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R. C.

Reddy IAS Study Circle-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Part Test - 01 (Solutions)


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Q1. "Two and a half century of the Rashtrakuta rule witnessed a very high
achievements in the fields of sculpture and architecture." Explain. (12 1/2
marks / 250 words)
Ancient Indian architecture reached a milestone in the Dravidian style during the rule of
Rashtrakutas. The finest examples appear in the at Ellora and Elephanta Caves, both of these are
designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Ellora Caves
The caves at Ellora are multi-storeyed and highly ornamented impressive complex of Buddhist,
Hindu and Jain (Digambara sect) cave temples. Even in Hindu tradition, they represent multiple
gods and multiple forms of the same god as well.
'Vishvakarma cave' or 'Carpenter's Cave' is the most famous of the Buddhist caves. It is a
chaitya with multi-storeyed entry and ceiling has been carved to give the impression of wooden
beams. At the heart of this cave is a 15-foot statue of Buddha seated in a preaching pose. A large
Bodhi tree is carved at the back.
The Dashavatara Cave hosts large sculptural panels illustrating a wide range of themes, which
include the ten avatars of Vishnu.
Kailashnath temple built during the reign of Krishna I represents the best, largest example and a
culmination of at least a millennium-long tradition in rock-cut architecture in India.The
important features of Kailasha temple are:
a. Monolithic superstructure: It is carved out of the monolithic hill from the top down
patiently.
b. Dravidian style: The general characteristics of the Kailasa temple are more Dravidian. It
consists of four parts the main shrine, the entrance gateway, an intermediate shrine for
Nandi and mandapa surrounding the courtyard. It has a three-tiered sikhara resembles the
sikhara of the Mamallapuram rathas. In the interior of the temple there is a pillared hall
which has sixteen square pillars.
c. Base: The temple stands on a high lofty base which has imposing figures of elephants and
lions giving the impression that the entire structure rests on their back.
d. Sculptures: The walls of the temple are adorned by magnificent sculptures. The sculpture
of the Goddess Durga is shown as slaying the Buffalo demon. In another sculpture Ravana
was making attempts to lift Mount Kailasa, the abode of Siva. The scenes of Ramayana
were also depicted on the walls.

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R. C. Reddy IAS Study Circle----------------------------------------------------------------------------Elephanta caves


The sculptural art of the Rashtrakutas reached its zenith at elephanta cave. It is a rock cut cave
temple dedicated to lord Shiva (linga). The important features of Ellora are:
The interior of the cave is decorated with a dozen large relief sculptures of Shiva in various
forms Nataraja, Gangadhara, Ardhanareesvara and Somaskanda.
The linga shrine is unusual in having four entrances, one at each compass point. Each
entrance was guarded by impressive dwarapalas.
The most imposing figure of this temple is the twenty-foot high trimurthi stature called
Maheshamurti. This three heads in the image represent Shiva as Aghori, Ardhanarishvara
and Mahayogi. It symbolizes the fierce, feminine and meditative aspects of Shiva
respectively.
Other sculptures in these caves depict Shiva's cosmic dance of primordial creation and
destruction and his marriage to Parvati and Shiva as half man/half-woman .
Among Rashtrakuta rulers some had Shiva as their Titular deity, some had Vishnu and
Amogavarsha Nrupatunga was a devout Jain. Yet we observe construction and coexistence of
structures from three religions/sects which serve as a splendid visual representation of the great
long Indian tradition of religious tolerance.

