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# Chapter 1

1.7) What is wrong with the following statement? Twenty years ago an ancient
artifact was determined to be 1900 years old. It must now be 1920 years old.
1900 has two significant figures, the number 1 and 9. The 1 is accurate but
the 9 is not truly accurate. Since the 1900 age is not completely accurate, and
adding 20 does not change the fact that at first the 1900 age was not accurate. So
therefore the 1920 age is not definitely accurate since the 1900 age is not definite.
1.8) (a) How many significant figures should be reported for the volume of the
metal bar shown below? (b) the mass of the bar is 104.7 g, how many significant
figures should be reported when its density is calculated using the calculated
volume?
(a) The significant figure of a result should be the same as the dimension
with the least significant figure which in this case is 2.5. But a result can have more
than the said significant figures, if a result contains more than the said significant
figures, the result must be rounded to the correct significant figure. 2.5 cm 1.25
cm 5.30 cm = 16.5625cm 17cm3. The volume has 2 significant figures.
(b) Again since 2.5 is the dimension with the least significant figure and its
significant figure is 2 therefore the result should have a significant figure of 2.
1.10) Draw a logic map indicating the steps you would take to convert miles per
hour to kilometers per second. Write down the conversion factor for each step, as
done in the diagram on page 26.

Given:

Use:

Find:
Use:

Use:

1 km
1 hr
1 min
0.62 mi
60 min
60 sec
1.21) Suggest a method of separating each of the following mixtures into two
components: (a) sugar and sand, (b) iron and sulfur.
(a) To separate sugar and sand, first add enough water to dissolve the sugar.
Then, filter the mixture through a filter to get the sand. Later, boil the
(b) One way to separate iron and sulfur is to place the mixture on a surface
like a tray or a plate and get a magnet strong enough to remove the iron from the
mixture.
1.27) (a) A sample of carbon tetrachloride, a liquid once used in dry cleaning, has a
mass of 39.73 g and a volume of 25.0 mLat 25 C. What is its density at this
temperature? Will carbon tetrachloride float on water? (Materials that are less
dense than water will float.) (b) The density of platinum is 21.45 g/cm3 at 20 C.
Calculate the mass of 75.00 cm3 of platinum at this temperature. (c) The density of
magnesium is 1.738 g/cm3 at 20 C. What is the volume of 87.50 g of this metal at
this temperature?

(a) 39.73 / 25.0 = 1.59 g/mL is the density of carbon tetrachloride. Carbon
tetrachlorides density is 1.59 g/mL and waters density is 1.00 g/mL, carbon
tetrachloride is denser than water so it will not float in water.
(b) Rearranging the density formula of Mass / Volume = Density to Density
Volume = Mass gives the formula on how to find the mass. 21.45 75.0 = 1.609
kilograms. The mass of the platinum is 1.609 kg.
(c) Rearranging the density formula of Mass / Volume = Density to Mass /
Density = Volume gives the formula of how to find volume. 87.50 / 1.738 = 50.35
cm3. 50.35 cm3 is the volume of magnesium.
1.37) Round each of the following numbers to four significant figures, and express
the result in standard exponential notation: (a) 102.53070, (b) 656,980, (c)
0.008543210, (d) 0.000257870, (e) -0.0357202.
(a) 1.025 102
(b) 6.570 105
(c) 8.543 10-3
(d) 2.578 10-4
(e) -3.572 10-2
1.49) The density of air at ordinary atmospheric pressure and 25 C is 1.19 g/L.
What is the mass, in kilograms, of the air in a room that measures 12.5 x 15.5 x
8.0 ft?
12.5 15.5 8.0 = 1550 ft3 | 1 ft3 = 28.3 L 1550 28.3 = 43865 L | Mass /
Volume = Density to Density Volume = Mass 1.19 g/L 43865 L = 52199 g |
1000 g = 1 kg 52199 g / 1000 = 52.2 kg | 52.2 kilograms is the mass of air.
1.53) The Morgan silver dollar has a mass of 26.73 g. By law, it was required to
contain 90% silver, with the remainder being copper. (a) When the coin was minted
in the late 1800s, silver was worth \$1.18 per troy ounce (31.1 g). At this price,
what is the value of the silver in the silver dollar? (b) Today, silver sells for about
\$13.25 per troy ounce. How many Morgan silver dollars are required to obtain
\$25.00 worth of pure silver?
26.73 grams
90 silver grams
1 troy ounce
\$ 1.18
(a)

