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RAR.

Y
UNIVERSITY
LI

E)

OF THE

or ILLINOIS

/^/y

HARRY AND LUCY


CONCLUDED.

LONDON:
PRINTED BY CHARLES WOOD,
Pappm's Court, Fleet

Street.

HARRY AND LUCY


CONCLUDED;
BEING

THE LAST PART


OP

EARLY LESSONS.
BY

MARIA EDGE WORTH.


IN FOUR VOLUMES.

VOL. n.

The

business of Edacatiou, in respect of knowledge,


perfect a learner in all or

any one of the sciences

that disposition, and those habits, that

may

is
;

not, as

think, to

but to give his mind

enable

him

to attain

any

part of knowledge he shall stand in need of in the fatore course of his

LOCKE.

life.

LONDON:
PRINTED FOR
72, ST. Paul's

R.

HUNTER,

churchyard ; and

BALDWIN, CRADOCK, AND JOY,


47,

patehnoster row.

1835.

Digitized by the Internet Arciiive


in

2010

University of

witin

Illinois

funding from

Urbana-Champaign

http://www.archive.org/details/harrylucyconclud02edge

^^3

Our

travellers next arrived at Franklaiid

Hall, in Staffordshire,

^"^ spend three days,

where they were

v/ith their friends,

to

Mr,

Nw

and Mrs. Frankland.

'^

The first day at dinner, an old gentleman observed, that the pie dishes of Wedg-

.'^

^J

wood's ware were good contrivances for

keeping vegetables hot,

how

and remarked,

very like real pie crust one of them

looked.

Mr. Frankland, who had been an intimate friend of the late Mr. Wedsrwood, said
that he

was present the

first

day when one

of these imitations of pie crust appeared


at dinner

VOL.

the children of the family did not

II.

mistake

it

and Mr. Wedg-

for a real pie,

wood had new ones made


at last

till

little

one appeared so perfect, that at

distance

from pie

crust.

cover," said

next

me was

jingle

repeatedly,

it

"

could not be

When

known

took off the

Mr. Frankland," the

child

agreeably surprised to hear

it

on the dish."

" Besides this," said the old gentleman,

" Mr.

Wedgwood made

a number of

every-day useful contrivances


in

which there

is

little

that dish,

a well for the gravy.

In the olden times, unhappy carvers were


obliged to poke under the heavy sirloin
for gravy
at the

or to raise

and slope the

imminent hazard of overturning the

sirloin,

and

the

splashing

Knife, fork, spoon, slipping

one

to one,

no gravy

to

be had

life,

the while,
!

And, ten

after all

thing but cakes of cold grease.

without poking, sloping,

spectators.

all

after another, into the dish

happy

dish,

No-

But now,

splashing,

the

carver, free from these miseries of

has only to dip his spoon into a well

of pure gravy.

Thanks

to the invention

"

of one man,

men, women, and

all

may now have gravy without

dren,

ing the dish. So


ladies, for

chil-

stoop-

give you, gentlemen and

toast,

'

The

wood, and the comforts of

late

Mr. Wedg-

life.'

After he had drank his glass of wine,


the old gentleman continued speaking

"
ler,

remember that Mr. Coxe, the travelwas pleased by meeting with a beautiful
I

service of

Wedgwood ware

dare say he might find one


Last year,

when

years,

was

now in

Delft,

used to furnish

with crockery,

is

now

Siberia.

in Holland, I learnt,

town of

that even the

many

in Russia.

which, for
all

Europe

supplied from Eng-

land with our Staffordshire ware."

The

conversation next turned on China,

and Chinese
''

They

artists.

are very exact," said

land, " in imitating whatever

Mr. Frankis

bespoken

from them, but sometimes they carry


to a

this

degree of provoking stupidity."

Of

this

wanted

to

he gave an instance.

lady

match some of the plates of a


B 2

remarkably handsome service of

which had been given


the East

to

her husband by

Company.

India

She sent a

pattern to China, and bespoke

be made

to

time they

exactly
arrived,

to her surprise

the

china,

some dozens

same.

In

due

were unpacked, but,

and mortification, the lady

found, that every one of the

new plates had

the appearance of a crack across

it

and,

on examining the plate which had been

was found

that there

sent as a pattern,

it

was a crack

which had been exactly

in

it,

imitated.

Even Harry, though he loved


thought this was too much.
Lucy observed

exactness,

the beauty of the china.

On

her plate there lay, or there seemed to

lie,

a convolvulus

it

looked so natural, that

she thought she could take

it

up.

On

her

mother's was a Celsia, a geranium on another,

and on Harry's a honeysuckle, of

which she could almost fancy


smelt the perfume.

Even

that she

as she eat her

ripe cherries, she paused to examine these

She thought

flowers.
ful

it

the most beauti-

china she had ever seen.

When

she

drawing-room she saw on


the chimney-piece flower-pots of the most
delicate blue, with white figures on them,

went

into the

embossed

like ivory,

The drapery on
it

seemed

as if

and exquisitely carved.

was so light, that


blown by the wind, and so
the figures

transparent, that she could see the blue

ground through

it.

Mrs. Frankland came to Lucy, as she

was looking

at these flower-pots,

her that they were


well

mired
"

as

the

and

told

Wedgwood's

ware, as

which she

had ad-

plates

at the dessert.

"Wedgwood's ware!" repeated Lucy.


I thought that Wedgwood's ware was

always black or cream-coloured, such as


the

common

yellowish plates."

Mrs. Frankland told her there was a great


variety of

Wedgwood's

wares.

She took

her into a cabinet at the end of the draw-

ing-room, where she showed her several


vases,

made

in imitation of antiques,

which

6
had been dug up from the ruins of Etruria^
in Italy, and thence called Etruscan. Some
had red grounds, with black figures
red figures, on black grounds

were called jasper,

others

others,

which

were very valuable.

Lucy had examined and admired all


these, Mrs. Frankland said she would show
her another, which was more valuable than
After

all

The

the rest.

original,

was exquisitely imitated,

from which

it

cost the present

possessor four thousand guineas.

As she

spoke she opened the case which contained


the vase, and carefully raised

it

from

its

crimson-cushioned bed.
"

know

it,

have seen

it

before,

mam-

ma," exclaimed Lucy.


" Seen

it

before,

Lucy

"

said her

mo-

"Where?"
" In a book, when I was reading to you,
mamma."
" You mean, that you have seen an en-

ther.

gravino: of

" Yes,

it,"

said her mother.

mamma, you remember

the three

views in the Botanic Garden, of a vase just

like this,

with a dark ground and white

ficrures.

but

know

cannot recollect the name of


it

was dug up out of

Her mother

told her

it

was

ruins."

called the

Barberini

or Portland vase.

Barberini,

from the name of the Italian family to


it

had belonged

whom

and Portland from the

Duchess of Portland, by whom


purchased and brought
Lucy, whose

it,

to

it

had been

England.

memory was now awakened,

recollected Dr. Darwin's

addressed to Mr.

beautiful

lines

Oh

friend

"

Wedgwood,

of art " but she refrained from repeating

them, for which Harry gave her credit


due,

Mr. Frankland, who now came

into the

room, told her, that the ancient Etruscan,


or

Greek

ent

vases,

process from that which Mr.

wood used
to

were produced by a

in

making

his.

diifer-

Wedg-

They appear

have been made by covering the parts

representing

the figures and

after their outlines

had been

ornaments,
traced,

and

then dipping the red ware in a black paint.

The

lines of the drapery,

wards traced

in the

same

&c. were after-

colour.

In those

ancient vases, the colour, which was red,

was

in

the body

Mr. Wedgwood's

of the ware

In

itself.

imitations, both the red

and black are painted on the porcelain, or


rather on the biscuit

the

given to the ware after

He was

the furnace.

made what

name which

its first

the

first

is

baking in

person

who

are called dry colours, or ena-

mel, without lustre, without shining.

Harry thought that the smoothness and


polish of these vases

was more beautiful

than any glazing.

''And much safer, and more durable,"


" These
colours
said Mr. Frankland.
cannot be injured by damp, or fire, or air,
and

or acid,

stance
that the

will last as long as the sub-

You may have observed,


glazing on common earthenware

itself.

runs into

little

cracks."

" Yes," said Lucy,

"

served

them covering a

work.

They look very

have often obplate,

ugly."

like

net-

9
''

he,

But what is much worse," continued


" in most kinds of glazing, lead is em-

ployed, which,
acids,

when

dissolved in certain

poisonous.

is

Lucy observed, that glazing looked something like glass and from the sound of the
words too, she he\\Qvedi glazing came from
^

glass.

It

might

at first

have been called

glassing."

" Yes," said Mr. Frankland, " and there


as

is,

you observe, a resemblance between


and

the outside of some porcelain

But the

difference

porcelain

is,

that

tnivitrified,

glass.

glass,

means

managing

the

vitrification,

at

the

right

glass

porcelain

The

stop

to

that

between

time,

most important points

in

or
is

and

but

se-

turned

to

is

half
the

glass.

heat

so

as

turning

to

one of the

making porce-

lam.

Lucy returned

to

admire the beauty of

Wedgwood's w^are, repeating, that she


thought it much prettier than Chinese
the

china.

b5

10
" Besides the beauty of form, and colour,

and

texture," continued

land, " the utility

perfectly safe for

most durable

great.

is

all

Mr. Frank-

It is

not only

culinary purposes, but

some chemical experi-

for

ments, in which the vessels must be ex-

posed

to great heat."

Mr. Frankland showed them a crucible


and a retort, made of Wedgwood's ware,
and Mrs. Frankland showed a white pestle
and mortar, which looked like marble, but

which was of Wedgwood's ware, and used


pounding medicines.

for

Harry asked whether the potteries, where


all

these were made,

was near Frankland

Hall.

" Yes, within a few miles of us," said

Mr. Frankland,
Mr.

Wedgwood

'*

at a village to

which

gave the name of Etruria,

and where he established a manufactory,

whose

productions

probably

more

to a greater

num-

are

known, and more useful

ber of people, than ever were those of the


ancient Etruria."

Mr. Frankland

said,

that

he would the

11

next day take Harry and Lucy to see these

mean time,
know more, he

Harry seemed

works. In the

as

anxious to

told

he thought could
the history of the

him

all

that

interest him, concerning

Staffordshire potteries.

The clay of this part of England being fit


for making some kinds of earthen ware,
there have been potteries,

or remains of

potteries, in Staffordshire,

ever since the

time

when

the

Romans were

in Britain

but they had continued in a rude state for


ages, as

no person of industry or know-

ledge had attempted their improvement,


till,

about a hundred and twenty years ago,

when two brothers of the name of Elers


came from Holland, settled here, and manufactured a red unglazed porcelain.
terwards they

made

Af-

a sort of brown glazed

stone ware, coarse and heavy, yet the glaz-

ing of these, such as

be performed
ence.

it

was, could not

without great

They used muriate

inconveni-

of soda, which

they threw into the oven at a certain time


of the baking of the vessels.

The fumes

12

from

this

were so odious, that the neigh-

bourhood were alarmed, and forced the

abandon

strangers to
quit the

Soon afterwards,

country.

workman, who had found out the

mode

their

secret,

on

in

secret of

of glazing, for even that was a

pursued the same method in

tery of his

and

their potteries,

own and this was


;

spite

of the

a. pot-

suffered to

go

nauseous fumes, be-

cause the inhabitants found the jars they

made so useful for holding


They were employed chiefly
pose, and the manufactory

On

Butter Pottery.

ever, the nuisance

sive

fumes spread

seven miles.

their butter.
for

was

this pur-

called the

glazing days, how-

was

terrible, the offen--

to a distance of six or

Thick clouds from these

furnaces rose over the

hills,

and

filled

the

valleys with their dense vapours.

The

great improvement in our pot-

was made

teries

ware

first

itself,

in the substance of the

by introducing ground

the composition, and then was


is still

called white stone ware.

flints into

made what
It is

used

13

many

for
it,

You may have

purposes.

water bottles.

for instance, for Seltzer

"

know what you mean,"

" This

was the

safest

said Lucy.

and best ware we

had," continued Mr. Frankland,

Mr. Wedgwood's time.


first

idea

of using

seen

''

before

It is said, that

powdered

flints

the

was

suggested to a poor Staffordshire potter,

by accident."
^'

By

accident

Lucy.

''

made

by

like

am

to

glad of

hear of

accident,

it,"

said

discoveries

especially

by poor

people."

" There

was

whose name
forget,

is

Staffordshire potter,

forgotten, or

is

whose name

he stopped on a journey to London,

at Dunstable,
soil

flinty

where the

in Bedfordshire,

and chalky.

He

consulted

the hostler of the inn where he stopped,

about some disorder in his horse's

eye.

The

flint

hostler advised that

should be put into the eye

pose he threw a
cine, that is to

flint

burn

powdered
and

for this pur-

into the fire to calit,

that

it

might be

14

more

The

easily pulverized.

potter,

who

was standing by, observed the great whiteness of the calcined

flint,

and being an

in-

genious, as well as an observing man, im-

mediately thought of applying this circumstance to the improvement of his pottery.

He

first

tried the

finely-powdered
clay

experiment of mixing

flints

he succeeded

made white

with tobacco pipe


to

hopes, and

his

stone ware, which put

all

the

brown and coloured stone ware out of

fa-

shion.

Ugly

you think

as

much approved,

till

it,

Lucy,

Wedgwood

gave us something better

it

was

came, and

that cream-

coloured ware, which was called queen's


ware, because

it

was

first

patronized by

Queen Charlotte. It was then, and not


many years ago, prized in palaces now it
is used in every cottage, and known in
;

every place where plates or dishes are to

be found.

After this queen's ware, he in-

vented

the varieties which

seen,

all

you have

and many more."

Mrs. Frankland rang the

bell,

and

or-

15

dered the servant to bring a plate of cream

Wedgwood

coloured

ware, another of the

white stone ware, a crock of the

common

glazed kind, and a

pot; these

she

dark

red garden

placed in the

order

in

which they had been made, beside Wedgwood's beautiful vases, to show Harry and

Lucy the
"

And

difference
all

and

these

contrast.

improvements, or at

them, were made


one man," thought Harry. " Then

least the greatest part of

by

more was done by him during

his life

time than had been done in hundreds of


years before."

Lucy asked, if any lucky accidents had


happened to Mr. Wedgwood? which put
improvements into his head, or gave him
the

first

idea of any of his inventions. She

said she should like very

the story of these,


tell it to

if

much

to

know

Mr. Frankland would

her.

Mr. Frankland

said,

he did not know of

any such, and observed, that though one


or

two fortunate accidents might occur

to

16
the

same person,

such

was not possible

it

that

improvements, as Mr.

progressive

Wedgwood had made,

could have been

suggested by accident, or accomplished by

any one who had not


'*

" to

scientific

knowledge.

should like very much," said Harry,

know what he

did next, and

did

first,

and what he

how he went on from

one

experiment to another."
**

Of all

you a
I

am

self.

this, I

cannot pretend to give

Mr. Frankland

history," said

not sure that


All

can

tell

know
you

it

is,

clearly

" for

my-

that he im-

proved the potteries by the introduction of


substances,

which had not before been em-

ployed in the composition of these wares.

had been found,


granite is as good
It

that
for

some Cornwall

making porcelain

of a certain kind, as the clay which the

Chinese use.

Mr. Wedgwood introduced

Dorsetshire and Cornwall clays."

" Perhaps you could

Lucy,

"how

ground of

the

tell

delicate

this flower-pot is

me,

sir,"

blue

made."

said

of the

'

17
''

That

given by a substance called

is

Mr. Frankland.

said

cobalt,"

vou have never seen


teaches you
"

wish

beautiful

it,

the

"But

word

as

cobalt

little."

knew," said Lucy, "

colours of the

and

dessert plates,

how

how

flowers on

the

the

the purple and

rose colours on this cup are produced.

"

The purple and

by the

rose colours are given

precipitate of gold dissolved in nitro-

muriatic acid

the oxides of iron also pro-

duce many of the colours which you admired.

But

as

you are not acquainted with any of

the oxides of iron, or with nitric or muriatic


acid, or with the precipitate of gold,

you

know nothing more from my answer than


a number of names, which probably you
will not

be able

to

remember an hour, and

which, unless you learn their properties,


could be of no use to you, even
could keep them in your head

all

if

you
your

life."

"

But without

names,

sir,"

telling us all those hard

said Lucy, " could not you

18
give us some general idea of
it

how he

did

all?"

Mr. Frankland smiled, and answered,


he did not exactly know what she

that

He
that Mr. Wedgwood in

meant by a general idea of


could
the

tell

first

her only,

all.

it

place learnt the properties of dif-

ferent clays

and minerals, and what

would be produced on these by


short,

he applied

to

learn

all

ments which had been made by

new ones

first,

In

the experiothers,

and

for himself; but if

he had not read and acquired


ledge

fire.

to the study of chemistry

and mineralogy,
then he tried

effect

this

know-

he might have wasted his time

and ingenuity

in

doing what others had

done before him.

Besides genius to in-

vent

new and

ofood sense

elegant things, he had the

observe what

to

is

wanted

every day, by the greatest number of people; so that he not only produced what

pleased persons of
ful to all classes

dered

how he

taste,

but what was use-

and he continually consi-

could improve, not only what

19

what he had himself pro-

others made, but

duced.

It

was by

this attention to little,

as well as to great objects,

and by steadily

adhering to one course of pursuits, that

he succeeded

began

in

accomplishing

no small praise

undertook so much.

we

his success

all

all that

for a ma.n

he

who

"The consequences

of

know," continued Mr.

Frankland, turning to Harry's father, " and

we

all rejoice in

them.

Wedgwood made a

large fortune for himself and his children,

with a character, a reputation, above


fortune.

He

all

increased amazingly the in-

dustry, wealth,

and comforts, of the poor


;

multiplied the con-

veniencies, elegancies,

and luxuries of life

in his

neighbourhood

for the rich

raised, at

home and

abroad,

the fame of the arts and manufactures of


his

own

country

extended her commerce,

and spread his own name with his productions, to the

most remote regions of the

civilized world."

pause ensued after these words

looked with

admiration

at

his

all

works,

and those who had known him intimately

20
sighed for the loss of an excellent

man and

a kind friend

The next day, Mr. Frankland took Harry


and Lucy

We

them

shall not follow

but shall

processes,

works

see the

to

Etruria.

at

throuo^h all the

only

mention what

Harry and Lucy recollected and told

their

mother on their return.


"

The

Harry, "

is

first

remember," said

the improvement in the

grinding the
*'

thing

first

way

of

flints."

But you must know, mother,

in the

place," said Lucy, " that formerly this

was very unwholesome work, such a quantity

of the dust of the powdered

off;

and, as the

in at their
it

flint

flew

workmen breathed, it went


mouths, or up their noses, and

brought on complaints in their lungs

and

stomachs,

and

inflamed their eyes

besides."

"All

this

was

remedied," continued

Harry, " by grinding the

flints

which prevented the dust from

in water,

flying

off.

man who made this improvement, and who made the first mill on
The name

of the

"

21

was Brindley, and the

this principle,
is

very ingenious,"
"

But you had

better not stop to

scribe that," said Lucy,

mamma
as

mill

and

tell

ground

"because perhaps

much about

does not care as

Now

you do.

little.

de-

it

me go on, Harry,
Well, mamma, the flints
let

in the great cauldron

"Mill," said Harry.


"

Mixed with

" looked

at

water," continued Lucy,

first

thickish, then

like

chalk and

by mixing with

water,

clay,

and by

stirring,

and beating, and straining through

sieves,

this

became

a sort of pulp,

first

and then about as thick as paste or dough,

r\

and then

it

was ready

vto the potter's- wheel.


ter"S-wheel,

mamma?

seeing the print of

But there
very

is

it

man

to carry

You know

the pot-

for the

remember

in our

book of

an improvement in

common

one,

which

this.

first

trades.

The

once saw, long

ago, was only a circular board turning on a

perpendicular stick."
" Axis," said Harry.

22

"A

boy whirled

round

it

for the

man,

you know, mamma, while he went

moulding the clay upon


he called
or faster.

boy

boy

to the

But

to whirl the

it

into a bowl, and

make

to

it

go slower

in this potter's-wheel

board

is

on

wanting, for

no
it is

turned by a shaft."

''And that

shaft

turned by a steam

is

"The steam engine,

engine," said Harry.

mother, at work again


" Yes," said Lucy,
great servant of

all

''

observe, mother."

papa called

it

the

work."

" But there was an improvement in this

which you have not

potter's- wheel,
yet,

told

Lucy," said Harry.

" No, no, but

am coming

it,

let

me

said Lucy.

tell it,"

"If you understand


ry, in

to

it,"

whispered Har-

a very kind tone, as he was only

afraid for her, not anxious to

show what he

knew.
"
that

understand one thing about

is all I

" There

want to

was a

tell,

it,

and

my dear," said Lucy.

sort of large roller,

in the

'

23
shape of a cone,
potter's- wheel,
it,

mamma,

and a strap or band round

that could slide or be

down upon

opposite to the

this cone,

pushed up and

from the narrowest

Harry took notice of

part to the thickest.

moment he saw it, and asked the


Papa bid him find out, and he
use of it.
It was to make the wheel
did, mamma.

this the

go slower or quicker, whenever the man

who was moulding


should.

in

which keeps the

potter's-

motion, goes on always at

regular rate, and would never


calling out,
'faster!'

it

This was necessary, because the

steam-engine,

wheel

the clay desired that

faster

'

'

slower

mind

'

its

own
his

slower

'

Therefore he must have some

way of slackening

or quickening the wheel,

without interfering with the steam engine.

This

is

shifting

done
that

for

him by a

strap

boy's simply

described

to

you

higher or lower, to the thicker or thinner


part

of the

cone.

This was

the

use,

mamma,

of the cone and band, and Harry

found

out."

it

24
"

am

glad you remember

this,

my dear

Lucy," said her mother.


"

Thank you," said Harry's eyes.


Lucy went on with raised
"

Mamma,

spirits,

wish you had seen the

moulding the

clay,

phoses of the

and

all

man

the metamor-

potter's-wheel.

in

First,

one minute, the lump of clay turned into


a bowl

then the instant

bowl up

soft

this

after,

he squeezed

in his hand,

dashed

it

on the wheel, and again he turned, and


moulded, and in
plate

an

instant

was

it

In another instant the plate was

gone, and in

its

stead a cup stood before

us!"
"

"The

cup without a handle," said Harry.


handle, if wanted, must be

separately,

and stuck on afterwards. Only

certain shaped things, round or

made on

the potter's-wheel.

have

and

i?is

in moulds,

squeezed

made

flat,

Those which

outs in their shapes are

into

are

made

which the moist clay

is

sometimes two parts of a thing,

the spout of a tea-pot, for instance, are


25

made

moulds, and the halves

in separate

But

joined together afterwards.


say, mother,
*'

you know

knew most

and descriptions

of

in

this
''

our

myself be-

from the prints


dear book

and from some others of our

trades,

But

and large books.


real

all this."

continued Lucy,

fore,"

dare

work going

on,

of

little

liked to see the

and the

real things.

There was always some difference between


the description and the reality, or some-

thing that
it is,

fancied larger or smaller than

some

or

which

little

particular circumstance

did not comprehend

Mamma,

did not

you, that

tell

saw

till

we saw

the furnaces and kilns, for baking


the porcelain, as they call

much

larger than

it.

When

expected.

Mamma,

are

how

first

ready for painting.


1

room, by

dull the colours look

when they

laid on,

II.

called

in the painting

and how bright and

liant they are after they

VOL.

it is

the

have not told you how much

was entertained
seeing

it is

Jiring^

These were

porcelain has been once baked,


fecwiY, in which state

it.

have been
c

bril-

fired

"

26
what was

to be gold,

was quite dark be-

forehand."

" Pray, Lucy," said Harry, " did you


observe a man, wlio was standing beside

one of the furnaces, whose business seemed

be

to

to regulate the heat

He had some

of clay, which looked like

little bits

and he put these

stoppers,

little

into the fire

and

measured them, did you see how ?


"
I

No

did not

mamma,

saw the man,"

said Lucy; " but

know what he was

there

ber, and that

is

doing.

one other thing

Well,

remem-

You know the common

is all.

kind of blue and white cups and saucers,

and

with windmills, and houses,

plates,

and strange Chinese looking figures, and


all manner of things upon them?"
"

do know luckily what you mean,"

said her mother, laughing, " otherwise I

am

not sure that

should

know

it

from

your description."
''

Mamma,

these were formerly painted,

by hand, but now there is a


much quicker way Mr. Frankland showed
one

at a time,

it

to

me.

First, the

patterns, whatever

"

27

you wish, houses

or churches, or geese or

turkies, or shepherdesses, or elephants, or

windmills, are printed on paper."

" Engraved on copper

said Harry,

first,"

''and the blue colour put upon the copperplate, instead of printer's ink."

"

And

^^
''

made

is

if

you

as rust differs

recollect,

Lucy
with some earth and
what

is

linseed

used in

"And when
thick

and

soft

Harry,

Lucy, as

from iron."

Well, oxide of cobalt

And

**the blue co-

I believe," said

recollect," said

"

tell

from cobalt, Mr. Frank-

differs

land told us,

much

me

let

of cobalt."

Oxide of cobalt,

which

**

oh

Harry!" cried Lucy;

that,

lour

the blue colour

oil,"

should be,

it

" and this

said

is

Harry

mixed
" like

printer's ink."
it

is

altogether about

as paste,

it

is

as

put on the

You know, mamma, you


showed me common engraving once and
just like any common engraving this is
As many copies of patterns are
done.
copper-plate.

taken off on paper as you want.

c2

28
"

You

with soft soap," said Harry.

first
''

was smeared

forgot that the paper

Then, when you want

patterns,"

paper

is

Lucy,

said

cut

^*

use these

to

the

superfluous

and the printed part

off,

is

moistened and laid on the cup, or whatever

you wish
^'

to put

on."

it

The cup must be

cuit,

the state of bis-

in

remember," said Harry.

" Biscuit, to be sure," said

Lucy

" the

biscuit instantly sucks in, absorbs the co-

louring

stuff,

from the moistened pattern

then the paper

is

washed

off,

and you see

the coloured pattern printed on the cup


directly.

mamma?
dry,

and quick
Then the cup must be let to

Is

not that

and afterwards

sort of glazing stuff,

it

nice

dipped in some

is

and the

cobalt, I

mean

the oxide of cobalt, comes out a beautiful


blue.

And

there

is

the

cup

finished,

painted in this easy, expeditious way: a

hundred thousand,
painted in this

dare say, could be

manner, while a person

could paint one single

way."

cup

in the

old

29
" The name of the ingenious person, as

Mr. Frankland

method of

said,

who

discovered this

engraving

transferring

from

paper to earthenware, has not been preserved, and

am sorry for it," added

Mr. Frankland told

*'

invention, this blue

been made

now

that

buy

us, that since this

and white ware has

in such quantities,

and so cheap,

almost every body can afford to

and

it,

Harry,

it is

in every cottage

and the

poor people can have now, what only the


rich

and grand had formerly.

Are not you

very glad of that, mamma?"


" Yes, I am, my dear," said her mother
*'

and

am

glad,"

added

she,

smiling,

" that you give yourself time to take breath


at

last,

and that you allow

thank you for

seem

to

all

you have

me

time to

told me.

You

have been very much entertained

at the potteries,

and you have entertained

me by your account of them."


Mamma," said Lucy, do you tliink
we have remembered enough ? I know I
^'

cannot recollect half what

''

saw and heard.

"

30
but

remember almost

that I under-

all

stood clearly."
*

That

is

her mother

quite enough,

"

my

dear," said

never wish you to remem-

ber more than you understand.

use could

"

Good

it

be

Wedgwood
nice house

to you,

forgot to

when we were
that we saw

"

morning

Lucy. "

"

man

ing a

said

you yesterday,

house, in which Mr.

the

formerly lived;

and a very

it is."

Do you

you, father," said

to

recollect yesterday see-

standing by one of the furnaces


little

stoppers of baked

slid in

between two pieces

measuring some
clay,

tell

mamma,"

talking about the potteries,,

Good morning

Harry.

Of what

which he

of brass, like the two parts of a hinged


ruler.

These pieces of brass were

but not parallel to each other


closer together at
other.

they were

one end than

The man took

fixed,

at

the

the bits of clay, or

31
stoppers, out of a heated furnace,

and he

each stopper between these

rules,

tried

and looked

at divisions,

on the brass

which were marked

What was

plates.

he doing,

papa?"
"

He was

using a sort of thermometer,

Harry," said his father.

*'

thermometer of

clay,

papa

said

"

Lucy.
" Yes, for measuring higher degrees of

heat than can be

shown by

meter which you have seen

that thermoif

that

were

exposed to heat beyond the highest degree

marked on

its

scale, the quicksilver

would

expand, so as to burst the glass, and the


glass

would

melt, if put into one of those

furnaces which you saw yesterday;

but

these clay thermometers can bear, and can

measure the heat of the


reason

it

is

measurer of
"
it

am

fire

for

called a pyrometer,
fire

glad

whiph

that

is,

heat."

know

the name, and what

means," said Lucy.


*'

Father," said Harry, " will you be so

good

as to explain the pyrometer to

me ?

"

32
''

Harry, will you be so good as to use

your own understanding?" said his

father.

'^

From what you have

have just told you, you know enough to

seen,

and from what

comprehend or invent the

without

rest,

any further explanation from me."

Harry was
its

use.

and considered

silent,

He had

man

seen the

first

put the

stopper into the furnace, and then measure


it

between the

to another

rulers,

workman

and afterwards say

the

man who was

feeding the furnace, " This heat will do."

Now, thought Harry, what change could


have been made in the clay, after it had
been put into the furnace, and how did he
measure it, when he pushed it in between
the two rulers

ther

it

He must have

had grown larger or

.having been put into the


''

some
larger,

sorts

smaller, after

'*

that perhaps

of clay either shrink or grow

when they

are put into the

they did so always regularly, and

found

this,

they might

whe-

fire.

Harry,

think," said

tried

after a

know

number of

fire.

if

people

trials,

the heat of the

If

then

fire

by

33
the quantity which the clay had shrunk, or

increased in

size.

If this

those bits of clay that

the case with

is

saw, they would

be pyrometers, or measurers of

fire

heat, as

mean if you had the degrees


marked upon the ruler to measure them."
you

said

" Exactly so," said his father, " you are


right, as far as
is

you have gone

still

there

a part of the pyrometer which you have

not explained to me.

You observed

that

the rulers were not parallel to each other

do you think that was done by accident, or

on purpose
"

think

V
it

must have been on purpose,

they seem to have been screwed

down on

the plate firmly, like a ruler partly open."'

" Then,
pose, for

if

they w^ere placed so on pur-

what purpose

?" asked his father.

" That the different degrees of shrink-

ing might be measured as the stoppers are

pushed
first

in," said

made

Harry. "

The person who

the pyrometer must have tried

experiments, and must have marked the


different degrees,

which the clay shrinks


c

34
with

heats.

diflferent

But

do not know

by what parts of an inch, or by what


it

The

made.

is

be about two
"

They

opening

and

it

seemed

to

me

at the widest

end

is

and the

five-tenths,

narrowest three-tenths of an

And

so that this proportion

is

does not signify what inches or feet

be used in the length of the


bits of clay

to

feet long."

are," said his father, "

at the

inch.

rulers

scale

rulers.

which you saw exactly

fit

kept,

may
The
into

the widest opening before they have been

used, and they shrink

according

to the

degree of heat to which they are exposed,


if it is
first
*'

greater than that in which they were

slightly baked."

Then, papa, they can only show a

greater degree of heat, not a lesser, and if

they do not swell out again to the former


size,

they are of no use after they have

been in a great heat," said Lucy.


"

Of none,"

replied he, " fresh stoppers

must be continually used."


''

That

is

a great inconvenience," said

35
Lucy,

because you must drag about

*'

Not

weight of stoppers.
able thermometer in
''

But

like a nice port-

case."

its little

many

has so

it

Lucy," said her father,

'^

this

conveniences,

that

we may

well

pardon that one disadvantage."


"

One

Harry

same

great convenience

see," said

" the stopper always remains of the

size,

after

so that there
takes about

it

is

it is

taken out of the

no danger of making mis-

you may measure

it

and over again but the quicksilver


so that if you do not write

''

"

is

down the degree

you are undone."

This pyrometer," continued his father,


chiefly

used in manufactories, or by

chemists, in their laboratories.

of great use to Mr.


it,

over

varies,

accurately,

fire,

It

has been

Wedgwood, who made

from feeling the want of such a measure

in his potteries.

should

know

It

at

was necessary

what heats

certain

melt or

vitrify, that is,

glass.

The common workmen's

sions for this,


heat,

that

he

clays

you know, turn

to

expres-

such as red heat, or white

he found so inaccurate,

that, in trying

36

many

experiments,

things were spoiled for

want of

that exact

rometer

now

measure which his

By

gives.

tained what heat

it,

jpy-

he has ascer-

kinds of porcelains

all

can bear, without breaking, or melting, or

What

turning to glass.
use,

is

of

still

more

he can ascertain the exact degree of

heat required for baking, or, as they call


it,

firing

any kinds of porcelain or earthen-

ware, of which he could obtain any speci-

men, whether made

in this, or in foreign

countries.

As Mr. Wedgwood

scribing

it

it,

curate

much

speaks the language of

The advantage

nations.

universal
as

it

said in de-

of having an ac-

measure,

pleases

all

in

you now,

any

case,

will please

you more when your knowledge enlarges,


and when you see the further uses
it

to

which

can be applied."
'*

Papa,

remember

seeing," said Lucy,

" in Scientific Dialogues, the description

of a pyrometer, but
W21S
*'

made

do not think that

it

of clay."

No, that pyrometer

is

different," said

her father; " that measures by the expan-

37
sion of metal bars with different degrees

of heat,

which

shown by

is

motion

the

given to an index."
" Like the hygrometer," said Lucy.

"Yes, and there are several

different

kinds of pyrometers, of which you can read


the description at your leisure," continued

her father, " in any encyclopedia,

you

if

have any curiosity about them."


Harry, "

" Yes," said

should like to

compare them, and see which

is

best, if I

could."

" That would be a good exercise of your

judgment, Harry," said his father


there are so

many

they might

" but

and

tire

puzzle you."

"

The

which Mr. Wedgwood's

clay of

pyrometers are made," continued his father,


" possesses

some

properties,

which

peculiarly for the purpose to which

been judiciously applied.


burnt bits of

without cracking

it

Those

it

has

half-

which you saw, Harry,

it,

may be dropped

fit

at
;

once into intense


and^

when

fire,

they have re-

38
ceived

heat,

its

may be plunged

into cold

water without the least injury.

In about

three minutes they acquire

the

from any

fire,

receiving,

all

heat

which they are capable of

so as to contract as

much

as

they ever will from that degree of heat.

They may afterwards be

left in that

heat

change.

you please, for they will not


Take them out, and they can, as

you have

seen, be cooled in a few seconds,

as long as

and are then ready

for

measuring in the

gauge, or scale."

"

How

very convenient!" said Harry.

" But as each pjrrometer-bit can be used

but once, there ought to be a constant


fresh supply."

"There

are large beds of this clay in

Cornwall," said his father ; " and to ease

your mind, Harry, on


you, that Mr.

this subject, I

Wedgwood

can tell

offered to give

the Royal Society a sufficient space of a

bed of that

clay, to

supply the world with

pyrometer pieces for ages."


" I like that very much," cried Lucy.

39
"

who

cannot bear, that people

be covetous of

things should

scientific

discover

them, or afraid that others should have a


share."
*'

How

could you ever think of such a

thing?" said Harry.


" I never should have thought of

it,"

said Lucy, " only that I heard a gentle-

man

Aunt Pierrepoint's say


but
I believe I had better not tell it, because
good to any body. But
it can do no
once

Harry,

at

hope, and

am

sure, that if ever

you invent or discover any


be ready

to let others share

"That
wish
is

will," said

was come

something

not
I

it

that a

want

to express

person

you

will

with you."

"Oh!

Harry;

Father, there

to that.

else I

know how

think,

thing,

to say,
it.

who

It

but
is,

do

that

invents any

pyrometer, or hygrometer, or barometer,


or

new and

exact instrument for measur-

ing heat, or cold, or height, or quantity,

does more service than a


invents only

person

who

a machine, which will do

40
only for

some

purpose

particular

cause those measuring instruments


a great

assist

many

bewill

other people in their

experiments, for years, perhaps for ages

Do you

come.

to

understand what

mean, papa?"
" Yes,

say

is

my

very true.

poor button of
will pull

there

"

is

it

and

dear,

my

off;

think what you

But do not twist the


coat any more, or you

and

let

me go now,

for

the breakfast-bell."

Who

will

be down

stairs first?" cried

Lucy, letting go her button, and running


foremost.

Harry might have overtaken

her perhaps, in a race across the hall, but


that

he stopped

to

hold open a swing-

door for Mrs. Frankland.

She had in her

hand two small packets, one of which she


gave to him, and the other to Lucy. On
opening the paper

wrapped,

they

in

found

Wedgwood's ware.

which these were


two

Lucy's,

cameos

of

which was

black on a white ground, represented a

negro in chains, kneeling with his hands

41

this

a supplicating

in

raised,

manner, with

motto engraved,
*'

Am

not a

man and

Harry's cameo was

brown.

It

figures,

a brother?

all

of one colour,

represented three

allegorical

Peace, Art, and Labour; and

was made of

clay,

it

which had been brought

from Botany Bay.

Wedgwood made

Mr.

use of this clay, as Mrs. Frankland told


Harry, on purpose -to show the settlers

and inhabitants of
could be

made

that

country,

of their materials by in-

dustry and ingenuity

and thus he en-

couraged them to exert themselves.


these cameos the late Mr.
tributed

what

many hundreds.

Of

Wedgwood disAnd no doubt

considerable effect was produced by


*'

From

"

the poor fettered slave, on bended knee.

Britain's sons imploring to be free."

Lucy, you have not seen our garden


" We had not
yet," said Mrs. Frankland.

42
time yesterday, but

garden come

and
''

"with

if

you are fond of a

us now, your mother

I are

going there."

Oh

thank you ma'am," said Lucy

" but

must

call

Harry,

and we

will

follow you directly."

They
was,

followed, and

full

a gay garden

it

of a variety of bright-coloured

flowers, rich

beds of carnations, and roses

in full blow.

" Roses, moss roses in

September!" cried Lucy.


fore she

had

left

full

blow

The day

in

be-

home, she had searched

garden for a rose for her mother,

their

but could find only one poor solitary bud,

which had a yellow nightcap on.


asked

Mrs. Frankland to

she contrived to
late in

"

roses

her

how

blow so

autumn.

