
The particular solution of the arbitrary forced system with rateindependent damping is
0j
(4.28) with = 0 and = 2/
1
yf j (t) =
0j
Zt
0
while the particular solution of the rateindependently damped, sinusoidally excited system
((4.22) with q(t) = q0 sin(t)) is from (4.29)
2
1 2
0j
uTj q0
1
yf j (t) = 2 s
sin t arccot
.
2
2
0j
0j
1 2
+ 2
0j
0j
(4.31)
(4.32)
We can turn the damping associated term iK into frequency independent by setting
:=
2
,
where
e st = (1 + i 2)K
K
(4.33)
is the complex (static) stiffness matrix. Finally, the particular solution of (4.31) is
1
e st 2 M
e f (t) = K
u
q0 e it ,
the real part of which corresponds to the cosine excitation q0 cos(t), while the imaginary part
is due to the sine excitation q0 sin(t). As we can see, a complex, frequencydependent matrix
has to be inverted in order to obtain the solution. The complex part of this matrix is originated
from damping, while the frequencydependence is purely from the inertial effects.
The damping now is not a linear, viscous one, but a special, proportional one: the rateindependent (or structural) damping. In this special case, the damping and stiffness matrices
can be combined into the complex stiffness matrix (4.33). With the aid of this complex matrix,
the equations of motion of the forced system can be written in a short form:
(t) + K
e st u
e (t) = q
e(t).
e
Mu
(4.34)
Notice that there is not any velocity vector and damping matrix in the above equation formally.
But damping is present, it is built in the complex, frequencyindependent static stiffness matrix
e st .
K
4.4
In the case of mass and stiffnessproportional damping, the matrix differential equation of
the structure can be written as (4.22) only if all the structural elements have the same damping
properties. If that is not the case, then the elementary damping matrix of a frame member is
160
.
(4.35)
eq,r = P T
ur,ij Kij ur,ij
ij
Here Kij is the elementary stiffness matrix of beam ij, ij is the structural damping coefficient
of beam ij. The vector ur is the rth eigenvector of the structure without damping, and ur,ij
contains its entries corresponding to the end nodes of beam ij.
4.5
In this chapter we introduce an estimate method to model the vibration of soils. Instead
of investigating the stress and strain distribution in an elastic halfspace, we assume that the
normal stress distribution is constant in a given depth and it propagates within an exponential
envelope in the vertical direction, as it was suggested by Wolf [13]. This simplified, planar soil
bar model is shown in Figure 4.2.
On the ground level there is rigid disk of area A0 = R2 , where R is the radius. If there
is a constant vertical force F0 on the top of this plate, then the normal stress on the top level is
0 = F0 /A0 . It is supposed that at depth y the normal stress is constant within the envelope,
i.e. it is constant on the circular area
A(y) = (R ey/f )2 = A0 e2y/f ,
161
(4.36)
A(y)=A 0 e
e
2 y/f
y A0
(y)
y/f
A 0 e2
(a)
(y,t)
A(y)
(y)
A(y+y)
(y+y,t)
(b)
Figure 4.2: (a) Assumed stress propagation in the equivalent soil bar and (b) the freebody diagram of a slice of
the bar
and zero outside of it. Here f denotes the characteristic depth of the soil bar. It is computed
from the condition that the static stiffness of the model is the same as the static stiffness obtained
from the solution of the classical problem of elasticity: a disk lying on an elastic halfspace.
The model is called the equivalent soil bar.
First we derive the differential equation of motion of the equivalent soil bar. Then we calibrate our model by fitting its static stiffness to the Boussinesq solution through the characteristic
depth f . Finally, the normal force on the top due to a harmonic vibration of unit amplitude of
the top is computed from the equation of motion, leading to the dynamic stiffness of the soil
bar by definition.
(y, t)
y + O(y 2 ),
y
dA(y)
A(y + y) = A(y) +
y + O(y 2 ).
dy
(y + y, t) = (y, t) +
dA(y) (y, t)
2 v(y, t)
+
A(y) = A(y)
.
dy
y
t2
v(y, t)
,
y
162
(4.38)
1
E
(1 + )(1 2)
(4.39)
corresponding to the general spatial stress state. Here E is the Youngs modulus, and is the
Poissons ratio of the soil. 2 This equation is substituted in Eq. (4.38):
2 v(y, t)
2 v(y, t)
v(y, t) dA(y)
+ Ec
A(y)
=
A(y)
.
y
dy
y 2
t2
p
Now we divide the above expression by Ec A(y) and introduce cn = Ec /:
Ec
1 2 v(y, t)
2 v(y, t) v(y, t) dA(y) 1
+
=
.
y 2
y
dy A(y)
c2n t2
The term dA(y)/ dy can be determined from the derivative of Eq. (4.36):
2
d
2
dA(y)
A0 e2y/f = A0 e2y/f = A(y).
=
dy
dy
f
f
With this equality the partial differential equation of motion of the unloaded soil bar is
2 v(y, t) 2 v(y, t)
1 2 v(y, t)
+
=0.
y 2
f y
c2n t2
(4.40)
2 v(y,t)
t2
d2 v(y) 2 dv(y)
+
=0.
dy 2
f dy
(4.41)
2
2
= ( + ) = 0
1 = 0,
2
2 = .
f
From these roots the solutions for v(y) is the linear combination
2
v(y) = A1 + A2 e f y .
Here the coefficients A1 and A2 are computed from two boundary conditions.
2
Note that the shear modulus G, the Youngs modulus E, and the Poissons ratio are not independent: G =
1/2/(1 + )E.
163
The second boundary condition should correspond to the other end of the bar. Since analytical
solutions for the stiffness of the elastic half space are available, we study a semiinfinite soil
bar. We assume that the other end is in the infinity and its displacement is zero:
= 0.
v(y)
y
Using the above two boundary conditions we obtain A1 = 0 and A2 = 1, thus the static shape
function of the semiinfinite soil bar due to the unit translation of its top is:
2
v(y) = e f y .
The normal force on the top of the bar due to its unit translation is the opposite of the static
stiffness:
2Ec A0
dv(y)
R
static
static
ksoil
=
.
(4.42)
ksoil = N (0) = Ec A0
= 2Ec R
dy y=0
f
f
From the classical (Boussinesq) solution for the static problem of a disc lying on an elastic
halfspace the static stiffness is [14]:
exact
ksoil
= 4GR
1 2
1
= 2Ec R
1
(1 )2
Now we can equate the above two stiffnesses and express the characteristic depth f as:
f = R
(1 )2
.