=
1 silver dollar
100 grams
31.1 silver grams
1 troy ounce
0.91 per silver dollar.
(b) 26.73 grams 0.90 1 ounce / 31.1 grams \$13.25 = 10.2493649518
dollar per coin. 25 / 10.2493649518 = 2.43917551161. 3 Morgan silver dollar coins
are required.
1.64) The US quarter has a mass of 5.67 g and is approximately 1.55 mm thick. (a)
How many quarters would have to be stacked to reach 575 ft, the height of the
Washington Monument? (b) How much would this stack weigh? (c) How much
money would this stack contain? (d) At the beginning of 2007, the national debt
was \$8.7 trillion. How many stacks like the one described would be necessary to
pay off this debt?

10 mm 1 quarter

1 cm 1.55 mm
2.54 cm
12

1 ft
575 ft

1
(a)

## (b) 1.13 105 quarters

(c) 1.13 105 quarters
(d) \$8.7 10

12

5.67 grams
= 6.41 105 grams
quarter
0.25 cents
= \$2.83 104
quarter

\$ 2.83 104

## = 3.1 108 stacks

Chapter 2
2.19) Answer the following questions without referring to Table 2.1: (a) What are
the main subatomic particles that make up the atom? (b) What is the relative
charge (in multiples of the electronic charge) of each of the particles? (c) Which of
the particles is the most massive? (d) Which is the least massive?
(a) The main subatomic particles that makes up atom are neutrons,
electrons, and protons.
(b) Electron = -1, neutron = 0, proton = +1
(c) A neutron is the most massive subatomic particle.
(d) An electron is the least massive subatomic particle.
2.21) (a) Define atomic number and mass number. (b) Which of these can vary
without changing the identity of the element?
(a) Atomic number: a number determined by the number of protons in the
nucleus of an atom. Mass number: the sum of protons and neutrons in a nucleus
(b) Mass number can vary.
2.25) Fill in the gaps in the following table, assuming each column represents a
neutral atom:
52
55
112
222
207
Symbol
Cr
Mn
Cd
Rn
Pb
Protons
24
25
48
86
82
Neutrons
28
30
64
136
125
Electrons
24
35
48
86
82
Mass
52
55
112
222
207
number
2.31) Only two isotopes of copper occur naturally, 63Cu (atomic mass = 62.9296
amu; abundance 69.17%) and 65Cu (atomic mass = 64.9278 amu; abundance
30.83%). Calculate the atomic weight (average atomic mass) of copper.
62.9296(.6917) + 64.9278(.3083) = 63.54564506. The average atomic mass
is 63.55 amu.
2.35) Naturally occurring magnesium has the following isotopic abundances: (a)
What is the average atomic mass of Mg? (b) Sketch the mass spectrum of Mg.

## (a) 0.7899(23.98504) + 0.100(24.98584) + 0.1101(25.98584) = 24.31. The

average atomic mass is 24.31 amu.
Si
g
n
al
in
te
n
si
ty

Chart Title

24

25

26

(b)
2.38) Locate each of the following elements in the periodic table; indicate whether
it is a metal, metalloid, or nonmetal; and give the name of the element: (a) Ca, (b)
Ti, (c) Ga, (d) Th, (e) Pt, (f) Se, (g) Kr.
(a) Ca = Calcium (metal)
(b) Ti = Titanium (metal)
(c) Ga = Gallium (metal)
(d) Th = Thorium (metal)
(e) Pt = Platinum (metal)
(f) Se = Selenium (metal)
(g) Kr = Krypton (nonmetal)
2.52) Using the periodic table, predict the charges of the ions of the following
elements: (a) Ga, (b) Sr, (c) As, (d) Br, (e) Se.
(a) Ga3+
(b) Sr2+
(c) As3(d) Br(e) Se22.58) Complete the table by filling in the formula for the ionic compound formed by
each pair of cations and anions, as shown for the first pair.
Ion
Na+
Ca2+
Fe2+
Al3+
O2Na2O
CaO
FeO
Al2O3
NO3NaNO3
Ca(NO3)2
Fe(NO3)2
Al(NO3)3
2SO4
Na2SO4
CaSO4
FeSO4
Al2(SO4)3
3AsO4
Na3AsO4
Ca3(AsO4)2
Fe3(AsO4)2
AlAsO4
2.66) 6 Name the following ionic compounds: (a) K2O, (b) NaClO2, (c) Sr(CN)2 (d)
Co(OH)2, (e) Fe2(CO3)3, (f) Cr(NO3)3, (g) (NH4)2SO3, (h) NaH2PO4, (i) KMnO4, (j)
Ag2Cr2O7.
(a) K2O = Potassium oxide
(b) NaClO2 = Sodium chlorite
(c) Sr(CN)2 = Strontium cyanide
(d) Co(OH)2 = Cobalt(II) hydroxide
(e) Fe2(CO3)3 = Iron(III) carbonate