By

pulling off some of the buds in

spring," said
as

make her

tell

She

Mrs. Frankland, " as soon

they begin to form

and by

trans-

planting some of the rose trees early in


the spring, so as to prevent them from

43
flowering at that time, then they blow in

autumn."

Lucy

said,

spring on her

would

she

own two

try

them on the

said Harry.

and leave

off one,

then

other,

next

rose trees.

" Not on both, will you ?"

" Let us pull the buds

this

it

be a

will

fair

experiment."
*^

And

besides,

you may then have a

chance," said Mrs. Frankland,


first

rose of spring,

**

of the

as well as the last

rose of summer."

Lucy took notice of some large


of bright blue flowers
varieties

of dahlias

but she

beautiful,

clusters

agapanthas,

and

she thought them

supposed that these

could not be had without a great deal


of trouble and money, and a hot-house, or

a gardener at
said

or

least.

But Mrs. Frankland

these did not require a

even a gardener's

said she,

excepting

which

my

"

all

skill.

hot-house,
**

Indeed,"

the flowers in this garden,

perhaps

certain

carnations,

gardener prizes highly, though

"

44
1

do

little

"

may be had by any body wltk a

not,

care and exertion of their own."

By any body

repeated Lucy. " But,

"

ma'am, do you mean bodies

me ?

Harry and
" Yes,

like us

Frankland, " with your

like

own hands ?

with only our

bodies like

you,"

own

"

Mrs.

said

hands, pro-

vided you use your heads as well as your


hands."
" In what
said
**

Lucy

tionary,

^'

No,

it

and follow
do so

to

be very difficult?"

your
its

at the right

Only

re-

time of year,"

She

and of some

agapantha,
she

and

told

Lucy,

and

dahlias,

Harry were welcome

to

of

cuttings,

or

slippings,

they liked

in

this

roots,

thing

" Write

dic-

would give her the root of an

that she

seeds,

gardener's

directions.

Mrs. Frankland.

said

any

will

consult

member

that

way must we use our heads ?

down what you

garden.

wish, and

will

have them ready by the time your mother


brings you here again, as I hope she will

on your return homewards."

45
Joy sparkled

in their

and they

eyes,

warm

thanked Mrs. Frankland, with


but,

titude;

an instant afterwards,

looked unusually grave

they

the embar-

for

They

rassment of riches came upon them.

were
to

left to

make out

choose was the

were

beautiful,

their list
difficulty,

and

when

garden could not hold


to

space

of ground,

own

and how
where

their

that

all

little

Harry went

all.

He measured

work prudently.

gra-

was the

out a
size

of

Lucy could hardly


believe that it was so small as what he
now showed her; but he had often
stepped the boundaries, and was sure
their

garden.

of the size of their territories.

measure

soon

settled

the

Rule and
affair,

and

brought their wishes into proper compass.

They

calculated what their garden

hold,

and made out

would

their list accordingly.

Their chief wish was to have a great bed


of pinks and carnations.

But the moment they went near


an old gardener, who was

at

work

these,
in the

46
garden, and

who had long been eyeing

them, approached.
his

He began

which he said were the

carnations,

and he pointed out

finest in the county,

his

to praise

There was the Prince

favourites.

Regent, and the

Duke

of Wellington, in

body knew; but


beyond these, he had two superlative new
favourites.
One he called. The pride of
Hollandy or the great Van Tromp,
The
full

glory,

these every

The envy of the world, or the great


panjandrum.
Harry and Lucy did not
other.

much admire

Van Tromp

either of these.

they thought was of a dull colour, and


the great panjandrum had burst, and was
falling to pieces in spite of his card support.

Harry preferred some

" That which you are


said the

gardener, "

of Devonshire

that

is

others.

now

at,

master,"

Davy's Duchess

little

duchess

was

thought a great deal of some years ago,


but she

is

quite out of fashion now."

Harry did not care


*^

What

for that,

he liked her,

does he say?" asked the deaf

47
gardener,

turning to Lucy, and leaning

down

he might hear the answer.

'*

that

Harry, speaking loud in

I say," cried

his ear,

" that

my

like

duchess

little

better than your great panjandrum."

" Indeed

'*

in scorn.

said the gardener, smiling

"

Why,

master, what you have

taken such a fancy to


even,

"

you

do not

call

not a carnation

only a pink."

it is

is

I like

it.

" what

care," said HaiTy,

whether

it,

it

be called

carnation or pink."

The gardener looked

at

him with con-

tempt.
" Pray what

them?"

said

me, but

Lucy

forget

my

mother has told

told her, that one chief

the

in

is

"

it."

The gardener
difiference

the difference between

is

petals of carnations,

roundness of

the

and the jagged or

pinked edges of the petals of pinks.

Lucy

liked these edges,

and she

really

thought some of the pinks prettier than


the carnations.

low

voice.

"

She
But

told

am

Harry

so,

in

afraid," said she,

48

me

" that the gardener would despise

me say so."
What signifies whether

if

he heard
"

you or not?"

he despises

"There

Harry.

said

is

nothing wrong in liking a pink better


than a carnation."

The
was

gardener,

who

did not hear what

said, fancied that they

whether they should ask

were debating,
one of his

for

grand panjandrums, and he began to say,


that he
this,

was sorry

he could not

that

he could not give

this to

Harry assured him,

make

any

that

indifference, the gardener

named

all

things,

tried in vain to obtain

very great

rarity,

they

he

did

several

who had admired

panjandrum above
had

he need not

Piqued by Harry's

not wish for them.

lords and ladies,

any body.

because

apology,

oifer

said.

it.

his

and who
It

was a

Only two other

people in England had a real panjan-

drum.

Harry liked flowers

for

being pretty,

and did not care whether they were rare


or not.

49

The

gardener did

Soon afterwards he
pinks, of a kind

not

him.

believe

Harry some

oflfered

which he liked

parti-

cularly.

" But, master,

can

only upon condition,

you have them

let

you

that

promise

not to give any cuttings or layers of them


to

any one."

Harry drew back with disdain, and said


he would make no such promise.

The gardener

said, that unless

he would

he should not have the pinks.


" Then," said Harry,

"

will

do with-

out them."

He

turned

off

abruptly,

away, but Lucy stood

still,

and walked

and

said,

we

may have them.


Mrs. Frankland told us we might have
any thing in this garden that we choose
'*

believe

and here she

is

coming back from the

orchard."

"

Oh

that alters the case," said

the

gardener, with a look of some mortification.

Then, master, you must choose

*'

what you
VOL.

will, to

ir,

be sure."

"

50
.

Harry turned back, and walked com-

posedly along the sides of the carnation


beds, writing

he

chose,

down

on

of

bit

gardener breathed

names of those

the

freely,

paper.

The

when Harry

passed by the Panjandrum, and turned his

back upon the Envy of the world.

Lucy whispered

to

her brother, " Did

you see how much he was afraid that

you should have chosen any of those,


that are really valuable; and why did
not you

" Because I did not like them, and I

despise his

mean

reasons for liking them,"

said Harry, putting the paper


into her hands.

*'

Now

go,

and pencil
Lucy, and

choose."

Lucy, admiring her brother's independence, followed his example, and chose

what she

liked, without

being influenced

by the foolish wish of possessing what


other people cannot procure. She did not
choose either the Pride of Holland, or the

Envy of

the world.

Harry was quite right

to

adhere to his

51

own

taste

tere was no

trial

of complai-

sance or generosity.

now

Mrs. Frankland and their mother

returned from the orchard, and Harry and

Lucy gave Mrs. Frankland


looked

it

over,

their

She

list.

said she thought they had

chosen well, and had been moderate

She

their requests.

in

calied to her gardener,

gave him the paper, and desired him


have the plants in readiness

to

at the time

she mentioned.
" Very well, ma'am," he answered, coolly
looking over the

only of

common

list,

which he saw was

flowers

when she

but

added, that he must also give some Dutch


hyacinths, and tulip roots, the gardener's

whole countenance changed, he exclaimed,


"

My

Dutch

tulips

and hyacinths

*'
!

and

throwing down a hoe that he had in his


hand, he walked
" that

it

off,

was well

muttering

to himself,

his mistress's

not loose, or she would give

it

head was

away.'"

Mrs. Frankland laughed good-humour-

She bore with him,

edly at his anger.

d2

52
she said, because he was an old and faith-

who had been long

ful servant,

"

mily before she was married.

you might not think

it,"

in the fa-

Though
" he

said she,

generous to his relations, of

all

is

that be-

longs to himself, and covetous only of what

belongs to the garden, of which he considers himself as guardian against his mistress's

this

But

extravagance.

sort

cannot bear

of petty avarice and rivalship

about flowers, in persons whose education

ought

to

berality.

have raised them above such


I

illi-

have heard of a lady, who,

when

she was asked by a friend for the

roots

of

ashamed

some

particularly

to refuse,

fine

flower,

yet unwilling to give,

boiled the roots before she sent them, to

prevent the possibility of their growing."

Harry expressed the greatest indignation ao^ainst this meanness.

They now entered

the conservatories,

and observed the flowers of a

plant,

which

hung over the entrance of the peach-house.


They looked as if they were cut out of

53
and were covered with honey.

thick velvet,

Their smell, which had been pleasant at

soon became disagreeable and over-

first,

Mrs. Frankland told Lucy,

powering.
that this plant

Hoy a

called

is

carnosa;

Hoya

from the name of Mr. Hoy, the gardener,

who

introduced

nosa from
flower.

it

into

England; and car-

the fleshy appearance of the

She had planted

the peach-house, because

guard.
they

Wasps

at the

it

it is

are so fond of

will, for this,

door of

there a useful

its

honey, that

leave untouched peaches

had seen the

and grapes.

After

peach-house,

they walked

they

through

the

conservatory, where Mrs. Frankland pointed


out a tree, called

the

Papaw

tree,

carica

papaya, which had been brought to her

from the West Indies.

lately

tleman

who gave

that

will

years

it
;

that

to

it

her

grow twenty
its

if

in

her,

three

juice has the singular pro-

be rubbed on beef it makes

and

told

feet

perty of making meat tender;

veal;

The gen-

an old fowl

the trunk of this tree,

it

it

if

the juice

as tender as

be hung on

becomes, in a few

54

young chicken. This,


a fact, which has been long

hours, as tender as a
it is

affirmed,

is

known to those who have resided in the


West Indies. But Mrs. Frankland said,
had not yet

as she

tried the

she could not assert

it

experiment,

to be true.

At this moment, Harry put his hand


the mouth of one of the flues or pipes
the conservatory,

to
in

and perceived that warm

came through

it;

but Mrs. Frankland

told him, that this air

was not well heated,

air

and therefore did not heat the building


as

it

just

She

ought.

going

to alter,

said,

and she hoped

Harry heard

prove them.

man

ing to this

man was

that a

to

im-

his father talk-

end of the

at the other

conservatory, and he went to see

what was

doino^.

His father turned to him, and asked,


whether,

if

would put

he were to place the pipe, he

it

at the top or the

bottom of

the building?

Harry answered, " At the bottom


cause

know

that heated air

air that is not heated,

and

is

be-

lighter than

therefore, if

it

is

"

55
let in at the

bottom of the building

mix with the colder

warm

will

it

and gradually

air,

the whole house as

it

to the

rises

top.

As Lucy walked on with Harry, she


asked him

how he knew

that hot air

is

lighter than cold.

As you might know," said Harry, '' if


you recollect a diversion we were fond of
when we were children, and which I should
^'

like this minute."

He

and blew through


his face

puffed out his cheeks,

his hand, as

up towards the

he turned

sky.

Blowing bubbles, you mean


Lucy '' but what then ?
**

said

"

^'

What do you

think makes the bubble

go up ?" said Harry.


"

It

goes up, because

it

is

lighter than

the air."

"

And how comes

filled

that?

"What

is it

with?"

" It

is

filled

with

air

from the mouth,

blown through a tobacco pipe."


" Well, whether

it

is

blown through a

tobacco pipe or not," said Harry, "

is

the

"

56
air

from your mouth hotter or colder than

the outer

bubble
"

rises

Oh

do you think, when the

air,
?

hotter to be sure

The bubbles go

what you mean.


cause they are

deed

heated

filled

with heated

than cold

air is lighter
it

know

up, beIn-

this that
air

but

remember

to

moment.

at the right

wonder how you came

air.

might have known from

did not recollect


I

now

it

so well."

Harry

said,

that besides

another thing fixed

the

in his

it

bubbles,

mind.

when she was

thing which he had seen

away from home. A fire balloon, which


went up because it was filled with heated
He was one of the persons emair.
ployed to hold the great bag of the bal" It was
loon over a fire made of straw.
all

flaccid

at

first,"

said

father called the bladder

remember he showed
" Yes," said Lucy

were
pand.

filled
I

that."

*'

as

my

which you may

us."

" and

with heated

know

he,

air,

if

your balloon

it

would ex-

57
**

you do not know how

Yes, but

"

pulled," said Harry.


to pull against

and

at last,

my

when

I felt it

hands, as

it

it

was quite

beginning
filled

was desired

hold

to

fast,

though

my

instant

papa cried Let go,' we


it

at

loosed

all

Oh, the pleasure of seeing

and the pain of

which were
in

The
it,

went, to a great height, quite into

the clouds.

go up

did,

knuckles were burning.


*

and up

But

it.

and

out;

pulled

full, it

so hard that I could scarcely hold


I

it

all

my

whole

need not wonder

While they were talking in


their father was still speaking

men about

knuckles,

blistered, fixed the

my mind, so that you


my remembering it,"

it

this

manner,

to the work-

the stove of the hothouse.

They

joined him, and listened to what he was


saying.
land,

if

The man was asking Mr. Frankhe had seen the new method of

heating houses, used

town.
It

He

had been

had, and
first

it

a neighbouring-

admired

it

much.

attempted at the house of

the gentleman by
vented, which

in

whom

it

had been

warmed most

in-

comfortably,

d5

58

Then

was

it

mary, where

tried at

succeeded to the

also

it

men and

faction of tlie medical


tients.

has

of domestic

most

has, in the
his

many

for

knowledge

great

purposes

Infir-

satis-

the pa-

was the invention of a gentle-

It

man, who
his

County

die

wealth,

of

exerted

mechanics

comfort; and

liberal

his time,

years

for

who

manner, devoted

and

his

inventive

genius, to public works, useful to his native

town

in particular,

and

to

mankind

in

general.

At

Some

this

moment

visitors

had

they were interrupted.


arrived,

turned to the house.

and they

When

re-

Harry went

room he saw ladies with no bonnets


on their heads, and one with artificial flowers

into the

in her hair

though not much

skilled

such matters, he thought this looked as

in
if

these people were not merely morning visitors,

as

but would stay to dinner, for which,

Lucy knew by

liis

face,

he was very

sorry.

The next time they were


ther,

alone toge-

in their mother's dressing

room,

in

o9

company were gone,


Lucy asked her brother if he had not been
unhappy all day since the time they were

the evening, after the

interrupted at the stove


that,

but Harry said,

on the contrary, he had been very

happy

and that he had heard

several en-

tertaining things.

At first," said he, " when I saw that


woman, with the artificial flowers in her
head, I thought it would be a compamj
day, and that it was all over wath us.'
"

" That lady

was very good-natured

to

me," said Lucy, "

in telling

about the

flower which she wore.

artificial

Did you observe it?"


" Not I," said Harry.
it was like a
I did see it
;

glad

it

smell of
tell

had no
lilac in

smell,

a room.

^'

Yes,

lilac

for

believe

and

was

dislike

the

But what did she

you about it?"

" That she brought

asked

me to

it

from

guess of what

looked close, and

me

me something

that I might.

it

touched
It

Italy.

She

was made.

it,

for she told

was not paper, nor

60
silk,

nor gauze, nor cambric

guess what

it

was, though

tinct recollection of
like

it

silk

could not

had an

was made of the

It

worms.

In Italy you

know

in the

they have great quantities of these


silk

worm's own country

make use

indis-

having seen something

somewhere.

cocoons of

of them,

and

it is

well to

instead of throwing

them away."
" Yes," said Harry,

and

artificial flowers,

**

if

there must be

suppose there must.

That lady gave also an entertaining account of some travellers,

ped by

banditti

between

who were

stop-

Rome and Na-

ples."

" Yes," said Lucy, " and of the

little

who had her mother's jewels given to her


to take care of, and who concealed them in
her doll's cradle, and who kept rocking the
girl

cradle and talking to her doll

all

the time

the robbers were searching the carriage


that they never suspected

so

where the jewels

were, and went aw^ay without finding them.


I

do not think

could have had courage or

"

61
presence of mind to have done that.

wish
"

could."

You do

know

not

you are

till

tried,

whether you could or not," said Harry.


" But what was

going

to say

going

to ask

me

lady told
''

Not

I,"

Oh

"

not recollect," said Lucy,

can-

was

whether you heard what that


about straw bonnets
"

said Harry.

heard her

beginning to say something about the price

and the fineness of hats. Women's business,


thought

to

I,

" Yet

it

" though

which

need not

listen."

was worth hearing," said Lucy;

it

was about bonnets, gentlemen

listened as well as ladies."

"
^^

am

ready to listen now," said Harry.

In the

first

place, Harry,

do you know

what Leghorn bonnets are?"


" Yes,
hats.

believe

know the

A sort

do.

things

when

of straw

see them,"

said Harry.

" Very well

and you must know,

that ladies think they are

much

too,

better, be-

cause dearer than others," said Lucy. " No,


I

mean much

dearer, because better."

62

Which

'^

is

it?

Are you

sure,"

said

Harry, laughing.
" Quite sure," said Lucy.

"

They

are

much

longer,

and

bear wetting and crumpling.

They

are

really better

they wear

injhiitely better."

"

You know

Harry.

^'

That

best.
is

am

settled

they are dearer

because they are better.

satisfied," said

Go

on."

And they must be much dearer than


the common straw bonnets, which are made
"

in

England, you know, because they are

brought from a great distance, from

Aye, from Leghorn,

'^

their
'

suppose, from

name," said Harry.

Yes, at Leghorn

for a long,
I

Italy."

first,

I believe,

and

long time, hundreds of years,

dare say, ever since such hats have been

worn, people never thought of


possible to

The

its

being

make them anywhere but


straw

in

is

plaited differently,

and they thought that

sort of straw could

Italy.

be got nowhere but there.

In short, they

never thought of looking or trying what

63
they could do

have found

till

But now people

lately.

out, first in

America,

I believe,

then in England, and at last in Ireland

poor Ireland

they

grass, the straw of

have learned how


plait

which

will do,

to plait

it

sort of

and they

as well as they

That lady showed us

in Italy.

it

have found a

two bonnets, her own and her daughter's


her

own

she brought from Italy, and her

daughters was made

in Ireland, and, as well

as I could see, the Irish one

of the two.

was the

And much better judges

finest

than

am, and people who looked through spec-

and held magnifying glasses

tacles,

them,

said

the same.

to

Several ladies in

Ireland, as she told us, have taken a great

deal of pains to teach poor girls this straw

manufacture.
to

do

it

One

herself,

common

lady,

who

learned

how

from some directions in a

newspaper, set to work, and tried

experiments."
" Sensible
"

And

do good.

woman

!" said

Harry.

good," said Lucy, " for

And,

after a great

it

many

was

to

trials.

64
she

made

a bonnet from the very begin-

ning, with her

own hands, from

the

preparing the straw to the finishing


she

won

Oh
How do
"I

tell

I believe*"

now, Lucy, do not go too

you know

?" said Harry.

who saw

and compared

it,

with one which had been sent from

some French

Irish hat
fine

far.

you just what was told me, my dear;

that a person

to

and

the prize for this, the best that

ever was made,

"

first

was

Leghorn

Italy,

princess, declared that the

full

hats,

And this Irish


common grass,

it

as

good

as the finest of

which cost

hat was

fifty

made

guineas.

of a very

called crested dogs-taiP,

which grows even on bad ground.

Its

flower stalks are so remarkably harsh and

tough, that cattle will not touch them,

though they will eat the dry


other sorts of grass.

many

But these remain

winter in the fields useless


called in Irish trawnyeens.

* Cynosurus

stalks of

all

and they are

When a

cristatus.

thing

65
is

worth nothing, the Irish say

a trawnyeen. But

good

it is

not worth

now trawnyeens are made

for something,

and

for a great deal

too."

"

Would you know

were

to see

it ? "

said Harry.

" Yes," said Lucy,

**

show

it

and

well,

you

the grass if

I will

know

to

very

it

you the next

time we are in any field where it is."


" Do," said Harry. " I like the woman

who

stuck to the bonnet

till

she had suc-

ceeded."

" She succeeded in doing a great deal

more than making one

That

fine bonnet.

would have been no great matter, only


genious," said

much

Lucy

more, and

" but

much

I will tell

better.

teen,

make

and two, not older than

working in

bins they called

four-

own cottages (cathem), made in one year


their

twelve bonnets, and besides they did


the

work that was wanted

as usual.

you

This kind

lady taught several poor Irish girls to


these hats

in-

in the

all

house

Their twelve bonnets were sold

66

a guinea a piece.

for

many

great

such have been bespoken, and are to be

The

London.

children

of

those poor Irish, who, as you know^

we

sent over to

heard, were almost starving last winter,

have now one good way, by which they may


earn

guineas

and mo-

fathers

for their

thers."

" That

am

" I

good indeed,"

is

sure that

woman who made the first

bonnet, and taught them

" Yes,

am

her place,"

mamma

said Harry.

all,

must be glad."

sure I should, if

said

were

" And, Harry,

Lucy.

do

told me, that if I can learn to

this plaiting,

may

in

teach

it

our poor

to

widow Wilson's

daughters.

saw

which the lady, who

told

little bit

us

all this,

of

She

brought in her work-bag.

me undo

let

it,

To-day

a bit of

it,

to see

how

it

was

done, and she gave us some straw, and

began
*'

we

to try."

Now I know,"

were

all

not

think

said Harry,

"

could

you,

when

plaiting straw so eagerly.

what had seized

why you

"

"

67

saw you

all

busy with straws when

so

But now,

came back from playing.

Lucy,

to

go

to another thing,

enough about

said

this

chair

by the

fireside

we have

did you observe

who

the old o^entleman

for

sat in the arm-

"

The same gentleman, who, the first day


dinner, talked of Wedgwood's ware, and

at

of

vegetable

pie

dishes?"

He

saw him, indeed.


great quantity of snuff, and
*^

Yes,

Lucy.

said

took a

could not

his pocket

bear"
" What?"
"

Oh

It,

horrible,

handkerchief

*'

did not see

**

am

glad of

it,"

Harry

said Harry.
said Lucy.

it,"

*'

do

not like him."

"

You do

not like him

asure you," said Harry,


sible

man

father

*'

for I heard

my

he

is

him

dear.

a very sen*

talking to

and Mr. Frankland about

and

flues,

and

*'

Very

likely," said

fire

places,

and hot

Lucy

I as-

my

stoves,
air."

" but

wish

68

had not had

he

that

two great

those

streaks of snufF along the wrinkles of his

waistcoat."

" Never mind that," said Harry

want

to tell

"I

you something entertaining he

told me."
*'

Well, do then,

would rather hear

"

from you than from him," said Lucy.

it

hope, Harry, you will never take snuff.""


" No, no, my dear no danger."
;

when you grow old, my dear,


danger.
So many old people do,

*'But
great

and young

Now

too.

names of all the snuff takers

"No,

no,

no!

my

you the
know."

will tell
I

dear Lucy,"

said

Harry, stopping his ears, " pray do not;

but

let

me

"A
affair
tell

little

me

tell

you about a
bird

oh!

little

that

bird."

is

another

thought you were going only to

about stoves.

What

about a

little

bird?"
"

It

was about stoves

too," said Harry;

" you must hear that, before you come to


the bird.

Do you

recollect,

some one

69
said, that there

was a disagreeable smell

from a stove in the passage."


" Yes," said Lucy, " and the people be-

gan

smoke

was a smell of

my

old gentleman

or of burnt air."

"Then
asked

it

whether

to debate

if

it

they

was, that

knew what

is

meant by burnt

and he began and told of a doctor*

aivy

somebody, who

some experiments

tried

to

determine whether heated iron gives out

any thing unwholesome


over

it,

from

it,

or whether
so as to

to air, that passes

takes any thing

it

make

it,

away

in short, unfit for

our breathino^."
"

So he took a

bird, I suppose," said

Lucy.
" Stay, stay

first

of iron, and heated

am

sorry

he took a small cube


it

to a

great heat

forget the degree," said Harry.

"Never mind,"

said Lucy, "get

on

to

the bird."

"

And

he put

it

into an exhausted re-

ceiver," said Harry.


* Dr. Desaguliers.

70

"The
" No,

wish

bird?" said Lucy.

my

dear, the

had

cube of

iron.

you about the

never told

bird."

" Well, well,

not be bird-witted,"

I will

" Papa, you know, told me,

said Lucy.

was bird-witted once:


your pardon.

Now,

but, Harry, I beg'

me

tell

small cube of iron, and he put

he took a
it

into

an

exhausted receiver."

"Yes," said Harry;

"he placed

cube of iron so that whenever he


air, it

should

all

the

let in

pass through a hole in the

hot iron."
" You never told

me

of any hole in the

hot iron," said Lucy.


" There

"I
he had made a

was wrong," said Harry

should have told you, that

hole through the iron cube; then he


the

air into

through

when

the receiver, and

and over the heated

this receiver

he put a

little

was

bird into

filled
it,

it

passed

iron;

with this

and

it

let

and
air,

breathed

the air without seeming to be in the least

71
hurt, or

between

showing that he
it

and fresh

any difference

felt

air."

*^But the bird could not speak," said

Lucy; "and we are not sure

it

liked

it."

" Not sure, certainly," said Harry; " but

now

listen to the

will find

next experiment, and you

The man made

what happened.

the same experiment with a cube of the

same

size

and put the

of heated brass,

same bird in the same

receiver, after

been again exhausted, and

filled

it

with

had
air

which had passed through and over heated


brass."

" Well," said Lucy,

" and

what hap-

pened?"
^'The bird died," said Harry,

"in a few

minutes."

"Poor bird!"
was very cruel
was

said Lucy.
I

mean

"The man

the experiment

cruel."

" No," said Harry, " because he tried


the experiment for a good purpose, to save
the lives and health of

"That was good,"

human

creatures."

said Lucy;

"but

72
think he might have tried the experiment
as well without killing the bird.

have taken

it

out,

for breath, as I

And

died.

when he saw

am

He should
it

gasping

sure he did before

he should have

let it

it

recover

in the fresh air."

" Certainly," said Harry,


as

you

say, to kill the bird,

unnecessary.

was not

*^

it

was

because

cruel,
it

was

except that mistake

But,

a good experiment?"

it

She admitted

that

it

was a good experi-

ment; but she observed, that the lungs of


birds and of human creatures are different,

and she thought it not quite a certain

proof,

that because a bird cannot live in such or

such

air,

that therefore

be unwholesome
mother, to

was

this
*'

for

whom

true,

of,

must necessarily

human

creatures.

Her

she appealed, thought

and so did Harry.

How much we

think

it

have had

to say

and

from what passed to-day," said

"And how many curious facts and


entertaining stories we heard in conversaLucy.

tion,

though we were so vexed

at

being

73
interrupted

when

the visitors

came

first

in!

" Yes," said Harry,

^*

we may

me, that

thought of that;

my

and thought how right


telling

father was, in

often learn as

much

from conversation as from books."

A BOATiXG

party was proposed by Mr.

Frankland, on the third and


their visit,

and Harry and Lucy were

vited to be of this party, at

much
any

This had not a

be rowed with
to the side

sail, it

was

in
to

They walked down

oars.

of the

in-

which they

They had never been

rejoiced.

boat.

day of

last

river,

which ran throuo-h

the grounds, and they found the boat in a


little

creek,

moored

Lucy thought

it

to a post in the bank.

little

dangerous

to

walk

over the board that was laid from the land


to the

edge of the boat.

men would have


as she

sired to sit

VOL.

II.

assistance.

down

of the boat-

taken her by the arm, but

saw Harry walk on

lowed without

One

fearlessly, she fol-

They were

as soon as

de-

they were in

74
the boat, and something

trimming

How,

it.

was said about

or why, a boat was to

be trimmed, Lucy could not guess, and she

was curious

what would happen.

to see

Nothing happened, but that every body sat

men who was


his

except one

places,

in their

still

to

row, and who, sticking

oar against the ground,

from the shore.

Then

head wuth

oar,

''

By

his

pushed

off

crossing over Lucy's

and bluntly saying,

your leave. Miss," he succeeded in

getting the boat out of the

which

it

Now
and

of the

all

they were fairly out in the


the

boatmen began

who

sat at the

watching the way

guiding

creek, in

had been moored.

cepting one,
boat,

little

it

it

river,

to row, ex-

end of the

was going, and

by means of the rudder

or helm^

of which he held the great handle under


his arm.

After they had rowed a

man made one


with

places

little

way

this

of his companions change

another,

who was

much

heavier; and then seeming satisfied, said,


*^

She

is

well trimmed now."

Lucy per-

75
ceived that she meant the boat, and
understood,

now

by trimmed, he meant

that

that the weight on

each side of the boat

was balanced.

Lucy

All was new^ and amusing to


listened to

watched

sound

the

the

of the

sparkling

men

They

from the water.

hanging

lifted

them,

them out of

raised

the water, not edgeways, but with the


or blade, horizontal,

part,

raise a spoonful of

of

this,

as

any

The use

liquid.

was

minish the resistance of the

moved

flat

you would

as

Harry perceived,

the oars, as they were

she

and

oars,

drops,

from their edges, as the

air

to di-

against

forward, in

order to replunge them in the water.

His father told him, that this motion

is

called '^feathering the oars."

"Now

understand," said Lucy, "that

young water:"
sing, papa

verse in the song of the jolly

man, which you used


" Did you not hear

Who
He

to

of a jolly young' waterman,

at Blackfriars

used for to ply

feather'd his oars with such skill and dexterity,

Winning each heart and delighting each

E 2

eye.*'

76

As

they rowed along, they saw a pretty

on the banks of the

villa

Lucy sud-

river.

denly started up in the boat, and asked

Harry

if

he should not

like to live in that

beautiful place, with the

" Sit
*'

for if

my

still,

gay veranda."

dear," said her mother;

you overturn the boat, you

will

never live anywhere."


Effectually quieted

Lucy

sat

silently

down

by

this suggestion,

and quite

instantly,

still,

enjoying the fineness of the day,

and the pretty prospect of houses, gardens,

and woods, as they rowed

parks,

on,

and

observing the reflection of the trees and

A bird,

buildings in the clear river.

white out- spread

wings, was

with

skimming

over the water, which Lucy wanted Harry


to see

was

but he, close at his father's elbow,

intent

on hearing what Mr. Frank-

land was saying of some foreigners,

had

been

lately

course

of

at

tour

and

house,

they

were

He had

through England.
out boating

his

in

the

making

taken them

going down

of the river they had been

in

who

this part

particularly

77
merely with the picturesque

struck, not

beauty of the scenery, but with the appearance of wealth, comfort, cheerfulness, and
elegance in the residences of our English

The

gentry.

great territories and palaces^

high

85 they called them, of our

did not surprise them so

number and

much

nobility,

as the vast

variety of the lawns,

and plea-

sure grounds, and parks of our country

One

gentlemen.

of these foreigners was

French, the other, Italian. In


fine places

and

fine

Italy, there are

gardens belonging to

the nobility, but none of these comfortable


habitations,

ranks of

fit

life.

for persons in the

The Frenchman

middle

said, that

these country houses were amazingly dif-

from the comfortless chateaux in

ferent

France.

They had paid

visits to

several

of our country gentlemen, and liked their

mode

of living so much, that even the

Frenchman protested,

that

if

he had not had

the honour of being born a

should prefer the

gentleman
the

lot

The

he

of an English country

to that of

universe.

Parisian,

any other being


Italian

was

in

further

78

by the

struck

enjoyed, and

liberty

equal justice done to

all,

He

the

he could

as far as

many of
our most distingruished men have made
their own fortunes, many risen by their
own talents and exertions, from the lower
see, in

England.

ranks of
try,

He

life.

found, that

found, that in this coun-

though birth has great advantages,

education does more

and industry and

genius have the road to fame, and wealth,

and honours,
therefore, as

bom

in

open

to

them

he vrould,

he declared, rather have been

England, even in a lower rank,

than in the highest class in any country,

where such equal laws and

liberty,

and

such strong motives for exertion, are not to

be found.

Harry understood
might seem a
liked

it

little

all

this,

though

it

above his years, and

the better, perhaps, on that ac-

count; besides, he enjoyed the praises of

Old England.
There was in the boat a sailor, who was
now called upon to sing for them, as he
had a good voice, and knew many sailor s
dear

79
songs

and there was a boy who played on

the

flute.

for

them

The
at the

This boy was Scotch, and sang


several pretty Scotch boat songs.

helm

out rather unceremo-

callincr

niously to the boy with the

him have done with


something

else to

coming, as he

now began

bidding

had

mind now.

said, fast

They were

upon the weir; and

upon

resting

their

the boat float with the cur-

oars, letting

while

flute,

his noise, for they

who had been

the men,

rent,

man

singing was interrupted by the

they listened

to

the music,

row across the stream, which


was carrying them forward with increased
to

Lucy imagined

velocity.

danger, but what

was some

was she did not know,

had never seen a weir, nor had

for she

Harr}^

it

there

nor, if

he had known, was

time for

talkino;.

man who

steered

All were silent.

seemed

intent

any

it

The

on pass-

ing quickly through the current, and

hands joining

in

the pull, they reached

and brought the boat


creek,

all

safely into a little

where they moored

her,

by throw-

ing a rope from her round the stump of a


tree.

80

When they were

all

safely

lodged on the

bank, and while the boatmen were wiping


their

foreheads, Harry mquired

if

there

had been any danger, and asked what was


meant by the weir.
he would show
could not see

it

it

him

to

said,

soon, but they

from the place where they

They walked on a

w^ere standing.

way on

Mr. Frankland

little

the shore, and presently heard a

sound, as of waters falling, but

still

could

not see from whence the sound came.

became louder and


vanced,

till,

louder,

as

It

they ad-

having passed the overhanging

branches of a willow, which interrupted


the view, they

saw what caused the noise

of falling waters.

down a

step,

The stream was rushing

formed by a long ridge or

dam, which lay obliquely across the

river.

This ridge was the weir, and there might

have been some danger


been carried too near

it,

if

the boat

by the

had

force of

the current.

They were now


where they were
on a canal.

to

walk on

to a place,

to get into another boat,

As they passed along the

bank, opposite to the weir, they had a

full

81

view of

as the waters, arching over

it,

its

rounding brim, formed a length of low,


white, and greenish cascade, sparkling in

the sun,

and

changing

lights

by

indented with

fall

its

and shades.

While Lucy

watched and admired these, Harry inquired

what was the use of

ridge,

this

or weir,

which he saw was not a natural step

in

the bed of the river, but which seemed to

be built of mason-work,

for

some

particu-

lar purpose.

Mr. Frankland directed


mill

his eyes to a

on the bank, and told him, that the

use of this weir was to

dam up

the river,

so as to secure a constant supply of water,

and

to give a fall

wheel of

this

sufficient to

mill

in

keep the

motion.

Harry

wished exceedingly to have a nearer view of


the water-wheel
mills

and of the

mill.

Wind-

he had seen and examined, but he

had seen watermills only from the road.


Mr. Frankland said, it would not take

them above half an hour to walk to the


mill and back again, and was willing to
grant Harry's request; Mrs. Frankland did
not like to refuse him,

yet she seemed

e5

82
doubtful; she looked at her watch, fearing
that they should scarcely have time; she

was anxious

said, that she

good time
like to

for dinner,

to

be home in

because she did not

keep an old friend waiting.

ever, if the mill could

be seen in half an

hour, there would be time

wait for Harry


she would

and

his

down on

sit

How-

she promised to

mother said that

the stump of a tree,

and make a sketch of the pretty situation

went

of the mill, while he

No

to look at

it.

sooner was permission granted, than

Harry darted

off,

be back again

and was sure he should

in less

than half an hour.

But time passes quickly when we

are

amused, and when we are following our

own

particular

tastes.

First,

the great

water-wheel was to be seen, with


vanes, and

all

its

he stood observing how the

water turned

It

it.

who came out


Then
wheel.

to
it

was, as the millwright

them
was

to

said,

an overshot

be explained to

meant by an overshot wheel,


and the difference between this and an
This was a mill for
undershot wheel.

Harry, what

is

grinding corn

he had seen

flour

mills

83
turned by wind, and as the construction of
the mill work was, as his father told him,

same

nearly the

which

in this as in those

he had seen, there was no occasion


over

go

Indeed, he would have returned

it.

directly,

but that he wanted to look at a

which was used

crane,

to

for lifting

up

the

sacks of corn from out of the boats, to the

granary in the upper part of the mill

and

when

for letting

down

ground.

Harry thought he had been but

the sacks of meal,

a few minutes looking at

more minutes were spent

drawn up, and

five

this,

and a few

in seeing

a sack

minutes more in exa-

mining the motions of a certain bolting


or sifting machine, the operation of which,

when explained by

the overseer,

particu-

larly delighted him.

The

overseer showed him, that though

when it had passed through the


stones, came out crushed or ground,

the wheat,
mill

yet that the finer parts were mixed with


the coarse flour, as well as with the bran,
or outer coat of the grain.

was

first

cool,

spread out on a

and then

it

In this state
loft,

it

in order to

was poured down through

84
a

wooden

funnel, or hopper y into the

end of the bolting machine.

upper

This was a

long hollow cylinder, surrounded with a


sort of net

work of wire, resembling gauze,

but of three different degrees of fineness.


It

was

fixed in a sloping direction,

and the

overseer having kindly stopped the motion

of the machinery, showed Harry, that within


the cylinder there was a frame

brushes attached to

passed through
overseer,

work of
a small iron axis, which

by pulling

axis again in motion

that the flour,

whole length.

The

a cord, set this

iron

its

when

and Harry perceived

rapidly whisked round

by the brushes, was forced out through the


meshes of the wire

the finest flour passing

through the upper and closest division of


the gauze

and so

on,

but the bran which

till

fell

nothing remained,

out at the lowest end

of the cylinder. Each species of flour was


received in separate boxes, from whence

they were taken away in sacks, according


to the various uses to

be applied.

The

which they were

finest flour

to

being em-

ployed in making the whitest sort of bread^


or in pastry;

the

coarser in household

85
bread, and the bran in a variety of domestic

purposes.