1 2
(4.43)
(4.44)
We separate the variables y and t in v(y, t), assuming that the vibration of the soil model at any
depth y is also harmonic in time:
v(y, t) = ve(y) e it .
(4.45)
(4.46)
(4.47)
1,2 =
,
f
f
cn
thus the solution of Eq. (4.46) is the linear combination
ve(y) = B1 e
f1 +
( ) ( )
1
f
cn
+ B2 e
f1
( ) ( )
1
f
cn
>
cn
,
f
(4.48)
(4.49)
(4.50)
then ve(y) is complex. These two different cases imply different soil stiffness characteristics.
We start with the discussion of the complex case.
The case of higher forcing frequencies
If >
we write
cn
,
f
then the term in the square roots of (4.48) is negative, and ve(y) is complex. First
s
s
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
.
= i
f
cn
cn
f
Then by introducing
1
=
csd
s
1
cn
2
165
1
f
2
(4.51)
ve(y) = B1 e
y
f1 + i c
sd
(y+c t)
+ B2 e
i
f1 i c
sd
(yc t)
sd
sd
+ B2 e f e csd
v(y, t) = B1 e f e csd
fy
= B1 e
cos
{y + csd t} + i sin
{y + csd t}
csd
csd
fy
cos
+ B2 e
{y csd t} i sin
{y csd t} .
csd
csd
(4.52)
From this form it can be recognized that there are travelling waves in the soil model due to the
harmonic vibration of the top. If time t is changed by t (t = t + t), while y is increased by
csd t (y = y + csd t), then the argument y csd t does not change. Thus the terms multiplied
by B2 represent mechanical waves travelling downwards at a constant speed csd . Similarly, if
time is changed by t, while y is decreased by csd t, then y + csd t does not change. Hence the
terms multiplied by B1 are the mechanical waves travelling upwards at a constant speed csd .
However, if a semiinfinite soil bar is excited at the top, and the soil is assumed to be
homogeneous, then only the waves that travel downwards exist. The reason of this is that the
excitation of the top induces waves travelling downwards, and these waves do not reflected
from any material discontinuity, which would be one source of waves travelling upwards. The
bottom of the bar can also reflect downwardtravelling waves, as the other source of the upwardtravelling waves, but the bottom is in the infinity now, so this source does not exist either.
Therefore, for the specific case of the homogeneous, semiinfinite soil bar we keep only
ve(y) = B2 e
f1 i c
sd
(4.53)
B2 = 1.
The normal force on the top due to the harmonic vibration of the top is:
de
v (y)
1
1
,
N (0) = Ec A0
= Ec A0
+ i
dy y=0
f
csd
which is the opposite of the dynamic stiffness of the homogeneous, semiinfinite soil bar:
Ec A0
Ec A0
e
ksoil =
.
+ i
f
csd
(4.54)
As we can see, the stiffness of the soil bar is complex, which means that besides an elastic spring
of stiffness Ec A0 /f , there is also a viscous damper of coefficient Ec A0 /csd in our system, even
though no internal (material) damping is considered in the constitutive law. The origin of
this energy dissipation mechanism of the soil is that the downwardtravelling waves are not
reflected back and so radiate energy from the system. This damping phenomenon is called
radiation damping.
166
s
2
2
1
1
Ec A0
1
Ec A0
+ i
= Ec A0
+ i
f
f
csd
cn
f
s
(
2
)
1
1
.
= Ec A0
2
+ (1)
f
c2n
f
Thus the dynamic stiffness of the soil in the case of low forcing frequency is:
ksoil = Ec A0
1
+
f
1
2
f2
c2n
(4.55)
f1
2
1
2
f2
cn
We can verify this result by comparing it to the static stiffness (4.42), which is the limit case
0:
2Ec A0
static
=
= ksoil
ksoil
f
0
The other limit case is cn /f , when
ksoil
cn /f
1 static
Ec A0
= ksoil
,
f
2
which equals the real part of the complex dynamic stiffness (4.54).
As a conclusion we can state that the soil can be modelled (in the simplistic cases) by an
elastic spring and a dashpot if the forcing frequency is high enough, and by a single elastic
spring if the forcing frequency is sufficiently low. Table 4.1 summarizes the results obtained
eq
for the equivalent spring constant ksoil
and damping coefficient ceq
soil depending on the forcing
frequency and soil parameters.
Finally, we mention that internal damping of the soil material itself can also be taken into
account by replacing E with the complex elastic modulus
e = (1 + i 2soil )E
E
in the previous derivations. (Here soil is the structural damping coefficients of the soil.) In this
case there can be two types of damping in the model. One originates from the internal damping,
167
Forcing frequency
<
cn
f
>
Spring stiffness
1 static
eq
static
k
< ksoil
< ksoil
2 soil
Damping coefficient
ceq
soil = 0
cn
f
1 static
eq
ksoil
= ksoil
2
ceq
soil =
Ec A0
csd
eq
Table 4.1: Equivalent spring stiffness ksoil
and damping coefficient ceq
soil of the soil assuming a homogeneous
elastic half space corresponding to low and high forcing frequency
p . Here Ec is the constrained modulus of
the soil, A0 is the area of the rigid plate on the soil surface, cn = Ec / with being the mass density of the
soil, while the characteristic depth f is given by (4.43) for a disk, and the velocity of the travelling wave csd is
computed according to (4.51)
which is rateindependent, thus appears at any loading frequency. The other one is due to the
radiation damping, and it only appears at higher forcing frequencies. We note that the stiffness
of the soil due to horizontal translation and to rotation of the rigid disk can be computed in a
similar way.
Problem 4.5.1 (Modelling the soil under a machine foundation). There is a machine that exerts a periodic
force q(t) = q0 sin(t) on its foundation which can be regarded as a rigid disk of diameter D = 2 m. The
circular frequency of the force is = 50 1s . The underlying soil is sand with Youngs modulus E = 30 MPa=
30 106 N/m2 , Poissons ratio = 0.4, and mass density = 2 t/m3 = 2 103 kg/m3 . Determine the equivalent
soil parameters for the dynamical calculation!
Solution. First we compute the constrained modulus Ec and the characteristic depth f , from Eqs. (4.39) and
(4.43):
0.6
1
2
E=
30 106 = 64.28 106 N/m ,
(1 + )(1 2)
(1.4)(0.2)
(1 )2
(0.6)2
f = R
=
= 1.8 m.