## (f) Cr(NO3)3 = Chromium(III) nitrate

(g) (NH4)2SO3 = Ammonium sulfite
(h) NaH2PO4 = Sodium dihydrogen phosphate
(i) KMnO4 = Potassium permanganate
(j) Ag2Cr2O7 = Silver dichromate
2.68) Give the chemical formula for each of the following ionic compounds: (a)
sodium phosphate, (b) zinc nitrate, (c) barium bromate, (d) iron(ll) perchlorate, (e)
cobalt(ll) hydrogen carbonate, (f) chromium(III) acetate, (g) potassium dichromate.
(a) Na3PO4
(b) Zn(NO3)2
(c) Ba(BrO3)2
(d) Fe(ClO4)2
(e) Co(HCO3)2
(f) Cr(CH3COO-)3
(g) K2Cr2O7

Chapter 3
3.3) The following diagram represents the collection of elements formed by a
decomposition reaction. (a) If the blue spheres represent N atoms and the red ones
represent O atoms, what was the empirical formula of the original compound? (b)
Could you draw a diagram representing the molecules of the compound that had
been decomposed? Why or why not?
(a) The ratio of the atoms are 2 O atoms: 1 N atoms. The empirical formula is
NO2.
(b) I cannot draw a diagram of the molecular formula because of lack of
information. I only have the empirical formula but the molecular formula could vary
differently from the empirical formula.
3.6) The following diagram represents a high-temperature reaction between CH4
and H2O. Based on this reaction, how many moles of each product can be obtained
starting with 4.0 mol CH4?
The picture on the left has 2 CH4 molecules and the picture on the right has 2
2 mol CH 4
4 mol CH 4
CO molecules. The mole ratio is 1:1.
=
. Also, the picture on
2mol CO
4 mol CO
the left has 2 CH4 molecules and the picture on the right has 6 H2 molecules. The
2 mol CH 4
4 mol CH 4
mole ratio is 1:3.
=
.
6 mol H 2
12 mol H 2
3.12) Balance the following equations:
(a) Li(s) + N2(g) Li3N(s)
(a) 6 Li(s) + N2(g) 2 Li3N(s)
(b) La2O3(s) + H2O(l) La(OH)3(aq)
(b) La2O3(s) + 3 H2O(l) 2 La(OH)3(aq)
(c) NH4NO3(s) N2(g) + O2(g) + H2O(g)
(c) 2 NH4NO3(s) 2 N2(g) + O2(g) + 4 H2O(g)
(d) Ca3P2(s) + H2O(l) Ca(OH)2(aq) + PH3(g)
(d) Ca3P2(s) + 6 H2O(l) 3 Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2 PH3(g)
(e) Ca(OH)2(aq) + H3PO4(aq) Ca3(PO4)2(s) + H2O(l)
(e) 3 Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2 H3PO4(aq) Ca3(PO4)2(s) + 6 H2O(l)
(f) AgNO3(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) Ag2SO4(s) + NaNO3(aq)
(f) 2 AgNO3(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) Ag2SO4(s) + 2 NaNO3(aq)
(g) CH3NH2(g) + O2(g) CO2(g) + H2O(g) + N2(g)
(g) 4 CH3NH2(g) + 9 O2(g) 4 CO2(g) + 10 H2O(g) + 2 N2(g)
3.17) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction that occurs when (a)
Mg(s) reacts with Cl2(g); (b) barium carbonate decomposes into barium oxide and
carbon dioxide gas when heated; (c) the hydrocarbon styrene, C8H8(l), is
combusted in air; (d) dimethylether, CH3OCH3(g), is combusted in air.
(a) Mg(s) + Cl2(g) MgCl2(s)

BaO(s) + CO2(g)