Highly interested with what he had seen,


because the patient overseer had

comprehend

it

made him

thoroughly, Harry hastened

mother, and was not a

little

astonished to find that they had been

away

back

to his

an hour instead of half an hour.

who always
they could make

Mrs. Frankland, however,

hoped the

up

best, said that

by walking quickly

for lost time,

to the

place where they were again to get into a


boat.

"Quick
land,

March!"

time!

and on they marched,

time as they could,


canal

a long

till

Mr. Frank-

said

in

as quick

they reached the

level stripe of

still

water,

which, as Lucy said to Harry, looked no


better than a broad ditch full of water.

She saw many large boats on


loaded with

coals,

various

sorts,

people.

To

to

go on

in

slowly they

and

this canal,

others with goods

some

of

crowded with

her mortification, they were

one of the canal boats

now

and

went, nor was there any

pleasant sound of oars.

Instead of beino-

86

rowed by men,

who was

a horse,
rope,

bank,

this

boat was drawn on by

fastened to

by a long

it

and who, walking on a path on the


the

they called

trackway as

it,

tugged on with his head down, and as


slowly as

his

could

feet

Lucy

step.

thought he looked quite stupified, and as


if

he was walking
"

Why

in his sleep.

do people make canals, papa?"

said she.

He
made

explained to her, that canals are


to supply the

want of

where

rivers,

they cease to be navigable, or in places

where they do not naturally flow

he

said,

that canals are extremely useful for carry-

ing easily, and cheaply, heavy goods, and

numbers of passengers.
Harry supposed, that canals could be

made only through

flat

ground that was quite


father told

And how do

Harry,

"

is

in

his

not level.

they manage,"

when they come

think,

But

level.

cause water cannot go up


not,

and

him, that they can be carried

through ground that


"

countries,

go

to

hill;

safely in a boat

hills,

said

be-

we could
down hill,

87
or

down

this

steps

morning

you know we were obliged

we came

to get out before

to that ridge, that little step in the river,

the weir."
'^

men

Yes," said Lucy


said,

me, that

it

" one of the boat-

my own

and

showed

sense

would have been very danger-

ous to attempt

it;

the boat would have

pitched forward,

and

and we should

have been drowned."

all

filled

with water,

Then how do people manage when


they come to uneven ground?" repeated
"

" Perhaps they

Harry.

done to-day, get

and walk

out,

have passed over the

do as we have

hill,

till

they

and then take

to the water again."

" That was


his father^ "

places

the

and

case

is still

for instance, in

in this country,

Lincolnshire,

in

formerly,"

said

practised in

some

America, and even

some of the

fens

of

they not only are obliged

and

w^alk,

along

with

to get out of their boats, Harry,

but must carry their boats

them, over land, or over marsh, from one


place where the canal

stops to another,

88

where the ground, being nearly


go

can

on

but this

is

level,

it

inconvenient,

Harry, even to passengers, and consider

what

it

must be where heavy loads are

to

be carried."
" Very inconvenient," said Harry. "
I

Then

suppose people take great care, in the

first

place, to choose the

most level parts

of the country, for their canals, and to go

round the
*'

hills,

instead of going over them."

True," said

his

father,

but some-

^'

times they cannot go round them


to

what

is

be done then, Harry?"


"

to

see nothing that can be done, but

cut through them, as

the hills

we

we saw one

passed over in our journey,

where, from the height of the banks,

appeared
feet, to let

of

it

have been cut dovm several

to

the road go through

must be done,
where great

the same

suppose, for canals, and

stones,

or rocks,

come

in the

way, these must be blown up with gun-

powder, as
rock,

road.

we saw men

blastiJig

away a

where they were making a new

Then

the rubbish, and stones, and

89
earth,

bed
"

must be carried away, and a

left for

Must

the canal."

a word easily said, Harry,"

is

observed his father

and

be impracticable

extremely tedious

is

much

so

so,

that

go,

the whole bottom,

upon one

level.

would

where they

had been necessary

if it

it

have carried canals

to

across parts of the country,

now

dig-

this

all

and carrying away of

earth,

and expensive

but

^'
;

ging, and blasting,


stones

level

or

The

to

bed of the

make
canal,

difficulty is obviated,

by means of an ingenious contrivance,


called a lock.
We shall come to one
on

this canal soon,

how

will see

managed, that we pass over

is

it

and then you

of

inequalities

ground,

without

being

obliged to g^i out of the boat, and without danger of


''

" Is
'^

That
it

is

its

the best of

quite safe,

Quite

being overset."

safe,

know,

through a lock."

said Lucy.

papa?"

my

and your ears were


perhaps

it,"

dear
shut,

that

if

your eyes

you would not

you were

passing

90
Harry detennined, however,
ears

and eyes well open.

keep his

to

Presently they

came to two large wooden doors, which


would have stopped the way across the
canal had they been shut, but they were
and flung quite back.

open,

on between

passed

the

without

doors,

any difference

their feeling

Their boat

in the motion,

or perceiving any change in their posi-

The doors were then

tion.

closed behind

them, and they found themselves in a sort


of box,

or

just large

reservoir,

enough

side,

end.

with water,

to hold their boat with-

against the stone work

out striking

each

filled

or the

wooden doors

at

on

each

There were two doors, opposite

to

those through which they had entered


these they found shut; but

was immediately

sliding door

entrance drawn up
let off

a sluice or

and

this

after their

gradually

the water that was in this basin,

or reservoir, and the surface of the water

gently sunk, sunk, sunk down, with the

boat upon
tion.

it,

Lucy

with an imperceptible mo-

could, as she said, only

know

91
that they

had moved, by seeing the height

above, and observing, on the stone sides of


the lock, the marks of where the v^^aterhad

Thev continued
they came to the

been on their entrance.


thus gently sinking
level

of the

till

water

in

the canal at the

through which

other side of the gates,

now

they were

to this level,

to

pass.

When

men opened

the

and the boat was drawn


on without

difficulty

out,

came

it

the gates,

and went

on the canal.

His

father bid

Harry look up

the canal,

where they had been before

they entered
the

see

the

lock,

to the part

from which

height

might

he

that

of

had

they

sunk.

"
it

Now, Harry,"

said he,

happened, that when we

the lock,

we found

^*

tell

first

me how

came

the water in

it

into

upon

a level with the water in the canal above,

on which we had been going?"

Harry answered, that he supposed, that


before they had

men had opened

come up

to

the

lock,

the great gates, and had

92
let

the water from the canal rush into the

reservoir

it

till

rose to a level.

" Not the great gates, Harry," said his


father

" the rush of the whole

body of

water from the canal would be too violent.

Think again."
Harry thought again, and said he supposed there were small
side of the lock,

on the

sluices,

next the upper part of

the canal, similar to those next the lower,

which he had seen opened

and he sup-

posed that these sluices had been opened,


before they

gradually

came up

let

to the lock,

the water

and had

in.

His father told him, that

this

was exactly

what had happened, and reminded him


of a whistle, which he had heard, from

one of their boatmen, some time before


they came to the lock, which was the
signal for the
it,

man

at the sluice to

and get ready the water

open

for the

com-

with

this

ing boat.

Harry was

much

pleased

most ingenious contrivance.

"

It

seemed

"

93
" that he thought even

so easy," he said,

he might have invented


" This

is

it."

the case with almost

all

good

inventions," said his father.

"

How

dovm,

nicely and gently

we sunk down,

level water in the lock, while

As my

ing out.

my

perceived that
a depth

we

What

sunk!

a step that would

for a

you can go up and down


Stairs
;

Her

sure, if

should not have

come

boat to

impossible, without a lock

Harry

am

we were going down. What

have been, Harry

*'

was flow-

it

father said, I

eyes had been shut,

down

" on the

in the boat," said Lucy,

but

stairs in canals

do not know

that,"

father told

Lucy,

he

that

seven or eight locks,

following each

of

the

said

but one step, certainly."

seen, in Scotland, on the Caledonian


nal,

if

other

country called

had
Ca-

immediately

and

the

these

people

Neptune's

stairs,

Mr. Frankland was glad

to

see

that

Harry and Lucy had been so much pleased


with the lock, as

it

was

for the

purpose of

94
showing

by the

to them, that

it

Soon

canal.

he had come home

after passing

through

the lock they landed by the side of a road,

where

their carriage

meet them.
see

it

had been appointed

Mrs. Frankland rejoiced

should be

and

if afraid

they

late.

they certainly were, and very late

tleman,

and very cross was the old gen-

cross,

who had been kept

starving, as he said,

yond

to

ready waiting for them, and again

she looked at her watch, as

Late

to

waiting and

an hour and a half be-

the regular dinner time. Mrs. Frank-

land bore

all

he

said,

and

with such gentleness and

all

he looked,

good-humour,

Lucy wondered how he could conShe thought, however, that


tinue angry.
that

he must be

terribly

hungry, and that

when

when he had satisfied


his hunger, he would grow good-humoured
dinner came, and

At dinner he grew worse


and worse. Every thing was wrong. The
fish was overdone, and the venison was
again.

No.

"

95
over-roasted

and some

he found

fault

many good

with every one of the

things,

which Mrs. Frankland, with persuasive


words, recommended.
''

Try

my

thiS;

dear

But nothing he

or try that."

sir,

tried

would

Frankland looked sorry, and


soothed him

but at

last

Mrs.

do.

kindly

still

he said some-

thing very provoking about ladies never

being punctual, and seldom thinking of


their absent friends.

and his

this,

Harry could not bear


bashfulness

natural

quite

conquered by indignation, he called out

in

a loud voice,
*^

That

The

is

very unjust

!"

old gentleman looked up from his

whose face was red

plate at Harry,

all

over.

" Well

done,

my

said he, half laughing.


to say or to

turkey-cock

little

"

What have you

do with the business?"

" Only that

my

it

was

all

explained,

and

said,

fault," said

Harry.

He

that

staid too long looking at a mill,

he had

and

talk-

"

96
ing

about

an

and

undershot

overshot

wheel.

" Mighty well for you and your mill,"


said the old gentleman, in a tone between

and

pleasantry

" but

reproach;

young gentleman, what was

that

pray,

you

said

'

about Very unjust ?


" It was unjust to say that ladies never
^

think of their absent friends,

Harry

sir,"

" because Mrs. Frankland,

replied

who

is

a lady, did think of her absent friends, and


of you in particular; for she was very anxi-

home

ous to get

be kept waiting
that

sir,

"

for dinner,

you do not

Who

was

all

which she

said,

like."

your

in a laugh.

fault,

and must be obliged

" But since

must be

satisfied,

Mrs. Frankland for

to

This hare

her anxiety about me.


tender,

you should

does, sir?" said the old gentle-

man, now joining


it

in time, lest

is

very

and not over-roasted, which, con-

sidering all things,

Frankland,

let

us

is

wonderful.

make up our

Mrs.

quarrel

by

drinking a glass of wine together."

Mrs. Frankland's

good

temper

and

97
conquered him.

sweet smile

His fore

head un wrinkled, and he became quite good-

humoured, and talked of old neighbours,

and of

his

good old

friend

Wedg-

Mr.

and of the Staffordshire


wood again
the Grand Trunk, as he called it
canal
;

of which the late Mr.

the

so

first

Wedgwood was

proposer, and which has enriched

many

who had

individuals,

shares in

the original undertaking.

After dinner,

when

the ladies

room, Harry followed them,


not understand what was

the

left

he did

for

saying,

about

shares in navigation, and the interest paid

While the

upon them.

ladies

were drink-

ing coffee, the conversation turned upon


the cross old gentleman, and bore rather

hardly upon him


declaring,

one lady in company

that she

thought Mrs. Frank-

land had been too kind to him

that,

for

her part, she should not, had she been in

Mrs. Frankland's place, have thought herself

bound

to

submit

bear his ill-humour.


at

him
VOL.

to his rudeness,

She went on

for his epicurism.


II.

to

or to

laugh

98

But Mrs. Frankland stopped


said, that she

gentleman

was much attached

that he

She

her.

was an old

to this

friend of

her husband's, and of his family, and had

long shown them kindness, for which she


felt

grateful

and that the only way

in

which she could prove her gratitude was


by trying to make him comfortable and

happy

in his declining years,

done

not be
little

foibles.

amends

without bearing with his

His real benevolence, and

sense

excellent

for

soon over,

which could

and

them;

and

made

information,
his

his

pettishness

kindness

of

was
heart

always remained.

Lucy admired and

liked

Mrs. Frank-

land for speaking in this manner.


solved, that,

be

equally

when she grew

She

up, she

good-tempered,

re-

would

and would

bear with the foibles of old friends, even


if

they happened

Above

all,

to

be a

little

cross.

she resolved that she would

be as steady as Mrs. Frankland,

in de-

fending them in their absence.

In the evening,

after the

old gentle-

"

99

man had

arm

his

in

taken his nap, and was sitting


chair,

by the

fire

he

side,

caught hold of Harry's arm, as he was

him

passing, and said to

in a gruff, but

good-natured toneTell me,

**

little

curious about

you

to

Harry,

was

Are you

mills?

or a millwright,

miller,

are

man, why you are

Or what

pray?

who

generally understood what

him

quite literally, answered

gravely, that he believed he

was not

be either a millwright or a miller

he did not yet know what he was


but, whatever

no

ledge he

be a

to

be ?

said to

him

so

he was

harm

to be,

get

to

it

all

to

learn all about mills, because

it

that

be

could do

the

know-

And he wished

could.

to

to

entertained

him.
"

And what do you know


"

about them?"

Can you

tell

me

keeps a windmill going,"

re-

said the gentleman.

what keeps a mill going?"


"

Wind

plied

Harry,

^'

and

water a watermill.

There are other kinds of

mills,

f2

which

"

100
kept going by horses, and some are

are

moved by men, and many by steam."


" Upon my word, you know a

vast

deal," said the gentleman.

" No,

sir,

know

very

said

little,"

Harry, bluntly, and looking ashamed, and

not well pleased.


" Well,

by

I will

not affront you any more

flattering you, since I find

like it," said the old

you do not
" Come,"

gentleman.

added he, drawing Harry towards him,


"

we

be good friends

shall
I

see.

son at

No

are

will

made ?

know how they

like to

one out

Sir," said Harry, taking

of his pocket, and looking at

round and smooth


be

you

saw you playing with my grandmarbles yesterday.


Do you know

how marbles
"

yet,

are

it.

"

made

should think

should
so very

must

it

difficult."

" It

is

my

friend

Mr. Wedgwood

me, that he had found


difficult

things he

and when
quired

how

it

told

one of the most

had ever attempted:

was on the Continent

they were made."

in-

101
^'

And how

are they made, sir?"

said

Harry.
*'

First they cut a certain sort of stone

into

of

bits

any irregular

shapes,

matter what, nearly the size of a

These they throw

marble.
mill,

which there

in

titions,

and

is

into

an iron

to each partition strong rasps

worked by water, and


:

common

a number of par-

are fixed, in a slanting direction

swiftness

no

is

the mill

is

turned with great

rubbing

the

of

the

stones

against the rough rasps, and against each


other, rounds them,

and by degrees smooths

and polishes them,

in the

same manner as

the gravel becomes rounded in the bed of

a river.

When

per shape, they

made

in the

size to let

they are formed


fall

the pro-

through circular holes,

bottom of the

them

to

througch.

mill,

of the right

From Nurem-

berg, the town where they are made, they


are brought

down the river Rhine

to Rotter-

dam, and thence sent all over Europe,


countries and places

to all

where boys play

marbles; and where do they not?

at

And now

102

you know more about marbles than nine


hundreds of boys of your age,

in ten of the

who have their pockets filled with them."


The backgammon table was now set,
the old gentleman

for

game

with Mrs. Frankland

time every evening


to

it,

usually played a

he

about

this

but instead of going

staid talking to Harry,

and

tell-

ing him of various things which he had


seen
^'

when he was

When

first

"

said he,

in Holland.

went

Amsterdam,"

to

remember, as

approached

the city, counting forty-six windmills all

The Dutch have long been


famous millwrights, and many of the contrivances, now in common use in our mills
in motion.

in

England, were brought from Holland

for instance,
in

one which you

your journey here.

that

may have

Did you take

on some windmills there

is

seen

notice,

a very

small sort of fan- wheel, which stands out

little
'^

from the top?"

Yes

said Harry.

know what you mean,

sir,"

103
" So do
I

saw

I,"

thought

it,

mill to frighten

it

away

was a

little

And do you now know

*^

my

showed me one, and explained

it

itself,

it

father

to

me

to turn the

is

the

wind, by

so that

whichever

towards

means of the wind

way

wheel

little

sail-wheel

great

wind-

the use of it?"

"for

said Harry;

the use of that

first

birds from the corn."

"

do,"

When

"

Lucy.

said

blows, the mill continues to work.

In those, which have not this ingenious


contrivance,

the

mill

must

stand

every time the wind changes,


miller cannot set

it

in

still

and the

motion again, with-

out a great deal of trouble

he must haul

round the whole top of the mill in an

awkward way."

"Why? how?"

Harry explain the two ways


windmills

different
I

have some

actly

"

how

Oh

Harry.

idea,

turn,

but

"Do

Lucy.

said

in

or

still

which these
are

turned.

forget ex-

it is."

am

sure

you know,"

said

104
" Perhaps
if I

did

know

but go on as

did not, begin from the beginning;

first, if

with

you

awkward way,

please, with the

windmill which has no

that

little

fan-wheel."

" That

common

mill," said Harry,

called a post windmill, because

ported upon a post, which


at bottom,

is

is

it

or

tower

is

is

sup-

fixed firmly

and which goes up through

wooden

the middle of the inside of the

body,

"

tower-part of the mill.


separate from

the

This

mason- work,

and from the grinding wheels underneath


it

hangs on the top of the post, and can

be turned round upon


" This

it."

way do you mean? Like

this?"

said Lucy, holding her pencil upright, and

hanging her thimble on

"Something
the

great

wooden

its

point.

" But

like it," said Harry.

sail-wheel

is

fastened to the

tower, and one cannot be

moved

round horizontally without turning them


both.

Suppose the wind changes from

north to south, then the tower

itself

must be

105
turned, so as

side

the

to

sails

bring the front of the

to

opposite

on

that

to

which they had stood."

How

"

do this?

miller
sails

inconvenient

and

And how

does the

and the

for that tower,

must be a great weight,"

all,

said Lucy.

"

He

could

do

not

without

it

" There

help of a lever," said Harry.

a huofe ladder, which

upper

of

part

the

is

the
is

fastened to the

tower,

and

which

reaches from that to the ground, sloping

outwards, so as to be a prop and stay^

keep the mill fixed in the position

to

which

is to

it

the wind.

in

stand, with the sails facing

But the wind changes, and

Then

the mill must turn.

the miller

up from the ground the lower end of


great ladder,

which he then uses

lifts

this

as a long

handle, or lever, by which he turns round


the mill,

till

the sails are again properly

placed."
''

for

the

So much
the

for the post

other,"

said

little fzin- wheel,

as

windmill

Lucy;
you

^'

now

that with

call it."

F 5

106
" That does the business cleverly, and

man.

without any trouble to miller or

Only the

top, not the

kind of windmill

whole body of

The

moveable.

is

this

axis

of the great sail- wheel goes through this

moveable

and therefore can be shifted

top,

round horizontally along with


on

rests

it

this top

can move easily

rollers, so that it

on the top of the solid stone wall of the


tower.

Now

for the little wheel."

" Aye, the

little

ingenious wheel," said

Lucy.
" That

is

placed

so

at

first,

vanes catch the wind whenever

blow upon the

So

and

of wheel- work,

all

scribe to you.

it

its

does not

of the great wheel.

sails

as soon as great wheel stops,

sets a-going,

it

that

sets in

which

little

wheel

motion a train

need not de-

need only

say, that

it

has the power gradually to turn the moveable top round,

with

its sails

wheel
this

sets

till

it

brings great wheel

facing the wind; then great

a-going; and

time, having

wind, stops.

Its

little

wheel by

worked away from the


business

is

done, and

107
it

rests,

When

wanted.

is

it

till

wind again changes, so

as to

vanes, then

again,

it

sets off

the

blow on

its

and works

the great wheel round to the right point,

and

on continually."

so

" Very well, you understand


said the old gentleman, "

much

if I

I see,"

it,

may

say that

without your thinking that

mean

to flatter you."

Harry smiled
a thing

" but," said he, " there

do not

windmills.

at all

is

understand about

saw some standing

still,

while others nearly in the same situation

were going, with the same wind

was

thinking what the reason of this could be;

and

-I

suppose that there must be some-

thing different in the

vanes or
1

sails

You

think rightly,

old gentleman.

scientific

"

man,

which continued
other

in

which the

themselves are sloped, or

believe I should call


''

way

windmills

set,

it."

I believe,"

have a friend

said the

in France,

who made a windmill,


working when all the
in

remained motionless.

the

neighbourhood

The common

peo-

108
round, and

pie used to gather

and

it,

say, that

for they could

with

ofo

less

stare

at

went by enchantment,

it

how

not conceive

wind than

could

it

own; but

their

from the judicious position of

this arose

the vanes, which had been placed so that

upon them with the

the wind should act

greatest possible force."

"

wish

said

Harry

ver

it

in

I
;

knew that judicious position,"


"I have often tried to disco-

making

little

could only place the


should like to
son,

"
tell

know

And
you

my

all this,

Learned

much upon
am not a man of

tician, therefore I

can describe

the rule and the rea-

He then

if I

but that

dear,

could
is

be-

men have thought and

this very question

science, or a

cannot explain

but

mathemait

to you.

only the things which

have seen and which

ral

guess.

should be very glad

written

by

sails

and the best possible way."

yond me.
I

but

windmills,

understand."

gave Harry an account of seve-

things he had

Harry knew that

seen

this

city

in
is

Amsterdam.
built

upon

109

Lucy

piles.

number

the

said, slie recollected

of these

reading

which was

piles,

prodigioas.

Harry asked, whether any of them had


given way,

whether the houses stood

or

upright upon them.

"No,"
first

idea

said the
I

was, that

had when

many

gentleman;

old
I

entered

"-'the

Amsterdam

of the houses were tnmbline

down, they were so much out of the perpendicular

line,

but

they

still

do not

fall."

Harry was going


this,

to

ask

the reason of

but another question occurred

to his

mind, which he was afraid he should


get, if

he did not ask

said he,

''

it first.

do you know

if

Pray,

Dutch

the

forsir,"

are

acquainted w4th the use of steam engines?"


" Oh yes, certainly."
!

"

Then why,"

said Harry.

use steam instead of wind,


mills at

-'

do not they

to

keep their

work?"

''Why should they?"

said the old gen-

tleman.
'*

Because," said Harrv, 'wind

is

un-

"

110

please; and
mills

cannot have

they

certain,

if

it

when they

they have not wind, their

must stand

If there

still.

storm, they cannot

make

is

the wind less or

more, just as they want more or less force,

we can manage steam

or quickness ; but

we

please, at all times of the year,

all

weather."

"Very

true,

my

Dutch

are

now begin-

ning to use steam engines; and what

more

What more he
condition at this

said,

in

mechanic," said

little

the gentleman; " the

and

as

Lucy was

moment

is

in

no

to hear, for

on

the scattering of the snufF which he threw

from his

fingers,

of sneezing, that

never end.

she was seized with a

seemed

as if

When she recovered,

it

fit

would

she heard

the old gentleman speaking of the embank-

ments, or high and broad banks, which the

Dutch have been obliged

to raise to protect

the country from inundations.


chiefly

by mats,

downby willows, which

are twisted

bankments are secured


fastened
together,

These em-

and which

remain

after

the

"

Ill
mats decay, and thus form the best barrier
against the force of the sea.

" Willows

said

"

she,

" such yielding

can bend with the least

things,

which

touch

can they withstand the whole force

of the sea

" Yes, exactly for that reason," said the


old gentleman, "because they do not resist; just

as

you may have seen the most

yielding manner do best against the torrent


of anger, and the gentlest of

women subdue

the most violent-tempered men."

Lucy smiled

she was always ready for

a simile, but she liked this extremely, and

was pleased with


Harry's heart
to the

its

particular application.

now opened.

elbow of the arm

he had before kept


and he began

He drew close

chair,

from which

at a certain distance,

to use his privilege of asking

had

questions freely, which he

done only with great reserve.

till

now

His mother

soon called him away, and advised him and

Lucy
early

to

go

the

journey.

to bed, as they

were

to set off

next morning to pursue their

They were

sorry to go,

and every

"

112

body seemed

The

sorry that they were going.

old gentleman asked

intended to take, and

which road they

when

Harry's father

answered, by Coalbrook Dale, he said that

he was very glad of


his

young

friends.

" Perhaps
off in the

that, for the sake of

shall not

be up when you

morning,** said he,

set

"so shake

hands, young gentleman, and fare you well.


It is

happy

for you, that so

early in life

you have acquired such a desire


To-morrow you will see
ledge.

for

Mr. Frankland interrupted him,


dear

sir,

do not

tell

him what he

know"

My

will see.

Leave him the pleasure of surprise."

"

Good-bye."

It

was come

to that melan-

choly word, and as Lucy put her head out


of the carriage window, to say the

last

good-bye to Mr. and Mrs. Frankland, who


were on the steps at the hall-door, shutters

opened

in a

bedchamber above, the sash

was thrown up, and the old gentleman put

113

and repeated "Good-bye!

out his head,

good-bye! and a good journey

Thank

'^

you, thank you,

to you."

sir;

and pray

shut the window, or you will catch cold,"


" He was very kind to you,
said Lucy.
Harry, after

drove away

all,"
**

continued she, as they

and

told

you a great many

entertaining and useful things; and at last


I liked

him very

much

so

well,

though he did take

And though he was a little

snuff.

crass yesterday at dinner,


it

afterwards.

he made up

for

do believe, Harry, that he

loves Mrs. Frankland in his heart."

"Who

can help

Harry.

it?" said

"I wish," said Lucy, "that when

up

may be such

"

a woman."

wish you may," said Harry, in a tone

that sounded gruff, because


as

he could do

speak at

all,

to

was

he was so sorry

his taciturnity,

red

it

command

these kind friends.

little

at parting,

much

to part

with

Lucy indulged him

and began

morocco

as

his voice to

to

in

examine a

memorandum

which Mrs. Frankland had put

hand

grow

book,

into

her

and which she had held

114
till

On

now unopened.

turning over the

leaves of this book, she found

some of the

pages filled with close writing.


" Dear, good Mrs. Frankland!"
" Look,

claimed Lucy.
written

all this for us,

mamma, she has


with her own hand

and what do you think


*^

'

The

ex-

it

is?"

Juvenile Gardener's

Calendar,

dedicated to Harry and Lucy, by their sin-

c^e
"

friend,
'

Spring,'
in

ter,' all

" I

am

tions

E. Frankland.'
'

Summer,'

four

'

Autumn,' ^Win-

pages," said Lucy.

little

always puzzled with the long direc-

gardening books, about heaps of

in

things too, which

have not

but here, I

see,

we have,
gardens, Hany;

are only such flowers and plants as


or ought to have, in our

and," continued she, after looking over the

"

calendar,

wanted

to

me

tells

it

exactly

all

know, about the times and sea-

sons for planting and transplanting, and

sowing

seeds,

and how

of pretty flowers.

Hany."
finished,

She

read,

to

have successions

must read

it

to you,

and when she had

he joined in her delight,

at find-

115
ing that

contained

it

all,

and no more than

they wanted.
"

And you

read

much

it

than you sometimes

better,

Lucy,

read writing," said

Harry.

"Because," said Lucy, "this


plainer than writing

ing to read to

"Yes,

boggled terribly

Not

wanted

try-

mamma your translation?"

particularly well," said

"

stumbled in

knew you wanted

much

Do you

is sometiiiies.

how

recollect, Harry,

is

it

to read

Harry, "but you

made me

very hot."

hotter than I was," said Lucy.

to read

"That was

it

"I

particularly well indeed."

you could

the very reason

not," said Harry,

it

" you were too anxious

and frightened."
'^

But what frightened me was,

make out

could not

the writing.

was making nonsense of what


ing,

and

have

set

could not help

up

to write a

papa's,

you run

other,

so

that

words, there

is

all

your

at last,

it.

that I

knew

was readSince you

running hand like


letters into

in

one an-

some of your

not a single plain letter."

"

116

my dear!

'Ah!

can show you in that

very translation several

you make three

'^Possibly; but then

kinds of

and when

rs,

know one

of them, then comes the other,

and

quite different;

and

and

us,

vs,

and you never

But

and

/ws,

are so alike, no

ns,

human

them asunder

tell

cross your

them from

^'

your

all

creature in a hurry can

tell

have learned to

so

^s,

how can

/s."

do dot

my

fs,"

said Harry.

" Yes, you do; but you never put the


dots over the right letter;

can never guess

what heads ihe hats belong; and then,

to

worse than

all,

you half scratch

and

out,

half write over, and half turn one letter

and then

into another,

no
if

letter at all.

But

repent,

all this

and leave

it

could bear,

you did not make vulgar flourishes."


"

Oh

Lucy, be just

flourishing,

since

have

left

off

you must acknowledge, ever

you told

me

it

was vulgar.

have

never flourished since that day."


"

But

that

said Lucy.

day was only

last

Tuesday,"

"

117
**

do not know whether

it

wa3 Tuesday

Wednesday," replied Harry

or

know

it

read,

my

" but

was the day you read, or could not

mamma, and

writing to

have

never flourished since."


" Poor Harry

beg your pardon

for

reading your translation so badly," said

Lucy

**

the next

read better,

I w^ll

if I

can.
*^

The next

said Harry.

I will

write better,

me

" Let

does Mrs. Frankland


plain
''

And

how

make her writing

so

pretty because

me see

audit

ig

is

it

distinct,

so even

because

she always makes the same

same way,
then

" Tt

so pretty too," said Lucy.

straight;

for

look again

looks

the

can,"

if I

that

with them

let

letters

one good thing

is

know them

and

ao^ain

and she leaves a

when

little

meet
space

between her words, so that we may see


they are separate words

each
7is

letter,

so very

and she

finishes

and does not make her ms and

much

alike,

that people cannot

118
tell

the difference.

from the

little different

" Very

little,"

the other
tell

The

said

letters, I

little es

too are a

zs."

Harry

**

if I

defy you, Mrs. Lucy, to

even Mrs. Frankland's

from her

e."

" But look at the difference, Harry


e

is

know

little

the

the hat

know
head

the

at worst, I
it.

Look,

always on the right head, and

is

by the

hat."

woman's way, indeed, of knowing a


"

said Harry, laughing.

" Oh, Harry


ing at

at top; or,

by the dot over

the head

"

open

hide

when you come to laughwomen," said Lucy, " I know you

have nothing
" Yes,

else to say."

have," replied Harry.

" Since

you are so fond of reading Mrs. Frankland's writing, here is a little bit more for
you

here

is

a page in your book, which

you have not read."

Lucy took the book, but was disappointed


when she saw this page was only a catalogue of the botanical names of the flowers
and shrubs,

mentioned in the Juvenile

119

She did not know

Gardener's Calendar.

of calling flowers and

the use, she said,

when

shrubs by Latin names,

they have

good-enough English names, by which

may know them,

people

if

all

they please. She

confessed, that the only thing she

had not

liked in all that Mrs. Frankland ever did or


said,

was her having that day,

in the gar-

names of the

den, always told the Latin


flowers after the English.

Harry,

*'

know you

you thought so

me

dislike

it

like

"

at the time

was

it

it,

We

I do,

that

that

made

was

afraid

you know what."

know," said Harry

the more, because

you would think


"

think as

" and

did not

own."
will ask

They had been

mamma,"
all

this

said Lucy.

time talking to

one another, on their own side of the carriage,

and

their father

and mother, on

theirs,

were conversing on something perhaps as


interesting to themselves.

sary to

It

At the first
was laid before

wait for a pause.

which occurred, the case

was neces-

"

120
them, Lucy stating

it

with some hesitation,

and ending by saying,

Am

pedantic

"

wrong, father, to think

Am

any thing about


" Not at

all

freely to us,

"
"

if

You

wrong,

it

wrong

my

to

it

mamma,

was

to say

speak your opinion

dear," said her mother,

w^ould be foolish," said her father,

you blamed without inquiring whether

you were right

or

wrong

you spoke

but you would

any stranger of a

be wrong

if

fault that

you saw, or thought you saw,

to

who had been kind to


" You do not think it was

those

mamma?"
" No, my

dear, I

do not

you."
pedantic, then,

but before

can understand one another, we must

we

settle

What do you

what we mean by pedantic.

mean

in

Lucy

said she

knew what she meant, but

she could not exactly describe

turned to Harry.

First,

he

said, that

it

it

was

wrong place
was trying to show that

talking Greek or Latin in the

he added, that

She

it.

121

we had any
ple

had

sort of learning that other peo-

But

not.

this,

Lucy thought, was

rather vanity or ostentation than pedantry.

They had heard people


dantic,

call

things pe-

which they did not think were so

for instance,

a boy had once said that Harry

himself was a pedant, for talking of the


siege of Syracuse, and of the machines used

because the boy knew nothing about

there,

them, and disliked reading.


" Then you perceive," said his mother,
" that the meaning of the word varies with
the different degrees of knowledge of those

who

use

it.

thought pedantic

remember when
for a

some books, which are

common

it

was

woman to talk
now the subject
Sometimes

conversation.

of

of

old-

fashioned learning, and sometimes useless


learning,

is

called pedantry

and

is

it

generally thought pedantic to produce any

kind of learning that


is

not

likely

quainted with

that
it,

In short, pedantry
ill-timed

VOL.

is

so unusual,

the

or can

company

is

be pleased by

may be

it

acit.

said to be an

parade of knowledge."

JI.

that

122
"

To go back

ma/' said Lucy

to

Mrs. Frankland,

" she

knew

that

mam-

we were

not acquainted with those Latin names."

" Yes, but she did not consider you as

She did not display her know-

company.

ledge to excite your admiration

names

in

she thought

it

those

she used

speaking to you, because

might be useful

to

you

to

The knowledge of the botanical names of plants is not now unusual


most people we meet with are acquainted
learn them.

with them."
"

now

know that," said Lucy. *' And


recollect, mamma, when Mrs. Frank-

did not

land was talking of plants to the


flower

artificial-

woman, who did not seem

to

know

any thing about the matter, she called them


only by their common English names
;

therefore,

names

am

to us,

thought

it

sure she told the

because,

as

would be of use

you

Latin

say,

to us.

she

If she

had wanted to be admired for her learning,


she would have displayed it in company.
So

it

is

proved, Harry, that she was not

pedantic, and I

am

very glad of

it."

"

123

"But

still,"

who did not seem


"remember what mamma

said Harry,

quite satisfied,

said, that useless learning is pedantry."

"

Then

the question

is,

whether

this

be

useless learning or not," said his^-father.

" That
tion to

"

What

the very bottom of the ques-

is

which
is

want

to get," said Harry.

the use of knowing

Latin names,
plants they

those long

all

when people may know


talking of as

are

well

own English names ?


They may know them, and

the

by

their

"

them

describe

as well, to English people, but not to

"

foreigners," said his father.

educated foreigners,

Germans,

Italians,

French,

in

persons of science,

it is

which

is

common name and


;

Spaniards,

a sort of uni-

botanists,

and

can make themselves

understood by each other.

botany the Latin

well

Danes, or Swedes, un-

derstand Latin, therefore


versal language,

Most

In

all

books of

given along with the


then the description of

the plant to which this

name

refers

can be

applied by people in different countries.

g2

124
I

have a friend

who

at Paris,

could not un-

derstand what was meant by a cowslip, be-

cause in French there

name

for

cowslip

is

it

no distinguishing
goes

under

the

general word for primroses, primevereJ'


*'

Yet a cowslip and a primrose are very


Lucy.

different," said

" But," said her father, "

if this

French

lady had been acquainted with the botanic

name, she would have known the difference


the

moment

it

was mentioned, and the de-

ficiency in the

have been
a

French vocabulary would

rectified.

French lady talking

about

the

beautiful

remember hearing
to

laurier

gentleman
rose

the

gentleman understood French, but he hap-

pened never
in France,

to

have seen a laurier rose

therefore he could not under-

stand what she meant.

but
at

still

last

he mistook

it

She described
for a

it,

rhododendron

somebody mentioned

its

botanic

name, Nerium oleander, and the moment


the gentleman heard this Latin name, he

understood what was meant, and he knew

125
it

was the common oleander which he had

often seen in English greenhouses."

Harry now understood the use of learning the Latin botanic names, and he was
satisfied.

"

mother,

his

my

Remember,

that

that

added

mean no more than

useful as a lano;uao^e,

is

it

'^

dear Harry,"

and as a

means of acquiring knowledge."

Lucy
all

said, that

she would learn by heart

botanic

names of the common

the

flowers

in

garden

the

calendar,

which

Mrs. Frankland had been so kind as


write in her pocket-book

Harry to

had any

tell her,

and she begged

whether many of them

particular meaning, like those

which she had been


water

lover,

or

to

told,

two

Hi/drangea, the

Agapanthus, the

beautiful,

because she thoug^ht she could then learn

them more quickly by heart, and remember


them better."
Harry said that he would,
but that he would rather do
time.

He wanted

to

if

he could,

it

at another

look at

a broad-

126
wheeled waggon, which was coming down
the

And

hill.

while he watched the shape

and motion of the wheels, and asked

his

some questions concerning them,


Lucy was pitying the poor dog, who
was chained underneath the waggon, and
father

who, as

he waddled

by the neck,

half dragged

She was

mournful.
to

along, apparently

told,

looked very

that his use

was

guard the waggon, and that his being

chained to
it.

it

secured his always being near

She wished very much that the man

could be persuaded to loose him; a faithful


dog, she thought, would guard his master's

goods without being chained.


observed, that

it

would be

Her mother

useless to talk

sentiment to an English waggoner.

Lucy

wished that she had some money, that she

might give

it

to

buy this dog from

his

mas-

Her mother told


her, that even supposing she could buy this
dog, the man would get another, and this

ter,

and

set

him

free.

dog would not perhaps be better oif, as he


nnight not find anybody to feed him, "You

127
know,

my

dear Lucy,

we

could not take

him with us. What should we do for the


next dog we meet under the next waggon?"
Lucy saw the impossibility of freeing
them all, and sighed. Her mother was glad
to see that she had such humane feelings
for animals,

must bear
remedy;

but

said,

to see in this

all

we can do

much we
that we cannot

" there
life,
is,

is

to take as

good

care as possible of those creatures of which

we have

the charge."

Lucy blushed: "


again,

take care not to

Dash water when

forget to give poor

him

I will

mamma.

I recollect

have

one day

*'

Here she was interrupted by Harry, exclaiming, " Father

window

this

waggon, papa?
Is it

pray look out of the

instant!

streak of black

barrel.

powder
I

saw

Do you

see

that

in the track of the


it

dribbling from a

not gunpow^der?