1 2
0.2
p
We also need cn = Ec /:
r
64.28 106
m
= 179.28 .
cn =
3
2 10
s
Now we can compare the circular frequency of the forcing to cn /f :
Ec =
1
= 50 ,
s
cn
179.28
1
=
= 31.70 ,
f
1.8
s
>
cn
,
f
thus the forcing frequency is high enough to induce travelling waves which radiates in the soil. Hence we
need an elastic spring and a viscous damper, too, to model the soil. The velocity csd of the travelling waves is
computed from (4.51)
s
2
2
2 s
2
s
m
1
1
1
1
1
=
csd
cn
f
179.28
1.8 50
m
s
168
Ec A0
64.28 106
N
=
= 35.71 106 ,
f
1.8
m
64.28 106
Ns
Ec A0
=
= 87.10 104
.
=
csd
231.84
m
eq
ksoil
=
ceq
soil
Problem 4.5.2 (Vibration of a prismatic soil column). Study the vibration of a prismatic soil beam!
Solution. We can simply take f1 = 0 in the previous analysis to obtain the differential equation of the longitudinal vibration of a prismatic (cylindrical) bar. The differential equation of motion is from (4.40):
1 2 v(y, t)
2 v(y, t)
2
= 0.
2
y
cn t2
(Compare it to (2.6)!) If the top is vibrating by a unit amplitude, then the particular solution is written in the
separated form (4.45) leading to the ordinary differential equation for the shape function
d2 ve(y) 2
+ 2 ve(y) = 0.
dy 2
cn
ve(y) = B ey
s
2
=
= i .
cn
cn
Thus
ve(y) = B1 e i cn y + B2 e i cn y .
We can observe travelling waves in this solution, too, but the amplitude of the vibration does not decrease with
depth. The constants B1 and B2 can be determined from boundary conditions.
If we study an semiinfinite bar with a harmonically vibrating top, using B1 + B2 = 1 and B1 = 0 as
before, then the vibration of the prismatic soil bar is given by
{y cn t} i sin
{y cn t} ,
v(y, t) = B2 e i cn (ycn t) = B2 cos
cn
cn
yielding the stiffness
dv(y)
Ec A0
prism
e
ksoil
= N (0) = Ec A0
= i
.
dy y=0
cn
Damping (the complex part of the stiffness) is present due to the lack of the upwardtravelling waves, but the
static stiffness (the elastic resistance, the real part of the stiffness) is zero due to the infinite depth of the bar. It
seems strange, but based on our previous studies of strength of materials we can check what the stiffness of a
stretched semiinfinite bar of normal stiffness EA and length is:
kbar
=
EA
= 0.
169
Problem 4.5.3 (Complex dynamic shape function of a prismatic bar). Using the complex differential equation
of motion of a prismatic soil bar determine its dynamic shape function corresponding to the end conditions
v(0, t) = 1 e it and v(, t) = 0.
Solution. The bar is free from force load. As in the previous problem we set
differential equation of motion of a prismatic bar:
1
f
2 v(y, t)
1 2 v(y, t)
2
= 0.
2
y
cn t2
The spatial and temporal variables are separated as
v(y, t) = ve(y) e it .
Similarly to the previous problem, the shape function ve(y) satisfies the ordinary differential equation
d2 ve(y) 2
+ 2 ve(y) = 0,
dy 2
cn
leading to
ve(y) = B1 e i cn y + B2 e i cn y .
y=
= 0,
yielding
B1 + B2 = 1,
B1 e i cn + B2 e i cn = 0
Solving the above equations we get
B1 =
e i cn
i cn
i cn
B2 =
e i cn
e i cn e i cn
i
1
e i cn =
e i cn ,
2 i sin cn
2 sin cn
=
2 i sin
2 sin
2 sin
i
i
cn
1
cn
e i cn e i cn y +
cn
e i cn =
e i cn (y) +
i
e i cn .
2 sin cn
i
e i cn e i cn y
2 sin cn
i
e i cn (y) ,
2 sin cn
In order to compute the stiffness of the bar we need to differentiate the shape function with respect to y:
i i cn
i ( i) cn i (y)
de
v (y)
e i cn (y) +
e cn
=
dy
2 sin cn
2 sin cn
=
1
1
e i cn (y)
e i cn (y) .
cn 2 sin
cn 2 sin
cn
cn
170
1
v (y)
e 11 = EA de
e i cn + e i cn
= EA
K
dy y=0
cn 2 sin
cn
cos
i sin
+ cos
+ i sin
= EA
cn 2 sin
cn
cn
cn
cn
cn
,
= EA cot
cn
cn
i
h
v (y)
1
1
e 41 = EA de
e i cn 0 + e i cn 0 = EA
K
= EA
dy y=
cn 2 sin
cn sin
cn
cn
The bar has realvalued stiffnesses, since there is no internal (structural, or material) damping and all the
travelling waves can be reflected back and forth from the ends of the bar. Note that the above values identical
to the corresponding entries of (3.71).
Finally, let us compile the particular solution of the partial differential equation:
i
e i cn (ycn t)
2 sin
2 sin cn
i
=
cos
(y + cn t) + i sin
(y + cn t)
cn
cn
2 sin cn
i
cos
(y cn t) i sin
(y cn t) .
cn
cn
2 sin
v(y, t) = ve(y) e it =
i
cn
e i cn (y+cn t) +
cn
sin
1
cn
= 1 + cot2
cn
2 sin
1
cn
=
1 + cot2
2
cn
sin
(y + cn t) sin
(y cn t) .
Re(v(y, t)) =
2
cn
cn
It is important to understand that the above result is the solution corresponding to the vibration cos(t) of the
starting end of the bar, and so identical with (2.13).
Similarly, the complex part of (4.5.3) is
r
1 + cot2 cn
cos
(y + cn t) cos
(y cn t) ,
Im(v(y, t)) =
2
cn
cn
which is the solution corresponding to the vibration sin(t) of the starting end, and so the same as (2.15).
171
4.6
In this section we will analyse possible solution methods of the matrix differential equation (4.1). These methods are required when the damping is nonproportional, and the modal
analysis cannot be used, but we restrict our analysis to real damping matrix C.
As we have seen earlier for SDOF systems in Section 1.2, the numerical integration of the
equation of motion provides the displacement of the system at discrete time steps. From the
displacements one can recover the motion of the system, and computethe internal forces as
well.