Q2. Write a short note on the following: (a)Lingayats (6 marks / 150 words)
Lingayatism emerged as a social reform movement in twelfth century Karnataka. It was led by a
Brahmana named Basavanna during the reign of the Kalachuri-dynasty king Bijjala I. His
followers were known as Lingayats (wearers of the linga).
He professed the lingayatism as a movement with rational, humanitarian and egalitarian
outlook.
They preached monotheism through worship centered on Lord Shiva in the form of "Ishta
linga".
They encouraged certain practices disapproved in the dharmashastras like late post
puberty marriages, remarriage of widows. They advocated better status of women (but
barred their women from becoming priests).
The Lingayats challenged the idea of caste and the pollution attributed to certain groups
(untouchability) then prevalent in orthodox Hindu society. These won them followers
amongst those who were marginalised but lingayats themselves became a caste later on.
Lingayats believe that on death the devotee will be united with Shiva and will not return to
this world. (Hence they do not believe in rebirth). Therefore, they do not practice funerary
rites such as cremation, prescribed in the Dharmashastras. Instead, they bury their dead in
the Dhyana mudra (meditating position) with their Ishta linga in their left hand.
The rise of lingayats is considered as a part of bhakti movement which had profound impact in
the states of Katnataka and Maharastra. They contributed to the growth of kannada literature.
Lingayats continue to be an important community in the region politically and has been very
active in the field of social work, particularly in the field of education and medicine.

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R. C. Reddy IAS Study Circle-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

(b) Ajivikas (6 marks / 120 words)


Ajivikas name means following the ascetic way of life. It was founded in the 5th century
BCE by Goshala Maskariputra (also called Gosala Makkhaliputta), a contemporary of the
Buddha and Mahavira. It emerged as a major rival of early Buddhism and Jainism and lasted
until the 14th century. It appealed most to the warrior, industrial and mercantile classes of
ancient Indian society. The emperor Ashoka's father, Bindusara, was a believer of Ajivika
philosophy, which reached its peak of popularity during Asoka's lifetime, and then declined into
obscurity.
Philosophy
It is known for its Niyati (destiny or fate) doctrine of absolute determinism, the premise
that everything that has happened, is happening and will happen is entirely preordained and
a function of cosmic principles, that was completely independent of the person's actions.
Hence they do not believe in Karma philosophy.
As a result of this view, the Ajivikas followed a strict regimen of asceticism such as
extreme fasting, indifference to physical discomfort, and living exposed to the elements
rather than pursue any purposeful goal. Ajivikas were sometimes depicted as ending their
lives voluntarily when they felt that their bodies or minds were beginning to decline
either by fasting to death, or, in the case of Purana Kassapa, by drowning.
Ajivikas were atheists and rejected the authority of the Vedas, but they believed that in
every living being is an atman (soul). They also believed in transmigration of the human
soul.
Thus, ajivika is one of the earliest nastika or heterodox schools of Indian school of determinism
(Niyativada).

Q3. "Despite having common basic features like shruti, swara, gama, raga,
taal, etc., Hindusthani and Carnatic music systems differ in myriad aspects."
Elaborate (12 1/2 marks / 250 words)
In ancient India, there was only one system of music but in medieval age, the music of the
Northern part of India assimilated some features of the music of the Persian and Arabic
musicians who adorned the courts of the Mughal rulers. However, the music of the South
continued to develop along its own original lines. This resulted in emergence of two distinct
styles on Indian classical music - Hindustani and Carnatic.
Owing to their common origins the basic features like raga, taal, swara, etc. are similar. Yet over
a period of time differences grew which are listed below:
Hindusthani Music

Carnatic Music

Geographical Popular in North, Central, West and Eastern Popular


in
South
India
Spread
India. Also in Pakistan and Bangladesh
(Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Andhra
Pradesh and Kerala)
Origins

Hindustani music is said to have originated in Carnatic music is said to have


several parts of northern and western India in originated in the Karnataka
different times.
region of south India

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R. C. Reddy IAS Study Circle----------------------------------------------------------------------------Influences

The source of Hindustani music is considered


to be Sangita Ratnakara of Sarangdeva This
was later enhanced by the Muslim influence.
Fusion of Vedic and Persian music as well as
sufi tradition.

Carnatic music has influences


from various musical stalwarts
like Purandaradasa, Tyagaraja,
Muthuswami
Dikshitar
and
Syama Sastri.