May

get

out and look?"

He

spoke as

fast as

he could utter the

words, and his father instantly called to


the waggoner, stopped the carriage, and

128

jumped out Harry following him. It was


gunpowder. They ran after the waggoner,

who

either did not hear, or

When
the

would not

they overtook him, and showed him

gunpowder running out of the

he, being a sulky fellow,

packed

and with the

it,

barrel,

was veiy angry

man who

with the barrel, and with the

it

stop.

man

to

whom

was going, and with every body but

He had no

himself.

danger he had run,

till

clear idea

of the

Harry's father told

him, that he had some years before known


a

waggon

to

have been blown to pieces, and

men and

horses killed,

cident.

Some gunpowder had been shaken

by

just such an ac-

out of a barrel in the waggon, and had

taken

fire,

as

struck from a

it

is

supposed, from a spark

flint in

the road.

This com-

municating with the gunpowder had blown

up the whole.
credited the story,

of the hill

The waggoner
till

scarcely

he heard the name

down which

the

waggon had

been going, and then, as Harry observed,


without any further question, he believed

129
it

to

be

So

true.

it

that ignorant peo-

is,

ple believe or disbelieve, without any rea-

They

sonable grounds.

Some

packed,

well

barrel

staid

and

of the passengers,

to see the

safely

stowed.

who were

sitting

within the canvas roof of the waggon, and

who had looked out and listened, now expressed much gratitude, and said they
mio^ht have lost their

lives

timely discovery of danger.

but for this

The waggoner

then grew warmer in his thanks, and, as he

was repacking the

barrel^ said in his So-

mersetshire tone to Harry,

Master, you've done uz a mortal good

^'

turn, I finds,
to give

and

you a

lift

behind, you'd zee

do

little for

zo be

if

it

was

in

my power

any ways, Fd not be


but the likes of

can

the likes of you gem'men."

Harry thanked him; he wanted nothing


he

said,

but he was glad that he and his

waggon were
''

How

safe.

well

it

was, father," said Harry,

as they walked back together to the carri-

age, " that

saw the gunpowder running

g5

130
out,

and recollected what you had told

me

about the blowing up of the waggon."

how

"Yes," said his father, " you see


useful

it

is

to observe

your eyes, and

what passes before

what you know

to recollect

at the right time."

When Lucy

heard what had passed,

waggon and waggoner


were safe, she regretted, that when the man
after rejoicing that

offered to

said a

"

word

turn,

he had not

for the dog.

" Fa-

forgot the dog," cried Harry.

ther, will
I

do Harry a good

will run

you stay

and speak

His father

What he

for

three minutes?

dog."

for the

smiled, and back he

said, or in

goner replied,

me

ran.

what words the wag-

we cannot

tell,

for

Harry

never could remember, either the words he


used, or those said to

him

but the result

was, as he informed Lucy, that the

dog

Lion was unchained, that the waggoner


promised that Lion should have liberty

to

run after him by day, and that he should

be chained only by night.

131

Lucy was proud of her brother's share of


this affair, and, as was ever her custom when
she was happy, she went on talking of
every thing she could think
that she

saw upon the road

according to his custom,

of,

and of

all

while Harry,

when he was

well

pleased with himself and particularly happy,

was quite

silent.

After

hausted every thing she

Lucy had

ex-

could say, she

perceived Harry's silence.

"

you

What

are

you thinking

of,

Harry? are

thinking of Lion and the wag-

still

goner?" said she.

Not I, for there is nothing more to be


done about them," said Harry. " I am con''

sidering what that very bright thing can be

which

see out yonder, sparkling in the

sunshine."

"I see

it,"

said Lucy, "it looks like a

monstrous

diamond, twinkling

between

the trees.

What

look

is

it,

papa?

at

it.

Her

father thought

it

was the

reflection

of light from some weathercock, or polished

132

As they

globe on the top of a building.

approached nearer, they saw

it

was from

the glass roof of a conservatory."

" Reflection of light!

" said

Lucy; "what

do you mean, papa, by the


light?

and what

reflection

and

of

reflection

the difference between

is

refraction, of

which

have

heard?"

Her

father answered, "

When

the rays

of light are thrown back from the surface

of any polished substance on

which they

from a polished piece

strike, for instance,

of metal or of glass, they are said to be


reflected.

When the rays pass

transparent body,

and, in

through any

doing

so,

are

turned from their direct course, they are


said to be refracted,

and this light

is

called

Infracted light."

"

Do you

recollect,

Lucy," said Harry,

" yesterday in the boat, you observed that


the oar in the water looked as

broken?

if it

was

That was because you saw

through the water.

you that was the

it

Mr. Frankland told

effect of refraction."

133
" I remember," said Lucy, "that he told

me

and that

so,

did not understand at the

time what he meant.

him more about

it,

was ashamed

and afterwards

but you, Harry, can explain

it;

it

to ask

forgot

me,

to

cannot you.
" Indeed I cannot," said Harry.
" But, papa, will you be so good as to

make us understand
"

My

it?"

dear, I cannot be so

make you understand

it

more knowledge:

am

good as

to

till

you have

glad,

however,

yet,

Lucy, that you observed the appearance of


the oar in the water, and that you wish to

know

the reason of

what you saw.

Seem-

ingly slight observations of this sort lead to

important discoveries."
"

Do

they, indeed, papa," said Lucy.

"Yes; but
these,

often observations such as

though they might lead

to great dis-

remain hundreds of

coveries, if pursued,

years useless, because people do not try to


find out the reason of

As long ago

as

what they have

the

seen.

time of Aristotle,

134

which

is

above two thousand years, among

other questions
history,

bent

he

when

in his

why

asks,

it

works on natural
a

stick

appears

held obliquely in water?

is

This question was never rightly answered,


till

about four hundred years afterwards by

Ptolemy.
losophers,

The fame of several


among the moderns,

their discoveries of the

great phirests

upon

rules or laws for

measuring that refraction of light, on which


the appearance of the bent stick in water

And

depends.

not

till

the time of our

great Newton, w^as the whole satisfactorily

explained, or all the knowledge obtained,


to

which

it

has

led.

and other seemingly

He, by pursuing
slight

and by trying experiments

this

observations,

carefully, to find

out the cause of what he had observed, made


his

great discoveries

and laws of

liorht,

of reflection and

of those properties

which we
refraction.

call the

laws

Even from

considering the colours on a soap bubble,

which many others had observed before


him, but of which they had made no use,

135
he was led

to

some of the most important

conclusions respecting vision and colours."

But here

all

philosophical conversation

ceased, interrupted

by the sound of the horn


Harry and Lucy quickly

of a mail coach.

darted their heads


for

out

of the

window

though oftentimes seen, Lucy

never

willingly missed the passing of a coach,

stage or mail.

This was, as Harry guessed,

the royal mail, with


scarlet

man

its

guard behind, the

with the gold- laced hat, blow-

ing the authoritative trumpet to clear the

Proud

road.
sat the

as

a king

on

his

throne,

many-caped, many-cravatted coach-

man on

his box, with his four fine horses

even in hand,

who kept on

in full trot,

regardless of the load behind

the whip

idle in the master's hand, except that

once

he flung out the long lash with a light


touch, to remind one careless horse, that he

must draw

fairly,

true trotting time.

and

to bring

As they

him

passed,

into

Lucy

admired the horses much, but the harness


more.

136
" Nice

said she, "

"

and nicer than any


Bright brass rings

gentleman's harness.

standing upon the horses' foreheads, with

twinkling gimmals glittering in the sun."

Regardless of the harness and the twink-

Harry had eyes only

ling gimmals,

for the

horses.

''What
go

Oh, father

corner," cried
carriage, to

and how they

creatures!

fine

look

how

they turn the

Harry, leaning out of the

watch them

till

they were quite

out of sight.

The road
as

for the rest of this stage was,

Lucy observed, a stupid

straight line:

she could find nothing to do, but to count


the carriages
miles.

Her

they met,

in

the last five

father told her, that on the

Bath road he had once met eleven stage


But on this road,
coaches in five miles.
she met,

laden

in

five miles,

waggon,

and

only one heavy

twelve coal

carts.

Harry wondered that she continued


looking out of the window,

was nothing

to

when

be seen but coal

still

there
carts

137
she said, she had a reason for

he
it,

own

her to take her

left

which did not happen

"Harry
old

this,

time to

tell

this stage.

do you remember, that the

o;entleman told us last nio^ht," said

Lucy, " that

we should be

aurprised^ be-

be over?"

fore this day's journey should

" So he did," said Harry; " but

been so happy
thought of
'^

and

all

day,

that

have

never

this minute."

it till

have been very happy too," said

Lucy, " but

have thought of

And now

times.

that evening

think about

it.

is

that dinner

coming
I

on,

is
it

it

some-

over,
is

and

time to

wonder, Harry, what

it

can be."

Lucy was standing


the inn, where they

looked

all

in the

parlour of

had dined, and she

round the room, and then out

of the window, as she spoke.

" There

is

nothing surprising here

138

am

" But

sure," said she.

heard papa

order, that the horses should not be

two hours.

to yet, not for

What

put

can be

the reason of that, Harry?"

"

We

near this

town,

" and the carriage

Come

said

believe,"
is

to

Harry,

meet us

and we are

farthest gate,

house.

some park,

are to walk through

some

see

to

Come Lucy

at the

Papa

is

calling to us to follow him."

Lucy followed with great

alacrity, cer-

were now going to be sur-

tain that they

But they walked up an avenue

prised.

of beech trees,

and reached the house

without meeting with any thing surprising;

and Lucy was disappointed, when

she found

came

that

to this

pictures.

her

father

house only

and mother

some

to look at

Neither Harry nor Lucy had

yet any taste for pictures, and their


ther

therefore

themselves
sure

advised

them

to

mo-

divert

by running about the

plea-

amusement

they

grounds,

were permitted

which
to enjoy,

upon her answer-

139
ing for them, that they would not touch

any of the flowers or shrubs.

went through

First they

the flower gardens, then

all

through the park, and by the river

side,

and

up again through a wood on the banks, till


the red light of sun-set, which they saw on
the stems of the trees,

warned them

They were afraid

from whence they came.


of being too

late,

and of keeping

and mother waiting


the

wood-ranger

to return

their father

but luckily they met

home from

going

his

work, and he showed them a path, which


took them the shortest

way

to the house.

Instead of being too late, they found that

they need not have run so


father

fast,

for their

and mother had not yet finished

looking at the pictures.


''

Let us

down

sit

and cool our-

then,

" Harry, only

selves quietly," said Lucy.

think of papa and


this

mamma

having been

long time, looking at pictures

tired I should

standing

have been,

all this

if I

while, with

back, staring up at them.

my

all

How

had been
neck bent

Harry, do you

"

"

140

when we grow
upon our travels, that we

think, that

fond

of pictures

them

so long

shall ever

be so

stand looking at

" Perhaps

" though

as to

up, and set out

we

we do

remember

may,"

Harry,

said

not care about them now.

some time

ago,

never

thought of looking at prints, except of

machines

but ever since the day

the prints in

Don

Quixote,

saw

have grown

fond of them."
" Yes

and how happy we were toge-

ther," said Lucy,

" looking over the prints

Microcosm."

in Pyne's

" True,

forgot them," said Harry.

*'

always liked those, because they are so


things

like

and

we

people

see

every

day."

"

And

the prints in the Arabian tales,"

Lucy,

said

''

though they are not

like

we see every day, or any day, or


we can ever see in reality, you like

things
that

those,
^'

do not you, Harry


do," said Harry, "

some of them."

141
"

Some

right, so

of them," repeated Lucy.

do

Those that are

I.

like

" Ver}^

my ideas

of what the sultans, and viziers, and Fati-

mas, and their turbans, and Coge Hassans

might
like,

But some others

be.

do not

such as Aladdin's genius of the lamp,

and the African magician, because they do


not come up to

my

imagination of them.

me

Harry, do describe to

your image of

the African magician."


It

was a

and Harry was

difficult task,

glad to be relieved from

it,

calling to him, to desire

the carriage was

come

by

his father's

he would see

to the

if

park-g-ate.

was there waiting, and by the time they


got into it, the sun was set, and it was

It

growing dusk.

By

the

time that they

reached the end of the next stage, and had

drank

tea,

however,
Lucy,

it

to

who

in the dark,

was quite dark.

They

go on another stage
did not

much

were,

this night.

like travelling

observed, as her mother was

getting into the carriage, that the coach

lamps were not lighted.

142

Never mind,

*'

'^

we

shall

" Soon

my dear,"

said her father,

have light enough soon."

Oh

papa,

no,

begging your

pardon," cried Lucy, " there

moonlight these two hours.

you when the moon

vrill

will rise,

be no

can show

by

my new

pocket-book, papa."
"

Very

likely,

my

dear," said her father

" but, Lucy, do not stand talking on the


step of the carriage."

At

the

moment when her

father

was

giving her this advice, one of the horses

was

startled

den jerk

by a

light,

and,

to the carriage,

giving a sud-

Lucy was thrown

from the step backward, and must have


fallen

under the wheel, but that her

fa-

ther caught her in his arms, and set her

upright

went

Into

again.

carriage

she

and while yet trembling

directly,

with the

the

fright,

her father repeated his

advice.

"

While you live, child, never again


stand in that manner on the step of a carriage, without

holding by something.

143
assure you, that

you put yourself into much

moment than any

greater danger at that

you are

meet with from the dark-

likely to

ness of this night."

Lucy hoped that her father did not think


that she was a coward, and after some minutes' silent submission, she expressed this

hope, and began to defend her character for


courage, by reminding Harry of

all

the in-

she could recollect of her never

stances

having been afraid in a carriage.


"

said nothing.

Harry.

cannot see your face,

hope you are

Harry

agreeing with

me.

am laughing

"No,

little

afraid at this minute.

squeezing

close

going down the

to

for I think

you are

I feel

you

we

are

me, because

hill."

" Think, and talk, then, of something


else," said

Lucy she

is

Lucy,

one.

but

her mother

if

a coward, or you will

my

dear, there

there were ever so

alter it."

" and do not

is

tell

make her

no danger

much, you cannot

"

"

"

144
No,

^'

mamma

only

wish he would

"

not go quite so fast," said Lucy.

you speak
'^

No,

drive

him

to

cannot teach the postillion to

can you, Lucy

" No,

Would

mamma,"

indeed,

said

Lucy,

laughing, or trying to laugh.


''

Then we had

own

not."

" Very well,


right,

We

and

are

mamma

that there

down

the

and that

would you do
''

Sit

know you

are

no danger now.

and

it

mamma, suppose

was danger,
is

I feel,

hill,

But,

what

is

over nicely.

really

his

which he understands, and

business,

which we do

him follow

better let

is

all

there

horses

were

called running away,

what

the

still.

The

would not increase

my

thing

only

which

danger," answered

her mother.
'^

Could not you get

out,

mamma ?"

said

Lucy.
''I

tempt

could, perhaps, but I


it;

because

know

would not

it is

at

the most ha-

145
zardous thing that could be done," said her

mother.
" Yes/' said Lucy's
that

more

have been

lives

"

father,

believe

and more

lost,

limbs broken, by persons attempting to get

when

out of carriao^es

horses were runnino-

away, than ever were


All

who have had

experience can

you can do

that the best thing

quietly in the carriage


or are stopped.

by overturns.

lost

till

you,

to stay

is

the horses stop,

you make any

If

tell

scream, or call to the person

who

is

noise, or

driving,

you endanger yourself more, because you


and you may be sure

distract his attention,

that

he

is

cause he

is

doing the

he can, be-

best

probably as fond of his

And

you are of yours.


bably his best
" Certainly,

is

as

as to driving, pro-

better than

papa

life

your

but if

best.'"

" said

Lucy,

and there she paused.


''

"

say

what?"

If
I

am

it,

papa; but

men and
VOL.

not sure whether


I

is

rig-ht

to

have heard, that coach-

postillions

II.

it

are sometimes drunk;


-

146
and if he was drunk, he would not know

how
"

to drive."

And do you

drunk

think that

being

his

make you know how

would

to

drive ? " said her father.

Lucy

laughed

because

again,

Harry

laughed.

" But, papa,

he did,
*'

if

True

he had
but

should

know

better than

lost all sense."

would not advise you,

or even if

as

you were a woman

little girl,

should not advise you, to attempt to di-

rect or argue

with a drunken

besides the danger of his giving

answer,

the

either

for,

some rude

any thing, or he

long as he could under-

as

coachman would be

too drunk to understand

would not

man

stand any thing,

it

is

probable he would

understand what he habitually knows best,

how to

drive.

as not to
still less

If

he be so

know how to do

able to

directions,

far intoxicated

that,

he would be

comprehend your reasons

or

supposing them to be ever so

good."

147
" Very true," said Lucy.

She declared

that she never should think of talkino^ to a

drunken coachman or

but she

postillion,

hoped that she never should be driven by


one.

In which hope her mother joined her.


" Lucy,

my

young

was

tell

dear," said she,

you how

" vrhen

and

afraid in a carriage,

I will

was cured."

"

How, mamma?"

*^

was cured of

my

fear for myself

a greater fear for another person.


to

v^as

by

used

be sent out airing with a lady, who had

lost the

much
tion

use of her limbs, and

afraid for her, that

away from

cowardly

and

took

fear.

for her,

there

This encouraged
:

was no

me

the

besides the feeling,

were any danger

was a motive

atten-

saw, that nine times

next time, and so on


that if there

my

so

in quieting her

when she was alarmed,

cause for

was

She was very

myself.

was taken up

apprehensions
in ten,

it

to

me

to

senses and presence of mind."

H 2

must

act

keep

my

148

"As
at least

Lucy,

to that last," said


I

fear, that

it

*^

I think,

would have had a

contrary effect upon me, and that

should

have been ten times more afraid with the


helpless person in the carriage."

" No," said Harry, "

have

felt as

What

'*

my

think

should

mother did."

stops us

What

is

the matter,"

said Lucy.

" Matter

dear," said Harry,

laughing.

"

are stopping till the turnpike gate

and

till

my

nothing in the world,

this old

fumbled the key

Only we

is

opened,

man, with a lantern, has


into the lock."

Lucy joined in his laugh, and said,


terwards, " Laughing is very good
curing people of being afraid foolishly

when you
is

no

merry.

laugh, Harry,

danger,

or

are,

Harry.

I will

for

that there

prove

you

so

very extraordiafraid than


it

to you.

think of any thing you please.


verses with you, if

for

you could not be

And now it is
but I am no more

nary

know

af-

will."

you

I will

can cap

149
**

yet.

cap with you

yet,

my dear. The

enough

to

that I

little

that

do not know

No, thank you, not

is

know

is

from Shakspeare, and

blank verse, which will not do for

capping."
" But

Lucy

it

will

" and

do

for

repeating," said

wish you would repeat some

of the quarrel of Brutus and Cassias, w^hich

we

read together."
" I will try," said Harry

" where shall

begin?"
" Begin," said Lucy,

with Brutus's

^'

speech."

" What

shall

one of us,

That struck the foremost man of

But

all

for supporting robbers, shall

this world.

we now

Contaminate our fingers with base bribes ?"

Harry repeated
went on through
quarrel.

of this,

He

this as if
all

it,

and

Brutus's part of the

said he could not forget any

because he

Brutus, and

he liked

Lucy

felt

it.

He

pitied Cassius.

admired
His mo-

ther observed, that he liked dramatic poetry


better than

descriptive.

Lucy,

however,

150
thought some descriptive poetry was beautiful,

and repeated to him the description of

Queen Mab and her chariot of the hazel


nut, made by the joiner squirrel, " time
out of mind the fairies' coachmaker." This
Harry liked
in

"

the

who

well.

Also some of the

Midsummmer

" light

their

glow-worms' eyes."

fairies

Night's Dream,"

tapers

the

at

fiery

And Harry admired

Ariel in the " Tempest,"

whose business

it is

" To

tread the ooze of the salt deep

To run upon the sharp wind of the north


To dive into the fire, or ride on the curled clouds,
Or put a girdle round the earth in forty minutes."
;

And he

could

conceive

delicate

Ariel's

pleasure in killing the canker in the rose

buds, flying on the bat's back, or lying in a


cowslip's bell.

and the "

fifty

But for Pope's elegant Ariel,


chosen nymphs of special

note" he cared but

little.

He

well

knew

that his mother admired them, but he

was

too sturdily honest to affect admiration which

he did not

feel.

He thought it was

his fault.

151
His mother told him, that perhaps he would
like

them

hereafter,

and that

in the

mean-

own

while he need not despair of his

taste

for poetry.

Harry observed how much more easy he


found

it

stood, than to get

He

said, that

by heart

strange

of names.

by

learn

names of

when

King of
Trenck's memory, he

Life, that

Prussia wanted to try


to

lists

he recollected having read in

Baron Trenck's
gave him

which he under-

to learn lines

rote

the

of

list

fifty

a regiment.

soldiers in

Trenck learned them quickly.


"

not

am

in his place,

have thought

me

quite a dunce, and

have decided that

much more
sense,''

his

for

" that

was
majesty would

glad," said Harry,

would

had no memory.

difficult to learn

continued Harry

It is

nonsense than

"there

is

some-

thing in sense to help one out."


" Unless

it

be droll nonsense,"

Lucy; " but when


helps

me

to

it is

droll,

remember."

Harry doubted even

this.

said

the diversion

152
Their father said he would,

they liked

experiment, by repeating for

try the

it,

if

them some sentences of droll nonsense,


which were put together by Mr. Foote, a
humorous
ing the

purpose of try-

for the

writer,

memory of

who boasted

a man,

he could learn any thing by


hearing
*'

Oh

rote,

that

on once

it.

do

let

us hear

it,"

Lucy

cried

" and try us."

" Let us hear


I

am

sure

it,"

be able

shall not

Harry

said

" but

learn

to

it."

" It will be no great loss

if

you do

not,*'

said his father.

"

Now, Lucy, pray

and

listen,"

attention,

which

sit still

said Harry.

But Harry's power of


he had prepared himself
utmost, was

when

set

to

exert to the

completely at defiance,

his father, as fast as

he could utter

the words, repeated the following nonsense,

abruptly beginning with


*'

So she went

into the garden

to cut a

cabbage

153
make

an apple pie; and at the same time a

]eaf,

to

g^reat

she-bear coming up the street, pops

into the shop.

What

no soap

?'

So he died, and

she very imprudently married the barber

were present the Picninnies, and the

round button

little

fell

to playing

till

the gunpowder

the

and there

and

Joblillies,

grand Panjandrum himself,

the Garyulies, and the

with the

head

its

game
ran

of

out

at

top

catch
at

the

and they

as catch

all

can,

heels of their

boots."

"

Gunpowder

at the heels of their boots

horrible nonsense

cried Harry

"

while

Lucy, rolling with laughter, and laughing


the

more

wished

it

at

Harry's

only

indignation,

was not dark, that she might see

his face.

" Well,

can either of you remember or

repeat any of this ?" said their mother.

Lucy

said, that

if it

had not been

for

the grand Panjandrum, she was almost sure

she should have been able to say

she was so

much

surprised

it

but

by meeting the

grand Panjandrum himself again, and so


diverted

by

his little

round button

at top,

that she could think of nothing else

h5

be-

154
laughing hindered her from hearing

sides,

names of

the

all

company who were

the

present at the barber's marriage


well

perfectly
nies

and she knew why she

name was something

their

and

remembered

word had been

this

by a

droll

but she

the

Picnin-

did,

because

like piccanini

fixed

in her

head

anecdote she had heard of a

negro boy, who, when he was

to tell his

master that Mr. Gosling had called upon

him one morning, and could not recollect


his name, said he knew the gentleman was
a Mr. Goose-piccani?2i"
**

So you

see,

Lucy,"

" that even with you,


self

said her father,

who seem

to

be your-

one of the numerous family of the Pic-

caninies, or of the Goose-piccaninies, there

is

always some connection of ideas, or sounds,

which helps

to fix even nonsense in the

memory."
'^

Papa, will you be so very good as to

repeat

more
"

it

let

once more.

Now, Harry, once

us try."

would rather learn a Greek verb,"

"

155
" There

said Harry.

some sense

is

in that.

Papa, could you repeat one ?


*'

but

I will

not now," said

your

sister

divert herself

I could, son,
^'

his father;

let

with the grand Panjandrum, and do not

be too grand yourself, Harry.


to talk

nonsense in season.

would make Jack a

It is

sweet

Always sense

dull boy*."

The grand Panjandrum was repeated


once more

and

this

time Harry did his

and remembered what she went

into

the garden to cut, for an apple pie;

and

best,

he mastered the great she-bear, and the

no soap, but

for

want of knowing who

died, he never got cleverly to the marriage

with the barber.

But Lucy,

less troubled

concerning the nominative case, went on


merrily,

'^

and she very impiiidently mar-

ried the barber."

But

Lucy was
company present,

just as

triumphantly naming the

* Future commentators will observe, that this


lu<les to

"

the ancient British adage,

work and no play makes Jack


All play and no work makes Jack

All

al-

a dull boy,

mere toy."

156

and had got

have no eves

claimed

outward nature, ex-

for

"Father! father!

of this window.
fire

it

Look!

fire

fire

out

look!
!

a terrible

The whole sky yonder

must be.

red with

whose

was not so wholly absorbed, as

attention
to

to the Joblillies, Harry,

it."

"Terrible!"
" It must be a

Lucy,

said

town on

looking out.

fire."

" Father!" repeated Harry,

much

asto-

nished by his father's silence, and composure, "

do not you see

it?"

" 1 do," said his father, " but

town on

fire.

You

will see

not a

it is

what

it is

pre-

sently."

dead silence ensued, and the grand


Panjandrum was forgotten, as though he

had never

existed.

They drove

stretching out of one

leaning

out of the

ther held

her

fast,

on,

Harry

window, and Lucy

other, while her


lest

mo-

the door should

open.
" Harry,

what do you see?

I see

fires,

"

"

157
flames!

great

sparks flying up against

Now

the sky.

a house burning

top

there,

distance, flames

at

see,

do

see,

there,

mamma,
mamma,

coming out

at the

On my

^^

side,

see flames

coming out

of the ground," said Harry.

Lucy rushed tumbling over


ther's side of the carriage,

to her bro-

bidding him look

out at her house burning.


'^

Fires indeed

fire,"
'^

or

the whole country

suppose they are burning the grass,

a wood," said Harry, endeavouring to

sense of
fire,

it

" but certainly there

father

"

And we

is

a house

are

coming nearer and nearer

every instant," cried Lucy,

''

the road,

going through the middle of these

Oh, father

make

flames red as blood burst-

ing from the top

is

on

said Lucy.

regain his wonted composure, and to

on

is

mother

will

vou

I see,
fires

call to

the

man, he must be going wrong."


"

He

is

going quite

right,

my

dear," said

158
her mother

" keep yourself quiet, there

no danger, as you
being alarmed,

may

is

by our not

see,

for you, or for ourselves."

These words, calmly pronounced,

tran-

and Harry determined

quillized Lucy,

to

wait the event, and not utter another word,

whatever he might
certain,

by

his

father's

was no danger,

there

or for other people


his

mind more

how

it

how

it

composure,

but this security

that

left

at liberty to feel curiosity,


to

know what was

would end, and, above

would be accounted

fires

all,

for.

They were driving now along a


road, with

quite

either for themselves

and very curious he was


coming,

He was

see.

raised

on each side of them:

flames seemed to burst from the ground at


intervals

red

of a

colour

few yards.

Their deep

and pointed shape appeared

against the dark night, far and wide as the

eye could reach.

made
"

it

My

The

fires

near the road

as light as day.

father

might well say we should

have light enough," thought Harry.

159
" I wonder the horses are not frightened

by the

fires,"

thought Lucy: she had been

some time breathing

for

short,

dread

in

every instant that the horses would start


the

off

things

she saw the


at

gallop.

off full

these

overturn

came

to

When

postillion so

and then

to

tighten the band,

again on his head,

more

to breathe

how

inconceivably

and pat his

take off his hat, and

and try

it

again and

till it fitted,

Lucy began

freely,

and she observed

plainly they could see the

upon the

Then
to say,

man and

and the black shadow of the

horses,

riage

none of

and when

pass,

his ease as to lean over,

horses,

the

plunge and throw the man,

carriage, or
or set

and

road,

raised

car-

road.

exerting herself to find something


to

show she was not

afraid, she

looked for the burning tower, but

it

was

concealed by a turn in the road, or

it

was

confounded with other distant flames.


" It

is

like the country of the fire-wor-

shippers in the Arabian tales," said she

"

160
" and there they are," pointing to a group
of figures. She saw by one of the

fires,

near-

the road, figures with pale faces, like

est

on them.

spectres, the light shining strongly

She could see the man's bare arms, and


his shovel, as he shovelled up the burning mass.

and the
arms,

And the boy


woman with the
'^

quite

like

picture

standing by,
child
I

in

her

have seen

somewhere."

"But

never anywhere,"

Harry,

said

" did you see such a real sight as this

those lone

all

bumino^ how,

fires

for

for what,

or

round,

miles
I

cannot im-

?5

asfme.

"It
it,

is

like the infernal regions

is

not

Harry ? " said Lucy.


"

never saw them," said Harry, " nor

any thing

What

like this

can the

fires

it

is

be for

very wonderful.
?

signal fires

No, thought Harry, there are too many,

and on

flat

" Signal

ground.
fires

not they, father

are
I

always on

hills,

are

see these fires near us

161
are from

little

they were

but whether
tural,

by

heaps or hillocks of earth


artificial

made by men's hands,

subterranean

He

divine.

fires,

wished

or

or

;"

na-

thrown up

Harry could not

to find out,

he desired

not to be told, and yet he almost despaired


of discovering.
'^

Father,

have read in some book of

travels, of fires that burst out of the

of themselves.

some lake of

And

pitch, or

ground,

have heard, of

some

what do you

call it?''
*'

Bitumen, do you mean?"

"

The very thing

these

fires

wanted

father, are

of that sort, from bitumen, or

do they burst out of the ground of themselves?"

" Not exactly either," said his father,

but those are both good guesses."


"

The fiery tower again, brother !" cried


Lucy.
They came near enough to it now,
to see its

dark form, and even to hear the

roaring of the

fire.

The body

of flame un-

diminished, undiminishing, kept spouting

162

up from the top of the black tower, blown


to and fro by the wind, nobody near or
heeding

When

it.

the road brought them

to the other side of the tower, they

saw an

open red arch underneath, which seemed


to be filled with a sloping

bed of

fire.

Harry had often seen a lime-kiln burning in the night.

^'

It is

a lime kiln,

do

from what

believe, only of a different shape


I

have seen."

"but

^'^No," said his father;

that

is

sensible guess."

"Then
I

it is

remember the picture

Now
"

have

now.

it

in the Cyclopaedia.

a foundery for melting iron or brass.

It is

begin to understand

And

it

all."

there are others of the

"coming

said Lucy,
is

a foundery!

that black

and down

in view.

same

sort,"

And what

shadowy form moving up

regularly,

and continually,

like

the outline of a steam engine ?"

" Like the great beam.


engine,"

cried

There they

are,

Harry.

It

" I

going on

all

is

a steam

see others.

night long,

"

163
working, working, working, always doing

by themselves, and of them-

their duty,
selves

how

very

"Sublime," said Lucy.


His father told Harry, that he was quite
right in supposing that these were founderies.

As

the

to

he

fires,

them were low ridges of

most of

said,

coal,

which were

burning into coke, for the use of the forges.

The
coals

process was very simple.

were

set

on

fire,

After the

man was em-

ployed to cover them with ashes, through

which the smoke could escape,


were

sufficiently

burned.

till

they

Coke, he told

them, gave out a more steady and intense


heat after the gas and smoke were driven
off.

Some

of the

perhaps proceed
coal,

fires,

he added, might

from the refuse small

which were known occasionally

nite spontaneously,

to ig-

and were suffered

to

burn, as there w as no danger of their doing

any mischief

in

this

waste land.

When this explanation was


interest a little diminished,

given, Lucy's

with the mys-

164
ten^

but Harrv

increased

when

lie

consi-

dered the wonderful reality.


''

I shall like to see this

said

light."

Harry

'*

and

country by day
learn

to

what

those numbers of steam enofines are doinof/*

" That must be for to-morrow."' said his


father.

Whex
lio^ht.

thev visited the

fiers^

moor bv day-

thev saw only a black dreaiT waste,

with half burning, half smothering heaps of


dross, coal,

of

all

Clouds of smoke

and cinders.

colours,

white,

and black,

vellow.

from the chimneys of founderies and


darkening the

air;

the prospect they could

not see. for there was none.


flat,

forcres

was a dead

It

the atmosphere laden with the smell of

coal and smoke.

The

rass.

the trees, all blackened.


faces of exeiry man.

The hands and

woman, and

met, begrimed with soot

blackened

the hedo^es,

The

child they

very sheep

not a lamb even with a lock of

165

Lucy

white wool, or a clean face.


that

was the most

it

seen; but
sublime.

frightful country she

Harry acknowledged,

had ever beheld.


that there

was nothing beautiful here


it

was wonderful,

He

said,

it

was a

to

be

sort of

could not help feeling a great

respect for the place, where steam engines

seemed to abound, and,


world almost

boured

to

works, blowing the

in

vast

have the

These

themselves.

continually,

furnaces of

in truth, to

la-

and various

huge bellows of the

smelting houses, forges, and

founderies, raising tuns of water each minute, to drain the depths of the coal mines.

The

strokes of the

beams of the steam en-

gines were heard at regular intervals, and

the sound of the blast of the furnaces at a


distance.

As they approached

deries the noises

grew louder and

the founlouder, till,

as they entered the buildings, the roaring of

the draft was tremendous.


tarily

Lucy, involun-

holding her breath, looked up to her

father ; she

saw

his lips

not hear what he said.

move, but she could

She held

fast

by

166

and stood

his hand,

mense furnace, full,


fire,

but

man

it

She saw an im-

still.

as she thought, of liquid

was red-hot liquid metal.

One

with brawny arms, bare up to the

shoulders, and a face shining with perspiration,

was carrying

liquid in a

this fiery

Another poured

large ladle.

moulds of sand.

out into

it

Some men

with white

caps on their heads, and pale fire-lighted


visages,

were hurrying

to

and

fro,

carrying,

in long-handled tongs, masses of red-hot

metal.
tance,

Others, seen in the forge at a dis-

were dragging out red-hot

bars,

while two were standing with huge ham-

mers raised, waiting the moment

Lucy

their alternate blows.

to give

tried to

make

Harry understand, that she thought the

men were

like

Cyclops

make him hear


it

seemed

wind and

make use

fire,

machinery,

but she could not

the words.

in vain for

attempt to

human

In this place,
creatures to

of their voices.

Here

the hammer, the bellows, the

seemed

to engross

lege of being heard.

the

privi-

The men went on

167
with their business in silence, only making
signs

when they wanted you

to

stand out

of the way.

While they were seeing the foundery,


they were met by Mr. Watson, the master
of the works, to
a

But now, he

himself.
for

invited

them
wife

apologized

attend

said,

to his house,

distance.

mother

to

He

some hours.

leisure

his

He

having been able

for not

to

Harry's father had

of introduction.

letter

little

whom

them

he was

at

hospitably

which was

at a

There he introduced them

and

Lucy and her

sisters.

staid with these ladies, while

Mr.

Watson took Harry and his father to see


They were one by one to be
his colliery.
let down in a bucket into the shaft of the
coal mine,

which was

Mr. Watson turning


asked his father
to

go

down.

answered

if

a deep well.

like

upon Harry,

his eyes

the boy would be afraid

Harry,

for himself,

afraid to go wherever

colouring highly,

''No,

my

His father went down

sir,

am

not

father goes."
first

with one of

168
in the bucket,

tlie colliers

it

was

by the rope from a steam engine.


seconds Harry

lost sight of

let

down

In a few

him, and soon

the bucket reappeared with only the collier


in

it.

"

you
"

Now

you may go down or

will," said
I will

not, just as

Mr. Watson.

go down," said Harry.

"Then do

not be in a hurry.

Let

me

put you into the bucket."

He
in,

took him by the arm, and lifted him

and the

and he was
and

it

him be quite still,


The bucket was let down,

collier bid
so.

grew darker and darker

scended,

till

at last

as they de-

he could see only a

little

speck at the opening at top, like a star of


lip-ht.

He

could but just distinguish the

mans hand and

arm, like a shadow, as he

pushed against the

sides of the shaft, to

the bucket from striking.


at the bottom,

and

Harry

keep

They landed safely

where there was lamp-light,


sprung

out

of the

bucket,

with the assistance of his father's hand,

and he was very glad that he had had the

169
courage to go down.

As soon
and

had descended

son

as

Mr. Wat-

joined

he took them through the

them,

galleries

and

passages of the coal mines, and showed

Harry where and how the men were


Harry was surprised

work.

to

see

at

the

numbers of workmen, and of carriages that


were conveying the

And

coal.

here he

had the pleasure of seeing what he had


long wished

for,

manner

the

in

which a

steam engine was employed in pumping


out the water that collects in a mine.
fore steam engines

had been brought

Beinto

general use, the master told him, that

was the labour of years

to

do what

is

it

now

perhaps done in a few days.

His

father stopped to

look at a kind

of lamp, which has been used for some


time in lighting mines
its

peculiar

lamp,

safety

and which, from

construction,
as

it

is

called

the

completely prevents

the fatal accidents that formerly occurred

from the explosion of inflammable vapours,

when
of

by the unprotected flame


Harry wished to undercandle.

ignited

stand

it,

VOL.

but his father told him he would


II.

170
explain

it

him

to

at another

opportunity

that they must not delay now, for


son's time

Mr. Wat-

was precious; which Mr. Wat-

son did not deny.

However, he did not

hurry them, he only spoke shortly, passed

man

on quickly, and called to the


windlass to

drawn up

" Let

in the

at th

They were
same manner by which
down."

they had descended, and Harry was glad


to see the daylight again,

though

him, and to feel the fresh

saw the
carts,

it

dazzled

Next they

air.

on which small

iron rail roads,

loaded with coal, were easily pushed

along by one man, sometimes by one child

guiding or following them; and presently


they came to

what Mr. Watson

" the inclined plane."

called

saw two

Harry

roads of railway, placed beside each other

up and down a steep slope. On one of them


there were several empty coal carts linked
together; and on the other, a cart loaded

with coal, which, as

dragged the empty


fected

it

ran

down the

carts up.

by means of a

chain,

This was

which was

tened by one end to the loaded

by the other to the empty

slope,

carts,

cart,

ef-

fas-

and

and which

171
passed round a large pulley at tKe top of the
slope or inclined plane

descending by

cart,

made

road,
*'

Little

and down

its

own weight on one

those on the other road ascend.

man, you may take a ride up


if

you

enough, and

'safe

so that the loaded

will," said

see

you are no

and not bred too daintily to


cart,

Mr. Watson

sit

flincher,

in a coal

a slave to a coat or a jacket."