## (c) C8H8(l) + 10 O2(g) 8 CO2(g) + 4 H2O(l)

(d) C2H6O(l) + 3 O2(g) 2 CO2(g) + 3 H2O(l)
3.22) Determine the formula weights of each of the following compounds: (a)
nitrous oxide, N2O, known as laughing gas and used as an anesthetic in dentistry;
(b) benzoic acid, HC7H5O2, a substance used as a food preservative; (c) Mg(OH) 2,
the active ingredient in milk of magnesia; (d) urea, (NH2)2CO, a compound used as
a nitrogen fertilizer; (e) isopentyl acetate, CH3CO2C5H11, responsible for the odor of
bananas.
(a) N2O: 2(14.0) + 1(16.0) = 44.0 amu
(b) HC7H5O2: 7(12.0) + 6(1.0) + 2(16.0) = 122.0 amu
(c) Mg(OH)2: 1(24.3) + 2(16.0) + 2(1.0) = 58.3 amu
(d) (NH2)2CO: 2(14.0) + 4(1.0) + 1(12.0) + 1(16.0) = 60.0 amu
(e) CH3CO2C5H11: 7(12.0) + 14(1.0) + 2(16.0) = 130.0 amu
3.24) Calculate the percentage by mass of the indicated element in the following
compounds: (a) carbon in acetylene, C2H2, a gas used in welding; (b) hydrogen in
ascorbic acid, HC6H7O6, also known as vitamin C; (c) hydrogen in ammonium
sulfate, (NH4)2SO4, a substance used as a nitrogen fertilizer; (d) platinum in
PtCl2(NH3)2, a chemotherapy agent called cisplatin; (e) oxygen in the female sex
hormone estradiol, C18H24O2; (f) carbon in capsaicin, C18H27NO3, the compound that
gives the hot taste to chili peppers.
(a) C2H2: 2(12.0) + 2(1.0) = 26.0 amu
2 ( 12.0 ) amu
100 = 92.3% of carbon.
26.0 amu
(b) HC6H7O6: 6(12.0) + 8(1.0) + 6(16.0) = 176.0 amu
8 ( 1.0 ) amu
100 = 4.5% of hydrogen.
176.0 amu
(c) (NH4)2SO4: 2(14.0) + 8(1.0) + 1(32.1) + 4(16.0) = 132.1 amu
8 ( 1.0 ) amu
100 = 6.1% of hydrogen.
132.1 amu
(d) PtCl2(NH3)2: 1(195.1) + 2(35.5) + 2(14.0) + 6(1.0) = 300.1 amu
1 ( 195.1 ) amu
100 = 65.01% of platinum.
300.1 amu
(e) C18H24O2: 18(12.0) + 24(1.0) + 2(16.0) = 272.0 amu
2 ( 16.0 ) amu
100 = 11.8% of oxygen.
272.0 amu
(f) C18H27NO3: 18(12.0) + 27(1.0) + 1(14.0) + 3(16.0) = 305.0 amu
18 ( 12.0 ) amu
100 = 70.8% of carbon.
305.0 amu
3.34) Calculate the following quantities (a) mass, in grams, of 5.76 x 10-3 mol of
CdS (b) number of moles of NH4Cl in 112.6 g of this substance (c) number of

molecules in 1.305 x 10-2 mol C6H6 (d) number of O atoms in 4.88 x 10-3 mol
Al(NO3)3
(a) 1(112.41) + 1(32.07) = 144.48 g
144.48 g
5.76 x 10-3 mol of CdS
= 0.832 g CdS
1mol
(b) 1(14.01) + 4(1.008) + 1(35.45) = 53.49 g/mol
1mol
112.6 g NH4Cl
= 2.1051 = 2.11 moles of NH4Cl
53.49 g
6.02214 x 1023 molecules
(c) 1.305 x 10-2 mol C6H6
= 7.859 x 1021 C6H6
1 mol
molecules
NO
23
1 mol Al ( 3)3
6.022 x 10 O atoms
(d) 4.88 x 10-3 mol Al(NO3)3