Theme

Hindustani lyrics are characterized by secular


themes that transcend the devotional like
beauty of the seasons, the love between Radha
and Krishna, colour. The Persian influence on
Hindustani may be one reason for this.

Carnatic lyrics are often an


artifact of the composers
devotion to God. Different
composers are known for their
Krithis honoring specific Hindu
Gods. For instance, Thyagarajar
is known for his krithis on Rama
and Dikshitar for his Krithis on
Devi.

Freedom in There are various styles of singing and


compositions performing in Hindustani music. Each style of
school is called a gharana. There are many
gharanas in Hindustani music.

Carnatic music can be considered


more rigid than Hindustani music
as there is a prescribed style of
singing.

Raga System The Hindustani raga system is based on thaats.


Thaat is a system by which different sets of
complete scale of seven notes are formulated
to categorize the maximum number of ragas
under it. There are 10 thaats in all (Bilawal,
Bhairav,
Bhairavi,
Asawari,
Kalyan,
Khammaj, Kafi, Marwa, Purvi, Todi).
For a performer, Thaats have little
significance but for a student of music, the
system comes as a great help to understand the
classification of ragas. Thaat does not have
relevance in other types of music.

Carnatic music is characterized


by the presence of 72-melakarta
raga scheme. Each of the 72
principal ragas is divided into
several subordinate ragas.

Samay

Rendition

Ragas in Hindustani classical music are Carnatic music does not adhere to
related to different seasons as well as day Time or Samay concepts
timings (24 hour cycle).
Summer - Deepak.
Rainy season -Megh and Miyan ki Malhar
autumn- Malkauns and
fall- Puriya Dhaneshree
Winter - Bhairav
Spring- Hindola

Hindustani music does not give that much most compositions are written to
importance to the vocalist as is found in be sung, and even when played
Carnatic music.
on instruments, they are meant to
be performed in gayaki (singing)

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R. C. Reddy IAS Study Circle----------------------------------------------------------------------------style.


Ragas

Carnatic ragas differ from Hindustani ragas. The number of ragas used in
The names of ragas are also different. Carnatic music is more
However, there are some ragas which have the
same scale as Hindustani ragas but have
different names; such as Hindolam and
Malkauns, Shankarabharanam and Bilawa

Musical
Instruments

While both types of music use instruments


such as violin and flute, Hindustani music
extensively employs the use of Tabla (a kind
of drum or a percussion instrument), Sarangi
(a stringed instrument), Santoor, Sitar,
Clarionet and the like.
Tabla is the most prominent percussion
instrument, apart from the 'Pakhawaj'_ an old,
traditional instrument played to accompany
Dhrupad singers.

On the other hand Carnatic music


extensively employs the use of
musical instruments such as
Veena (a stringed instrument),
Mridangam
(a
percussion
instrument),
Gottuvadyam,
Mandolin,
Violin,
Flute,
Jalatarangam and the like.

Composers

It is traditional for performers who have


reached a distinguished level of achievement
to be awarded titles of respect; Hindus are
usually
referred
to
as pandit and Muslims as ustad.
Names like Amir Khusrau and Tansen are
associated with this school. Stalwarts are from
many 'Gharana' or Schools in different regions
of Northern India. Jaipur and Gwalior
gharanas are two of the many important
gharanas.

Saint Purnadardas,
Tallapaka
Annamacharya, Narayana Tirtha,
Bhadrachalam Ramdasa
Male trinity :
Tyagaraja,
Muthuswami
Dikshitar
and
Syama Sastri
Female trinity : Madurai
Shanmukhavadivu
(M.
S.)
Subbulakshmi,
M.
L.
Vasanthakumari
and
Damal
Krishnaswamy Pattammal

Compositions Important ones are Khayal, Dhrupad, Tarana,


Thumri, Dhamaar. Nowadays Ghazals have
become very popular as the 'light classical'
form of music.