Harry jumped upon one of the empty


carts.
^*

Throw him a

sit on.

of that hay to

truss

There, hold fast

now

Up

Keep an eye on him.

for

your

life.

with you."

And up he went, and from the top


looked down upon his father, and for a
moment he

felt afraid to

looked so steep.

go back again,

collier's

boy,

it

who was

standing by grinning, told him he went " up

and down the same way ever so many times


a day, and no harm never."
Harry said to
himself, " If

should

it

hurt

it

does not hurt others,

me?" And

thus,

conquer-

ing his fear by his reason, he took his

and down he went.

why
seat,

" Father," cried Harry, as soon as he


I

172

had one leg out of the

Lucy was not with

cart,

"

am

glad

She would have

us.

been frightened out of her wits

at seeing

me coming down."
"

Look

to yourself

now, and take your

other leg out of the cart," said

Mr. Watson,

" for we want the cart to go up again."


" It was lucky I drew my leg out of the

way

in time, or I

should have been thrown

out of the cart along with that mountain of


coal," said Harry.

" Yes, people must take care of their

own

legs and arms in these places," said

Mr. Watson;

bad thing
Bluff

*'

and

in all places

it is

no

to do."

and rough

as

he was,

Harry

who was very goodnatured, and whenever he had time to


think of the boy, pointed out what was
liked Mr. Watson,

worth his seeing; but once nearly threw

him

into a ditch,

by swinging him too

with one arm over a


stile
*'

Harry
I

sir, if

stile.

far

At the next

said,

would rather get over by myself,

you

"Do

so

please."
if

you can; and

see that

you

"

173
can, so I need not trouble myself more

about you."

was dinner time when they reached


Mr. Watson's house. Here they dined at
It

an

earlier

used

but they were quite ready to eat;

to,

Harry

hour than Harry and Lucy were

especially, after all the exercise

he

had taken.

The dinner was

though

and there were creams and

plain,

plentiful

sweet things in abundance, for the master


loved them, and his wife and sisters were

As soon as
was removed, Mr. Watson swal-

skilled in confectionary arts.

the cloth

lowed a glass of wine, and pushing the


bottle to his guests, rose from table, saying,

" I must leave you


yourselves, I

must go

Harry jumped up

him

now

to the door.

to

to

my

directly,

take care of
business."

and followed

His mother called him

back, saying, she was afraid he would be

troublesome. " Mr. Watson did not ask vou

go with him, did he ?

to

"

did

not think of the

boy,"

said

Mr. Watson, looking back from the door.


*'

am

going only to see

my workmen paid

174
this

Saturday evening;

diversion to you,

"Yes

it

would be no

this

my boy, would

it?"

would," said Harry, "if

should

not be troublesome," he was going to say,

but Mr.

Watson went

on,

" Follow then, and welcome.

not be any trouble to


of

you more than

me

You

will

shall not think

you were not with

if

me.

So much the

better,

liked to stand by,

thought Harry, w^ho

and see and hear, withMr. Watson

out any body's minding him.


hastily

swinging round his great coat as he

spoke, flung the flaps into Harry's eyes;

but Harry not minding

that,

ran after

him

Mr. Watson strode across the court yard, and

up the

office

stairs,

The room was


directly

closed

for

three steps at a time.

of men,

full

who made way

their master, but the

again before Harry

However, he squeezed

in

of the great men,

he got

till

could

to

a corner

who was

ting with a great open book, and a

before him.

pass.

under thfe elbows

beside the desk of the clerk,

money

crowd

sit-

bag of

Harry knew he was

175
not to interrupt, so he asked no questions,

but got up on a
ther stool,

lea-

which stood beside the clerks

and watched

seat,

mushroom-topped

tall

all

that

went

He

on.

was amused with the countenances of the


men, who each

He

in

observed that

first

came
Mr. Watson
turn

to the desk.
w^as in the

place very exact to see that they were

Once when there was some

rightly paid.

with

difficulty,

about the

a deaf stupid old

of

balance

man,

account,

his

he

looked into the books himself, to see whether the old

man

and Harry, looking and

listening, tried to

what was meant by

learn

was right

or the clerk

this balance

Mr. Watson was better than

account.

of
his

word, for he found time between the going

away of one class


coming of another,

whom

he saw

shoulder, and

"

Where

is

of

workmen, and the

to explain

it

poring over

to

Harry,

the

clerk's

who once ventured

to sa\\

the balance that he

is

talking

af?"
"

Look

Look

here, the

whole mystery

at the top of these pages,

is this.

and of

all

176
the pages in the book.

Debtor and

is,

hand page

left

hand page.
is

Debtor on the

Ci^editor,

man owes

All that this

all

on the right

Creditor

put on the Debtor, or

the book

and C^, that

D'".

that

due

is

hand

left

him

to

to

side of

be

to

is

put on the Creditor, or right hand

Then add together

me

side.

the sums, that be-

all

long to the Debtor side, and

all

the sums

that belong to the Creditor side,

and see

which

the heaviest, or largest, and de-

is

duct the

least, or lightest

difference,

whatever

may

it

You may

the balance.

sum from
be,

it

the

called

is

consider

an ac-

count as a pair of scales, and the suras

on

put

two

sides

either

are

side
at

weights

as

last

the

be made to

to

balance each other, as the weights in the


opposite scales.
here,

at

side

two

Now,

John Smith's
pounds.

pounds eight

shillings

for

example, look

account,

Creditor
;

you,

make

out what the balance

am

pay him.

to

when you know

my
is,

Debtor

side

four

boy,

may

which

Write your answer down,


it.

But take your head

177

my

out of

way.

must go on with

my

business."

Harry wrote

and put
but

it

it

his

answer with a pencil,

on the desk before Mr. Watson,

was long before

was

it

thought of.
" Two pounds eight shillings

seen,

is

or

the ba-

lance due to John Smith."


" Right," said Mr. Watson.

method

is

observed in keeping

money paid by

the

the account

the

money

''

is

all

put on the Debtor

him on

accounts

who keeps

the person

received by

The same

and

side,

the Creditor

side."

" Is that all?" said Harry.


''

All in simple accounts," said Mr. Wat-

"But

son.

principle,

book-keepings though on the


is

much more

Harry was interested

was

said to

quired

how

and they
and

their

the

him

all

and

of the

Savings

in listening to
:

what

Mr. Watson

in-

they were going on at home,

told

money

complicated."

the people

their hopes,

Several

same

about their wants,

their fears.

workmen

in his hands,

bank,

left

part

of

to

be put into

Harry

understood

178

by

that

or

slovenly

must grow

man

be

to

of

less

said,

you

much ?
your money

when you earn


put

paid,

see

to

when
Mr. Watson

ill-patched

and

looked displeased,

shame, Giles,

There was one

old.

in rags,

came up

he

obtained a pro-

when they might be

vision for the time


sick,

men

so doing the

"

What

in such

rags,

If

you would

into

your cup,

so

you would have more on your back."


Harry understood what he meant, the

man walked away ashamed,

ragged
his

companions laughed

while

Mr. Wat-

at him.

son was steady as well as good-natured


to the people.

The

he encouraged, the

and frugal

industrious
idle

and drunken he

reproved, and he took pains to see that


justice

was done

While
workmen

to

them

all.

Harry had been


paid,

seeing

and learning

these

what

is

meant by the balance of an account;


Lucy had been learning something,
equally

interesting

to

her,

concerning

179
sugar- plums,

and sugar-candy

Mr. Watson's

sisters

of

was well informed


and theory of con-'

both in the practice

As soon

fectionary.

one

as

Harry came

in,

Lucy ran to him, to tell him what she


was intent upon; and he was obliged,
for the present,

keep

to

creditor accounts to himself.


*'

my

you know those


sugar-plums, which are no

Harry,
tiny

little,

debtor and

his

dear

larger than the head of a minnikin pin."


^*

think

know

mean," said Harry

the sugar-plums
^*

a minnikin pin, nor the


"

but

do not know

size of its

Then never mind,"

you

said

head."

Lucy

'^

forgot that you, being a man, could not

know minnikin

pins as well as

as to the sugar-plums,

you saw some

very day at dinner on the top of the

remember," said Harry.

''

'^

Well,

my

tellino^

little

comfits.

me how

and afterwards

''

this

trifle."

Well."

dear Harry, you can have

no idea what hard work


those

But

do.

she
I

it

is

to

make

Miss Watson was

made

Q^inofer

asked her,

if

suear

she could

180

show me, how those


sugar-plums are made.
She said,
me,

tell

or

could not show

she

could not
able

to

make them

bear

the

must be made.

pan
set

in

me,

she

being

which they

in

me, that the

told

which they are boiled must be

over a great

and that the sugar

fire,

made must be stirred


heat.
A man with a

of which they are


continually in that

long-handled shovel keeps


ring, stirring
faint in

that

that

herself, not

heat,

She

for

little

stir-

and sometimes strong men

doing

stirring,

this."

Harry wondered, that some way of

stir-

ring the sugar in these pans by machinery


Jiad not been

contrived,

and he was go-

Lucy farther upon the


but she was in a great hurry to

ing to question
subject,

go on
*'

to sugar- candy.

candy

is

made?

it

is

will tell you,

When

have just learned.


solved,

poured

at

sugar

into

which sometim.es thin


times threads,

how

you know

do

Harry,

pots,

rods,

little

sugarfor I
is

dis-

across

and some-

distance from

181

each other, are stretched.

and the

sugar in them, must

liquid

and kept

up,

covered

be

heat, for a certain time,

They

them.

disturb

room, which

These moulds,

is

in

all

great

and nobody must


placed

are

one great stove

in

care

is

taken that no wind should be admitted,

they

for

say that

spoils the whole,

from forming

the least

disturbance

and prevents the sugar

into

those regular-shaped

crystals,

which you have seen

candy.

If the vessels are not disturbed,

they form on the

little

rods

in sugar-

mentioned

to you, or

on the

remember

often finding strings in sugar-

candy

strings.

dare say you

and now we understand the use of

them."
^'

But what do you mean by

said Harry.

"

crystals?"

"Will you explain?"

remember

once thought,"

said

Lucy, " that crystals meant only bits of


that
glass.

to

white

substance

which looks

like

But Miss Watson has explained

me, that there are crystals of various

sorts

and substances, of sugar

for instance,

182

and sugar-candy, and of

how many

do not know

kinds of salts; in short, of

substances that can be crystallised

were her words, as well

all

those

can remem-

as I

ber."

" Very likely," said Harry


I

do not know

what you call


" Turning

exactly,

what

Here

are

into

call
its

is

still

meant by

crystallising."

said

crystals,"

"What more would you


what they

" but

Lucy.

Here

have.

is

a crystal of sugar-candy.

regular sides

crystals,

know, have always regular

sides,

number of them. Look at


touch it, and taste it if you will."
regular

you

and
it,

and

Harry looked, and touched, and tasted


but

not quite

still

want

he

satisfied,

"

said,

know, what difference there

to

in things, before

and

after

what you

I
is

call

crystallisation."

"

The

difference in this tJi'mg

plain," said Lucy.

" Before

was syrup,

that

tallised

it

water

and now you see

solid."

it

is,

it

is

very

was cryssugar and

has become

183
*'

Very

well, so far I understand," said

how

Harry, " but


tallise?"

why do

or

fluids crys-

Lucy did not know, she confessed, and


was

satisfied to

w^ell

there for the

the matter rest

let

Some

present.

time after-

wards, she took notice of an ornament on


the chimney-piece

looked as

if it

which

a small basket,

were composed of crystals

of glass, or of white spar.

Miss Watson told

made
it,"

her, that

made

could you

make

or spar.

either of glass,

was not

it
'^

said she.

"

You made

Lucy.

said

it,"

made

it

It

sugar- candy

same way

looks

How

"

And

something

perhaps

of

perhaps

it

what

is

it

like

white

made

in the

it

is

is

a sort of sugar-

candy."
*'

The

taste

said Harry.

'^

would soon decide

May

just try the experi-

ment with the tip of my tongue."


Miss Watson gave him leave
it

that,"

to taste

but she warned him, that he might per-

haps not

like the taste.

184

Then

*^

guess what

it is,"

said Harry.

After having applied the tip of his tongue

he added, "

to one of the crystals,


taste, I
It

am

sure

was

pieces of

Lucy had seen

alum.

be hollowed out

size,

to

have carved

it

She recurred
semblance

nued

and she

it

far right in

in the
is,

by

her, that she

her guess, that

same manner

first

is

very sim-

she put some

place,

water into an earthen pipkin, with as

alum
tity

as could

of water.

be dissolved

She boiled

was

She showed

crystallisation.

In the

it

as sugar-candy,

her the whole process, which


ple.

conti-

was made by the same

Miss Watson told

was so

that

idea of the re-

first

to sugar-candy,

to think that

means.

made

her

difficult

such regular shapes.

into

it

such

into a basket of

would have been

to

large

but none large enough

to

and

the

alum."

it is

alum

By

in that

it till

much
quan-

the alum

was dissolved.

By

Lucy

had obtained a saturated

that she

these means, she told

solution of alum, that

the

is,

that as

alum had been dissolved

much

of

as the water

185

Then Miss Watson took a

could hold.

wicker

little

by

its

and

basket,

suspended

handle on a stick laid across the

mouth of the pipkin


handle and

all,

were

so that the basket,


totally

The

the dissolved alum.

immersed

very light,

As

into

would not have sunk

it

had not a

little

in

basket did not

touch the bottom of the pipkin.

water,

it

was

it

in the

weight been put

The whole was then covered with

it.

a coarse cotton cloth, and put aside in a


cool place,

was not

it

She advised

disturbed.

alone

where

during a day and

likely to

Lucy

to let

be
it

night, to give

time for the crystallisation to go on slowly,


so as to form perfect crystals,

which can

be obtained only by the slow and regular


evaporation of the water.

There
in Lucy's

Harry,

be some

difficulty

and

meant by

this,

at Harry, she said,

know what you

thing; that
is

to

mind, after she had heard

and looking
"

seemed

still

I
I

am
wish

are

thinking

of,

thinking of the same


I

knew

crxjstallisationr

exactly what

186

That was what

''

Harry, " and

I w^as

know

tion of

it."

of," said

was wishing that

get at a book which


%vhich

thmking

we have

that there

Miss Watson asked

if

could

home,

at

in

an explana-

is

book was

the

Conversations on Chemistry.
"

The very book

guessed

how

quickly you

And you have

it.

it

how

very

lucky!" said Lucy, as Miss Watson took

She found

the book from her book-case.


for

Harry the passage that he wanted.

It

begins with Emily's saying,

I do

''

not quite understand the

of the word

That

''

meaning

crifstall'isatlon^
is

what

exactly

felt,"

said

have

felt,"

said

not

know

that

Harry.

And what

^'

Lucy.
I

to

''

But

ought

really did

did not understand


explain

it,

to

it,

Harry.

till

you asked me

Now

let

us

read

on."

After readino^ a few lines she came to


* Conversations on Chemistry,
eighth edition.

vol.

i,

p.

341

187

word

the

meant the same


"
this

Not

and

caloric^

asked

as heat.

exactly,"

Miss Watson said

book the difference

She turned

caloric

if

is

in

defined."

another part of

to

'
;

tlie

book.

and showed Lucy the passag^e v.hieh drfines the difference

The

loric *.

and almost

at

between heat and ca-

subject was

every line

-Ije

new

Lucy,

to

wanted expla-

She stopped, and whispered

nations.

to

Harry, that she was not sure she knew

what was meant by


a

Mi.ss

body,'''

ginnini^ of the

perfecdy

''

mrts of

the inteisral

Watson turned to the bevolume, and showed her a

clear

explanation

of

integral

parts f.

"How
Lucy.

"

well

you know

all

You know where

this

said

I"'

every

to find

thing in this book."


Mi.ss

Watson

said

prising, for that she

that

was not

had read

it

sur-

more than

once.
* Conver-iations on Chemistry,
eighth edition,

t Ibid.

p. 9.

vol

i,

p.

35

188
"
it

The

first

time you read

difficult?" said

No, she
cult,

"

said,

it

did you find

Lucy.

she had not found

it diffi-

but very easy and clear.

Ah

because you did not read

you were grown up,

it till

suppose ?" said Lucy.

Miss Watson said that she did not think


this

was the reason, as she had seen read-

ers not older than

Lucy understand

it

per-

fectly well.

"It
" that I

is

very odd then,"

am

obliged to stop, you see, two

or three times, before

Lucy,

said

have read a single

page, to ask the meaning of the words."


" Because

middle

you

have

begun

the

you have not read the book from

the beginning," said Miss


else

in

Watson

you would have found

all

explained as you went on."


" But even so, I am afraid

'*

or

the terms

should

have forgotten them," said Lucy, sighing.


"

You must have

remember them
Miss Watson

a very good

memory

to

all."

said,

that besides having

read the book from the beginning, she had

189
often looked back to the definitions of the

words, and to the explanations, whenever


she found herself not clear as to what was

meant.

The conversation afterwards turned upon


different subjects, in which Lucy had no
concern

who

therefore

she

followed Harry,

took the Conversations on Chemistry

to a comfortable

he could be

nook

in the

quiet, and,

room, where

after his

slow but

made himself understand


thoroughly what he was reading.
Lucy
read more quickly, and when her mother
and Miss Watson were passing by them,
sure manner, he

she caught hold of the skirt of her mother's

"

gown, and
understand

said,
this

passage about crys-

now, mamma,

tallisation

think

it is

very

clear."
''

is

do not

very clear,

" but are


''

you

Here,

in the least

it

my

dear," said her mother,


very clear ?"

mamma,

if

you

the book, at this passage,


begins,

doubt that

Crystallisation

is

will just look at

mamma, which
simply

'"

"

190
*

do not want

to

read

it,

said her mother, " or to hear

me

bi(t tell

the sense of

dear/'

you read

in

it

my

it,

vour own

words."

mamma, though I do understand


Lucy,
you know it is impossible

" But,
said

it,^'

^'

that I could put


'*

am

well aware of that,

her mother
that

will

''
;

but explain

Lucy," said
in

any words

mean

then

be certain of what you know, or

do not know."
" Well, mamma,
pose a body, that

What

"

it

express what you

will

you

good words."

in such

it

in the first place, sup-

is,

a substance

kind of a body

what kind of

a substance ?" said her mother.


*'

It

must be a

mamma,

before

must be a
posing a
all,

fluid.

it

it

can be

" Yes,

Lucy.

crystallised,

it

Therefore begin by sup-

No,

fluid.

before

fluid," said

believe, that

first

of

becomes fluid, the body should


Hey, Harry

be a

solid.

tell

mamma

to

suppose,

Which
a fluid

shall I

or

solid?"
" Settle

it

for yourself,

Lucy,

my

dear,"

191
''*

said her mother.

what Harry

It

cannot depend upon

thinks, but

upon what

really

is

the fact."
"

I recollect it

all

now, mamma," said

Lucy, after a short pause, ''and

mamma

again with a solid body,

begin

I will

sup-

pose a solid body, sugar, for instance, or

mamma,

alum,

heat or by water
of

which

is

the parts of

was originally composed,

it

by

and suppose that none

original parts, that

its

lost

either

dissolved,

is

are

by being dissolved, but only sepa-

rated, as

it

were, by the water, or by the

heat by which they are dissolved.

mamma,

if

Then,

you could again take away the

heat, or the water, the original parts of the

substance, the alum, for instance,

come together

again, and adhere,

what separated them


crystallisation.

heat by cooling

come

would

is

gone.

You may
it,

take

and then the

when

This

away the
first

parts

together again in a solid form.

you may evaporate the water, which


parated the parts, by heat
will

come

together

is

Or
se-

and then they

again,

crystallised.

192

Whatever way you do


or cold, if
to

go

it,

whether by heat

not disturbed, but allowed

it is

into its regular forms,

it

is

called

crystallisation."
*'

You have laboured through your

ex-

planation, Lucy, tolerably well," said her

mother.
"

But there

is

one other thing more you

should say, Lucy," said Harry.


'*

'*

Say

it

That

for

me," said Lucy.

different

substances form into

crystals of different shapes.

Crystals of

substances of different sorts, as

have just

been learning," continued Harry, " have


always a certain regular number of sides
so that

when you

see

the

counting the sides, you can

crystal,
tell

after

of what

composed or you can tell beforehand the number of sides and the shape of
it

is

the crystals that will be formed from any

known

salt or

substance, which

and

left to crystallise."

dissolved,

you have

"For instance, alum," cried Lucy. " The


alum which was dissolved in the hot water,
and which Miss Watson has left there to

"

193

we know,

crystallise,

shaped

number

in

and

count,

will

be in the same

these

as

crystals

basket.

will

this

tell

first

you the

of sides."

Harry

said,

he thought that Miss Watson

could, if she pleased,

the

tell

sides without counting them,

number

of

and so she

did.
''

How

difficult it

must be," said Lucy,

" to get by heart, and to keep in the me-

mory

the

number of

sides

which belong to
!

the different kinds of crystals

all

"

You need

not do that,"

said

Miss

" Lists of them are to be found

Watson.

many books, to which you can refer


when you want them."
" But you knew alum without looking
in

any book," said Lucy.

at

" Yes, because


see

to

"

As

its

told

had been accustomed

crystals," said

you

before,

many

in chemistry or mineralogy,

be

difficult

to

Miss Watson.

remember

of the facts

which

it

would

separately,

or

merely from having read or heard an ac-

VOL.

II.

194
count of them,

are

easily fixed

in

the

mind, by trying experiments, and by connecting those facts with others.

Miss Watson told Lucy that she had be-

come

particularly fond of this study, be-

cause her father was a chemist, and she

had often been

was

at

in his laboratory while

" Unless

work.

had seen the

remem-

actual things I should not have

bered the descriptions of them,


said she

" and besides, I

interested in

my

so curious to

Unless

pursuits I

am

sure,"

father's experiments,

and

they would

had previously expected,

whole was

that the

was so much

know whether

turn out as he

he

fixed in

my memory.

had had somebody with whose


could sympathise, and in whose

discoveries

felt

an

interest,

soon have forgotten even the

should

little I

had

learned."
^'

But does not

it

make you happy?"

Lucy asked.
" Are you, or are you not happier than
?
if you had not this pursuit " said Harry.

195
Miss Watson smiled

the earnestness

at

with which they questioned her

and an-

swered, that she thought she was

happier for having this

She said

cupation.

it

and

taste,

much

this oc-

never prevented her

from doing other things, which were more


necessary.

To

this

her brother added his

testimony.
"

Her

beinsr something^ of a chemist has

not spoiled her hand for being a good confectioner," said he.

has improved
for

what she

it,

is

**'

On

for she

doing.

the contrary,

knows
All

the reasons

confectioners

and cooks must be chemists

for so

much,

but they do not know the reasons


they succeed one time, and

With' them
or

what we

it is all

call

fail

why

another.

knack, and hap-hazard,

iwactke, at best.

continued Mr. Watson,


receipt book,

it

" here

which belonged

is

Now,"
an old

to the great-

grandmother of a noble family, famous in


her day, no doubt, for her cakes, and puddings,
for all

and

and

confectionaries,

manner of

sprains,

cures

and aches, and

196
bruises: look at

any of

see what nonsense half of

many

and you

these,

them

are.

will

How

useless ingredients are put into the

receipt, either

on purpose

to puzzle other

people, or from ignorance, and a sort of superstitious belief, that there


in

was a

vii/stoy

doing these things."

Harry and Lucy amused themselves by


looking at some

of these

old

which, however, were hard

to

receipts,

decipher,

the ink being yellow, and the spelling old

and

incorrect.

The next day was Sunday.

Harry and

Lucy went with their father and mother,


and Mr. Watson and his family to church.

The church was in the village near the


As they were walking home, Mr.
house.
Watson asked if they would like to see
some of the houses
his

workmen

lived,

neighbourhood.

in the village,

where

and the cottages

in the

Harry and

Lucy were

glad to take this walk, and Harry kept


close to

Mr. Watson wherever he went.

In one cottage, the master of the house,

197
a great

fat

man, was

and cauliflowers were on

roasted duck

Hot

the table before


pale,

sitting at his dinner.

him; while

his wife, a

starved-looking soul, was standing

behind his chair, waiting upon him, and


his children

were huddled together

He
He

corner, at a distance.

of them eat with him.


knife

and

trying, as

fork, as the

much

sulky look.

as

never

in a

let

any

down
company came
laid

he could,

to soften

Mr. Watson spoke kindly

his
in,

his

to his

wife and children, but took no notice of

As he went out of the house he


loud enough for him to hear,

the man.
said,
^^

duck,

should have no appetite for


if I

without

were forced to eat

my good

my roast

by myself,

it

wife to take a share."

Lucy wondered that Mr. Watson did not


insist upon the husband's letting the wife
and the poor children

sit

down

But Mr. Watson replied,


right to do this

do
his

as

he pleased

own

affairs.

''

with him.

that

he had no

man had liberty


his own house, and

every

to

in

in

He

could not interfere

198
between

man and

wife farther than he had

done, by laughing at the surly husband,

and shaming him before company."

man

He

said

he had known

this

own

eating, the

green peas of the sea-

first

buy, for his

when they were expensive rarities


even when his children had not clothes to
son,

cover them.
"
''

The
The

selfish creature !" said

brute

!"

Lucy.

said Harry.

In the evening, as they were walking in a


pretty lane, near

Mr. Watson's house, they

met a man, who was endeavouring to come


up the lane; but he could not, by any
efforts

line

he could make, walk

in a straight

he was so much intoxicated, that he

knew what he was doing. When


he met Mr. Watson he started, stammered,

scarcely

tried to take ojQfhis hat,

and

to stand out of

the way, but he could not accomplish

Lucy was very much shocked.

it.

Mr. Wat-

son called at his clerk's house, and ordered


that this

man, John Giles, should be struck

oif the list

of workmen, and should not be

199
admitted

foundery for

the

to

the

next

week; and that Markham, who was a sober


fellow, should

m his place.

come

Harry thought

this

was very

right,

till,

some time afterwards, when the drunken


man's wife came to Mr. Watson, to beg him
to pardon her husband, and to readmit him
She said that

to the work.

she and her children


that her

must

husband would beat

more

drink the

down

tears rolled

speaking.

if

he did not

if

suffer for

her,

it,

and only

he was vexed.

The

her face as she finished

Harry wondered how Mr. Wat-

son could refuse her, for


fault that her

it

was not her

husband was drunken.

when Harry was in his father's room, he talked to him about this,
and asked whether he thouoht Mr. Watson
At

night,

was right or wrong.

Right,

said; he did not think his refusal

hearted,

but steady; because

duty to do what was just

for

his

father

was hardit

was

a great

his

num-

ber of people, as well as for this one man.


If

he were

to

employ a drunken workman

"

200
in preference to

a sober man,

would

this

encourage the drunken, and be unjust to the


sober.
*'

and

would not encourage the drunken

upon any account,"

idle

" I thought
first,

Mr. Watson was quite right


works

the

at

he should not be ad-

in ordering that

mitted to

said Harry.

for

But

week.

might not Mr. Watson have forgiven him

woman ?

for the sake of the

"

Then any

other

workman might

and might hope that

his wife

him

his

off,

and obtain

drink,

would beg

pardon,"

said

Harry's father.
" Father," said Harry, after a long
lence,

and looking very

that a great

who

serious, " I thought

mechanic was only a person

invented machines,

and kept them

going, to earn money, and to

cheaply.

But now

to

things

and

if

ever

is

be a man, and have to manage

any great works,


to

make

perceive that there

a great deal more to be done

grow up

si-

my workmen

as

hope

I shall

Mr. Watson

be as good
is.

I will

201
be as just and steady too
I see

father,

as

just,

is

it

lean.

if

not so very easy to be

should have thought

is

I find

from

you say about forgiving or

all

not forgiving the

drunken man

wife's sake.

that I

^'

and

I feel

knew

Harry,

wish you would go to bed,

mother

go

I will

Our

to

bed

said Harry.

were

The family promised


lay

them on

you have

never was

"

However,

them

out before

to set

and very early

get up to see

am

to please you."

travellers

breakfast,

for I

this day."

in the least, mother.

.wider awake,"

*'
;

all

and heard, and thought,

Not

his

have much more

sure you must be tired after

"

for

of before to learn."

to sleep," said his

seen,

was.

it

a great deal to be considered, as

There

than

But,

in the

morning.

would not

that they
lest

they should de-

their journey.

Lucy did not

off,

forget to inquire for the

she wished Miss

alum basket, when

Watson good

night,

and

good-bye.
" If

it

has succeeded you will see

k5

it

in

;;

202
the hall as you pass through in the morning," said

Miss Watson

" but yesterday

one of the servants shook the vessel containing

and by that means prevented

it,

the crystals from forming rightly.

was

forced to begin the whole operation again.

This time

locked the door to secure

its

being undisturbed."

As soon as she was dressed in the morning, Lucy ran down to the hall to see whether the basket

was,

was

there.

And

there

standing beside her bonnet.

it

The

wicker skeleton was no longer visible


every part of

it,

handle and

all,

being

covered with crystals of alum, apparently


perfectly formed.

She did

not,

stay to examine exactly, or to


sides,

which

is

however,

count their

always a tedious business

but seeing a note directed to herself, tied


to the handle, she tore
It told

liked

it

open immediately.

her that this basket was hers

if

she

it.

" If! to be sure

do

!"

said she.

Miss Watson suggested, that

if

Lucy

203

make such a

should ever attempt to

one,

she might put into the solution of alum a

gamboge, which would give

little

to the

crystals a pretty yellow tint; or she

mix with

any other

it

colour

might

she pre-

ferred.

Within the basket, nicely placed, Lucy


found
filled

several

with

paper cornucopias,

little

sugar-plums,

and

and

rose,

lemon, and barberry drops, with receipts

making

for

each,

written

within

the

papers in which they were contained.

She was

so

cornucopias,

and

with

basket,

much

and

the

delighted with

sweet

their

pretty

her

contents,

alum

crystallised

and with the good-natured maker

and giver of these good

things, that she

could think of nothing

else,

first

"

during the

hour of the morning's journey.

Now, mamma,

berry drops

will

you

taste the bar-

Excellent, are not they

the lemon, better

still

and

Oh, mamma, can-

not you taste any more? here are seven


"other kinds."

204
Before breakfast

in

Harry was an indefatigable

bute of praise to

much urged by
excellent,

He

He

taster.

resistance, but without

giving what Lucy

it

But

honour of Miss Watson.

went on without

to

even to oblige Lucy,

taste all the seven,

and

was impossible

it

deemed sufficient trieach.


At last, when

the repetition of, " Is not

Harry?"

confessed, that the tastes of differ-

ent drops were

now

all

so

mouth, that he could not

mixed
tell

in his

one from

Lucy shut up her cornucopias,

the other.

and reserved her plenty

for time of need.

" But,

she,

mamma,"
are

these

receipts, I

said

*'

when

all

now that I have the


can make the same whenever I
gone,

please."

" It
said,

is

not quite certain," her mother

" that because you have the receipts

you can make others equally good, whenever you please."

Piqued a

little

by

this observation,

by a smile of Harry's, Lucy began

to

and
form

205
various schemes of trying experiments, in

making

and barberry drops,

rose

and

which she had


tasted of Miss Watson's, and which every
She enumerated such
body had liked.
sweetmeats,

like

numbers of

things,

those

which she intended

make, that Harry

at

last

to

laughed, and

said,

"

My

dear,

you

will

then turn cook and

confectioner quite, and forget every thing


else."

Her mother observed,


to

know how these

that

it

was useful

things should be done

but that the propriety of making, or not

making them

ourselves,

depends upon the

circumstances in which

we

and on our rank of

Those who have

life.

are

placed,

servants, that can

make them, would

foolishly in wasting

on such work their own

act

which they may employ more advan tangeously. Miss Watson, who per-

time,

haps had no servants, that could make these


things, did wisely

and kindly,

them

her friends

herself

for

in

making

who

like

206
them; and

was

it

particularly

and amiable of her

to

obliging

condescend to do

because she has other pursuits, and a

so,

cultivated understanding.

Lucy's mother

told her, that if she persevered in her


to learn

how

wish

these things were made, she

should, at the proper season of the year,

and

see

assist the

sweetmeats.

was

This

at leisure

his

for

part,

chemist, and

housekeeper in making
satisfied her.

to listen

to

who had been

she

who,

Harry,

to

was anxious

And

become a

struck with

the idea of the happiness of the person,

who

possessed a laboratory, and could try

chemical

experiments.

him, that

it

His father told

was not necessary

to

have a

laboratory and a great apparatus for this

purpose,

as

one of the most ingenious

and successful of chemists and philosophers has observed.

Many most

and excellent experiments can be


in

useful
tried

an easy and simple manner.

Here

his father

was interrupted by an

exclamation from Lucy, at the sight of a

207
finger

tall

post,

on one of the arms of

which she observed, To Birmingham.


Harry and Lucy anxiously watched

to

see whether the driver turned dow^n this


road, as they

go

to

had both an ardent desire to

Birmingham

nufactures, of

some of the ma-

to see

which they had heard most

interesting accounts.

Lucy's astonishment

had been excited by some


Mr. Frankland had sho\\Ti
had

tried,

derful

common
!

purposes, and yet, oh, won-

Mr. Frankland told

for

which she

polish, cut sufficiently well

pair w^as one of a dozen

bought

her,

which

and which, though not of the

most beautiful
for all

scissars

one shilling

her,

that this

which he had

Harry's curiosity had

been raised by

hearino; of a knife with five

hundred blades,

which he had been

told

was

to

be seen

at

Birmingham.

The

knife

came

first to

his recollection;

an instant afterwards, however, he

said,

''But there are things there, a thousand

times better worth seeing than that."

208

Oh

^'

father,

father!" cried he, turning to his


*^

hope we

go

shall

Birming-

to

ham, that we may see the grand works


I read an acat Soho, Mr. Boulton's.
count of them while

we were

Mr.

at

Frankland's, in one of the notes to that

when you were looking

Botanic Garden,

Barberini vase, Lucy.

the

for

that there

said,

It

a magnificent apparatus for

is

worked by one steam engine,

coining, all

which cuts halfpence out of sheets of


copper, and at one stroke stamps both the

and edge of the money."

faces

" Yes, I

remember your reading

me," said Lucy

" and

it

was

it

that

said,

four boys of ten or twelve years old,

bigger,

mamma,

to

no

than Harry, could, by the

help of this machinery, worked by that


great giant enchanter, the steam engine,

make

how many guineas do

one hour

in

Was
*'

not

Yes,

Harry;

it,

you

thirty thousand,

think,

mamma.

Harry?"
thirty

" and

repeated

thousand,"

besides

this,

it

is

said

209
machine keeps an

the

that

exact

ac-

count."

"An

unerring account was the very


" It keeps an unerring

word," said Lucy.


account of
I

all

mamma,

was described
collect

Hard

And

Birmingham.

shall see all that

do you

in those lines,

hope we may

with quick

nificent

the massy

at

cramp,

hammers stamp,"
that he believed

father told her,

that these

work

fall

re-

see,"

dies of steel the cupreous circles

Her
at

to

hope we

Papa,

coins.

it

do hope you are going

Oh

''

money

the

massy hammers are no longer

Soho

but that a

apparatus

established at the

far

more mag-

now
London. He

coining

for

Mint

in

hoped, he said, to show them

is

all

these

wonders of mechanism, of which they had


read in prose, and poetry, at some future
time.

For the present, however, he must

disappoint them.

He

Birmingham, he must
to

Bristol.

Even on

could not

go

to

pursue the road


their

account,

he

210
added, addressing himself to their
ther,

mo-

he did not choose now to go

The

Birmingham.

to

general principles of

a few great inventions,

he

hoped, had

been clearly understood, and fixed in their


minds,

He was

by what they had already

seen.

glad to find that they had taken

pleasure in following the history of the

progress and consequences of those noble


discoveries

he would therefore take care

not to confuse

their

minds,

by show-

ing them the details of small ingenious

Birmingham workshops and manufactories, or by dazzling their eyes with the sight of more

contrivances,

the

in

than Arabian Tale magnificence, in the

show rooms of

'^

the

great toy-shop of

Europe."

Harry and Lucy had not been so much


spoiled by their father's and mother's in-

dulgence, that they could not bear dis-

appointment.

One

sigh

Lucy was heard

to give for the great toy-shop

Harry suppressed

of Europe,

his rising sigh ; for since

211
the steam engine coiner was not to be seen,

he cared

little

for

the

They both

rest.

agreed " that papa knew best."

And

was not with them a mere

this

phrase, said with a look of hypocrisy, but

and firm

with honest faces and hearts,


belief from

what they

"

the

come

are to

name of the town


next,

my

" Bridgenorth,

" Bridgenorth
sure there

of

truth

said.

What is

we

of the

experience,

is

"

mamma?"

which

said Lucy.

dear."

repeated Lucy; "

something

Bridgenorth; but

to

am

have heard about

cannot remember what

it is.

"

know what

it

is,

believe,"

said

Harry; " a famous leaning tower."


'*

Yes," said Lucy,

thing!

" that

recollect reading

is

the

about

very
it,

in

my

History of England, which said, that

this

tower of Bridgenorth was not alwavs

212
formerly, a great while ago,

leaning:

was upright and

like

it

any other tower, but

it

was shaken from the foundation when

it

was bombarded,

in the time

of the

mamma?

hung over

in the

read

to

it

it

you: and

would

glad

we

*'

Yes,

own

it

it,

has

state ever

fall,

and yet

are to pass

we may

through Bridgenorth, that


with our

siege

was not

same leaning

am

wars,

civil

since, looking as if

not falling.

some

during

see

it

eyes."

I shall

like

very

much

to see it,"

said Harry.

Their father desired the postillion to


drive slowly

when he came

into the town,

and Harry and Lucy's heads were

first

out

of one window, and then out of the other,

eager for the

first

sight of the hanging

tower.

"There
"

it

Of red

is!" cried Harry.

brick!" said Lucy.

see

it.

was of grey old stone.


see a fine venerable ivy man-

had fancied that

expected to

tled tower."

"

it

213
^'

my

cannot help

dear, take your

for I cannot see

" There you

my
is

it,"

said Harry;

my

head out of

what

want

may have

" but,

way,

to see."

to yourself,

it all

"

dear Harry," said Lucy.

think

it

very ugly."
'*

Nobody

ever said

it

they?" said Harry; "but

was

a curious

is

it

did

pretty,

thin Of."
*^

Not nearly

said

"

Lucy.

so curious as I expected,"

Not nearly

lookino- as I fancied

drive

must

be.

had

would quite take away my


look at it, and that we could not

hoped that
breath to

it

dangerous

so

it

by without

fearing, that

it

would

fall

upon our heads."