= 2.64 x
1 mol
9 mol O

1022 O atoms
3.46) Determine the empirical formulas of the compounds with the following
compositions by mass: (a) 55.3% K, 14.6% P, and 30.1% O (b) 24.5% Na, 14.9% Si,
and 60.6% F (c) 62.1% C, 5.21% H, 12.1% N, and 20.7% O
1 mol K
(a) 55.3 g K
= 1.414 mol K | 1.414 / 0.4714 = 2.99957573186
39.10 g K
3
1 mol P
14.6 g P
= 0.4714 mol P | 0.4714 / 0.4714 = 1
30.97 g P
1 mol O
30.1 g O
= 1.881 mol O | 1.881 / 0.4714 = 3.99024183284 4
16.00 g O
The empirical formula is K3PO4.
1 mol Na
(b) 24.5 g Na
= 1.066 mol Na | 1.066 / 0.5304 =
22.99 g Na
2.00980392157 2
1 mol Si
14.9 g Si
= 0.5304 mol Si | 0.5304 / 0.5304 = 1
28.09 g Si
1mol F
60.6 g F
= 3.189 mol F | 3.189 / 0.5304 = 6.01244343891 6
19.00 g F
The empirical formula is Na2SiF6.
1mol C
(c) 62.1 g C
= 5.17 mol C | 5.17 / 0.864 = 5.9837962963 6
12.01 g C
1 mol H
5.21 g H
= 5.17 mol H | 5.17 / 0.864 = 5.9837962963 6
1.008 g H
1mol N
12.1 g N
= 0.864 mol N | 0.864 / 0.864 = 1
14.01 g N
1 mol O
20.7 g O
= 1.29 mol O | 1.29 / 0.864 = 1.49305555556 1.5
16.00 g O

## Multiply everything by two because O = 1.5 is not a whole number. The

empirical formula is C12H12N2O3.
3.58) The fermentation of glucose (C6H12O6) produces ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) and
CO2:
C6H12O6(aq) 2 C2H5OH(aq) + 2 CO2(g)
(a) How many moles of CO2 are produced when 0.400 mol of C6H12O6 reacts in
this fashion?
2 mol CO2
0.400 mol C6H12O6
= 0.800 mol CO2
1 mol C 6 H 12 O6
(b)How many grams of C6H12O6 are needed to form 7.50 g of C2H5OH?
1 mol C2 H 5 OH
1 mol C6 H 12 O6
180.2 g C6 H 12 O6
7.50 g C2H5OH

=
46.07 gC 2 H 5 OH
2 mol C 2 H 5 OH
1mol C 6 H 12 O6
14.7 g C6H12O6
(c) How many grams of CO2 form when 7.50 g of C2H5OH are produced?
1 mol C2 H 5 OH
2 mol CO 2
44.01 g CO 2
7.50 g C2H5OH

= 7.16 g
46.07 gC 2 H 5 OH
2 mol C 2 H 5 OH
1 mol CO2
CO2
3.64) The complete combustion of octane, C8H18, the main component of gasoline,
proceeds as follows: 2 C8H18(l) + 25 O2(g) 16 CO2(g) + 18 H2O(g)
(a) How many moles of O2 are needed to burn 1.25 mol of C8H18?
25 mol O2
(a) 1.25 mol C8H18
= 15.6 mol O2
2 mol C 8 H 18
(b) How many grams of O2 are needed to burn 10.0 g of C8H18?
1 mol C 8 H 18
25 mol O2
32.00 g O2
(b) 10.0 g C8H18

= 35.0 g O2
114.2 g C 8 H 18
2 mol C 8 H 18
1 mol O2
(c) Octane has a density of 0.692 g/mL at 20 C. How many grams of O2 are
required to burn 1.00 gal of C8H18?
3.7854 L
1000 mL
0.692 g
(c) 1.00 gal of C8H18

= 2619.5 2.62 x
1 gal
1L
1mL
103 g C8H18.
3.72) Aluminum hydroxide reacts with sulfuric acid as follows: 2 Al(OH) 3(s) + 3
H2SO4(aq) Al2(SO4)3(aq) + 6 H2O(l)
Which reagent is the limiting reactant when 0.500 mol Al(OH)3 and 0.500 mol H2SO4
are allowed to react? How many moles of Al2(SO4)3 can form under these
conditions? How many moles of the excess reactant remain after the completion of
the reaction?
3 mol H 2 SO 4
0.500 mol Al(OH)3
= 0.750 mol H2SO4 is needed to
2 mol Al (OH )3
complete the reaction but 0.500 mol H2SO4 is available so H2SO4 is the limiting
reactant.