Prabandhas are ancient musical


forms Present important ones
are: Varnam, Kriti divided into
parts like-Pallavi, Anupallavi and
Charnam

Both the musical systems have become an important element of India's soft power. For instance
bolloywood music is appreciated across the world. More recently, legendary carnatic vocalist M
S Subbulakshmi was honoured by releasing a stamp at the United Nations on India's 70th
Independence Day.

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R. C. Reddy IAS Study Circle-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Q4. "An unscrupulous annexationist and an advocate of forward policy,


Wellesley was one of the greatest empire-builders of England. He struck the
last nail in the coffin of French expansion in India." Elaborate. (12 1/2 marks /
250 words)
Lord Wellesley was Governor-General from 1797 to 1805, succeeding Cornwallis. His entry to
India coincided with threat of France and its revolutionary ideology spreading across the
Europe. In this context, he saw India as a theatre in the war with France and wanted to eliminate
all possible influence of the French in India. He achieved this objective by
Subsidiary alliance System: It is regarded as one of the masterstrokes of British
imperialism. It increased the military strength of the Company in India at the expense of
the protected states. The territories of the Company were free from the ravages of war
thereby establishing the stability of the British power. Under the system, expansion of
British power became easy. Many weaker princely states entered into subsidiary alliance
with the British.

Persuading Hyderabad Nawab: Before the arrival of Lord Wellesley, Nizam of


Hyderabad (Mir Akbar Ali Khan) has stationed French army located in his forts and with
the arrival and announcement of this policy by Wellesley there was a coup and overthrow
the existing Nizam of Hyderabad and subsequent disbanding French forces by the new
ruler and signing of the Subsidiary alliance system in lieu of protection of Hyderabad
territory from Maratha and Mysore rulers.

The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799): Tipu Sultan corresponded with the
Revolutionary French Government in July 1798. At Srirangapattinam, a Jacobian Club was
started, the flag of the French Republic was hoisted and tree of Liberty was also planted.
Tipu received a friendly letter from Napoleon. Wellesley set out to persuade Tipu to accept
a pact of subsidiary alliance. The war was short and decisive. He restored Wadeyar's rule at
the central part of the kingdom. Arthur Wellesley became a commissioner to control the
future of Mysore. The remaining parts of the kingdom were divided between the British
and the Nizam.
Anglo-Maratha wars: The only power that remained outside the purview of the subsidiary
system was the Marathas. The British waged decisive wars and actively stalled Marathas
expansion desires though the Treaty of Bassien.

Hence these above mentioned policies of administration taken up by Wellesley has not only the
last nail into the coffin of French expansion in India and also brought many areas under the
direct and in-direct influence of the company.

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R. C. Reddy IAS Study Circle-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Q5. The Quit India Movement (1942) was different in many aspects from the
previous mass movements of Indian Independence struggle. Discuss. (12 1/2
marks / 250 words)
On August 8, 1942 at Gowalia Tank, Bombay, Gandhiji delivered a powerful speech and gave
the slogan Do or Die initiating yet another mass movement against the British imperialism.
This Quit India Movement of 1942 was different from rest of the movements of freedom
struggle. Some of the unique characteristics are