Explicit methods calculate the next points of the solution by satisfying the differential equation in the starting point. Implicit methods calculate the next points of the solution such that
they satisfy the differential equation in that point. For further details see [12].
i ),
u i = u(t
i = u
(ti ).
u
We want to derive a formula for the calculation of these vectors at the time ti+1 = ti + t:
ui+1 = u(ti + t),
i + t),
u i+1 = u(t
i+1 = u
(ti + t).
u
Let us assume, that the continuous change of the acceleration between time steps ti and ti+1
can be described by the scalar valued function f ( ):
(ti + t) = u
i + f ( ) (
i) .
u
ui+1 u
(4.56)
Here is a nondimensional time. One can conclude from the above formula, that f (0) = 0
3
and f (1) = 1. Integrating the acceleration
R t with respect to time provides the velocity function
(similar to the formula v(t) = v(0) + 0 a( ) d ):
Z
i + f (T ) (
i ) dT .
i + t) = u(t
i ) + t u
ui+1 u
u(t
0
i + t) = u i + u
i t + (
i ) t
u(t
ui+1 u
f (T ) dT.
(4.57)
R t +t
dt we must substitute the absolute time t as the product of the time step and
In the integral formula tii
u
the nondimensional time:
t
.
The
elementary time will be then dt = t d . Using this exchange of variables
R
t dT .
the integral becomes 0 u
3
172
R1
(i.e. at = 1):
i t + (
i ) t,
u i+1 = u i + u
ui+1 u
or in a more elegant form:
i +
u i+1 = u i + [(1 ) u
ui+1 ] t.
Next, we introduce the function g( ) =
(4.58)
u(ti + t) = u(ti ) + t
Z
0
i T t + (
i ) tg(T ) dT
u i + u
ui+1 u
t2 2
i + t2 (
i)
u(ti + t) = ui + tu i +
u
ui+1 u
2
g(T ) dT.
(4.59)
R1
t2
i + t2 (
i ) ,
= ui + tu i +
u
ui+1 u
2
1
i + u
i+1 t2 .
u
2
(4.60)
(4.61)
1
=
(ui+1 ui u i t)
t2
1
i,
1 u
2
substitute the acceleration into Eq. (4.58), and solve it for the velocity:
1
i t
i t +
(ui+1 ui u i t)
1 u
u i+1 = u i + (1 ) u
t
2
=
(ui+1 ui ) + 1
t
ui .
u i + 1
t
173
C
(ui+1 ui ) + 1
t
ui + Kui+1 = qi+1 .
u i + 1
t
2
Let us define the effective stiffness matrix Keff as
Keff = K +
C+
M,
t
t2
ui +
1 u i +
1 t
ui .
+C
t
2
Then, the iteration formula for the calculation of the displacements in the time instant ti+1 can
be written in the short form:
Keff ui+1 = qeff
(4.63)
i+1 .
In a linear system the effective stiffness matrix is constant during the computation, so it is
sufficient to calculate its inverse only once. The effective load vector depends on the load at
the next step, and the current state of the system, thus it is recalculated at every time step.
Special cases of the function f ( )
The parameters and depend on the shape of the assumed change of the acceleration
during the analysed timestep t.
i and u
i+1 . This
In a simple case we can assume, that the acceleration is the average of u
corresponds to f ( ) = 0.5, g( ) = 0.5 , which leads to = 0.5 and = 0.25.
The next case assumes a linearly varying acceleration with f ( ) = and g( ) = 2 /2. The
numerical parameters are then = 0.5 and = 1/6.
174
Chapter 5
Earthquake analysis
The most significant horizontal load of structures was the wind load for many years of
standardized design. Change in applyed materials emerged the importance of earthquake as a
load case. In this chapter we go through the basic mechanics of earthquake engineering, as
a preparation for the specific subject devoted to it. We introduce the mechanical aspects of
earthquakes, and their propagation as waves. Then the elements of elastic analysis of singleand multiDOF structures, and some notes about the advanced methods are presented. We do
not focus here on the standards but on the mechanical concepts and theories which are reflected
in the prescriptions of building codes, for example in Eurocode 8 [4].
5.1
Introduction to earthquakes
The structure of Earth in a very simplified description consists of a core (divided usually
into an inner and an outer core), surrounded by the mantle and covered by the crust. The core
is mostly composed of iron and nickel. The inner core is solid with a radius of 1220 km, while
the outer core is liquid with a thickness of 2270 km. The mantle consists of a highly viscous
solid material with a thickness of 2850 km. The solid crust has a varying thickness between
5 km (oceanic crust) and 70 km (continental crust).
The crust consists of tectonic plates floating on the surface of the mantle. Convection in
the mantle results in a continuous motion of the plates. Neighbouring plates are in contact, and
due to the friction between the plates there are stresses accumulating in those region. When the
stress exceeds its ultimate value somewhere, a sudden motion occurs between the plates and
a huge amount of energy is released. This rupture is the cause of most earthquakes. (Further
causes are volcanic activities, mine blasts, landslides, etc.) The location, where the rupture happens is called the hypocenter or focus. The point on the ground level right above the hypocenter
is the epicenter.
The dislocation travels through the solid soil as a wave. Two types of travelling waves are
distinguished.
175
(1 )E
.
(1 + )(1 2)
Here E, and are the elastic modulus, the Poisson ratio and the density of the solid
material, respectively. The typical velocity of Pwaves in soil is in the range 5 13 km/h.
In Swaves the particles are moving transverse to the travel direction of the wave. They
are called shear waves, or secondary waves. The velocity of Swaves is
s
G
cs =
,
where G is the elastic shear modulus of the solid. The typical velocity of Swaves is
smaller than that of the Pwaves in the same material, it is in the range 4 5 km/h. In
liquid material (like the outer core) the Swaves do not propagate.
The difference between the velocities of P and Swaves makes it possible to calculate the
distances of the hypocenter from seismic measurement sites, and to determine the location of
the hypocenter.
On interfaces between various materials both P and S waves can exhibit four types of
behaviour. They can reflected (back, into the same side of the interface zone) or refracted (by
entering the other side of the interface zone) into a P or an Swave. This property helped to
analyse the inner structure of Earth.
On the ground level both P and Swaves causes displacements. Their superposition results in surface waves. Pressure waves and the vertical shear waves (also called as SVwaves)
results in elliptic motion of the particles. These waves are the Rayleigh waves or Rwaves.
The horizontal shear waves (also called as SHwaves) are reflected from the surface and from
interfaces between various materials near the surface. This results in an other type of surface
waves, which are called the Love waves, or Qwaves. The above mentioned solid and surface
waves are drawn in Figure 5.1.
Far from the epicenter typically the horizontal displacements are dominant, and they may
result in large excessive internal forces. Therefore earthquake analysis of engineering structures
typically focus on the lateral motions.