Harry had no such

fears or hopes, be-

cause he recollected distinctly having read

an account of
there

is

it.

He knew,

that at Pisa

a tower which overhangs 14

much more

feet,

than this of Bridgenorth.

His

why

these

"

What

father asked him, if

he could

tell

sloping towers continue to stand.

prevents them from falling, Harry, do you

know?"

214
Harry said he believed he knew, because he had read in Scientific Dialogues

an account of them, and an explanation of


the principle on which they stand.

"

did," said his father, "

know you

you understood
it:

but

let

it

and

the time you read

at

me

see if

it is

very

you understand

it

express

it

now."
^'

Father,

in words,
little

Lucy

as

difficult to

says

but

if I

had

my

show

the thing

Very

often

bricks, I could easily

to you."

" Yes,"

built towers,

stood; and

which leaned

we used

could venture

to

to try

though

had the

and explain

it,"

and yet

how much we

recollect that per-

do not know the reason

w^hy they did not

" If

over,

we

make them overhang

v^rithout their falling:

fectly,

"

said Lucy.

fall."

little

bricks, I could

show

said Harry.

" But as you have them not, and as you

cannot always carry a hod of

little

bricks

about with you, Harry," said his father;


**

try

what you can do

to

explain yourself

215
by words, those you may always have
command."

''May

wish

at

had," said Harry.

"Begin, Harry, by thinking of what you

you are quite clear that


you know what you mean, and depend

wish to express,

upon

it

you

said his

till

will then easily find words,"

" People often imao^ine

father.

that their difficulty

when

in finding

is

the real difficulty

is

words,

in having clear

ideas of things."

"
give
"

Then you must,

me

if

please, father,

time," said Harry.

As much time

as

father; ''and that I


will

you

go on reading

"Thank

you,

you please,"

may

this

said his

not hurry you,

book."

father,"

Lucy

said

for

Harry.

Harry looked back

which was yet


thought

till

in

at the

hanging tower,

view, and after he had

he was clear of what he meant

to say, without considering about the words,

which came when he began

went on

to

fluently, after the first

speak, he

word, "

fa-

216
tlier,"

had made

his father look

up and lay

aside his book.

" Suppose that a plumb-line was

down from

let

the centre of gravity of the

whole mass of that

leaning

bob of the plumb-line would

tower, the
fall

within

the base, or foundations: the plumb-line

could not hang outside of the base, or else


the tower must tumble down.

the centre of gravity

may lean

is

As long

supported, any part

may hang out of the

over, or

as

per-

pendicular line, and yet, provided the materials stick together,

"
'^

but

think
I

am

the tower will not

fall."

understand that," said Lucy,

not quite clear."

" If you

do

not understand what

is

meant by the centre of gravity,'' said her


father, " you cannot be quite clear, indeed

you cannot comprehend it at all."


Lucy said she remembered seeing Harry,

when he was

little

boy, standing upon

her father's knees, and leaning his body so

much

to

one

must have

side, that she

fallen.

"

was

afraid

And papa you

he

then

217
explained

me how

to

he might have

far

leaned over without any risk of tumbling

You

down.

me

also told

something about

the centre of gravity, but that

do not

re-

collect, exactly."

*'And of course
all,"

said Harry

shown
toy

cannot remember

us, that the

depended on

way

the

father has often

of

situation

By

the

the bye, there

in a body, or figure of

is

is

where the centre

of finding out

of gravity

at

motions of our tumbler

centre of gravity.

my

" but

it

any

shape."
" Is there

said Lucy.

''

member papa's showing


you learn
cult,
it

to

"
*

And

it?

can you teach

to

do not

is

re-

How did

not very

diffi-

me ? Who taught

you?"

book," said Harry

bit of card,

and a

bit

and a pencil, and

the carriage,

think

**my own good

And

Scientific Dialogues.'

pin,

us that.

if it

it

*^

II.

had but

of thread, and a
if

we were

not in

could show

you now."
VOL.

if I

it

to


218
But

as all these ifs stood in the way,

the matter was put off for the present, and,


like

many good

Nor can we much wonder

forgotten.
this

things that are put oif,was

was driven from the

that

recollection even

of the philosophic Harry, by the bustle he

saw

town through which they


happened that there was a

in the next

passed.

It

was

filled

with such crowds of people, and so

many

oTcat fair in this town, and

stalls

it

and booths, covered with canvas,

lined the streets, that

it

at first

seemed im-

way for their carriage and


could be made through them, with-

possible that

horses

out trampling on some of the people, or

The

overturning some of the tents.


lion stopped,

ple to

and called

make way: red

coats yielded
front got

on each

civilly to the

down

peo-

cloaks and great


side,

and those

in

from under the horses' noses, as

they advanced step by step.


let

postil-

Lucy had

the glasses, and was looking out

with great interest, not unmixed with apprehension, and listening to the

219
" Universal hubbub

Of stunning sounds and

voices

confused."

all

And as, little by little, the


its way through the dense

wild,

carriage

made

multitude, she

saw many hair-breadth escapes, which made


her shrink, and cry "Oh!"' and "Ah!

"

many

who were

a time, for those

all

un-

heedful of their danger, in the ardour of


bargaining, the pleasure of gossiping, the

vehemence of scolding, the stupidity of


staring, or the anxiety of maternal affection.

Here was seen a mother crossing before


the very pole of the carriage,

which nearly

much haste was


the way two chil-

ran into her ear, in so


she,

to snatch

out of

dren, standing unconscious, the one with

an apple, the other with a whistle in his

mouth.

And

close

to

wheel of the

the

carriage, at one time, there

damsel, with

was

a youno-

pink cheeks, bargaining so

earnestly for a pink ribbon with an old

woman
as

in her booth, that the

wheel must,

Lucy thought, have gone over her

out-

stretched foot, but that just in time looking

L 2

220
up, she drew

in,

it

dear ribbon in her

still

holding the

hand, continued

her

Next there was a group of

bargaining.
old

and

women, leaning on

their bonnets close to

and listening

to

their

sticks,

with

each other, telling

something so eagerly, that

they never heard the carriage coming,

till

the wheel went over the point of one of

and begrimed the

their

sticks,

cloak

of the speaker, before

she

scarlet

would

move her shoulder out of the way.


Then came an awkward clown on horseback, with elbows out, lugging at the hard

mouth of

his

shag-maned

colt,

who knew

no more than his rider the way he should


go, but who, with glassy eyes starting out

of his frightened head, seemed to have a

mighty mind
carriage

ducked

knew

to

window.
directly.

not;

but

run straight in

at the

Seeing which, Lucy

How

they passed she

when she looked up again

they were gone, and Harry's body was far out


of the window, watching the operations of

man and

horse at the farther end of the

221
There was the

street.

and struggling with


ner of the
before

it

was

floundering

colt

his rider, at the cor-

street,

where both vanished

settled

which would be

victo-

rious.

But now Lucy saw before them,

new

street,

a huge

wooden house

in a

or cara-

van on wheels, on the outside of which


large letters were written the

in

names of the

wild beasts

who lodged

were

be seen for the sum of one

all

shilling.

to

Across

within, and

this part of the street

flapping, furious portraits,


life,

Lucy began

coloured to the

enormous whiskers.

cat with
to

be a

little

poor horses would be very

afraid that the

much

frightened.

either they did not think the portraits

striking likenesses, or they

were not

suffi-

ciently acquainted with the originals


their private histories, to

as

hung

of a lion rampant, a hyena, a tiger,

and a mountain

But

who

and

be as much afraid

Lucy thought they ought

to be.

went by quite quiedy, yet were,

as

They
Lucy

observed, most foolishly frightened soon

222
afterwards,

by a poor

little

boy popping

out from under the long skirts of a puppet-

One

show.

their driver

them

into

on safely

reared, the other shyed, but

being a temperate whip, patted

good humour, and brought them


Turning under the
to the inn.

archway, they knew

where they

lowered their pricked-up


perfectly

by turns

still

ears,

at the bar-door,

were,

and stood
neighing

to their acquaintance in the yard,

who answered from

their inmost stalls.

Lucy found, on the chimney piece of

room where they were

to dine, an adver-

tisement, informing the public, that


''

town a new

fairy,

surpassing the old Corsican

fairy,

There

infinitely

the

is

now

in this

w^ho appeared in England in the last cen-

and who was honoured with the approbation of the nobility and gentry. But the

tury,

new
fairy,

fairy

and

is full

can

an inch less than the old


speak

three languages,

French, English, and Italian,

dances to

admiration, and waltzes inimitably,


quired."

if re-

223
While Lucy was

reading this

card,

Harry was perusing another, which he

had found on the

formed the public, that


o'clock, a

and which

table,

this evening, at six

company of tumblers would,

the theatre

in this

amusement of the

man promised
his chin;

at

town, exhibit, for the


public, several curious

One

tumbling and rope dancing.

feats in

in-

to carry a ladder poised

and another

on

to balance a table

on the rope, and even a chair on which


he was himself

to

be seated with his bottle

before him, and quite at his ease.

Harry was curious

to see these sights

he told Lacy, that here would be


amples of
the

all

fine ex-

they had been saying about

centre of gravity.

These wonderful

thino^s

must be done from understandinor

how

manage

to

He wished

that properly.

more and more, the longer he thought of


this, to

see these tumblers.

Lucv,

it

be confessed, was not so curious on


subject,

and she would much

she been to choose, see the


fairy.

rather,

must
this

had

new Corsican

224
Their father and mother had determined
to sleep at the inn

and they

told

where they now were,

Harry and Lucy, that they

would, in the evening,

let

them see

either

the Corsican fairy or the tumblers, but to

both they could not take them, as they w^ere


in opposite parts of the
at the

theatre,

town

the tumblers

the Corsican fairy to be

seen at the court house, between the acts of


a

Lucy was

concert.

Harry did not care

for

fond

of

music,

it.

"Well, Harry and Lucy, which do you


choose?" said their father.

"Take

five

minutes to consider, but then you must


decide, that

buy our

we may engage our

places or

tickets in time."

Lucy recollected the


made, when first she

resolution she

had

out upon

this

set

journey, that she would imitate her mother's

kindness, of which she had seen so

many

examples; she therefore gave up generously her

and see the

own wish
fairy;

to

hear the concert

she did this in so kind a

manner, that she put her brother quite at


ease.

She was very happy with him

225
seeing the tumblers, and
over, she

when

it

was

all

was quite content with them and

with herself.

At the end of

the next day's journey our

travellers arrived at

Clifton.

Lucy were delighted with


were glad
might

were

to

and

spend

here, in order that their mother

rest

herself.

after their arrival

father on

the place,

to learn that they

some days

Harry and

the

The next morning

they walked with their

Downs, from the

top

of

down a steep cliff,


and saw the river Avon below. They
descended to the river, down the cliff, by a
new road, which a number of workmen were
then making. The workmen were breakwhich they looked

ing some hollow stones, which had fallen


out of the bank by the side of the road.

The hollows of

these stones were lined

with shining crystals.

Lucy picked up
bits of this stone, and added them to the
collection which she had made at Matlock.
The stone that sparkled with crystals was
called, she

was

told, Bristol stone,

L 5

and the

226
crystals themselves

were called Bristol dia-

monds. Lucy afterwards saw,

at the

house

of a lady in Clifton, a cross of these Bristol

diamonds, and another cross of

real dia-

monds, and on laying the two side by side


she could scarcely

tell

the difference.

They had now descended


the river, where they stood

admire the

cliff

to the

bank of

some time

to

called St. Vincent's rock.

They then walked to view an extensive


quarry, where some miners were blasting
the rocks with gunpowder. They inquired
of the head workman to what use the stone
was applied. He showed them some of
it, which had been hewn into blocks,
and
was intended

for

and

The

Bristol.

paving the

Bath

streets of

chippings, he informed

them, were not thrown away as useless;

but were, after being broken very small,

employed

to

mend

the roads.

The rock

was limestone; Harry saw some of


ing in a

kiln,

it

burn-

and he was informed that

it

was hard, and, when cut and polished,


formed a handsome marble.

Some

of

it

227

was of a reddish

colour,

some black; but

all

by burning
*^

some grey, and

might be converted

into white lime.

The lime burnt


''

at our

kilns,"

said

much sought

very

their

conductor,

after,

not only in this neighbourhood, but

is

also in foreign parts.


to the

"

West

Do

We send

it

in casks

Indies."

you know," said

what use lime

is

their father,

applied in the

West

'^

to

In-

dies?"

Harry and Lucy replied, that they supposed that lime served
England,

to

make

there, as

mortar, and to

it

did in

manure

land.

" It

is

also

employed

in

making sugar,"

said their father.

Harry and Lucy begged


in

to

be informed

'^

that our visit

what manner.
"

am

glad," he replied,

to the lime quarry has turned our attention

towards sugar-making
ject,

for

on that sub-

during our stay at Clifton, we shall

have the best opportunity of informing

228
In the port of Bristol

ourselves.

see ships from the

West

their cargoes of sugar

those ships,

if

we

we

shall

Indies unloading

and on board of

are fortunate,

we

shall

some stems of the sugar cane. In the


manufactories here we shall meet with the
find

apparatus required for making sugar, which


apparatus
dies

is

to

be exported

to the

West In-

here too are extensive refining houses,

where they extract from brown sugar that


pure white substance, that you see every
morninof on the breakfast table.

walk

at

ouj[^

curiosity.

once

to Bristol,

But

and

tell

Let us

try to satisfy

me,

children,

whether you already possess any information on the subject of sugar- making?"

Harry and Lucy


read, in Edwards's

replied, that they

West

had

Indies, an account

of the sugar plantations in Jamaica, of the

sugar canes, and sugar mills.

Lucy was asked what she remembered of


She recollected that the sugar cane is
this.
a sort of straw-coloured jointed reed, about
the thickness of the handle of an umbrella.

229
It

grows

in general to about the height of

a man, and at

The canes

its

top are leaves like flags.

are cut

sugar-making time

is

autumn, and the

a season of gladness

man and beast, especially


the poor negroes, who work in the plan-

and
to

in

festivity to

tations.

Here Lucy was near going


from the sugar-making,
but her

negroes,

"

far

to talk of the

away
poor

father called her back

again, by the question of "

done

off,

What

is

to

be

to the sugar canes afterthey are cut?"

They

are tied in small bundles," said

Lucy, " and carried to the


sugar juice

is

Lucy looked

mill,

where the

to

be squeezed out of them."

to

Harry

for assistance w^hen

she came to the mill.


" It consists," said Harry, '^of three laro-e

by wind or water, or
horses, or oxen, or perhaps, now, the peo-

iron rollers, turned

ple

may have

steam.

learned to work them with

The bundles

between the

and again,

rollers,

till all

of cane are passed

and squeezed again

the juice

is

pressed out.

230
caught

It is

and runs

lead,

be boiled.

to

wooden

gutter, lined with

into the

house where

in a

It

said to be of great

is

consequence to boil
can

but

"

it is

as quickly as they

it

do not know the reason."

The reason

is lest

should ferment,"

Do you know

''

said his father.

it

for

what

purpose it is boiled, Lucy?"


" That the water which is in the juice

may

evaporate," replied

on cooling the

liquor, the sugar

it

dissolved

crystallising of the

"

there not being water

tallise^

keep

Lucy

The

boiling

is

just as

alum

for

" and that,

may

crys-

enough

we saw

my

to

the

basket."

also necessary,"

said

her father, " to cause the other vegetable


matters contained in the juice to separate
in the

form of scum, when they are

moved by
that lime

the skimmer.
is

And

here

re-

it

is

so serviceable in rendering the

separation of this

scum complete.

It also

renders the liquid thinner and less viscid,


so that the particles of sugar can
freely,

and

crystallise

more

readily.

move

Do

231
you remember, Harry, by what name they
call

that ropy portion of the liquor that

will not crystallise?"

" Molasses,'' answered Harry.


the sugar has crystallised

it

is

When

put into

The mo-

casks, with holes in the bottom.


lasses drains to the

"

bottom of the casks, and

runs out at the holes."

Harry, Lucy, and their father were

engaged

in talking

about sugar, when they

found themselves arrived

at the

The Wet Docks

of Bristol.

across the ancient

Wet Docks

are a basin of

formed by throwing

water,

still

flood-gates

bed of the Avon, the

river itself being turned into an artificial

channel.

The

w^ater within the basin

was

prevented by the flood-gates from falling

with the tide, so that the ships were kept


constantly afloat, even at low water.

Our
ships.

rived

party found the basin crow^ded with

They distinguished the


from the West Indies by

ships ar-

the hogs-

heads of sugar that the crews were hoisting out, and

by the black

sailors

whom

232

On

saw on board.

they

the decks

of

some of the
and boys sucking some pieces of

these vessels they observed


sailors

the sugar cane on account of their sweet-

Harry noticed

ness.

in a

warehouse, as

he walked along, the parts of a rolling


mill for squeezing the canes

iron

and copper

Men

were employed

walk

in

and pans of
the juice.

packing these for

party continued their

they arrived at the end of the

until

basin,

boiling

for

Our

exportation.

and then turned homewards towards

Clifton, highly delighted with all that they

had seen on

On

their ramble.

the following morning, as they

sat

the subject of sugar-making

at breakfast,

was resumed.
"

The

Indies,

is

"

father.

the juice

ment.

practised in the

West

art,

as

still

very imperfect," said their

Much

of the sugar existing in

lost

by injudicious manage-

is

Two

sweet substances are con-

tained in the juice.


tallises easily,

Sugar, which crys-

and molasses, which

is

in-

233
capable of doing

endeavour

to obtain

sugar that

it

with as

The

so.

from the juice

contains

little

when

ing overheated, loses

and

the

expressed,

But sugar, by be-

power of

its

crystal-

converted into a substance,

is

resembling the molasses.


therefore

first

all

of the molasses adhering to

the sugar as possible.

lising,

planter should

destroyed in

Much

boiling

sugar

is

the juice

and the quantity thus destroyed

rapidly,

increases the proportion of molasses."

"

have often burnt a piece of sugar

in a candle," said Harry.

remains sweet

it

soft,
^*

bis

gar

and

but

it

"

When

becomes brown,

sticky."

The same change takes place," said


father, " when a strong solution of suis

heated in a vessel over the

When
water

only
it

tallising

little

it

this

change, so

loses the property of crys-

on cooling."

Harry and Lucy were sorry

much

fire.

hotter than boiling

begins to undergo

that a part of

so

burnt

to learn that

of the sugar, raised by the hard

234
toil

of the poor negro, was spoilt, and ex-

pressed

hopes that some

their

might be devised
'^

Much

remedy

for the evil.

of the sugar brought to this

country used formerly to be wasted in the


same manner," said their father " but in
;

consequence of

late

improvements, that

is

no longer the case.


*'

And what

said Harry,
"

That

''

are those improvements,"

of which you

what

is

propose

to

now speak?"
show you this

very morning," said his father

mean

that

we should

see the

of refining in one of the

the

new

" for

process

sugar houses

at

now let us talk about refining,


you may understand what you see
Have either of you
people doing.

Bristol

that

so

heard or read any thing concerning sugarrefining ?"

Harry said that he had heard that bullock's

blood was

made use

of at the sugar

houses, but in what manner, and for what

purpose
"

it

was applied he did not know,

When brown

sugrar

has been dissolved


235
" the blood

in water," said his father,

employed
to

to clarify the solution

remove the

mixed

is

that

is,

The blood

impurities.

is

in a liquid state with the cold solu-

tion of sugar

coagulates on the appli-

it

cation of a moderate heat, and rises in the

form of scum., which

is

then removed, from

the surface. But in the suo;ar house that

we

are going to see, this clarifying process

dispensed with,

sugar

it

is

much

being found that

wasted by being mixed with the

is

scum, from which

it

cannot afterwards be

separated."

"

Do

not you remember, Harry," said

Lucy, " a story concerning a process called


claying

by what an accident

it

was

first

found out that clay was good for sugar

good

for

whitening sugar,

do not

*^

''

So much the

I shall

you.
'^

recollect,'' said

mean."
Harry.

better," said

Lucy, " for

have the pleasure of telling

It is

Tell

you,"

it

to

a very curious thing about a hen."


it

to us,

my

dear Lucy,

said her mother,

^'

advise

without raising

236
our expectations,

lest

it

should disappoint

us afterwards."
"

Then you must know, mamma,

that

one day a hen, who had been walking

some wet clayey

place,

and had clay

ing to the bottom of her


to tread

stick-

happened

feet,

on the top of a pot of sugar.

was soon afterwards

It

in

observed,

that

the sugar beneath the marks of the hen's


footsteps

was whiter than elsewhere; and

from observing
it

this,

and considering how

had happened, people thought of using

clay to whiten sugar,"


**

Very ingenious,"

Lucy remembered
time for

us,

it

said

forgotten

now.

The sugar

but

it,

mamma?

its

gar,

is

and

it

had
all

put into a vessel of

is

Then

narrow end.

with water,

recollect

the shape of a sugar-loaf, which

on

*'
;

well, just at the right

did not she,

quite

Harry

clay,

is

placed

moistened

put over the top of the su-

and the water, by slow degrees, quits

the clay, and

oozes

through the sugar.

very

slowly

The water mixes

down
with.

237
and

the molasses, and

dilutes

down

to the bottom.

that there

is

is

stopped

man

plug, but afterwards a

plug, and lets

been oozing
" So

men

sugar," said

forgot to

next

shall say to

you

tell

at first

by a

takes out the

the stuff run off that had

to the

bottom."

learned from the hen to clay

Lucy

''
;

we

are very

obliged to the hen, are not we,

When

it

a hole at the bottom of the

This hole

vessel.

carries

see

myself.

much

mamma?

very white

sugar

Thank you

for that,

Mrs. Hen."
"

You

be

will

doino^

more honour than she


her father

we

Mrs.

Hen

far

deserves," replied

" for in the sugar house that

are about to visit, the operation of clay-

ing

now

is

laid aside.

practised,

is

The art of refining, as


a new discovery
and
;

has arisen, not from mere lucky accident,

but from judiciously combining sound


entific

principles

with

accurate

sci-

obser-

vation."
*'

How

is

that?" said Harry, drawing

238
and listening with

closer,

great

eager-

ness.
^'

Tliis,"

of the

continued his father, "

is

happy applications of science

common

purposes of

life,

in

one

to the

improving the

manufacture of a substance so agreeable,

and almost necessary.

how to
juice;
tain

extract

we

are

We learnt yesterday

brown sugar from raw cane

now

to

be taught

how

to ob-

from brown sugar the pure saccharine

matter, as white,
talline as that

crys-

which you see daily on the

We

tea-table.

and as hard, and as


should

know

the

nature

and properties of the foreign ingredients


in

brown sugar,

to

be able to produce

pure sugar completely separated from them.


Besides various impurities, brown sugar,
as I

have already told you, consists of two

sweet

substances,

crystals,

sugar,

forming small

and molasses, which remains

in a

semifluid state, the latter being combined

with a dark colouring matter, which renders

the sugar brown.

from sugar

in

remaining

Molasses

differs

sem.ifluid,

where-

239
aSj

Now

sugar remains solid.

a small

if

quantity of water be added to a mixture

of molasses and sugar, the whole of the

molasses will be rendered

and onlv

fluid,

a small portion of the sugar

so that

means of water, the constituent

by

parts of

brown sugar may be separated."


"

see plainly," said Harry,

mixing a

little

'^

that

by

water with brown sugar,

and by putting the mixture


such as they use in claying,

into a mould,
I

should be

able to free the sugar from a large portion of the molasses."

"
that

Very
by

well," said his father.

stating to

you a few

see,

and by

facts,

putting to you a few questions,


lead you to invent the

"

we

shall

new improvements

vourself."
'

There

be taught

is

"

It is

nothing

in that

I like

better than to

way," said Harry.

a good exercise for you and for

everybody," said bis


" Pray help us
said Lucy.

father.

when we cannot

get on,"

240

To

'*

help you then to get on^' said her


^^

father,

some previous explanations are

necessary.

It

only the

is

tals of

brown sugar

to free

from molasses.

we have learnt
To come at the
crystals we must

that

matter within the large


dissolve

them completely

before they are

small crys-

water

in

and

the syrup

recrystallised

must be freed from the colouring matter,


and from

all

But how

impurities.

is

the

colouring matter to be separated from the

syrup
'^

dyers

know
to

alum

that

is

used by the

separate colours from liquids,"

said Lucy.

" That property depends on the earth

which alum contains," said her father;


"and this earth, being mixed with the
syrup, attracts the
self.

Charcoal,

brown colour

made of

times employed for

when added
it

is

ness.

to the

the

bones,

is

to

it-

some-

same purpose;

deepest-coloured wines,

able to deprive

them of

their red-

241

*'When
colour

the process of discharging the

completed, the earth of alum, or

is

the charcoal, together with


rities,

Jilter
it

the impu-

all

by means of the

are to be separated

and when the liquor has run through,

then requires to be evaporated."


*^

know,

said Lucy,

papa,''

what you before

away

a vessel over a

in

yet in what

fire;

from

told us, that the syrup

must not be heated


naked

'^

manner

the water, if not over a

fire,

to boil
I

can-

not imagine."

"

told you," said her father, " that the

made

hotter than

know how

to contrive

w^ould boil

it,

sugar would be injured

if

boiling water."
^'

it,"

I think,

then,

said Lucy.

*'

as they

sometimes do things in the kitchen, by


steam.

have heard you say, papa, that

some great buildings


I
it

are heated by steam.

do not know exactly how


but

to set about

think the sugar might be boiled

by steam."
'*

That

VOL.

is

II.

well thought of," said Harry,

242
"

would conduct steam through pipes

under the pan that holds the sugar."


"

You

are both of

you on the

improvement

to the principal

^^

ing," said their father

right road

in sugar boil-

but yet you have

By the nie-

not fully mastered the difficulty.

thod that you have suggested, one might be


able to heat the sugar, but certainly not
to boil

sugar,

it

for

if in

you know^ that a solution of

an open

strono-er heat to

make

requires

vessel,
it

boil than

water

does."

"

But I should

think," said Harry,

by confining steam,

it

could be

hotter than boiling water

with compressed steam,

and
I

''

that

made much
in that case,

might be able

to boil syrup."

"

You might

so," said his father

some persons do

boil

sugar in that

but high-pressure steam (as


is

hazardous to deal with;

method

also

the sugar.

we

" and

it

is

way

called)

and by

this

risk the overheating of

Turn your thoughts,

therefore,

another way, and instead of raising the

243
temperature of the steam, consider whether there are not
or

any other

rature than

means of making syrup,


boil at a lower

fluid,

when exposed

to the

tempe-

common

atmosphere."

Harry considered
length said,

''

for

am

some

made

an

air

"

at

but

have seen

when only moderately

to boil,

warm, by putting

and

not certain whether

could succeed with syrup

water

time,

under the receiver of

it

pump."

How

did that happen?" said his

fa-

ther.

" Because there was a vacuum," said


Harry, " there was no pressure of the

mosphere.

If

we

at-

could place the sugar

pan under the receiver of an


perhaps, might do

air

pump,

that,

but the quantity of

sugar to be boiled puzzles me, father


sugar vessels are very large,

believe.

the
I

could only boil a very small quantity in


an air pump
so that, after all, it would
;

not do

"Why

suppose."
will not

it

do ?" said

his father.

"

244
"

Do

not give up your ideas too hastily

you are sure

till

never

that they will not answer,

any thing

fly off to

Do

else.

not

your imagination upon the particular


ceiver of the air

To be

sure

pump you have

fix

re-

seen.

you could not conjure a sugar

boiler into that small receiver."

" No, to be sure," said Harry, laughing:

then becoming quite grave again, he went

on thinking.
It is

How

"

shall I

manage

it?

impossible to blow a glass large enough

for the receiver."

"

Why

do you stick

to

glass receiver,

Harry?"

"

it

Do you

think

a vacuum, that
glass

it

the notion of a
said his father.

essential to

the having

should be produced in

" Certainly not," said Harry,

necessary by any means.

"

not

it is

only thought

of the glass one, because that was the only


receiver I

had seen

but

any other substance that


as

well as glass.

remember now

the

How

is

perceive that

air-tight will

foolish I

pump, and

am

do
I

the steam

;:;

245

vacuum is large enough


might be made as large as could

engine, where the


or a vessel

be required for the purpose."

Now

The sugar
is boiled in a vacuum, and that vacuum is
produced by means of an air pump. The
*^

you have

exact details

seen
see

it

it,

do not know^, having never

done myself, but

to-day, and so

it

Harry.

now

hope we

let

shall

us set out."

The

sugar house, which Harry and Lucy

went

to see,

stories high.

struck

was a large building of eight

The

first

circumstance which

them on entering

veral spacious

was, that in se-

rooms through which they

passed, and in which the

going on,

it

there

work seemed

to

be

were not many work-

Lucy supposed that it was the


hour of dinner, as had happened in some
men.

other manufactories which they had seen

but she was told that

and that

the men,

all

ployed

in

there.

Few

this

this

was not the case

who were

sugar house,

ever em-

were now

only were necessary, because

246

much was done by machinery. In trutb,


the men seemed of little importance.
It
so

appeared as

if

they were employed only as

under-servants to the machines, and to do

which the mechanic and the

trifling things,

chemist had not thoug^ht

worth their

it

while to invent the means of

effectiuor in

any other way.

The

large rooms and passages, through

Lucy
observed, and yet she could not anywhere
She asked how they
perceive any fire.
were warmed, and was told that she would

which they passed, were

soon see,
place

as

from

all

warm,

going

were

they

whence

the

them
in

to

show them

who was

these works,

to a building, separate

from the

which there was a steam engine.

fire

under

its

boilers

was the only

in these works. All the

by steam
walls, or

Harry

the

to

warmth came.

Their guide, the gentleman

kind as

as

fire

so

took
rest,

The
used

rooms were heated

that passed through pipes in the

under the

floors.

w^as here

perfectly satisfied,

and

he looked delighted and proud, when he

247
heard

how much was performed by one

steam engine.

over

sent

It

and supplied

building, equable warmth,

wanted

water that was

the

all

part of the works.

in every

put in motion a mill

It

and other sub-

crushing the sugar,

for

vast

this

stances used in refining

it

and

it

kept in

unremitting action the pistons of a huge


air

pump.

After having seen or heard what was

done by

this

steam

moving power on which

all

great

the

engine,

the rest de-

pended, they followed their guide into a


in

which the earth of

prepared,

by adding quick-

sort of out-house,

alum

w^as

lime to a solution of

They then
building
tions

it.

entered

where

the

of cleansing

that

part

preparatory

the

of

the

opera-

sugar were per-

They saw in the first place


few workmen with naked arms, and

formed.

a
in

light clothing, suited to their hot work,

huge shovels
the raw brown sugar, such

stirring with

in

a great pan,

as

brought from the West Indies

it

is

when

they were

248
stirring

up with a small quantity of

it

water, not sufficient to dissolve

looked

This was afterwards poured

like treacle.

which there were

into earthen moulds, of

numbers

great

It

it.

in

the

shape of sugar

such as those of which they had

loaves,

read a description,

with a hole

at the

which was turned downwards

point,

in these

moulds

hours to

filter.

the molasses

it

was

to

be

left

and

twenty-four

In the course of that time

would pass through

into jars

beneath the sugar loaf moulds, and the


sugar

left

behind would be in solid lumps,

of a light

brown

colour.

Some

of the

sugar thus purified was put into Lucy's

hand

she

felt

that

it

be readily crushed.
dissolved

in water,

It

soft

enough

was now

to

to

be

which was heated by

having steam passed


earth

was

through

it.

The

of alum, which they called finings.,

was then added

to this solution,

and tho-

roughly stirred about by passing currents


of steam through

it.

This was performed in a great square


cistern,

which had a double bottom and

sides, with a space left between,

to introduce the steam.

and

sides

holes

The

sufficient

inner bottom

were perforated with minute

and through these holes the steam

They

passed up into the liquid sugar.

heard a rapid succession of explosions,


occasioned by the sudden condensation of
the steam
hot,

and when the solution became

they saw immense volumes of steam

rising through

After this treatment,

it.

the syrup was allowed to run into the

The

filter

appeared on the outside

into

parallel

coarse linen cloth,

like a

and the inside was

great square chest;

divided

filter.

compartments,

by

which was stretched

over frames of copper.

The

admitted into every alternate

liquor

cell,

was

and was

thus filtered in passing into the contiguous


cells

on either

side,

which were empty. The

syrup flowed out from the

filter

a transpa-

rent fluid, of a pale straw colour.

They were now conducted to the most


remarkable part of the new apparatus, the
evaporating pans, in which the water was
driven

off

They were

from the syrup.


:m

250

made with double bottoms,


between the two

8team
syrup

so as to admit

heating the

for

and the pans were covered with

domes of copper.

These domes commu-

nicated with the air pump, the great pistons of

which were kept at work by the

steam engine.
the

air,

These served

to

pump

out

so as to preserve, as far as possible,

vacuum over the liquid. The perfection of the vacuum was shewn by a barometer.
The master of the sugar house
a

informed them, that


degrees

dred

vacuo than

less

it

required one hun-

heat to boil sugar in

method, and

in the ordinary

was accomplished

than one-

that

it

fifth

of the time formerly requisite.

in less

After having been evaporated, the heat

sugar was

of the

brought to a certain

temperature, at which

it

was found most

disposed to crystallise.

It

was then poured

into earthen
loaf,

such as were before described, and

in

these

It

is

and

moulds of the form of a sugar

it

then
is

was allowed
of a tolerably

finally purified

to

consolidate.

white colour,

by being washed

2o 1
with a solution of the

which

is

suffered to

white sugar,

finest

through

filter

it.

The

top and the bottom of the loaves, as being less pure, are then pared
ing-lathe,

off in a turn-

and the loaves are afterwards

dried in a stove.

Lucy

said,

she came to

before

that

the sugar house she had a general idea,

from what she had read and heard, that


suo^ar

went throug^h several processes of

filtering,

and

crystallising, before
fit

and cooling, and

boiling,

for the tea-table

prised by seeing the

it

could be white, and

but

still

she was sur-

number of

the differ-

ent operations, the size of the vessels, and


the

power and time necessary.

She had

not been tired by what she had seen, be-

cause she knew beforehand the general


purpose, and she had not been puzzled or
anxious.

Harry was delighted


ciple,

at

seeing that prin-

which he had before

so clearly un-

derstood, carried into practice with success, in


'

such great works.

hope you

will

now

acknowledge,''

252
said he to Lucy,

some use

in

" that the air

common

and

life,

pump

of

hope you

pump

are convinced now, that the air

is

is al-

most as useful as the water pump."

Lucy acknowledged
Harry might well

this

and said that

triumph

for

the

air

pump.
" Think," said Harry, " of

being ap-

its

plied to such different things as making-

making

sugar, and

ice

and not only em-

ployed for boiling quickly, but for freezing


quickly.
rick, or

seen

all

do not think that Otto Gue-

Mr. Boyle himself, could have forethe uses that were to be

made

of

own inventions. I wish thev could


all we have been shown this morning."

their

see
'^

So do

I,"

said

Lucy

"

wish they

could."
" All goes back to that one great principle of the

vacuum," said Harry.

The gentleman who had shown them


this establishment, and who had, with the
greatest patience

and politeness, explained

every part of the business, was glad to perceive that he had given pleasure to the young

253
people, and that they had attended

to,

and

understood what they had seen and heard.

He begged

that they

would

rest themselves

before they went away, and showed


into a room,

where they found refreshments

He gave

were prepared.
colate to Lucy,

"

You

a cup of cho-

and another

must," said he,

to Harry.

^'

some of

taste

which has been

the sugar,

them

refined

by the

process you have just seen."


It

was

in a black

which showed
''

'*

But,

its

father,"

can you

Wedgwood- ware basin,

whiteness.

Harry,

cried

eagerly,

me who invented the method


the air pump so beautifully to

tell

of applying
this use ?"

"

was

can

the

tell

you," said his father; "

invention of

brother to the

an honour

Duke

it

Edward Howard,

of Norfolk

to his family

he was

and

addressing himself to the master

hope,"

of the

sugar house, " that he has been amply re-

warded

for his ingenuity

by the gentlemen

of your profession."
''

The

fruits

have been ample," said the

254
master, " but he did not himself reap them;

He

they are enjoyed by his family.

only

just lived to perfect his invention."

The master of
tered into

the sugar house then en-

a statement of the prodigious

quantity of sugar saved by adopting the

Eight pounds of sugar, he

process.

were saved

new
said,

each hundred weight, and

in

he helped Harry

to

make a

what that amounted

calculation of

to every year

upon

the total quantity of sugar refined in Great


Britain.

Our
late,

party,

having finished their choco-

thanked their host for his attention,

and took

their leave of him.

As you go down the hill from Clifton


to Bristol, you may see in the city below a number of very high, black-looking

in

the

from which

still

buildings,

cones,

smoke,

in

thick

shape

of

huge

darker coloured

black billows,

is

con-

These conical-shaped
Lucy remembuildings are glass-houses.
tinually

issuing.

255
bered her father's having showed her, and
her

told

of what

glass

is

She

made.

recollected the taste of the alkali, of the

ashes of weeds, and the touch and si^ht

of the

She recollected

sand.

story of the accident,

the making^ of

and, above

o;lass

by which

was

the thermometer

and bulbs of

the

is

said

it

discovered

glass,

Her

o^lass-blowino;.

had had

man

in see-

blowino^ tubes,

with his blowpipe.

She wished very much

to

see

father

some more

took her and

her brother one day to a glass-blower's.


feeling

first

she remembered the plea-

all,

sure that Harry and she


ing^

first

also

Her

on entering the glass-house

was alarm on seeing a number of men,


with ladles
it

full

of red-hot liquid

as

fire,

appeared, running past her, and every

minute crossing each other, with these


burning masses, with which they seemed
in

imminent

danger

another to death.

of

scalding

But when

one

she

ob-

served their dexterity, and their fearlessness,

and saw how much they were

at

ease as to the danger, she by degrees was

256
reassured, and

saw,

the

in

able to be amused.

She

furnaces

from

first

place,

which were taken earthen pots


red-hot liquid
at

by

first

was only
reality,

workmen

of these pots

contents

name

their

as

Harry

much amused by
of the

for

but

that

what was

seeing the

in

She was

glass.

First

the

calling

Jiietal ;

said,

glass-blower.

with

She was puzzled

glass.

the

filled

operations

blowing

the

of a glass bottle, and of a wine glass.