Lack of organised leadership: On the night just before the launch of the movement all the
major leaders were arrested to sabotage the mass moment. The Quit India Movement
(QIM) unlike other movements led by Gandhiji was actually not led by him, or by any
other central leader. It was completely decentralised and became a true peoples movement.
Woman participation: Most of the movement was effectively organized and handled
mainly by the woman leaders like Aruna Asaf Ali, Nellie Gupta, Usha Sharma etc. In the
absence of leadership, Aruna Asaf Ali presided over the AICC session on August 9, and
hoisted the flag. She came to be known as 'Queen of 1942 movement'.
Emergence of underground networks: The major part of the movement was based on
underground activities like Underground Radio network by Usha Mehta and spreading of
news through pamphlets, posters etc. Students acted as couriers.
Parallel governments were set up in Satara, Ballia, Talcher, Midnapore etc. was also
newly found feature during the movement. Jayaprakash Narayan formed Azad Dasta in
Nepal, a militant outfit specialized in guerrilla warfare.
Different forms of protest: Deviating from the peaceful forms of protests such as strikes,
hartals, disobedience, non-cooperation, etc., Quit India movement witnessed masses
destroying governmental properties such as police stations, posts office, etc. Electricity was
cut and transport (Railway tracks) and communication (telegraph) lines were removed.
National flags were hoisted on public buildings.
Fierce repression: Crowds faced police, military firings and also machine gun fire by low
flying aircrafts. Martial law had not been proclaimed but the army acted according to their
will. This brutal repression ended the mass phase of struggle.
Erosion of loyalty: With the intensity of struggle and erosion of major loyal forces of
British government like Government officers, Police forces etc of the British government.

The British recognized that it was impossible to rule India further and also the masses realized
that their freedom from foreign rule was not much far away. Unlike the previous S-T-S (
Struggle-Truce- Struggle) ideology, the masses were full of energy and were in no need of rest.
This energy and determination could be seen in the subsequent INA trials movement and RIN
revolts which witnessed huge mass participation.

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R. C. Reddy IAS Study Circle-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Q6. Recently over 100 secret files relating to Subhash Chandra Bose were
declassified and made public, which has thrown much light on Netajis
activities during World War II. Briefly narrate Netajis foreign experiences
and assess their impact on our freedom struggle. (12 1/2 marks / 250 words)
Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose displayed strong will to win freedom for our nation particularly
during the World war II when he travelled across Hindukush mountains, Atlantic, Indian and
Pacific oceans to forge allies.
Bose's Foreign Travels:
In 1941, with a daring escape from house arrest in India, Netaji Subhas Bose travelled from
Kolkata to Peshawar to Kabul and from there he travelled to Germany to seek help from Adlof
Hitler.
In Germany (1941-43) : He met Adlof Hitler and founded Free India Legion with over 3,000
Indian PoWs. He was also responsible for broadcasting on the German-sponsored Azad Hind
Radio. As war progressed, German land-invasion of India became untenable as Hitler attacked
the Soviet Union.
In February 1943, Bose travelled from Germany to Madagascar by a German Sub-marine named
U-180 and from there in a Japanese sub-marine called I-29 to Japan.
In South East Asia(1943 - 1945): On June 23, 1943 he met Hideki Tojo and later the
provisional government of Azad Hind was formed with Bose being elected as head of the state
and supreme commander of Indian National Army (INA). The provisional government was
recognised by nine countries including Japan, Germany, China and Italy among others. The
Andaman and Nicobar islands captured by the Japanese were handed over to the Provision
Government. They were renamed as Saheed and Swaraj Islands
INA fought along with the Imperial Japanese Army against the British and Commonwealth
forces in the campaigns in Burma (destroyed Malaya prison), in Imphal and at Kohima. As the
Japanese withdrew forces in the western front, INA was defeated and its troops were taken as
prisoners of war by the British including high ranking officers like Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon,
Shah Nawaz Khan and Prem Kumar Sehghal.
Bose slogans like: Unto Delhi", "Jai Hind " Give me blood! I shall give you freedom"
energized the troops. The INA failed owing to disrupted logistics, poor supplies from the
Japanese, and lack of training. It surrendered unconditionally to the British in Singapore in 1945.
However, Bose attempted to escape to the Soviet Union. His sudden disappearance is matter of
controversy till date.