Historical earthquakes were qualified by the caused damage or the human feelings. These
qualifications incorporate many architectrual and sociological factors as well, but unaware of
the distance of the place of perception from the epicenter. Scientifically exact classification
requires the energy released during the earthquake, and the location of the epicenter. The most
176
Figure 5.1: (a) Motion of a soil particle from vertical shear (SH), pressure (P) and Rayleigh (R) waves. (b)
Deformed shape of a soil block, caused by the Rayleigh waves. (c) Motion of a soil particle from horizontal shear
(SH) wave and the reflection of SHwaves on the material interfaces. (d) Deformed shape of a solid block, caused
by the Love (Q) waves of the surface.
frequently used scale is the Richter magnitude scale. The Richter scale is a logarithmic scale,
two units higher magnitude on the scale represents 1000 times more released energy.
It is also worth to mention, that formation of earthquakes caused by the continuous motion
of the tectonic plates. As long there is no earthquake occurs in a exposed region, more and
more energy accumulates thus the next earthquake has usually higher magnitude. This theory
is justified by statistical analysis too.
In a specific location the earthquake is represented by the ground motion ug (t). This geometric load can be used as a load, allowing the solution of the differential equation of motion.
Technically it is much easier to record the acceleration of the ground instead of the displacement. The tool is called an accelerometer. In an analog accelerometer a supported mass moves
a pencil on a moving paper. We call the recorded function ug (t) as a time history function, it
can be used later for modelling the ground motion.
5.2
(5.1)
Here u(t) is the elongation of the spring (or the deformation of the elastic structure) The response of a SDOF system depends only on the natural circular frequency and the damping
177
(5.2)
Zt
q( ) sin (0 (t )) d.
02 u(t)
0
=
m
Zt
q( ) sin (0 (t )) d.
Problem 5.2.1 (Calculation of response functions). A damped, single DOF system is characterized by the mass
m = 1 kg, viscous damping c = 0.5 Ns/m and spring stiffness k = 10 N/m. The system is forced by an impulse
load shown in Figure 5.2 (a). Calculate the displacement, velocity, and acceleration response functions and the
pseudovelocity and pseudoacceleration diagrams!
178
Figure 5.2: (a) The load function. (b) Displacement response function. (c) Velocity response function. (d)
Acceleration response function. (e) Pseudovelocity response diagram. (f) Pseudoacceleration response
diagram.
Solution. The calculation was carried out with the CauchyEuler method. The results are shown in Figure 5.2
(bf).
Zt
0
ug ( ) 0 (t )
e
sin (0 (t )) d.
0
The pseudoacceleration response of a damped SDOF system due to support vibration is then:
aP (t) =
02
Zt
0
ug ( ) 0 (t )
e
sin (0 (t )) d,
0
and the equivalent spring force can be calculated as above, fS (t) = maP (t).
179
(5.3)
180
Figure 5.3: (a) Example diagrams of the displacement response function of structures with various loading.
(b) Displacement response spectrum vs. the natural circular frequency. (c) Displacement response spectrum
vs. the natural period.
181
Figure 5.4: The function (T0 ) of the pseudoacceleration response versus the natural period.
The function
(T0 ) depends on the structural damping via a correction factor =
p
max(0.55, 10/(5 + )). The function (T0 ) consists of a linear segment in the zone T0 < TB
T0
(T0 ) = 1 +
(2.5 1)
TB
and a constant coefficient in the zone TB < T0 < TC
(T0 ) = 2.5 1.
182
5.3
Earthquake analysis of MDOF systems can be carried out via integration of the matrix
differential equation of motion with proper support vibrations as forcing. We have seen in the
case of SDOF systems, that time history of earthquakes varies, so this type of analysis would
require proper (real or artificial) earthquake records.
(5.4)
j = 1, . . . , N.
(5.5)
(5.6)
(Here Mi is the rows corresponding to the internal nodes in the unconstrained mass matrix of
the structure, r is the total influence vector. See Subsection 3.5.3.) The modal response can be
calculated with the Duhamels integral
yj (t) =
Zt
0
fj ( ) 0j (t )
e
sin 0j
(t ) d.
1 0j
183
(5.7)
Zt
0
uTj (
ug ( ))mg 0j (t )
e
sin 0j
(t ) d
0j
= uTj mg
Zt
0
ug ( ) 0j (t )
e
sin 0j
(t ) d.
1 0j
The integral in the above formula is the jth modal displacement response to the support vibration ug (t). During the design process we do not have support vibration functions (since we do
not know the time histories of upcoming earthquakes), but a design response spectrum. Therefore, instead of the calculation of the integral, we should read the response spectrum value at
0j
for the structural damping ratio . However, usually we do not have the displacement response spectrum either, but the pseudo acceleration design spectrum. In this case we have to
2
divide this pseudoacceleration Se (, 0j ) by 0j
. The maximal modal displacement is then
yjmax = uTj mg
Se (, 0j
)
.
2
0j
The design values of displacements of the structure due to this modal displacement of the jth
mode is:
Se (, 0j
)
uj,max = uj uTj mg
.
(5.8)
2
0j
We can use this displacement vector to calculate the internal forces of the members belonging
to the jth mode.
Note: The quasistatic nodal force system that results in the above displacement system can
be calculated with the stiffness matrix as
fSj,max = Kuj,max .
One can apply the above fictitious force on the nodes to calculate the equivalent static response
of the jth mode. 1 If we write the nodal forces with Eq. (5.8)
fSj,max = Kuj uTj mg
Se (, 0j
)
2
0j
2
one can realize, that Kuj = 0j
Muj results in the simplified formula
fSj,max = Muj j Se (, 0j
)
Apparently, that analysis would start with the solution of the classical static equation Ku = q with q =
fSj,max . It should not be a surprise, that the solution will be uj,max .
184
N
X
j=1
Cj,max .
(5.9)
This is on the safe side, it is very unlikely, that each maximum occurs at the same time.
If the natural circular frequencies are well separated 2 , we can take the square root of the
sum of squares (SRSS)
v
u N
uX
2
.
(5.10)
Cj,max
Cmax = t
j=1
This method emphasizes the modes with larger responses. The root square of the sum of
squares can be written in matrix form too:
p
(5.11)
Cmax = CTmax ICmax .
with the vector of maximal modal internal forces
CTmax = C1,max C2,max . . . CN,max .
The first natural mode is often the most important. We can consider this in the SRSS
method emphasizing the first mode:
v
u N
uX
2
Cmax = C1,max + t
Cj,max
.
j=2
If there is a damping in the structure, the modes are coupled. In that case one can use
the complete quadratic combination rule (CQC)
p
Cmax = CTmax Cmax ,
(5.12)
where the correlation matrix represents the coupling between the modes. Its entries
are computed from minimizing the error between the responses of the structure to a
The natural circular frequencies are well separated, when the smallest relative difference between any two
frequencies is more than 10%.