One circumstance

in the finishing of the

When

wine glass struck her particularly.

he cut

its

rim round with a pair of shears,

the glass, being as yet soft, yielded under


the pressure of the shears, so that the wine

was no longer quite

glass

circular,

nor was

The workman then heated

the rim even.

the wine glass again, and dextrously twirl-

ing

it

round,

circular shape,

it

was brought back to the

and

its

rim was even.

Harry's father asked him

why

this

hap-

pened.

He
into

said he thought, that

it

was turned

a circular shape by the pressure

of

257
the air as
as

was whirled round while

it

any other substance

by the pressure of the

soft,

made circular
tool when turning
is

And

he thought that

the air with inside of the

glass prevented

round

its

in

a lathe.

being driven

in,

and squeezed together

by the motion.
His father told him that he was partly
right in his supposition

but there w^as one

which he had not ad-

reason, one cause, to


verted,

and which he had not yet per-

He would

ceived.

say no more, because,

perhaps, by observing further, he would discover

it

for himself, in attending to another

operation

the blowing of

or crown glass,

as

it

is

window

called.

glass,

First,

great pear-shaped bubble of glass, about a


foot in diameter,

an iron tube,
it

adhered.

was blown

to which,

at the

being

soft

end of

and

hot,

Then, by rolling the pear-

shaped bulb upon a smooth marble


and blowing into

it,

table,

and by repeating these

operations alternately several times, and by

whirling

it

the bulb

was brought from

rapidly round near a hot


its

fire,

pear shape

258

The globe was

into that of a globe.

then

cut open opposite to the iron tube, and


after

being whirled again with great swift-

ness, the parts spread out

by continuing

more,

still

this operation,

it

till,

became a

large circular plate of flat glass.

Harry now

perceived

what

had

he

omitted in the case of the drinking glass,


the centrifugal force, or that force which

from

arises

the

bodies have to

tendency the

fly

pails

of

from their centre, when

turned round rapidly.

As he

the glass house, he continued

left

his explanation.

"

suppose, father, that the parts

of

the soft glass, as they are whirled round,

endeavoured

to fly

from the centre, and by

so doing the globe

became a

and the

plates

circles,

circular

and

all

larger globe,

became

the parts flying

off"

larger

equally

from the centre, the rim of the drinking


glass

became

" It

is,"

quite circular.''

said Lucy,

^'

something like a mop.

mop,

When

the

maid

not exactly, but


Yes,
twirls

Harry, a
it

round

259
fast,

the threads of the

far as
if it

mop

all fly

they can go from the centre

was a wet mop, out

out as

and

beyond

fly circles

circles of drops."
'*

Well," said Hariy, " you have

out your likeness to a

mop

made

better than I

thought you could."


"
first

remember," continued Lucy,

day

the

ever heard of centrifugal force,

had any idea of what

or

'^

from you, Harry

when

it

meant

it

was

was making a

pancake, papa."
''

member your
" Perhaps

"

Some

ever
it

mammas

do not

re-

making a pancake."

or a

a cheese.

believe, call

it

pancake

eat,

show you

I will

dear

was a cheese," said Lucy.

people,

Not a cheese
but

my

pancake,

as

to

papa

soon as we are in

room."

Lucy kept her word, and whirling herself

round the moment she was

mother's

room,

the

coats flew out, and,

wards,

skirts

as she

of her

her

petti-

popped down-

while they swelled out,

claimed-

in

she ex

260
There

''

a pancake, papa, or a cheese,

is

whichever you please; and

made,

is

it

Harry, by centrifugal force, is not it?"


" I have been very much amused," continued Lucy, " seeing the glass-blowing.

Were

not you, Harry?"

Very much, indeed, and

**

great deal to think

of,

and

it

has

to inquire

left

more

about," said Harry.

"

What more?"

^'

said Lucy.

great deal," repeated Harry.

one thing, annealing,

'*

For

do not understand

that."

"
the

I recollect,"

man had

and finished

said Lucy, " that

twirled the wine glass round,


a

it,

boy came with a long pair

of tongs, and seizing the glass ran


it,

as our

man

to

what

that was,
to

it,

an oven, and

many others,
and then

man

And when

told

to

and what was

the
I

me

asked

to

be done

man showed me

a pan in

saw our wine

put into

be

away with

to the annealing fur-

said,

be annealed.

nace

more

when

left

it

to

glass,

with

be heated again,

to cool slowly.

The

they ought to take several

261
days to cool.

This was done to make the

glass less brittle, he said

What

nealing.

know about
"

and

this

is

an-

more, Harry, would you

it?"

great deal more,

In the

Harry.

''

the least

know

if I could,''

place,

first

do not

makes

ichy annealing

said
in

glass

less brittle."

Why Oh that is
Why Nor I," said Lucy.
"'

another

affair.

"

And

in the

glass house

He

fact.

heard papa and the master-man


talking of a curious

said, that

'

when

of a particular shape,

is

a glass vessel,

allowed to cool

immediately after being made,

it

will often

sustain the shock of a pistol bullet, or

other blunt body falling into


siderable height
flint,

it

any

from a con-

but a small splinter of

dropped gently

into

makes

it,

it

fly to

is

very

pieces with great violence.'"


" Indeed,"

Lucy,

said

" that

curious."
"
talk

my

So papa

said

and they went

about Prince Ruperts


dear, there

are a great

drops.

off to

Oh,

many, many

262

more curious things


and

glass,

all

perhaps

life

to

more than

the whys,

I shall

be known about

ever know."

But you need not know

''

my

in

the

all

ivhys,'"

said Lucy.

many as I can," said Harry.


" There was a man came in while we were
'*

But

glass

the

in

as

house

did you see

him,

Lucy?"

" I did.
"

gentleman, you mean?"

do not know whether he was

gentleman or not," said Harry


a man."
" But

know he was

" he was

a gentleman," said

Lucy.
''

By

his coat? or his waistcoat? or his

hat?" said Harry, smiling.


"

By

Lucy

neither

by none of those," said

"by something

he spoke

by

his

better

tone,

his

by the way
language,

knew him

to

knew he was a gentleman."


"

And

I,

by what he

said,

be a man of sense," said Harry.

came

to

inquire for a person

glasses for telescopes."

who

*'

He

grinds

263
*^Then he must be a

My

of sense, to be

Lucy, smiling in her turn.

sure," said
^'

man

you have not heard

dear,

was trying experiments

to

making of those

stand

glasses.

he said, but

all

it

all.

He

improve the

did not under-

made me very

know more."

curious to

" Papa seemed to like him," said Lucy.


" Yes,"
talked of
is,

said

what a

Harry,

''

fine useful

papa and he
discovery glass

and how long before people thought of

making

all

the uses that are

now made

of

it.

It

happened, that the next day Harry

went with
sician,

his father to the

who had

his father

sician

a good library, and while

and the physician were busy, he

asked leave

wanted

house of a phy-

to

look

for

something

he

some of the books. The phygave him leave, and to work he


in

went, searching for a chemical dictionary


or encyclopedia, in which he might find

aymealmg and
taining

glass.

annealing

The volume conwas

missing.

He

264
thought this very provoking;

many

things

voking,
for

it

like

which we think very pro-

was

and well

really fortunate,

Had he found

him.

but,

have understood the

he would not

it,

article

he had not

the previous knowledge necessary, and he

would have

lost

labour,

his

He went in

patience.

there he found

if

not

search of glass, and

much

that

he could

but some that he could comprehend.

was both enthusiastic and


searched

all

through

his

it,

not,

As he

indefatigable, he

and had the great

pleasure of picking out several entertaining


things.

Seizing on

all

that

was suited

to

the present state of his knowledge, he left


the rest for another time.

One passage

him so much, from describing


what they had seen, and what he

delighted
exactly

would have found


that

was scarcely

out,

it

to

to explain,

difficult

he scribbled a copy of

Scfibbled, truth

read

it

it

for

compels us to say,

legible.

When

Lucy.
for

he came

Lucy he could hardly make

it

to
it

even with her best assistance, and she

265
could read his running hand better than he
But, as she observed, this

could himself.

hand had run almost quite away.


'*

My

dear,

wrote

in

it

a desperate

hurry, and on a crumpled back of a letter,

with a pencil that wanted cutting, and

my

father

and

was standing up with

his gloves in his hands.

he was going every


writing

the

three

instant,
last

his hat

thought

while

was

scribble,

lines,

scribble, scribble, as fast as ever

my

pencil

could go."
''

Thank you

for

saw no chain
Chain

" for doing

said Lucy,

But what

me.

it

'*

"
!

this

is

about a cham

at the glass house."

my

dear Lucy

is

it

chair^''

said Harry.

" Chair

said Lucy.

we saw
glass

Oh, now
"

It is

understand

it

all,"

the description of

what

of the men making the drinking

the

man

sitting in the

and blowing through


then rolling

it

his

arm-chair,

long iron tube

on the arm of the chair

and the other man sticking on the foot of


the glass, and then taking the chair.

VOL.

II.

Oh,

"

266
see

"

am

again

it

is

very well

de-

*.

scribed
''

all

it

glad you think so," said Harry.

more than the man who wrote

It is

it

expected."
^'

Expected

said Lucy,
''

''

asrain.

me?"

opening her eyes very wide.

No, no,

ing.

did he ever think of

my

dear," said Harry, laugh-

You may let your eye-brows down


The author never thought of you

in particular.

meant only

his readers in

oeneral."

said Lucy, " mi/ you77g readers

"'Yes,*'
I

suppose he

books

is

that

said,

as people

often

do

what you mean, Harry

in

?"

" I

mean nothing," replied Harry, "but


that the w riter says he could hardly expect,
by any description of his, to make glass
blowing
on

to

intelligible.

something

'^With

all

Now

that

is all.

else."

my heart,"

cried Lucy.

some more scribbled notes of


What does this mean?"
Harry.

are

'

Go

Brave man, and quick

'

* Edinburgh Encyclopedia.

'

''

Here

yours,

Hands

267
flames

throuo^li

skins
^'

'^

'

'

Covered with

Eyes of glass.'

'

What can this mean V


Do you remember." said

Harry, "see-

ing a great furnace at the

You saw

only the outside.

uncover

it

lest

wet

to

show the

they should have

glass

They could not


any body,

inside to
let

house

the cold

in

air.

Into that furnace they put the earthen pots


full

of glass, which

and they
called

break

left

If

it.

it is

them there

a terrible difficulty to get

the

The

in its place.

broken one can

enough by a man
fire,

at

is

new

arms length from the

its

but

new pot can

to put in the

pot into

out

gettino^

with a long iron hook, or a fork

man who

it

to

done well

be

have no use of hook or fork


the

as they

to set,

one of these pots happen

and put another


out the

had been annealed,

he must put

place with his hands,

passing them through the flames."


" Then indeed,*' said Lucy, " you mio-ht

him brave man, and quick

well call

must do
'^

it

he

as quick as lightning."

But he could not do

it

as

n2

quick as

"

268
or do

lightning,

"

wet

at all,"

my

dear, in skins,

as possible

him

for

as

all

two holes are

left

but these are

through,

see

to

which are

be

and they must cover him

over, all but his eyes,

all

said Harry,

He must

precautions.

ithout

dressed,

it

defended with thick glasses."


"

am

sure

am

very

you, Harry," said Lucy,

home such

^'

much
for

obliged to

bringing

me

That man,

entertaining things.

brave and quick, as you called him, was

worth reading

How many
find

him

glass through to get

all

pages did you hunt through

at.

to

" I came upon him by accident," said

met with several other


things which interested me, and I thought
I would bring them away in my head for
Harry

you
if I

not

"

and

have them somewhere

could but recollect them

when

Do not

I try too

recollect
all

but

'^

back

but

there,
I

can-

try in a hurry."

try then," said Lucy.

hard

what

to
I

aofain

remember,

want, but then

when

am

"When

never can
it

comes

thinking

of

269
something

So now, Harry, look

else.

which papa

this nice little glass tumbler,

bought

mamma's

for

place of that which

than the old one

tier

tals, is

and

cut glass

box,

this part

is

pretty-

its

ground

glass,

below, like crys-

and papa told

pret-

It is

look at

in

me how

was done."

this

Two

"

of the very things

Harry.

to recollect," said

not

broke.

That

white leafy border.

papa said

dressing

at

tell

you about

continued

and

in

clear,

she

*'
;

how many

Then

'^

What

as well as
''

pose

need

a beautiful,

clean thing glass

and how very

different ways.

ing glasses and looking-glasses


smile, Harry; but

was trying

that."

" No," said Lucy.


transparent,

"

men

is,"

useful,

Drink-

you may

use looking-glasses,

women."

Yes," said Harry, " and for better purtoo,

than looking at themselves. They

use looking-glasses, you know, for some

astronomical instruments."
" Yes, and for shaving too," said Lucy,
''

or they

would cut

their throats.

Mighty

270
grand you were about the astronomical

added

!"'

instruments

she, laughing.

me go on my own way

let

glass, to tell

you

all

looking-glasses,

that

there
glasses,

and entertaining

Oh, Harry
with them

honour of

know.

Besides

magnifying

both very useful

and then spectacles

what would grandmamma do

them

without

But

in

are

and diminishing

^'

and how happy she

is

reading and working as well

as I can at eighty-six.

What

a wonderful

invention spectacles are, by which people can see so

many years

longer than they

could in former times! Spectacles,

think,

Harry, are the most ingenious things people ever

"
said

Do

made

of glass."

not forget telescopes,

Harry

my

dear,"

" the most wonderful of man's

inventions."

"
all

How

curious

it is,"

said Lucy,

" that

these things, spectacles and telescopes,

would never have been thought of but


for that first bit of glass,

wrecked

sailors observed,

which the ship-

when they were

boiling their kettle on the sand, with the

271
the

made

fire

of sea

member, Harry,

my

Do you

weed.

re-

father's telling us that

story?"

"

me

puts

to you.

It

book

was glad

little

'^
;

and now that

to say
It

is

was reading to-day, and

meet with

to

difference

kettles

Harry

mind of what I wanted


was about that story.

in

told in the
I

said

do,''

it.

There was a

the sailors supported their

on the sand with pieces of

fossil

with which their ship had been

alkali, nitre,

loaded."
"

And

fire

our old story," said Lucy,

in

was made of weeds, and the

came from

their ashes,

the sand, and


little

same

thino^."

know

it

was going

glass.

There

alkali

is

It all

does," said Harry.

to

the

which burned with

difference in the stories.

to the
''

made

^'

very

comes
"

But

say something quite dif-

ferent."

"

Say

*'

What

it

then,

dear," said Lucy.

time did you think that story

happened?"
^'

my

said Harry.

do not know," said Lucy. "I hardly

"

272
ever think about time in stories.
it

was

in former times

think

a great while ago."

" In the time of Pliny, or before?" said


Harry " he tells the story."
;

" Very likely," said Lucy.


care

who

" But,

you

do not

tells it."

my dear," said Harry, " what I want

to care for is the

be so long since

making

"

it,

were

wonder

glass,
first

that

it

should

and the way of

discovered by that

lucky accident, and yet that

it

hundreds of years before

was brought

into

common

use.

You know the

ancients,

Romans, had not

the Greeks and

we

it

should be

glass as

have."

''

in old

thought that they had glass bottles

Roman

member something about a


in the

to the

"

times," said Lucy.

I re-

bottle of glass

Roman history, which a man brought


Emperor Tiberius

dashed

it

to pieces

(I think),

when he was provoked,

and the emperor put him

to death for

not you remember, Harry,

loud to

my

it.

Do

reading

mamma, and your being

with that tyrant

and he

it

so angry

"

273
"

remember

Harry

''
;

that perfectly well," said

but that was only one particular

bottle."

"But

besides

said Lucy, "

land

tell

that

particular

recollect hearing

mamma,

bottle,"

Mr^ Frank-

that there were plates of

glass found in the ruins of

Herculaneum."

*'Did he?" said Harry.


" Yes," said Lucy, " and from that
is

it

supposed, that glass windows were used

bv the ancients."
Perhaps

^'

so," said

Harry.

'^

But,

my

dear Lucy, to go no farther than England,

my

book

glass
that.

had not

says, that the English

windows for many hundred years after


The windows of houses and churches

were covered with linen

cloth,

till

towards

the end of the tenth century."


'*

You mean

till

about the year 999

said Lucy.
'^

It

was not

till

after the

Elizabeth," said Harry,

common for houses


''

How

been

to

''

days of Queen

that

it

was quite

have glass windows."

very stupid people must have

in those

former days then," said Lucy.

N 5

274

"So

it

seems," said Harry

''

and yet

suppose they were not naturally more stupid than

we

and Homer,
cients

are

my

now.

Recollect Virgil

But then the an-

dear.

had not many men of science."

'And then came the dark ages, as our


history calls them," said Lucy;
the dark ages I suppose people

and could not think of


else.

glass, or

Even when they

"and

fell

in

asleep,

any thing

wakened

there

were not many that could write or read,

you know, Harry."

"They had
said

and

Harry,

very few books to read,"

" except the ancient

Roman books

Greek

over again, and they

had scarcely any books of experiments

believe."

"They had

only

manuscripts," said

Lucy, "written on parchment, or on iMpyI remember papa once showed me


rus.
a papyrus manuscript in a museum, and
I

saw parchment

rolls too,

which the an-

cients called books."

"

And what work

there must have been

making copies enough of those manuscript

275
books," said Harry, ''for people to read.

And how
make

few copies of books a man could

after all

and be could do nothing'

else."

"No

wonder the people were

stupefied,"

said Lucy.

"But then happily was invented


grand

art of printing," said

"Yes,
it

Harry.

remember," said Lucy, "seeing

capital

in

the

letters

Memorable

the

in

And when I first read of it I did


know why so much was said about its

Events.
not

Now

being such a grand invention.


beo^in to

understand

have seen

Harry, you
I

never saw one, and

how

better.

they print.

the bve,

a printing-press.

should like to see

think that

something

was asking

By

about

my

father

printing-

presses in Bristol."

"Yes," said Harry, "he told


will take

"

Lucy.

you

wdsh

to see

it

"We

if

that

said

have very few days more

me

he

he has time."

may be to-morrow,"

stay at Clifton:

time to show

one

me

hope papa

to

will

have

the printing-press.

But

276
in the

mean

cup and

time, Harry, will

me

ball with

thought of

were talking of

glass, but I

Now

terrupt you.

Which

the spike.

has given me.

while you

several times

it

let

would not

us have a

will catch

it

Will you spin the ball for

est?

"What

is

A question

at

look what a pretty

mamma

ivory cup and ball


I

you play

in-

trial

on

the often-

me?"

the use of spinning it?"


easily asked

very

difficult

to answer.

''Mamma,
go with us
for

it

am

sorry that

you could not

to see the printing-press to day,

And

was very entertaining.

said Lucy,
ink, as

*'I

am not

vou said

covered with printer s

should be."

" If you did not take care,


said.
**

my

dear,

Did not I?"

Yes,

see, for I

mamma;

but

did take care you

have not a single spot, and yet

saw every thing

perfectly.

have seen printing so


it

look,"

would be tiresome

Mamma, you

often, I suppose, that


to describe

it

to you.

277

And

I shall

only

tell

almost exactly as

is

you, that

it

was done

explained in our Book

of Trades, in the chapter of The Printer.

Do you remember my reading it to you,


mamma? and the picture of the letter-press
And

printer?

at the

after reading- this,

end

was

it

said, that

young people should

deavour to go through a printing


I

asked you directly,

mamma,

en-

office.

to take

me

and you said that you could

to see one,

not then, but that you would some time or


other;

and now the some-time-or-other,

which

come

thought never would arrive, has

to day.

saw the

letters,

or the

types, all in their square divisions in their


cases,

the

which lay sloping

compositor,

stick in his

man

puff-ball,

reach of

with his composing

hand, picked out the

and placed them


other

who

w^ithin

in the

form.

letters,

Then

an-

inked their faces, with a black

and afterwards the wet paper

was pressed down on them.

knew and un-

derstood almost every thing he was going


to do,

mamma,

scription.

from recollectino- the de-

This was very pleasant.

There

278
was one thing though, which
taken

when

had mis-

took up one of the types,

saw that the

letter

of the metal,

it

stands out from the face

projects

now

fancied, that the letters

had always

were hollowed

out,

cut into the types, as the letters for instance

mamma,

of your name,

are cut into this

seal."

^'How could you think


Harry;

you know

^'

that

ing,

that

the

is

so,

Lucy?"

said

would be engravengravings

w^ay

are

made."
" Yes,
the

now

way engraving

in printing

books

know now what


it

recollect,

was our

is
it

led

know

done, but

w^as the

me

same

is

thought
;

and

into the mistake,

ivory letters, which

little

that

we put

together so as to spell out words, they are


cut into the ivory, and

all

filled

up with

ink."

" But does not your

Lucy, describe

how

Book of Trades,

the letters are made,"*

said her mother.


"

No, mamma, not that

said Lucy.

''

recollect,'"

dare say the author sup-

279
posed every body must know

it,

but

did

not."
''

That

is

my fault, I am

afraid," said her

mother.

Not yours, mamma, but the fault of the


man, the author of the Book of Trades, if
^'

any body's

is

it

must be very

difficult for great

old authors, to

they did not


thing

recollect

to explain

it

grown-up

when

the time

know every thing

any

or

and very tiresome

themselves,

them

But, indeed,

fault.

every

the very beginning.

little

particular from

must be

It

to

difficult

too for wise authors to guess or conceive


the

odd

sort of little foolish mistakes that

children make."

Harry waited
ing,

and then

till

Lucy had done speak-

told her, that the

which

letters are

Book

of Trades,

made

is

manner

in

described in the

under the head Type-

foundtr.

"Is

it

indeed?" said Lucy; " then

very carelessly.
lico

But

printer perfectly

types, or his blocks

remember
well,

read

the ca-

and how

his

and patterns are made,"

280
I

know

the pattern

is

first

drawn on the

block of wood, a leaf and flower for instance, such as there

on

is

this curtain:

then with a very sharp knife, or a


chisel, the}^ cut

away

the

wood

little

round

all

the pattern, and between every part of it, so


as to leave

" In
'^

it

standing up and standing

relief,''

out.''

said her mother.

Then they rub colours on this

pattern,"

said Lucy.

"As

the other printer rubs ink on his

types," said Hariy.

"And
on the

the calico printer stamps

it

down

calico."

" Just as the letter-press printer did the

paper on the types," said Harry.


" How comes it, Lucy," said her mother,
"that you remember so accurately

all this

calico printer's business."

"Oh, mamma!

for

which Harry knows.

an excellent reason,

Do

"

"

Mamma, Harry was

not you, Harry?"

do," said Harry, smiling.

a calico printer

once, and printed a blue starred

my

doll," said

Lucy.

gown

for

281
"

And

a pretty blotted, blurred

gown

it

was," said Harry,


"

all

her o;owns,

and so did she," said Lucy.

*'And we

liked

it

the best of

were so happy doing

when Harry
block,*"

it,

mamma,

except

cut his finger hacking at the

added Lucy, shrinking

at the recol-

lection.
'*

^^

What

but

broke the point of

botch at

the

cut,"

was the reason the

that

*^

signified

said Harry

my

star

and

knife,

was but a

last."

The worst of
stars all came

washed.

But

it

was,' said Lucy, "that

out the

that

first

time

it

was not your

was

fault,

Harry, but the washerwoman's."


"

More probably the

fault of the colours

you used," said her mother;

"or

else,

why did not the colours wash out of your


own gowns? the same person washed them.'
"That

is

an unanswerable argument,'*

said Harry.

"Therefore
swer
"

it,"

am

will not

attempt to an-

said Lucy.

glad of

it,"

said Harry; "

want

282
on

to Qfo

Mother,

to sonietliinof else.

it is

very extraordinary that printing should


not have been invented for so

many hun-

dreds of years."
"

The same thing we

said about glass,'*

cried Lucy.

"

It is

surprising that the ancients should

not have invented printing, Harry," said


his mother, ''because they had, in

common

use, contrivances vs^hich might, with a

little

more thought and ingenuity, have led them


to the invention."

"What

do you mean,

mamma?"

said

Lucy.
"

and

my

think

mother means

their seals

" Their

their medals," said Harry.

were made

seals

like

ours,

with letters

said

his

cut in."
" Yes,

" But
"

in

how

IntagliOy''

did you

knew

it,

know

that,

mother.

Harry

!"

mother, from one of the

large books of prints, which you used to

lend

me

to look at at night,

home."
" Montfaucon?"

when

was

at

283

mamma,

'Yes,

and descriptions of several very

figures

Roman

large

there were in that book

names

in

capital letters.

so large and heavy,

brought you

mamma, when

the book one night,

which there were

in

seals,

seals,

and

to

it

tell

me

to read

and

to

translate a bit of the description to


it

was

could hardly hold

remember; and asked you

something of those

it

me,

for

And you were so good as


do it, mamma."
I am very glad I was, since you re-

was French.
^'

member

it,

and that

long afterwards,

my

it

is

useful to

you so

dear boy," said his

mother.
"

It

said, that

those great

seals

were

used for marking some large earthen vessels, in

which the Romans kept

They stamped them down on


sels,

while the clay was

hardened and the

letters

soft,

their wine.

the clay ves-

and then

it

remained."

" Just like our seals on wax," said Lucy.


"

think,

mother," continued

a that

all

cut

and not

in,

Harry,

those great
seals had the letters
to
in relief."

284
"Yes, and of
tations.

all

which he gives represen-

think he never found any with

we are sure that


among the ancients,

the letters in relief; but

there were such in use


for I recollect

is

it

names on those wine


the clay, that

know

is

vessels

were cut

in intaglio

is

some of the

said, that

which you

made by a

a proof that they were

seal or type

was

in to

in relief.

In the

ruins of Pompeii, loaves of bread

have been

found with

that

letters

stamped upon them, and

Virgil mentions the branding of cattle."

"Then,"

said Lucy, " they actually did

know how to print, without knowing


1 wonder when they had such trouble

it.

in

copying writing, that they never invented


a printing press

saw the

letters

how

stupid

on the jars standing before

their eyes," continued

Lucy

" but

pose, that from only seeing one

few

letters

at

when they

a time,

it

sup-

name or

never came into

their heads."

"Were

there

any

Roman

seals

ever

found, do you know, mother," said Harry,


" of the rare kind, with the letters in relief,

285
in

which there was more than one word ?


" Yes,

the

Duke

believe," said his mother,

of

Richmond has

that

in his collec-

on which there are four words,

tion a seal,

names of the Roman

the four

'^

and

belonged;

to

whom

seal belonged,

this

it

it

is

thought, not to any emperor, or great man,

but to some private individual; therefore


it is

mon
''

all,"

believed that such seals were in com-

use amoncr the Romans."

And

Lucy; " the Germans or the

said

Dutch,
"

they never invented printing after

believe, invented

And how

it."

did they come to

it

at last,

do you know, mother?" said Harry.

"That

my

disputed, and not yet settled,

is

dear," said his

the hint
others,

mother.

was taken from these

Some say
Roman seals
"

from the seeing the names of saints

cut on blocks of wood, under their images.

Other people think that the idea was suggested by the seeing the manner in which
cards were stamped."
" Indeed

"
!

said

Lucy.

"

But

those

286
were from wooden blocks, not metal
or types.'

ters,

"True, and the


from
^'

wooden

Some
I

first

books were printed


said her mother.

blocks,"

of these are

lic libraries,

"

let-

preserved in pub-

still

as curiosities."

should like

to

see one," said Lucy.

You would see how coarse they were,


and how inferior to our improved printing."
"To be sure, from these clumsy wooden
"

blocks," said Harry;

"but

suppose they

soon got rid of those."

"The Chinese

use

wooden blocks

believe," said his mother; "

and

still, I

it is

said,

they had the art of printing long before

was known
"

in

Europe."

More shame

then for them," said Lucy,

" since they have not improved

What

it

all this

What! use wooden blocks

time.

it

still.

blockheads."

" Genlly,

gently,"

said

" There

may be some
which you do not know
alphabet."

her

mother.

reasons for
:

this,

they have not our

"

287
" But without going

oft^

affairs,"'

next,

mamma; and how

"The

"

said Harry.

to the printing press

defend or

go on with our

attack the Chinese, let us

own

to

What came

did the people get

made after
the printing whole words with wooden
blocks, was the making moveable letters
improvement

first

then the same

letters

could be used over

and over again, and as many made

These were

pleased.

wards they tried metal

first
;

as they

of wood, after-

and w^hen they had

moveable types of metal, they next found

way

the readiest

of fixing these in frames,

and of inking and stamping a heavy weight

down upon
them.

the paper, which was laid over

There was the printing press."

"What was
first

made

" That
"

Some

the

name

of the

a printing press?" said Lucy.


is

disputed too," said her mother.

say a

man

of the

name

a servant of a Dr. Faustus,

Faustus.

man who

of Scheffer,

and some say

Poor Dr. Faustus should be

lowed the glory of the invention,


brouo^ht

him

into

some

difficulties."

as

alit

288
" Difficulties

how, mamma, such a

great convenience as the art of printing?"


said Lucy.
*^

When he carried a parcel of his printed


Germany

Bibles from

them

for sale, as

been

them

manuscripts had formerly

of copies he

all to

and offered

the French, considering

sold,

number

to Paris,

the

had made, and finding

a letter the same, which was a

degree of exactness

beyond

what

any

the best copyist could have accomplished,

suspected that he was a wicked magician,


and, by threatening to pursue

and

to

him

as such,

burn him, they extorted his secret

from him."
"

How

"How

cruel!" cried Lucy.

unjust!" exclaimed Harry.

would never have


"

it

to

them."

w^ould rather have told

been burnt
"It

is

alive," said

mother.

it

"

than have

Lucy.

very happy for us that

live in those

tions

told

"I

we do

not

days of ignorance," said their

Men

are honoured for inven-

now, not persecuted or burned."

"That

is

a blessing," said Harry.

" But,

289

how much you know

mother,

about print-

ing and printers, and printing presses, and


all

the history of the invention

you remember
us the very

it all,

When

and have

" Shall

could

ready for

it
'

dear," said his mother,

I tell

you how and why?

you went with your

morning

how

moment we wanted?

"Very easily, my
smiling.

father this

see the printing press,

to

my

could not go with you, lying on

as I

sofa

here, I read an account of printing; for

was determined
the time you

"

And

to

be as wise as you, by

came back."

a great deal wiser,

mamma/'

said

Lucy.
"

great deal, because you picked out

all

the things

to

know,"

did not know, and wanted

said

Harry.

^'

Thank you,

if

he had found

mother."

His mother asked Harry

out whether there was in Bristol any printing press

moved by a steam engine

Harry

answered, that he did not know.

'*You do not know!

VOL.

II.

but did not you

290
put your father in mind

to inquire?"

said

his mother.

" No,

" That

who
"

did not," said Harry.

is

very odd," said Lucy, " you

never forget any thing of that sort."

was unlike you, indeed, Harry,"


said his mother, '^ you were so intent upon
it

It

yesterday.

admiration

recollect your surprise

when your

father told

and

you of

double printing press, moved by a

the

steam engine, which he had seen in London, where, without hands, the types are
paper,

pressed against the

and the ink

spread just in the quantity required over


the

letters;

and which can

one hour

in

900 sheets on both sides. My dear


Harry, is it possible you can have forgot-'
print

ten this?"
'^

No, mother;

gotten

it,"

never said

had

for-

answered Harry.

Then why did not you put your father


mind to inquire whether there was any

"
in

such printing press in Bristol


left

When you

me, your head seemed quite

full

of it."

291
"Yes, mother

but

"But what? pray


mother.
" Only

would

me, for

tell

understand your silence,

"

my dear,"

cannot

said his

thought, mother, that

like better to see the plain

printing press

first

Lucy

common

because she said that

much to see exactly


the Book of Trades.

she should like so very

what

is

described in

Therefore

did not ask papa about the

steam double printing press, because

thought that would puzzle and hurry her,

and that she would not see the thing just


as she wished;

what
"

and you knov/

want another time

can see

perhaps."'

How

very kind, Harry," said Lucy.

that

was your reason, and you did

"So

not forget?

you gave

But you never

it all

up

for

me.

not by accident asked,

known.

Oh

Harry,

told

If

me

that

mamma had

should never have

why

did not you

tell

me?"

What signifies

telling, or talking

it,"

said Harry.

"It was

jvist

what you would do

"

for

about

nothing,

me.

o 2

but

do not

292
forget the fairy

you gave up

the other day, the

"

new Corsican

fairy!"

steam-boat will set off from Bristol

to-morrow morning

Oh,

me

Harry, " can you take


"

me, Lucy,

for

can, Harry,

and

cried

father,"

to see it?"

will with pleasure,"

said his father.


^^

And Lucy?"

said Harry,

which showed, that

his joy,

in

a tone

great as

it

was, could not be complete without her.


^'

And

day be

Lucy," said her father, "

fine

but

if the

cannot take her

if it

should rain."

Next morning, Harry was up by daybreak, peeping out to see what kind of a

day

it

ing

it

was

was,

at five

cloudy morn-

o'clock;

threatening

desperately between six and seven

rain

downright

raining

nine;

but

likely to be.

it

between

and presently,
poured so that

Lucy.
after his

Splish

father,

splash

and

not only rained,

it

all

eight

hope was over


!

for

Harry trudged

through the dirty

streets,

293
scarcely hearing, not at
rattling of

all

rumbling of

carriages,

jarring

rolling of barrels,

heeding, the
carts,

and jangling

of iron bars dragged upon di^ays without


wheels, over rough

with

pavements,

all

the indescribable clatter, and clangor, and

clamor, and stunning din, of this


noisy of noisy
rain

Nor did he

cities.

feel the

But when

which poured over him.

the heavy shower ceased, and

most

when

drip-

ping umbrellas closed, and the sun, through


the clouds, gave promise of a better day,

Harry entreated his father


back

for Lucy.

wait for him

to let

If his father
five

would but

minutes, in a shop

" this bookseller's shop, papa,

back

in less

than

him run

five

will

minutes, and

be

I will

bring her very quickly and as safe as possible


*'

through the streets;

No," his father

for the vessel

said,

would

minutes,

Then Harry
walk

fast

papa?"

set off punctually at


if

they delayed

they should be

thought

enough.

I,

he could not wait,

the appointed hour, and


five

may

too

they could

On

late.

never

he kept, before

294
his

the rest of the way,

father,

came

only the lower


sons of

all

Not

crowd of people.

a great

to

they

till

class

of

idlers,

but per-

ranks assembled to see the de-

Harry darted

parture of the steam-boat.

quickly after his father, while heads and

He

elbows closed over him.


see farther

than the backs

the people before him, for

could not

and legs of

some time

but

he pierced through the darkness of the


dense crowd of

tall

bodies, and emerged,

from under the elbow of a six-foot-

at last,

high sea-captain, into

full

daylight.

He

found himself standing on the stone-pier


of a large dock, at the very edge of the

row of a multitude of
spectators, who covered the quay. Through
water, in the front

the buzz of voices, the

heard was

tinctly
^^

first

She will not get out

thing he dis-

this

quarter of

an hour

She

tide lets

them open the dock-gates."


as

She,

vessel

he

will not get out

till

the

Harry knew, meant the steam


rejoiced

to

were in such good time.

find

that

Now

they

he had

295
leisure

him.

look about

and to

breathe,

to

Close beneath the stone

on

pier,

which he was standing, were several vessels,

among which he

distinguished

first

the steam-boat, by the faint grey smoke,

which he saw

rising^

chimney, that stood


deck.

The boat had

from a black iron


the middle of

in

sails,

its

but they were

not spread, they were close furled, as un-

necessary for the voyage.


if

appeared as

It

there were fewer sailors on board than

in the other vessels

but

all

was

in

motion

on her deck, and on the adjoining

pier.

Two men

over

were rolling a

chariot

planks laid from the pier to the edge of


the vessel

were dragging

others

to

its

right place on the deck, another carriage


others held horses on the quay,
to

go

into the boat,

pointed forward,

and expanded

tiently submitted to their fate


to

who were

and who, with ears

drew back, and yet in a few


gentlemen

whom

nostrils,

instants pa:

while the

they belonged, or their

servants, anxiously called out, giving directions about theirvaluable

and

their favourite

296
Groups of people, with bundles,

horses.

baskets, boxes, bags,

and umbrellas

in their

hands, stood by waiting, impatiently,

till

the horses and carriages were disposed

of,

and then they stretched their necks and


their hands,

and gave

eager directions, to a

in their goods,

with

who, balanced

sailor,

on a board, scarcely appearing even

them, handed the packages as

listen

to

fast as

he received them

another sailor

to

behind him, repeating continually


anxious proprietors
^'

They

to

will

taken good care

all

be safe

of, /Sir,"

or "

all

to the

be

will

Madam^'

as

the case might be.

Harry was astonished by the vast weight,


number, and bulk of things, animate and
inanimate, which were stowed on board,

loads of boxes, and parcels, and baskets,


trunks, chests, or packing-cases, besides the

carriages and horses,

sengers crowding in

and, after

innumerable.

these to be carried by steam,


the wind, which was

was a man

all,

now

full

rising.

pas-

All

against

There

in a blue jacket, with a large

297

straw hat on, standing near Harry.

He

one of the

sail-

was a

sailor,

belonging

to

ing-packets which lay in the dock, and

which was not

wind

likely to sail this day,

not permitting.

He

eyed, with no friendly

eye, these preparations going forward with

such

His brow darkened, and

alacrity.

with a sulky look, he began to whistle.

One

belono-irip;

to

the

heard him, smiled and said


'^

We

No
can

need
o-o

to whistle for a fair

wind.

without a wind, or ao-ainst

Provoked beyond

endurance

swear

the old sailor swore

boast,

who

steam-boat,

sorry to say he did

by

yes,

it."

this
I

am

that for his

would not go on board a steam-

part he

boat for both the Indies, and a puncheon


of

rum

would

into

not he

rather, in the roughest gale,

at sea, in

a gale

the bargain,

in

He
be out

an honest sailing packet, with


his

such a thing as

teeth,
this,

than go on board
the finest day of the

year.

This speech making

little

impression

upon the by-standers, he addjd,


o 5

that " It

298
was well

for her

was

it

fair

weather, for

she would never stand a gale."