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R. C. Reddy IAS Study Circle----------------------------------------------------------------------------Impact on Freedom Struggle:


The radio transmission from Germany inspired youth back home which resulted in
unprecedented participation in the Quit India Movement.
Bose made efforts to create a sense of unity transcending class, caste and origin among the
large and diverse populations of Indians in Southeast Asia.
The heroics of Bose and his INA brought immense glory and honour. The INA trials
witnessed unprecedented mass support and publicity in the news.
The story of INA started affecting the loyalty of Indian soldiers in British army. There were
several mutinies recorded in 1945- 46.
INA trials and Royal Indian Navy (RIN) revolt convinced the British that its rule in India
was coming to an end. Cabinet mission of 1946 was sent to negotiate the transfer of power.
The recent de-classification of files by the central and WB state governments help us appreciate
the struggle of a famous Indian nationalist who inspired many youth of that time to fight and
show resistance against the mighty British forces and help us remember for our life-time an
Unforgotten Hero.

Q7. The 19th Century Socio-cultural reform movements which were mainly
aimed at spiritual and social upliftment of the masses were seen more as a
failures than successes. In this context, Critically analyse the positive and
negative contributions of these movements during our Independence struggle.
(12 1/2 marks / 250 words)
The Indian society in the first half of the 19th century was caste ridden, decadent and rigid. The
need for change was felt by some enlightened Indians like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chand
Vidyasagar, Dayanand Saraswati and many others who were willing to fight and bring in reforms
in society. These sociocultural reform movements had long lasting effects on India.
Positive Influence:
Liberation of women from purdah, child marriage, hypergamy, dowry, Sati etc. through
not only legislations but concrete social actions were also taken
Deepening education among the masses and especially women education taken up by
activists like Pandit Eshwara Chandra Vidya Sagar, D.K Karve etc.
The movements emphasised the human intellects capacity to think and reason. A
realisation of the special needs of modern times, especially in terms of scientific
knowledge, and thus promoting a modern, secular and rational outlook was a major
contribution of these reform movements.
Translation of religious scriptures into vernacular languages and emphasis on
individuals right to interpret the scriptures and simplification of rituals.
Creation of national awakening among the masses. These enlightened individuals went on
to become the torch-bearers of our freedom movement in the 20th century and who in turn
led the masses rallied behind them in the struggle.

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R. C. Reddy IAS Study Circle----------------------------------------------------------------------------Negative Influence


In addition to reformists movements there were also revivalist movements which
encouraged mysticism and fostered pseudo-scientific thinking while exercising a check on
full acceptance of the need for a modern scientific outlook. They over-emphasized on
infallibility of religious textures like Vedas, Brahmanas etc. and movements like Shuddi,
Tabligh etc. has led to the erosion of the communal harmony in the next stages of our
freedom struggle.
Undermining the secular aspects by considering the medieval rule of India as a foreign
rule many of the revivalists has led to divisions among the society. Though many other
factors were certainly responsible for the birth of communalism in modern times, but
undoubtedly the nature of religious reform movements also contributed to it.
The narrow social base namely the educated and urban middle classes, is one of the main
hindrances to not able to much success. Majority of the social movements could not attract
masses.