185
0i
1 0j
+ 4 2 1 + 0j
In an undamped system = I.
5.4
186
Figure 5.5: (a) Forcedeformation diagram of the linear elasticplastic material model: loading, reaching the
yield point Y , further loading (plastic deformation) , unloading at point P . Notice, that there is a residual plastic
deformation up uy in the unloaded state. (b) Forcedeformation diagram of the linear elasticplastic and the
equivalent elastic structures.
u (t) = I(t)
M
X
Ai cos (i t + i ) ,
i=1
187
Figure 5.6: Typical envelope functions of artificial earthquake records. (a) boxcar: constant value as long the
earthquake lasts. (b) trapesoid: linear increasing and decaying part, with a constant strong quake. (c) exponential:
the sum of two exponential function. (d) compound: quadratic increasing part, constant strong quake, and
exponentially decaying part.
The amplitudes Ai are iterated so that the elastic response spectrum of ug (t) calculated
from Eq. (5.3) be the closest to the elastic design spectrum. Technically, in M points, e.g.
in the points i we can fit the response spectrum and the design spectrum. This is done in an
iterative process, hence the change of an amplitude Ai changes all computed response spectrum
values. When the amplitudes Ai do not change significantly anymore, we stop the iteration, and
analyse the response of the structure to the support motion ug (t).
This procedure must be repeated for various phase angle sets. During the calculation, the
actual deformations and internal forces can be determined.
188
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliography
[1] VI Arnold. Ordinary Differential Equations. The MIT Press, Cambridge, 1973.
[2] FP Beer, ER Johnston Jr, JT DeWolf, and DF Mazurek. Mechanics of Materials. McGrawHill, New York, 2009.
[3] AK Chopra. Dynamics of Structures. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1995.
[4] EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance, 1998.
[5] L Fryba. Vibration of Solids and Structures under Moving Loads. Thomas Telford,
Prague, 1999.
[6] J Gyorgyi. Szerkezetek Dinamikaja. Muegyetemi Kiado, Budapest, 2006. (In Hungarian).
[7] M Kurutz and I Bojtar. Lecture Notes on Strength of Materials. Budapest University of
Technology and Economics. www.me.bme.hu/en/course/strengthmaterials.
[8] A Lengyel and F Kovacs. Lecture Notes on Structural Analysis Theory. Budapest University of Technology and Economics. www.me.bme.hu/en/course/structuralanalysistheory.
[9] T Tarnai. Structural Stability in Engineering Practice (L Kollar Ed.), chapter Summation
theorems concerning critical loads of bifurcation, pages 2358. E & FN Spon, London,
1999.
[10] S Timoshenko and JN Goodier. Theory of Elasticity. McGrawHill, New York, 1951.
[11] S Timoshenko, DH Young, and W Weaver Jr. Vibration Problems in Engineering. John
Wiley & Sons, New York, 1974.
[12] EL Wilson. ThreeDimensional Static and Dynamic Analysis of Structures. Computers
and Structures, Inc., Berkeley, 2002.
[13] JP Wolf. Dynamic SoilStructure Interaction. PrenticeHall, Inc., New Jersey, 1985.
[14] JP Wolf and A J Deeks. Foundation Vibration Analysis: a strengthofmaterial approach.
Elsevier, Oxford, 2004.
189
Appendix A
Additional derivations and notes
A.1
Instead of assuming a solution u(x, t) of Eq. (2.6) as a standing wave (Eq. (2.7)) we can
search the solution as the sum of two travelling waves:
u(x, t) = u1 (x1 ) + u2 (x2 ).
(A.1)
In the above equation x1 = xcn t and x2 = x+cn t are the phases of a forward and a backward
travelling wave, respectively. The functions u1 (x1 ) and u2 (x2 ) are the current shapes of those
waves travelling with the velocity cn forward and backward, respectively. At t = 0 both phases
are zero (x1 = x2 = x), so the u1 (x) and u2 (x) functions describe the shapes of the waves at a
frozen time instant.
The wave functions u1 (x1 ) and u2 (x2 ) are single variable functions. In the assumed form
Eq. (A.1) the arguments of the wave functions are internal functions of x and t, so for the
derivatives we have to use the chain rule. In the following formulas u1 (x1 ) denote the derivative
of the wave function u1 (x1 ) with respect to x1 , and u2 (x2 ) denote the derivative of the wave
function u2 (x2 ) with respect to x2 . For the partial derivatives with respect to the coordinate x
we will have:
u1 (x1 )
(x cn t)
= u1 (x1 )
= u1 (x1 ),
x
x
2 u1 (x1 )
= u1 (x1 ).
x2
2 u2 (x2 )
= u2 (x2 ).
2
x
which is an identity, so the assumption Eq. (A.1) is correct, and cn is indeed the velocity of
travelling waves.
To find the wave functions u1 (x1 ) and u2 (x2 ) we have to use the initial conditions. Let us
assume, that the displacement and the velocity at t = 0 are given functions:
u(x, 0) = u0 (x),
u(x,
0) = v0 (x).
(A.2)
We substitute the sum of the travelling waves u1 (x cn 0) and u2 (x + cn 0), and the sum
of their derivatives with respect to time cn u1 (x cn 0) and cn u2 (x + cn 0) into the initial
conditions (A.2):
u1 (x cn 0) + u2 (x + cn 0) = u0 (x),
cn u1 (x cn 0) + cn u2 (x + cn 0) = v0 (x).
(A.3)
(A.4)
We differentiate Eq. (A.3) with respect to x, and divide both sides of Eq. (A.4) by cn , and leave
behind the cn 0 terms:
u1 (x) + u2 (x) = u0 (x),
v0 (x)
.
u1 (x) + u2 (x) =
cn
(A.5)
The system of differential equations (A.5) can be simplified, if we take the half of the
difference of the equations and the half of the sum of the equations:
v0 (x)
1
,
u0 (x)
u1 (x) =
2
cn
(A.6)
1
v0 (x)
u2 (x) =
.
u0 (x) +
2
cn
The ordinary differential equations of Eq. (A.6) can be solved by integration with respect to x:
Z
1 x
v0 ()
u1 (x) =
d + C1 ,
u0 ()
2 0
cn
Z
v0 ()
1 x
d + C2 .
u0 () +
u2 (x) =
2 0
cn
191
u0 (x, t) =
2
xc
R nt
v0 () d
2cn
x+c
R nt
v0 () d
2cn
+ C.