SO
( 4)3
0.500 mol H2SO4 1 mol Al 2
= 0.167 mol of Al2(SO4)3 form.
3 mol H 2 SO 4

2 mol Al (OH )3
0.500 mol H2SO4
= 0.333 mol Al(OH)3 react
3 mol H 2 SO 4
0.500 - 0.300 = 0.167 mol of Al(OH)3 is the excess remain.

Chapter 4
4.8) The labels have fallen off two bottles, one containing Mg(NO3)2 and the other
containing Pb(NO3)2. You have a bottle of dilute H2SO4. How could you use it to test
a portion of each solution to identify which solution is which?
The reaction with Pb(NO3)2 and H2SO4 will form a precipitate because Pb(NO3)2
is an exception to the soluble sulfates rule. The reaction with Mg(NO3)2 and H2SO4
will remain clear.
4.12) When methanol, CH3OH, is dissolved in water, a nonconducting solution
results. When acetic acid, CH3COOH, dissolves in water, the solution is weakly
conducting and acidic in nature. Describe what happens upon dissolution in the
two cases, and account for the different results.
Methanol (nonelectrolyte) does not ionize. Acetic acid turns to an acetate
and a proton CH3COOH CH3COO- - + H+. These couple ions carry some charge.
4.24) Write balanced net ionic equations for the reactions that occur in each of the
following cases. Identify the spectator ion or ions in each reaction.
(a) Cr2(SO4)3(aq) + (NH4)2CO3(aq) Cr2(CO3)3(s) + 3 (NH4)2SO4(aq)
3+
2 Cr (aq) + 3 CO22-(aq) Cr2(CO3)3(s) spectators: NH4+ & SO42(b) Ba(NO3)2(aq) + K2SO4(aq) BaSO4(s) + 2 KNO3(aq)
2+
Ba (aq) + SO42-(aq) BaSO4(s) spectators: K+ & NO3(c) Fe(NO3)2(aq) + KOH(aq) Fe(OH)2 + 2 KNO3
Fe(aq) + 2 NO3(aq) + 2 K(aq) + 2 OH(aq) Fe(OH)2(s) + 2 K(aq) + 2 NO3(aq)
Fe(aq) + 2 OH(aq) Fe(OH)2(s) spectators: K+ & NO34.38) Classify each of the following aqueous solutions as a nonelectrolyte, weak
electrolyte, or strong electrolyte: (a) HClO4, (b) HNO3, (c) NH4Cl, (d) CH3COCH3
(acetone), (e) CoSO4, (f) C12H22O11 (sucrose).
(a) HClO4 = strong electrolyte
(b) HNO3 = strong electrolyte
(c) NH4Cl = strong electrolyte
(d) CH3COCH3 (acetone) = nonelectrolyte
(e) CoSO4 = strong electrolyte
(f) C12H22O11 (sucrose) = nonelectrolyte
4.60) (a) Suppose you prepare 500 mL of a 0.10 M solution of some salt and then
spill some of it. What happens to the concentration of the solution left in the
container? (b) Suppose you prepare 500 mL of a 0.10 M aqueous solution of some
salt and let it sit out, uncovered, for a long time, and some water evaporates. What
happens to the concentration of the solution left in the container? (c) A certain
volume of a 0.50 M solution contains 4.5 g of a salt. What mass of the salt is
present in the same volume of a 2.50 M solution?

(a) The concentration after the spill is the same as before the spill. It is
consistent throughout and it is a ratio. The spill takes away from both the solvent
and the solute.
(b) The concentration of the solution after is increased. The solute is the
same but the solvents volume decreases. The concentration of the solution
increased because there is more solute per unit of solvent.
(c) 5.0(4.5 g) = 23 g solute. The 5.0 comes from 2.50 / 0.50.
4.62) (a) Calculate the molarity of a solution made by dissolving 0.750 grams of
Na2SO4 in enough water to form exactly 850 mL of solution. (b) How many moles of
KMnO4 are present in 250 mL of a 0.0475 M solution? (c) How many milliliters of
11.6 M HCl solution are needed to obtain 0.250 mol of HCl?
1 mol Na2 SO 4
0.750 g Na2 SO 4
(a)

## = 6.21 x 10-3 Na2SO4 molarity

142.04
g
Na
SO
0.850 L
2
4
0.0475mol KMnO 4
(b)
0.250 L = 1.19 x 10-2 mol KMnO4
1L
0.250 mol HCl
(c)
= 21.6 mL
11.6 mol HCl/ L