Then

shutting one eye, and looking up-

wards with the

other,

he observed, that

if

he was not more mistaken than ever he

was

wind

in his days, the

that

was

rising

would soon blow a storm, which would


bring,

he prophesied,

as

were going on board

Among

evil to all

who

her.

the intended passengers

who

were standing by, was a poor decent looking woman, in a black bonnet and cloak,

many bundles

with

holding by the

great anxiety,

ceedingly

hand, and

one

other a

The woman

girl.

little

in

sickly

looking

listened

with

and the child looked ex-

frightened,

whilst this

sailor

was speaking, and grew paler and paler,


when he went on telling of the dangerous accidents he had heard of happening

on board steam-boats

had

burst,

blown
pieces.

all

and scalded some

boilers that

to death,

or

on board and the vessel

to

The

child,

on hearing

this, let

go

a cocoa-nut, which she had been hugging

299
close to her bosom, and clung with both

The cocoa-nut

her hands to her mother.

would have

rolled into the water, if

had not stopped


and returned
to

put

it

it

Harry

but he picked

it

to the little girl, offering

it

bag which her mother

into a

up,

tried

hands trembled so much,

to open, but her

that she could not untie the strings

Harry

disentangled them for her, and begged her

The

not to be alarmed.

sailor

persisted

had good reason

in saying, that she

to

be

her child was so

afraid, adding,

that as

much

own heart
would^do much better not

failed her, she


to

go

and

frightened,

in the

as her

steam-boat, but to wait

till

the next day, and take her place and a

comfortable

birth

which would be

in

the

sailing-packet,

morning.

off early in the

The poor woman said that she could


not wait for the morrow
and though she
;

still

trembled, she tried to speak steadily,

saying that her heart did not

fail

her; that

she was determined to go now, and in the

steam-packet, for
the

quickest

it

way

was the cheapest and


she

could

go

to

her

300
mother,
Dublin,

who was
and

if

lying dangerously

rolled

tears

alive.

down her cheeks

she spoke: the sailor


go, and risk

in

she missed this day, she

might never see her mother

The

ill,

still

urged her not to

drowning her

called to his father,

as

child.

who was

Harry

talking to

some gentlemen, and had not heard what


Harry begged his father would
passed.

come and

tell this

poor

woman whether he

thought she might safely go in the steam-

Not only his father, but the


gentlemen who had been talking to him,
came immediately,, and assured the poor

boat or not.

woman,

that, in their opinion,

go with perfect

safety.

One of these

tlemen was an American


that

he had,

in his

she might

own

gen-

he told her
country,

been

hundreds of times, and many thousand


miles in steam-boats, and had never seen

any accident happen.


Harry's father added, further to encou-

rage the poor woman, that the two gentle-

men, who were speaking

to her,

selves taken their passage

had them-

on board

this

301

She thanked

very packet.

wiping away her


determined

to

at all hazards

The

she had no fears.

but

now

sailor sulkily turned

away and walked off.


A call now came for
as the tide

had been

tears, said, she

go

and

them,

go on board,

all to

and they were

served,

opening the dock gates.

just

All hastened on

board, except the poor

woman

moment

move, her child

she began to

but the

screamed, and clinging round her legs,


cried, " I

know

will burst

go

It will

will kill us

it

all

me

scald

Oh, mother

Oh, mother

Avoman did

will burst

mother

It

The poor

"

when she

caught

struggling with

terrified that

and when

were loosened from round

little girl

death

it

she could to soothe her,

listened to nothing

knees, and

to

know

mother, do not

but in vain; the child was so


it

tried to

its

hands

mother's

its

lift it

up, the

fast

hold of Harry's arm,

all

her

might

a mes-

senger came, saying that the captain would


not wait
sively,

the

woman

and grew

again trembled exces-

pale.

302
" Perhaps, father,"
offer to

Harry,

said

go on board, the

come with me, when she

little

'*

if I

girl will

sees that

am

not afraid."

" Try," said his father.

Harry spoke very gently to the child,


who stopped crying, and listened to him,

him lead her

and

let

that

he was not

afraid.

into the boat to the

The

child

saying, "
" I

still

Do

on,

when she saw

He

thus got her

woman's

satisfaction.

held fast hold of his hand,

not leave me, do not go."

must go," said Harry,

very sorry for

''

and

am

for I

should like to stay

who had

followed him, and

it,

very much."

His

father,

who had learnt that they could go


miles down the river, and be put on
at a

landing place, told Harry,

that,

a few

shore
since

he wished so much to go, he might, and


Harry
that he would accompany him.
thanked him, and was delighted. The
crates were now opened, and they were
slowly towed out of the dock, and between
the narrow piers, while the swing bridges,

303
turned back, were covered with spectators.

A band

of music stationed on the

The sun shone

played.

looked happy.

and

bright,

Yet Harry was a

little

He

appointed by their being towed.


his lather, that

he had thought

it

deck

was

all

dis-

told
all to

be done by steam.
"

Wait a few minutes, and you

that

will be so," said the captain, smiling.

it

As soon
river,

will see

had reached the

as the vessel

and passed the place w^iere a

ferry

smoke from the


chimney issued thicker and thicker, and

boat was crossing, the

spread like a gigantic pennon over their


heads.

The towing had

dle wheels were

now,

my

set

in

ceased, the pad-

motion,

boy,"' said the captain,

going by steam."

And

easily

And
" we are
^'

and swiftly

they went, gliding rapidly on between high


hills

and rocks on both sides of them.

The

lofty crescents, terraces,

gardens of Clifton, seemed


they passed.

and hanging

to fly

back as

In a few seconds, the ferry

boat lessened and vanished.

They passed

the majestic rock of St. Vincent, crowned

304
with specks of

human

Birds ho-

figures.

vered round their nests in the rock.

they passed

on, the

captain

Woods and

Leigh

felt

and that

be

soon
stirred

from

having

had by

were

his pleasure

an

at

when he had
child,

they

that

afraid

swiftly,

named them, when

were before them.

scenes

to

Nightingale Valley

but scarcely had he

new

pointed

As

going

too

would too

He had

end.

Harry

never

the

spot where

first

entered the boat: the

fast

he stood,

hold of his fore finger,

this time, lulled

by the music, and

the easy motion, fallen fast asleep with her

head

in her mother's lap.

to go to his father,

and down

the

Harry longed

who was walking up

deck,

with the

captain

and the American gentleman, talking

as

he heard, every now and then, as they


passed him, of something entertaining about

steam boats.
not draw his

But he thought he could


finger away from the child

without wakening it, and the mother looked

up piteously
offered to

in his

face once,

move, saying

when he

305
''This

the

is

if

sleep she has

had

She has been very

three nights.

"Try

first

you can put

in

the^se

ill."

your finger

in-

stead of mine," whispered Harry, and gently

unclosing

child,

the

hand of the sleeping

he drew out

slipped in hers.

his,

and the mother

The hand

closed again,

the child did not waken, the mother smiled,

and Harry,

set free, ran off joyfully to his

He

father.

found

the

gentlemen were

eagerly claiming for their several nations


the

honour of bringing into general use

the invention of the steam vessel.

who was a Scotchman,


claimed it for the men of Glasg^ow.
The
American maintained, that the number of
The

captain,

steam boats in America, and the years they

had been there


first felt

in use,

proved that they had

the value of the invention.

This

could not be denied, the Scotchman admitted; but


the

first

must never be forgotten, that

was sent out to America from Glas-

gow, and
it,

it

that a

Scotchman went out with

and that the engine was one of Boulton

306
and Watt's; without
have been

An

this

could never

it

set a-going.

Irish

gentleman here begged leave

to remark, that the

experiment of the last

them between Dublin and

winter's trial of

Holyhead had been undeniably the most


fair and satisfactory ever made, and had
established steam vessels in the three king-

An

doms.

Englishman who was present,

and who was

silent

till

the

last,

said only

was content, since none could doubt


the original invention was English, and the
whole establishment of this glorious and

that he

useful discovery in
British.

pealed,

Europe was exclusively

Harry's father, to

had the candour

whom

he ap-

mention a

to

French gentleman*, who many years ago


tried

the
that

an experiment with a steam boat on

Rhone
was

at

Lyons.

said,

By

listening to all

Harry learned

in

short the

invention.

It

was

history of this

first

thought of nearly a hundred years ago, by


a Mr. Hull, for towing vessels in and out
*

The Marquis de

JouflFroy.

307
of harbours; but he only

made

the proposal,

not the attempt, and he had no idea of

using

it

in

who

person

in a boat,

The

any other manner.

first

actually placed a steam engine

and tried the experiment, was a

Mr. Patrick Millar,

at

Glasgow

the

re-

mains of the boat are yet in being, and the


Scotch gentleman said he had lately seen
them.

Several persons in

England about

Scotland and

time proposed to em-

this

ploy steam vessels; but they did not come


into general use,

till

a model of one was

from Glasgow to America.

carried

successful establishment in that

Its

country,

on the prodigiously extensive lakes and


rivers of the
cability,

new

proved

w^orld,

and brought

it

its

practi-

at last into use in

Scotland, England, and Ireland.

Harry was surprised

to

hear that a hun-

dred years should have passed between the


first

invention and

its

general use, and asked

ceeded

beings broug-ht into

why

it

had not suc-

at first as well as at last.

reasons were given


said, that vessels

Several

the Scotch captain

were not originally made

308
enough;

strong

the

that

improvements

lately

adopted in ship building had ren-

dered

it

employ a greater power

possible to

of steam than they could formerly, without

danger of

destroying the

The

vessel.

Englishman observed, that people had been


for

many

years too

much occupied

in ap-

plying the steam engine to other purposes

England,

in

think of adapting

to

to

it

boats.

And

sary

now, that commerce has increased

till

indeed

it

was scarcely neces-

and the goods and people

so rapidly,

be carried on canals,

rivers,

and

sea,

to

are

so numerous.

Harry was much obliged

men who

to the gentle-

took the trouble to give these ex-

planations in reply to the question he had

asked, and
treated so

He

felt

much

little

proud of being-

like a reasonable person.

took care not to interrupt them with

more

questions,

he wished

it

though there

to ask.

he whispered
ther

But, at the

to his father,

was possible

machinery of

this

for

vvere

many

first

pause,

and asked whe-

him

steam vessel.

to

see the

He

could

309
not see the paddle-wheels, of which he had

He wished

heard the captain speaking*.

much to understand how these were


moved by the steam engine, and how they
very

worked the ship forward so rapidly and


powerfully against the wind, which now
blew strong.

His father told him, that he

could not show him the machinery, while


they were going on, but he would ask the
captain to

show

it

to him,

whenever they

stopped, which they were soon to do at a


place

called

was now

in

they reached

Lamplighter's
sight,

and

in a

This

Hall.

few minutes

and Harry heard an

it,

in-

creased sound of the rushing of the steam,

which was

let

be stopped.

out before the vessel could

The

noise of the working of

the machinery ceased, the vessel stood

and a rope was made

fast to the shore.

of the passengers were to be set

and others taken up


this occasioned,

down

still,

Some
here,

and during the delay

the captain

attend to Harry's request.

had time

He was

to

a good-

natured man, and took pleasure in gratifying, as

he

said, the boy's laudable curiosity.

310

He showed him how


with

nected

the

the engine

is

con-

They

paddle-wheels.

looked something like the water-wheels of

and

mill,

and as each

as they turned,

vane struck upon the water, he perceived


that

it

urged on the boat,

the boatmen,

He

whom

like the oars of

he had seen rowing.

asked at what rate they had been mov-

ing to-day, and was told,


miles and

a half an

''about

eight

They had

hour."

been going against the wind, but with the


stream.
at

He

asked what

is

the fastest rate

which steam vessels can

told,

go,

and was

by the American gentleman, eleven

miles an hour; but in England, as the English

gentleman

The

Irish

said,

ten miles an

hour.

gentleman asserted, that during

the last two years the passage from Dublin


to

Holyhead had always been performed

at

an average rate of about seven miles an

hour, and that the mail, which was carried

by the steam

packets,

had scarcely

missed a day even in the most stormy


weather.
suffered

He

asked

Harry

from sea sickness.

if

he

had

Harry had

"

311

never been in a ship, and had never been


sick in a boat.

The

had been so

river

calm to day, that they had scarcely


motion of the

felt

the

vessel.

" Well, some time or other, you will feel

what

it is,

the steam

and then you

be thankful to

will

packet, which at least lessens

the time of the suffering, and affords the


certainty that

it

be over in a given

will

number of hours."
Harry listened
gentlemen,
tages to

to

who spoke

his father

and these

of the great advan-

commerce and

to society

from

this

quick communication between distant coim-

Enlarged views opened upon his

tries.

young
'^

intelligent mind,

What

a grand invention

was made by

Efigiishmeji, he
t07is

^'

was going

am

glad

to sa)^,

it

Bri-

he did say, which word satisfying the

Scotch,

they

and he exclaimed,

all

the

Irish,

and the Englishman,

smiled upon him.

Pray, young gendeman, what do you

think of us Americans," said the American.

312
"

We

have done more than any of you,


Recollect that

guess.
least

we have

at

the

three hundred steam boats in con-

stant use."

Three hundred

*^

added he, " that


have

model

first

"

to

But

recollect,"

by our help that you

it is

You know we

these.

all

Harry, with a

" said

admiration.

of

tone

sent the

America."

"We Scotch," interposed the


low voice.
"That model helped,

Scotchman,

in a

acknowledge,"

said the American.

" Then," added Harry, "

you

in the beginning,

new world
the end,

" All

we helped

if

you that have a whole

to yourselves, will

help us in

hope."

fair,

and

hope we

shall

so shake

hands," said the American, shaking Harry


" For one, I proheartily by the hand.

mise you,

my

in a

ever

man,

little

welcome

if

and

you come

I will
if

you

to

make you
please,

you

America,
heartily
shall

go

steam boat on the Mississipi, and

313
Missouri,

and on the Ohio, some thou-

That would please you,

sands of miles.
I

guessi
"

"

am

sure

it

would,"

Harry.

said

Gratitude to these kind gentlemen, and


the enthusiasm which had been excited in

Harry's mind, quite overcoming his habitual taciturnity, he

went on talking of
" After

glorious invention.

years working at
'^

it

is

hundred

at last," said he,

brought to perfection."
" Perfection

"Harry, that
"
sir,"

is

repeated

"

his

father.

saying too much."

Too much

for

any human invention,

said the Scotchman.

know even
to

it,

this

at present, there

And as we
is much more

''

be done for these steam vessels."

And much
" men
father
"

is

doing," continued Harry's

of science and genius are

going on continually,

making improve-

ments."
" Just before

Englishman, "
pital

left

London," said the

heard of a number of ca-

improvements, preparing

VOL.

II.

for

our steam

314
boats,

and

which

make them more durable

will

safer than they are at present."

The American nodded with an


some mystery.

great satisfaction, and

"

Can

air of

the steam boats be

made

safer

than they are ?" said Harry.

"Since accidents have happened," said the


captain,

many

''

May

guard against them


I ask, sir,"

spectfully;

cause

again

but

that have will hardly occur again.

We shall
"

may happen

they

" might

in future,"

said Harry, very re-

ask what was the

of those accidents,

and how you

guard against them now?"


"

You may

little

ask,

and welcome,

my

eager

man," said the captain, with a good-

humoured smile " but I cannot undertake to answer you all this at once, or at
;

any time.
little

Certainly not now,

fellow,"

watch, " for


to you."

added

he,

must be

off.

my

dear

looking at his

So good-bye

315

The

woman

poor

with

her child

stood

close to the place

where Harry must

when he was

With a orateful
him, as he came near,

to land.

smile, she said to

my

" Master,

child here

you

had

thanks

for it."

ashamed

Pleased, yet
to

a deal the

is

better for that sweet sleep she


to

pass,

to

have

this said

him, in the hearing of several people

who were

standing by, Harry coloured up

and answered

to the ears,

ner,

"

and

in a rude tone

Do

not thank

nothino; at

The

me

man-

in a blunt

for nothino^,

did

all.*'

running before him so as

child,

to stop him,

as

he would have pushed on,

held up her cocoa nut, and said,


''

I will

"

Oh

no!

said Hariy

The

give you this.


I
'*
;

child

cannot take

Take
it

it

do.'"

from vou,"

but thank you, thank you.""

still

held up the cocoa nut,

and Harry seeing that she looked vexed


by his refusal, took it from her hands, and
turning back, rolled

it

along the deck.


p 2

316

Run

*'

after

it

run

much

thank you as

"

said he

had

as if I

" and

Good

it.

bye."

The

child ran after the rolling ball, and

Harry sprung from the boat on shore.

chaise was procured at Lamplighter's

an inn near the landing place, and

Hall,
his

father

back

to

and he were now

Clifton.

of the

full

think and

it

Harry's head was so

steam boat, that

talk

go in

to

of nothing

he

else

could
all

the

way.
'^

Father,

among

other advantages which

steam boats have over carriages with horses

and men, there

is

this great one, that the

steam engines neither


sleep.

horses

"

little,"

my

eat,

nor drink, nor

And steam never grows tired,


and men must rest sometimes."
wish you would
said his father,

rest

but

now, Harry, a

" and do not kick

shins in your transports."

" I beg your


" But, father,

pardon,"

said

Harry.

do not see why a steam

boat should not go on for weeks

and

months, just as well as for hours and days.

317
Surely

it

can go as long as there

as lonof as there

is

engine with

and

fuel,

as long as

and

Cannot it?"

water.

" Surely; as long as

is fire,

we can supply

the

and the boiler with water,


the machinery does not

break."

" Then,

they

if

make

enough," said Harry,

*'

the whole strong

why

should not

people cross the great ocean from England


to

America, as well as the

England

to

What

the

is

there were

Ireland

Why

difficulty?

some

not,

You

sea from
father

look as

not an impossibility

and a great

is

difficulty,

said his father


will perceive

" and if

what

if

but

difficulty,"

you consider you

it is."

Harry considered
out.

but he did not find

His mind was too much exalted

he was too

full

impossibility."

" No, Harry


there

it

little

of the noble steam boat to

be able to think with his usual degree of


attention.

His father helped him a


his thoughts,

little

and brought him

to settle

to consider

318
the time which

voyage
"

requisite for this

to America.

Harry,

about three weeks,

takes

It

What

would be

be absolutely necessary to

w^ould

the steam

boat to enable

it

at sea all

that

and

to

time,

to

stay out

perform

its

voyage?"

men

" Fire, water,

Harry,

" except

that

provisions;

said

all,"

is

usual

the

things which are carried for long voyages,

we may
"

take for granted, are carried."

True

but there

is

something which

you have not yet named, that


said his father

''
;

by

is

essential, I

essential,"

mean

that

without which the thing cannot be."


" Fire,

water,

men

repeated Harry.
else

"

men

even.

regulate the engine

is

water,"

essential.

One man

could

believe."

What do you mean by

engine?" said his


"'

fire,

can think of nothing

which you could say

iieed not say

"

men,

regulate the

father.

mean," said Harry, " he can supply

the boiler with water,

and the

fire

with

"

319
fuel.

Fuel

mean,

father.

up the

now

aye,

the water to

So coals must be

and great quantities

know, son

about the bulk.

the

wood,

but their weight we

power of steam, you know,


I

yovi

make

carried, or

need not mind on the water, and

''

what

Fuel there must be to keep

fire to boil

steam.

see

w^ith that

father."

but what will vou do

Coals, or wood, or what-

ever fuel be put on board your steam boat,

must

take

up

Calculate

space.

how

much."
After

o'oino'

throuoh a calculation, which

need not be here repeated, Harry groaned

and acknowledged, that unless the steam


boat were

many

times larger

had ever been made,

that

it

any

than

could not

afford space for the necessary quantity of


fuel.

"

But why," argued

vessel

''

should not a

be made several times larger than

any we have seen

he,

moment's

reflection

that such increased bulk

creased strength to keep

showed

Iiim.

would require
it

together,

in-

and

320
that again

and

must bring increase of weight,

difficulty of

"

Still,"

this

great

fuel,

we should

managing the whole.


" though there

said Harry,
difficulty

about carrying the

not give

it

up, should we,

Perhaps some of those ingenious

father?

men, who

first

thought of steam boats a

hundred years ago, or even


imagined they should

ago,

And

ceed.

is

fifty

years

never

they were laughed

at,

suc-

were not

they, because they did not succeed at first?

Yet now

Oh

if

they were alive

and could see what

come

to

world

their invention

The admiration

Therefore, father,

know they

are right

has

of the whole
I

think people

should not mind being laughed

they

now

at,

when

and they should

not be stopped in their great discoveries by


little difficulties,

or great difficulties, or any

sort of difficulties,

but

still

experiments, and inventing,


to

some

be quiet.
give

go on trying
till

they come

impossibility,

and then they must

But not

then, they need not

till

up and they should


:

" Right, right,

my

not," cried Hariy.

dear boy," said his

321
" I

father;

am

glad

see this

to

'*

rising in you."

Harry was
Father

book

this

for

silent

and then exclaimed


*'

am

morning

mile or two,

you have no

so glad

to read in the carriage,

because you have time to talk to me.

me what

Tell

accidents happened formerly in

steam

the

spirit

boats,

and

how do people

prevent them now, as the captain said they

can
"

The

principal accidents, and the most

dangerous," replied his father,


the bursting of the boilers.

^'

have been

If I recollect

one which burst in an American

rightly,

vessel killed several people, and blew the

Another, which burst in

boat to pieces.

England, scalded
the cabin

"

The

to death

who were
sailor

near

the persons in

it."

spoke truth then,"

said

Harry, " to that poor

though

did not

woman this morning,


believe him. He advised

her not to go on board the steam boat, because he said that

many such

accidents

have happened, and happen very often."


p 5

322
There he was wrong," said Harry's

''

" because he exaggerated.

father;

We

few have occurred.

them

But

have accounts of

and can therefore judge and

all,

speak positively."
"

am

glad of

Now,

''

Harry.

cried

very, very

it,

father,

ways of preventing them


you

tell

me

" First

"
^'

will

is

and cast

ii^on,

called malleable^

You saw

iron.

and the difference was explained

both,

you,

future,

me, Harry, do you know the

between what

or ivroue:ht

about the

that?"

leli

difference

in

glad,"

when we were
I

recollect

Cast iron

it,

is,

to

at the foundery."

father," replied Harry.

believe, that

which has

been melted and made to run into the form


in

which

ivrought iron

when
ever

may

" Since

can

ofo

be used.

which

that

is

be, that

is

wrought

is

hammered,

you know

many

iron,

trials,

is

what-

required."
this

much, Harry,

on," said his father.

found by

Malleable or

heated, into the shape,

it is

it

to

is

it

that

" It has been

hammered,

or

stronger than cast iron

323
and better able

to resist the expansive force

Those

of steam.

boilers of steam engines

which

burst, were, in almost all instances,

made

of cast

have

iron

Others of wrought

iron.

some

in

also,

way but even when

given

cases,

they have, they have

not exploded violently, so as to do mis-

They

chief.

have

opened, so as to

consequence of

now
is

generally

rent

and

asunder,

out the steam.

let

In

this experience, boilers are

made

of wrought iron. This

one cause of increased safety."


"
"

And

a great one," said Harry.

Another step

safetv has
ther,

'^

in

improvement and

been made," continued

by experience having proved

that though copper


alternate heating

is

his fato us,

rapidly destroyed by

and cooling,

it

is

more

durable than iron for boilers of steam vessels at sea."

"Copper

stronger than iron,

cried Harry. "


it

father!"

should never have thouo-ht

was."
'*

You do

not repeat with your usual ex-

actness w^hat

told you," said his father.

"

324
"

did not assert that copper

cumstances, and for

all

and more durable than


it

purposes, stronger,
iron.

said, that

found to be more durable

has been

when used

in all cir-

is

as the boiler of a

steam engine

at sea''

"
I

At

know

" Father,

sea!'' repeated Harry.

you have some particular rea-

that

son for being so careful in the words of

what you

say,

upon

sea."

laid
^'

and

in that

emphasis you

Find out my reason then," said his

" Perhaps," said Harry,

''

there

father.

may be

something in sea water which rusts

and so destroys
ever

it

may

it

and perhaps

be, does not rust

that,

iron,

what-

and destroy

copper."
" Just

Harry.

so,

something

You

But what

is

that

are acquainted with

it,"

said his father.

" Is

it

sea salt," said Harry,

in the water

" which

is

" Yes, Harry

a chemist has lately tried

experiments, which have ascertained this


fact

and

in

consequence

of

these ex-

"

"

325
periments
future

has been decided, that in

it

the

should

boilers

made

be

of

copper."

"

How

useful

experiments
is

no more doubting

is

That

puting.

to try

" That settles what

said Harry.

and there

it is

chemist

was

truth,

or

dis-

sensible

man."
"

And

another large instance,


Harry," said his father, " in which chehere

is

mistry has assisted the mechanic."

" True, father," said Harry


is

another question

the paddle wheels.

provements

men were
"

want to ask you, about

What were

the im-

them, of which those gentle-

in

talking^

cannot explain them to you, Harry,"

said his

know

" but there

father

^^

the

because you

do not

difficulties

and the

faults in the present construction,

and these

distinctly

cannot

first

"

see

now
them

describe to you.

You should

in action in the water."

And how, and when

do that ?"

can

are

going

said Harry.

" Not now,

when we

in a

326
carriage on land," said his father, laughing;

" but some time or other

we may be

in

boat within view of a steam vessel."

Harry sighing, repeated, " Some time


or other.

any other great im-

there

Is

provement you could explain

me?"

to

His father yawned, and said he began

be weary of his questions.

to

"

Only one thing more


" and

said Harry,

to say,"

saw

this

morning

up a great deal of room

the boat takes

could be

have

you need not answer.

The steam engine


it

made

to

" True,"

comfortable
let

it

be," said Harry.

his father;

said

How

would be to me,

"
if

and how
you would

me rest now."
^^

would

it

if

do as well in a smaller

compass, what a great improvement!


comfortable

in

Poor father

have quite
^'

last

so

thank you.

tired you."

No, Harry; but


night.

will

did not sleep well

drank

too strong tea or

coffee."

His father went


as

still

to sleep,

as a mouse, lest

and Harry

sat

he should waken

;:

327

How

him.

tea or coflfee could

keep people

awake he did not know he pondered long


on that subject, but was never the wiser
;

he had never yet been kept awake by

When

either.

not

till

and

the carriage stopped,

then, his father

wakened, quite

re-

freshed.

When

they got out their postillion beg-

ged Harry

to

fumbled

for

something in the side pockets,

and then

in the front

"
told
lion,

It

was

me

it

here.

while he

a minute,

stay

pocket of the carriage.


should be here. They

It

was here," muttered the

postil-

while he continued his search with

body

his legs out,

and

at last in the

sword case he found what he

his

in the chaise

had been told was there; and he brought


out the
Harry's

cocoa nut,

which he

hands, telling him that a sailor

charged him not

to

forget

He

it.

that a mother and

child sent

it

and the message

was,

"

that

make him a cup some time


had good milk
out."

put into

in

it,

if

said

him

to
it

or other

might
;

and

he could get

it

328

The

message

this

knew

was anxious

postillion

the

very kind

correctly

woman, who had been always


to

him.

who had been

Lucy,

window of the

inn,

heard what

turn,

looking out of the

watching
passed,

for their re-

and saw the

She ran

cocoa nut with joy.

Harry, and to learn from him

and

to him,

ventures.
tails

he said he

for

deliver

to

to hear

who gave

it

an account of his ad-

These he told with

she desired,

meet

to

he came

till

all

the de-

to the

mo-

ment of the woman's crossing his passage,


Then pausing, and
as he left the boat.
turning his cocoa nut about in every di-

he said he was ashamed

rection,

how

crossly

to tell her

he had spoken.

His father added, " Yes, Harry, you are


riofht to

be ashamed

was ashamed

for

you."

"

wonder you did not

tell

me so

at the

time, father," said Harry.

"

at the

knew

it

would not do you any good

moment.

collect

it

thought you would

re-

I find

you

afterwards yourself, as

329
do

and

hope the pain you now

feel will

prevent you from doing the same sort of


thing again."
*^

hope

And

and with the


reproaching

am angry
people who

myself

having been ill-natured


feel

now, and

will try
''

you

I shall

when

it is

am

do-

speak to

But the pain


with

afterwards

is

so

with my-

me, and with every body.


of

" but

do not know what

ing or saying.
self,

comes over me,

that kind of feeling

disagreeable

Harry

will," said

it

worse

remember

as I

still,

this,

and

and conquer myself next time."

am

sure you will try, and

do

will

it,"

am

sure

said Lucy.

" Take the cocoa nut," said Harry, putting

it

open

it

into
yet.

her hands.

Pack

it

We

will

up somewhere

not
for

me.
^'

Men

always talk of packing up a thing

someichere,''

thought Lucy, " and

women

are to find where."


It

required Lucy's best powers of pack-

inof to find

but she did

a somewhere for the cocoa nut


at last

stow

it

into the carpet

330
bag, contrary to the prophecies of

all

be-

holders.

When

they were leaving Bristol, they

.stopped at a bookseller's to

buy some book


Several

or books to read in the carriage.

works were spread upon the counter in the


shop

bookseller's

for

them

to take

their

Harry and Lucy read the

choice.

title

pages of some, which their father and mo-

them

ther allowed

"

We

to look over.

will dip here

and there

in

the

books," said Harry, " and see whether they


look entertaining.
*'

May we

May

we, papa?"

cut the leaves," said Lucy,

peeping between two uncut pages.

The shopman, with some

hesitation,

presented an ivory cutter to her, telling her


that she

was welcome

to cut the leaves, if

she would be so good as to take care not


tear them.

saw her

set

He became

at

ease

to

when he

about the operation, perceiving-

she was used to

it,

and dextrous.

But

care sat on the bookseller's brow, " considerate,"

knife

when Harry took up

the

ivory

he thought that he would tear away,

33]

most other boys that he had seen,

like

without heeding what mischief they did.

make the least jag, I will stop,


you may deand show it you, sir
pend upon that," said Harry, proudly.
*'
You may trust to our honour. Whoever
"If

jags
"

first,

stops."

Very

well,"

said their father, looking

up from the book he was reading,

"

upon

you may cut away."

that condition

They were glad

to see their father

and

mother both caught by some new book,

down

sitting

good time," said


After

each

showed the

they,

cuttino;

by the most exact


counted ajV/^.
to

''

We

to

shall

have

cut and dip."

half a volume,

edo;es of the books.

slightest indenture

even

''

read.

to

thev

Not the

appeared, that could,

bookseller's eye, be ac-

All was smooth and

fair,

the inmost recess of the dangferous

corner of the quadruple page.


'*

'^

let

Now we

have cut enough, 'said Lucy;

us dip three times, Harry, and catch

what we may."
Harry seized upon one of the books^ and

332
opened upon
aloud

" As
in

my

the gloomy habitation

was not

which he read

this passage,

to be long

grandfather was

endured but from necessity,

they were contriving other places of safety for him,


particularly one, under a bed

ground

floor, in a

room

which drew out, in a

of which

my

mother kept the

She and the same man worked

key.

making a hole

in the earth, after lifting

which they did by scratching

make any noise,

not to

fingers

she helping the

they dug

it,

in a sheet

He

into the garden.

she

till

man

it

in the night,

up the boards^

up with their hands,

left

not a nail upon her

to carry the earth,

on his back, out


then

made

at the

window

a box at his

house, large enough for her father to

as

own

with bed

lie,

and bed clothes, and bored holes in the boards for

Wlien

air.

about,

she

this

all

thought

was

for

finished,

was long

it

happiest creature

herself the

alive."

"

have heard that before

"The Lady

mamma

"

cried Lucy.

Mamma,

Grisell Baillie.

heard you reading

Oh,

last winter to

it

do you remember the

ing part about the sheep's head

show

it

to you,

one minute.

papa.
divertI will

Harry lend me the book

But

this is not the

you had/' continued she

^*

for

same book
that

was a

333
poem*, and there were notes
is

no poetry

and

am

to

Here

it.

very sorry.

wish

could see again that pretty description of

all

that Grisell did


I

girl.

though

am
it is

" Shall
think
'

And

when

sure Harry would like


poetry."

try?" said her mother.

well, with ready

'^

of toilsome duty taking.

last asleep, the earliest

Her hands each


frugal

part,

waking.

nightly couch prepared.

meal on which they fared

Unfolding spread the servet white,

And

deck'd the board with tankard bright.

Through

Her

fretted hose, and

garment rent,

tiny needle deftly went.

Till hateful penury, so graced.

Was

scarcely in their dwelling traced.

With rev'rence
With sweet

to the old she clung.

affection to the

young.

To her was crabbed lesson said,


To her the sly petition made,
To her was told each petty care,
To her was lisp'd the tardy prayer,
* Metrical Legends, by Joanna Baillie.

hand and heart,

Did one dear inmate take her

And

that,

can remember the lines you mean

Each task

The

she was a young

"^

334
What time

And
"

tlie

urchin, half undrest,

half asleep,

Thank

was put

to rest.'"

mamma.

you,

do like

it,"

said Harry.

"

new

am

glad to see there

is

something

'Memoirs of Grisell

in these

Baillie,'"

resumed Lucy, who had been looking over


" Here is more than we had
the book.
in the notes to the

pray buy
" No,

poem.

Pray,

this

book

my

dear, I will

mamma,

for the carriage."

not buy

it

for

the carriage," said her mother, laughing


" but

and

I will

I will

buy it

for myself, if

you

please,

read to you whatever can en-

tertain you."

"

Thank

you,

you glad we are


Lucy.

mamma.
to

have

Harry, are not


this

book ?" said

" Hey, Harry ?"

Bnt Harry made no answer

upon a passage in
which he had just opened.

tent

'^

What

is it,"
'^

his shoulder.

engine, that

is

he was

in-

another book,

said Lucy, looking over

Oh,

enough

see the
for him.

word steam
But now

Harry, do not choose a stupid book."

"

335
"

No

danger of

This

miss.

that,

is

one of the Scotch novels," said the shop-

man.

"

Harry

novel,

it ?

did a steam engine get into


*'

do not know," said Harry

know

that

I will

of

read

it

tell

fine

my

" but

character

you, but you shall hear

would you be

out to

Why

*'

have found a

not

Father,

it.

Lucy; " how

!" said

so kind as to

mother and Lucy?"

should not you

Harry, as to read

to

it

be so kind,

them yourself?"

said his father.

" Because, father,


said Harry

it,"

" and

cannot do justice to
it is

could not bear to spoil


read

it."

Here

is

so good, that

it.

Pray, father,

the book."

His father read the followinof character


of the great
ofine

"

Amidst

this

inventor

of the steam en-

company stood Mr. Watt,

the

man

whose genius discovered the means of multiplying our


national resources, to a degree, perhaps, even beyond
his

own stupendous powers

nation

summit

of calculation and combi-

bringing the treasures of the abyss to the


of the earth.

Giving the feeble arm of man

336
the

momentum

of the Afrite

commanding manufac-

as the rod of the prophet

tures to arise,

water in the desert

affording the

produced

means of dispensing

man

with that time and tide which wait for no

of sailing without that wind, which defied the

and

com-

mands and threats of Xerxes himself. This potent commander


space

of the elements

this

abridger of time and

whose cloudy machinery has

this magician,

produced a change in the world, the

effects of

extraordinary as they are, perhaps are only

ginning to be

man

now

be-

was not only the most refined

felt,

of science,

which,

the most

successful

combiner of

powers, and calculator of numbers, as adapted to


purposes

practical

was not only one of the most

generally well informed, but one

kindest of

beings.'

Several gentlemen,
ing, laid

down

their

eloquent and just

was

finished,

and

55

human

of the best

who had been

books to

read-

listen to this

eulogium.

When

it

and when the reader's voice

stopped, there was silence for a

moment

then a general burst of admiration.


"
is

Who

wrote

it ?

Where

is it ?

Whose

it?"

All crowded round Harry to look at the

book,

Harry

felt

proud of having found

out ybr himself, and by himself, what was

"

337
good.

necessary to say that

It is scarcely

his father

bought the work.

was made up, put


of the noisy

streets,

parcel

into the carriage,

As soon

they drove on.

The

as they

and

were out

Harry and Lucy seized

again upon this book, eager to

was any thing more

in

it

know if there

about Mr. Watt.

They found an account of

his

powers of

pleasing in conversation, and of his great


variety of knowledge.

This struck Harry with fresh admiration.


*^

How

cried

wish papa had known him

" Oh,

Lucy,

but seen him


it

very
*'

Harry

if

you had

Should not you have liked

?"

much

should not have cared for merely

seeing him," said Harry, " unless

could

have heard him and known him."

They now began


which of

all

to question

each other,

the great people, of

whom

they had ever heard or read, they should

most wish
then,

just

to

have seen and known?

And

which they should have liked only

to

VOL.

see'!

II.

which

to

have

for acquaint-

338
ance ? which for friends

and which they

should like to live with always

These questions brought on a great deal


and diverting discussion,

of interesting

during which papa and


appealed
share,

and

to,

much

which they took

in

Harry and Lucy's

to

The number

mamma were often

of those

should choose to

live,

delight.

whom

they

at first

was

with

which

their

prodigious, on Lucy's part especially, was

gradually reduced,

till

very few indeed

to

at last

not

it

came down

above

five

or

was observed, that Harry, who,

in

six.

It

former times, desired to see only great


mechanics,

now

desired to

chemists too, and

all sorts

know

great

of sensible and

inventing people, as he said.

This was one good consequence, as Lucy


remarked, of their having lately travelled
" But to-morrow, Harry," conso much.
tinued she, "
ling,

not

is

to

be the

Are you glad

know which

partly sorry T feel.

last day's travel-

Harry ?

or sorry,

am

myself

do

partly glad,

Sorry that the journey

"

"

339
be

will

an end, because

at

like travelling

much, and seeing every day some

very

entertaining things and people.

new and
But

shall

be glad for one great reason

end of our journey, that we

come

to the

may

see the cottage by the sea-side.

know what

long to
tage

Do

it is.

to

sort of a looking

cot-

not you, Harry?"

" Yes," said Harry

^'
;

but above

all I

wish to sea the ocean."

And

"
^'

where

the
I

sea

may

shore,"

up

pick

Lucy,

cried

hundreds of

shells
*^

And

hope

shall

see ships " said


!

Harry.
'*

And

may

a boat with

in

sails,

which we

sometimes," said Lucy.

sail

" Yes,

should like that very much,"


said Harrv. " I want to know more about
I

sails."
^^

Shoulder of mutton

cried

Lucy; "which

sails especially,"

remember reading

about in Robinson Crusoe.


they are

Her

wonder what

father sketched for her a shoulder

340
of mutton

pointed

and she was rather disap-

sail,

when

she learned, that the

name

arose merely from the shape.

The, conversation was interrupted by the


sight of a boat on a river
sails

it

was a

but

it

had no

ferry boat.

At Harry and Lucy's age it was a real pleasure to cross a ferry, though to travellers,
more advanced

in years,

be a pain, or at

least

it

may sometimes

a trouble.

They

are apt to prefer a bridge.

END OF

VOL.

II.

LONDON
PRINTED BY CHARLES WOOD,
Poppms Court, Fleet

Street.

,.

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