Figure A.1 (a) shows a simple application of the above result, where a bar with fixedfree
ends is released from rest at t = 0, but the point B has an initial displacement, while points
A and C are held in their original position. So, the function u0 (x) can be constructed from
linear segments. Using Eq. (A.7) and the initial zero velocities the shape functions u1 and u2
will be half of the initial displacement u0 travelling forward and backward, respectively (see
Fig. A.1 (b)). However, we need special care with the shape functions u1 and u2 because of the
boundary conditions.
Figure A.1: (a) Rod with fixedfree ends with an initial displacement. (b) The forward and the backward
travelling waves. (c) Bouncing back of the travelling wave from the fixed end. (d) Bouncing back of the
travelling wave from the free end.
Figure A.1 (c) shows the fixed end, as the backward travelling wave u2 goes through it.
But the boundary condition u(0, t) = 0 requires u1 to enter the bar at the same time with
192
A.2
The static shape functions of a beam member are collected in the matrix
#
"
ui (x)
0
0
uj (x)
0
0
.
N=
0
viy (x) vi (x)
0
vjy (x) vj (x)
The strain matrix of a beam member is collected in
"
#
ui (x)
0
0
uj (x)
0
0
B = LN =
.
0
viy
(x) vi
(x)
0
vjy
(x) vj
(x)
In the case of a fixedfixed beam, the entries of matrix N are:
x
x
0
0
0
1
ff
N =
x2
x2
x2
x3
x3
x3
0
2 3 3 2 + 1 2 2 + x 0 2 3 + 3 2
0
2
x
x
0
0
0
0
Nff =
.
0
2 3 3 2 + 1 ( 3 2 2 + ) 0 2 3 + 3 2 ( 3 2 )
The entries of the strain matrix are:
1
1
0
0
ff
B =
x
x
x
1
1
1
0 12 3 + 6 2 6 2 + 4
0 12 3 6 2
0
6
x
1
+2
2
1
0
ff
B =
6
12
0 2+ 2
4
6
+
193
6
12
2
2
2
6
+
x
x
0
0
0
1
fp
N =
1 x3 3 x2 1 x3 3 x2
1 x3 3 x2
+
x
+ 2
0
1+ 3 2
0
2
2
2 2
2
2 3
2
x
x
0
0
0
1
pf
N =
1 x3 3 x
1 x3 3 x
0
1+ 3
0 0 3 +
2
2
2
2
0
3
1x
1
x
2
2
2
x
x
1
0
0
0 0
Npf =
.
x
x
0
1
0 0
0
A.3
0
0
Kloc,ff
ij
EA
EA
EA
12EI
3
6EI
2
6EI
2
4EI
EA
12EI
6EI
2
3
6EI
2
2EI
194
0
0
12EI 6EI
6EI
2EI
0
0
12EI
6EI
2
4EI
6EI
2
EA
EA
0
0
3EI
3EI
0
0
3EI
3EI
0
0
2
loc,fp
Kij =
EA
EA
0
0
3EI
3EI
2
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
EA
EA
0
0
3EI
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Kloc,pf
=
ij
EA
EA
0
0
3EI
0
0
3
0
3EI
0
0
0
2
195
3EI
3
3EI
2
3EI
3
3EI
3
0
0
3EI
3
3EI
2
3EI
3EI
2
3EI
A.4
As an alternative method to that of shown in Section 3.2.2, we can formulate the elementary
dynamical stiffness matrix using only dynamical shape functions. For that we write the virtual
work of the force system shown in Figure 3.9 on the same displacement system:
Z
Z
Wdd = Viiy +
iy (x) dx sin2 (t)
viy (x)
viy (x) dx Miy (x)
0
0
Z
Z
= Viiy +
viy (x)
viy (x) dx EI {
viy (x)} dx sin2 (t) = 0.
loc , we get:
Expressing Viiy , the entry 2,2 of the dynamical stiffness matrix K
ij
loc
ij,22
K
= Viiy = EI
{
viy
(x)}2 dx 2
{
viy (x)}2 dx .
(3.68) as
If we denote the product of matrices L (3.24) and N
= LN,
B
(3.68) we can shortly write
and with matrices D (3.26) and N
then with matrices B,
loc =
K
ij
T DB
dx 2
B
TN
dx .
N
(A.8)
196
A.5
1
1
0
0
0
0
3
6
13
9
13
11
0
0
35
210
70
420
11
13
1 2
1 2
0
0
210
105
420
140
.
Mloc,ff
=
ij
1
1
0
0
0
0
6
3
11
13
9
13
0
0
70
420
35
210
13
11
1 2
1 2
0
420
140
210
105
1
1
0
0
3
6
3
17
0
0
35
35
2 2
3
0
0
35
105
Mloc,fp
=
ij
1
1
0
0
6
3
39
11
0
0
280
280
0
0
0
0
197
39
280
11
280
33
140
1
1
0
0
3
6
33
0
0
0
140
0
0
0
0
Mloc,pf
=
ij
1
1
0
0
6
3
39
0
0
0
280
11
0
0
0
280
0
39
280
0
0
17
35
35
Mloc,pp
ij
11
280
3
35
2 2
105
1
6
1
3
1
6
1
6
1
3
1
6
1
3
1
3
198
A.6
Here we derive two identities which are used in the particular solutions of damped, harmonically excited systems.
Let us start with the trigonometric identity
R cos(t ) = R cos(t) cos() + R sin(t) sin().
This is reformulated as
R cos(t ) = (R cos()) cos(t) + (R sin()) sin(t)
= a cos(t) + b sin(t), where
a = R cos(),
b = R sin()
Here a, b, and are computed from
Therefore
a2
b2
R=
cos t arccot
a2 + b 2 ,
(A.9)
a
(A.10)
a
sin t arccot
.
b
(A.11)
a2
199
b2
A.7
We have shown the solution of the equation of motion of a damped, harmonically excited
SDOF system. Here we recall these results. First we give the solution if the exciting force
is a sine function. Then we go on with a cosine excitation. Next we show an approach that
can handle both sine and cosine excitation in one hand, but as a drawback, this analysis requires complex functions. Finally we study cases when the load is a combination of harmonic
functions, or it is a Fourier series.
A.7.1 Sine
We have seen that the damped, harmonically excited SDOF
m
u(t) + cu(t)
+ ku(t) = F0 sin(t)
has a homogeneous and a particular solutions. The latter one was assumed to be uf (t) =
uf 0 sin(t ) intuitively.
The usual mathematical way is to search for the solutions as
uf (t) = C1 sin(t) + C2 cos(t).
If this form is substituted back into the equation of motion, then
m 2 {C1 sin(t) + C2 cos(t)} + c {C1 cos(t) C2 sin(t)}
+ k {C1 sin(t) + C2 cos(t)} = F0 sin(t).