Q8. "The lesson of the Cuban Missile Crisis is plain: Strength prevents war;
weakness invites it. " What are the causes and after effects of Cuban Missile
Crisis of 1962. (12 1/2 marks / 250 words)
The Cuban missile crisis in 1962 is a significant event of 20th century because if it was not
averted it would have led to a possible Nuclear war or another World war between USA led
NATO forces and USSR led Warsaw pact.
Causes
a. In 1959 Fidel Castro, a Communist rebel took power in Cuba overthrowing a corrupt, US
backed and right-wing military dictatorship of Batista. Castro nationalised American
companies in Cuba. In retaliation, the Americans stopped all aid to Cuba, and all imports of
Cuban sugar which was the mainstay of the Cuban economy.
b. In 1960, the USSR signed an agreement to buy 1 million tonnes of Cuban sugar every year.
However, USA has initiated an Cuban containment policy by blocking its sea-trade
routes. As a respite Cuban govt. has asked for USSR help in protecting its sovereignty.
c. The Russians had built the Berlin Wall in 1961 which irked the establishment in USA.
d. In April 1961, the CIA funded, trained, armed and transported 1,300 Cuban exiles to
invade Cuba (Bay of pigs) and overthrow Castro. The invasion was a disaster, and
President Kennedy was humiliated.
e. In April 1962, the Americans put nuclear missiles in Turkey coast of Black Sea.
f. Russia publicly promised weapons to defend Cuba against America. In October 1962,
photographs of Cuba taken by U2 spy planes provided evidence that the Russians were
building nuclear missile sites in Cuba. These sites brought every town in the US within
range of Soviet nuclear missiles. It was the beginning of a confrontation that took the world
to the brink of a nuclear holocaust.
This Cuban missile crisis finally broke down when USA agreed on removal of blockade of Cuba
and promised not to invade Cuba and USSR agreed to take back its nuclear missiles stationed in
Cuba. Kennedy secretly agreed to dismantling of Turkish bases.

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R. C. Reddy IAS Study Circle----------------------------------------------------------------------------After Effects


Because the Turkey deal was kept secret, the West saw Kennedy as the hero. Meanwhile,
Khrushchev lost prestige. China broke off relations with Russia and, in 1964, he was forced
to resign as Soviet leader.
In 1963, a telephone hotline was set up to give instant contact between the two leaders if
there was a crisis.
It raised the curtains on the talks among the nuke powers of the world which later on led to
the formation of SALT(Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty) and START ( Strategic Arms
Reduction Treaty) among the USA and the USSR aimed at limitation and decommissioning weapons of mass destruction.
In 1963, a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed.
In 1968, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty was signed - the superpowers promised not
to supply nuclear technology to other countries.
In 2015, after more than 80 years an American President visited Cuba. This visit by Barack
Obama will remain a historic and significant event as it reopened the diplomatic ties between
the USA and Cuba.

Q9. "If you look at great human civilizations, from the Roman Empire to the Soviet Union,
you will see that most do not fail simply due to external threats but because of internal
weakness, corruption, or a failure to manifest the values and ideals they espouse." Explain
the causes for the breakdown of the Soviet Union. (12 1/2 marks / 250 words)
The collapse of the Soviet empire in 1989-91 has often been heralded in the West as a triumph of
capitalism and democracy, as though this event were obviously a direct result of the policies of
the Reagan and Thatcher governments. However, the reasons for the demise of the Soviet Union
are more internal than external. The following points substantiate this:

Economic Hardships :
a. Initially though soviet union was successful through its rapid industrialization and
huge emphasis on agriculture but later the economy became inefficient and could not
meet the needs of people.
b. The diversion of resources towards defence and space technologies adopted by the
soviets has led to less allocation of resources to the deprived.
c. Perestroika: Refers to economic reforms enacted by Gorbachev in 1987, in an attempt
to reverse the Soviet Union's sliding economy. Some free market elements were
added, but not enough to bring about reform. Shortages became common as price
controls were kept in place. With price ceilings limiting profits, the incentive to
produce sufficient quantities was removed.
Political policies of Soviet union :
a. The communist form of government though initially was the most attractive form but
later on it became more repressive on its very own people. The suppression of basic
human rights by the government and the strong and single centre suppressed any form
of criticism.
b. People were denied even the responsible form of government and any opposition to
the communist ideology was grossly suppressed with various form of violence.
c. Corruption was rampant and led to the erosion of trust on political leaders.