Collecting the terms multiplied by cos(t) and sin(t), respectively, we can write two equations for the coefficients C1 and C2
m 2 C2 + cC1 + kC2 = 0
C2 = C1
m 2 C1 cC2 + kC1 = F0 .
c
,
k m 2
200
k m 2
(k m 2 )2 + c2 2
sin t arccot
uf (t) = F0
c
{(k m 2 )2 + c2 2 }2
2
1
1
F0
02
.
t arccot
s
=
sin
c
2
k
2
2
2c
k
1 2 + 2
0
k
A.7.2 Cosine
If the load is described by a harmonic cosine function, then the equation of motion is
m
u(t) + cu(t)
+ ku(t) = F0 cos(t) .
The particular solution is again searched for as
uf (t) = C1 sin(t) + C2 cos(t).
This form is substituted back into the equation of motion:
m 2 {C1 sin(t) + C2 cos(t)} + c {C1 cos(t) C2 sin(t)}
+ k {C1 sin(t) + C2 cos(t)} = F0 cos(t).
Collecting the terms multiplied by cos(t) and sin(t), respectively, we can write two equations for the coefficients C1 and C2
m 2 C2 + cC1 + kC2 = F0 ,
m 2 C1 cC2 + kC1 = 0
C1 = C2
c
.
k m 2
k m 2
c
sin(t)
+
F
cos(t).
0
(k m 2 )2 + c2 2
(k m 2 )2 + c2 2
201
k m 2
(k m 2 )2 + c2 2
cos t arccot
uf (t) = F0
c
{(k m 2 )2 + c2 2 }2
2
1
1
F0
02
.
t arccot
s
=
cos
c
2
k
2
2
2c
k
1 2 + 2
0
k
Substituting the above form back into the equation of motion we get:
(m 2 + ic + k)e
uf 0 e it = F0 e it .
The complex coefficient u
ef 0 is expressed as
u
ef 0 = F0
m 2
1
F0
1
.
=
2
c
+ ic + k
k
1 2 + i
0
k
Now both the nominator and the denominator are multiplied with the conjugate of the denominator
2
2
c
c
1 2 i
1 2 i
F0
1
F0
0
k
0
k
u
ef 0 =
=
2
2
2
2
2
c
c
k
k
c2
1 2 + i
1 2 i
1 2 + 2
0
k
0
k
0
k
202
c2
1 2 + 2
0
k
2
1 2
F0
0
k
cos(t)
+
sin(t)
=
2
2
k
2
2
2 c2
2 c2
1 2 + 2
1 2 + 2
0
k
0
k
2
c
1 2
F0
0
k
.
sin(t)
cos(t)
+i
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
1 2 + 2
1 2 + 2
0
k
0
k
1 02
F0
1
s
u
ef (t) =
cos t arccot
c
k
2 2
2
c
k
1 2 + 2 2
0
k
1 02
1
F0
sin t arccot
+ i s
c
k
2
2 2
k
1 2 + 2 2
0
k
The real part of the above solution (i.e. the first term) is corresponded to the cosine excitation
function, while the imaginary part (the second term) is used when the loading is given by a
sine function. The main advantage of this abstract approach is that it handles both harmonic
excitation modes in one formula, and that it prepares the reader for the even more abstract
Fourier transform.
12
1
1
F1
02
1 t arccot
sin
uf (t) = s
c
2
k
2
1
12
2c
k
1 2 + 1 2
0
k
22
1 02
F2
1
2 t arccot
s
+
cos
c
k
2 2
2
c
2
k
1 22 + 22 2
0
k
32
1 02
1
F3
s
sin 3 t arccot
+
c .
k
2
2 2
3
c
k
1 32 + 32 2
0
k
204
A.8
e 1 = B
e = BR + iBI .
A
A2N =
AR AI
AI AR
A mathematical statement says that the inverse of the above real matrix equals to
1
AR AI
BR BI
1
A2N =
=
.
AI AR
BI BR
(A.12)
(A.13)
=
.
AI AR
BI BR
0N I N
Here IN is the N byN identity matrix, and 0N is the N byN zero (valued) matrix. If we
execute this matrix multiplication for the blocks we get
AR B R AI B I
AR B I + AI B R
AI BR AR BI
AI BI + AR BR
= IN ,
= 0N ,
= 0N ,
= IN .
Only the first two of these equations are linearly independent. We extract BI from the second
equation, BI = AR 1 AI BR , and substitute it back into the first equation:
1
BR = AR + AI AR 1 AI
.
(A.14)
e Finally, from back substitution of
That is the real part of the inverse of the complex matrix A.
this into the expression of BI we get the imaginary part of the inverse of the complex matrix
e
A:
1
BI = AR 1 AI AR + AI AR 1 AI
.
(A.15)
205
We have to invert a complex matrix, then multiply it with a complex function, and separate
the real and the imaginary parts of the solution. The real part becomes the particular solution,
the steadystate vibration of the system due to a cosinusoidal forcing with frequency and
amplitudes q0 . The imaginary part is governs the steadystate vibration of the system due to a
sinusoidal forcing with the same frequency and amplitudes. Using the definitions introduced in
the previous subsection, the matrix to invert is
e = K 2 M + iC,
K
i.e. the (complex) dynamical stiffness matrix. Its real and imaginary parts are
2
e = C.
e
Re K = K M, Im K
Using these parts, and following the definition (A.12), the block structure of the 2N by2N real
matrix is
K 2M
C
K2N =
.
C
K 2M
e
According to the derived formula (A.15) and (A.14), the real part of the inverse of Kis
1
e 1 = K 2 M + 2 C K 2 M 1 C
Re K
,
(A.16)
e = K 2 M + iC is
while the imaginary part of the inverse of K
1
e 1 = K 2 M 1 C K 2 M + 2 C K 2 M 1 C
Im K
.
The final solution (4.14) is then
o
n
1
1
e
e
e
q0 e it
+ i Im K
uf (t) = Re K
o
n
e 1 q0 {cos(t) + i sin(t)}
e 1 + i Im K
= Re K
o
n
e 1 q0 sin(t)
e 1 q0 cos(t) Im K
= Re K
o
n
1
1
e
e
q0 cos(t) .
q0 sin(t) + Im K
+ i Re K
(A.17)
It can be checked, that the real part of the above expression is the same as (4.9), i.e. the
steadystate vibration due to a cosinusoidal excitation with frequency and amplitudes q0 .
Besides, the imaginary part of the above expression is identical to (4.5), which is the steadystate vibration of the model subjected to a sinusoidal forcing.
206