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R. C. Reddy IAS Study Circle----------------------------------------------------------------------------d. Local Nationalism: With declining public perception of the Soviet government, nationalism
grew within each of the individual republics, creating independence ambitions in republics
such as Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

Expansionist policies of USSR:


a. The USSR competition with the USA led to setting up of Warsaw pact on similar
lines of NATO. This caused additional expenses on the limited coffers of the state.
b. The failure of the USSR in checking Taliban in Afghanistan humiliated the USSR.
c. Confrontations with China, another communist power strained its resources

The fall of Berlin wall in November 1989, stood as a demonstration of failed USSR policy and
also provided with an imminent fall of USSR, which happened finally in 1991 under the last
USSR leader Mikhail Gorbachev. The breakdown of USSR has led the world left with only one
super power i.e USA and led to the balance between the east and west tilt towards west.

Q10. Discuss the contribution of Jayaprakash Narayan to pre-and postindependent India. (12 1/2 marks / 250 words)
Jaya Prakash Narayan popularly known as Lok Nayak was a freedom fighter, socialist, political
activist and social reformer. His contributions can be summarised as below:
Pre-Independence
As a congressman: He joined Indian National Congress in 1929 and played an important
role in moulding INC's economic and political outlook. He served as secretary in the labour
wing of the INC.
Civil Disobedience Movement: He actively participated in the civil disobedience against
the British rule and was jailed in 1932 at Nasik.
Congress Socialist Party : After his release, along with Narendra Dev, Ram Manohar
Lohia, Minoo Masani, Achyut Patwardhan, he co-founded Congress Socialist Party (CSP),
as a left-wing group within the Congress under the Presidentship of Acharya Narendra
Deva and Secretaryship of Jayaprakash himself.
Quit India Movement: Jayaprakash Narayan played a crucial role in the Quit India
movement and earned a lot of fame and respect for this. He escaped to Nepal and organized
a guerilla army called the Azad Dasta to paralyse British administration.
Post-Independence
Socialist Party: He refused to join the cabinet of Prime Minister J L Nehru. Instead from
1948 to 1951, JP and Lohia worked hard to build the Socialist Party. It performed the role
of responsible opposition during the years of Nehru as Prime Minister.
Sarvodaya Movement: In 1954 Jayaprakash announced that he would be dedicating his
life (jeewan daan) to Vinoba Bhaves Sarvodaya movement. He renounced all self-interest,
gave up his land in Sitabdiara, thus extended his support to Bhoodan movement.
On Kashmir Issue: In 1964, JP headed the delegation of India-Pakistan Conciliation
Group. He went to Pakistan and met President Ayub. His basic approach was marked by
not only moral and human values but also reflected his sense of patriotism. He strongly
criticised Indira Gandhi for the arrest of Sheikh Abdullah and demanded his release.
Reconciliation with Naga rebels: In the nineteen sixties Jayaprakash Narayan travelled
extensively in Nagaland. In 1965 he published a pamphlet called Nagaland mein Shanti ka
Prayas (The Prospects for Peace in Nagaland). He argued that there was a civilizational

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R. C. Reddy IAS Study Circle-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

unity and urged them to be part of India. He met rebels and advised them to shed their arms
and contest elections.
Total Revolution and Emergency: Narayan campaigned for total transformation in the
Indian political system as it had become corrupt. In 1974 ushered in a year of high
inflation, unemployment and lack of supplies and essential commodities. Jayaprakash was
asked to lead a peaceful agitation by the Navanirman Andolan of Gujarat. Heled a silent
procession at Patna. In 1975 Indira Gandhi declared a national emergency after Narayan
and others refused to budge on their claims that she had violated constitutional and
electoral laws something that was confirmed by the Allahabad High Court. He was
subsequently jailed by Gandhi for his protests.
Janata Party: In January 1977, the Emergency was lifted. Fresh elections were held.
Under Jayaprakashs guidance several parties united to form the Janata Party. The party
incorporated all of Jayaprakashs goals in its manifesto. The Janata Party was voted into
power and became the first non-Congress party to form a government at the Centre. He
advised the victorious Janata party in its choice of leaders to head the new administration.

Recognizing his contributions in shaping modern independent India, he was posthumously


awarded highest civilian award - Bharat Ratna in 1999.

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