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Thinking in Systems

Best Service

Highest Quality

Worldwide Presence


AFD Industries, Inc. 555 Market Avenue North Canton, OH 44702
Toll free: 1.800.462.7002 Phone: 1.330.452.3300 Fax: 1.330.452.2331 E-Mail:
PFEIFER DRAKO Drahtseilwerk GmbH & Co. KG Rheinstr. 1923 D-45478 Muelheim a.d. Ruhr
Phone +49 (0)208-42901-0 Fax +49 (0)208-42901-21 E-Mail:

10:29:04 Uhr

The Magazine of the International Building Transportation Industry


MARCH 2011 VOL. LX, NO. 3

42 Project of the Year
Winner: Crescent Tower
by Thorsten Elsaesser
The modernization of this tower included
an update of its elevator system to increase
reliability, safety and improve traffic

61 Events: Lift 2010
by Robert S. Caporale, MSc
EW visited the international trade
exhibition hosted in Milan, Italy.

79 Project Spotlight:
KONE Jump Lifts
Installed in the Shard
by Jennifer Chatham
The self-climbing elevator system, an
alternative to exterior hoists, was installed
in the Shard London Bridge.

Building Design
52 Comparison of Dedicated
and Swing Public/Service
Elevators in Hospitals


by Samson Rajan Babu

This article investigates the challenges of swing
public/service elevators in hospitals and the
factors to consider while providing a dedicated
service elevator.

Emergency Preparedness
88 The Happening: The Effects
of New Zealands Earthquake
by Bob Johnston
A glimpse into the impact the 2010 earthquake
had on New Zealand and its elevator industry.

44 The Electric Counterweight



by Sebastiano Acquaviva
A study into the effect an elevators counterweight has on elevator energy efficiency.

The mission of ELEVATOR WORLD is the intelligent collection, management and distribution
of information for the benefit of the industry, while providing a global marketing platform that
expands the reach of the industry to all corners of the world.

142 LifePatron Advanced

Earthquake Warning System
by Jergen Prybylak
An early-warning earthquake detection
device capable of stopping elevators and
putting building system safety measures into
effect is examined.

Manufacturer Spotlight
136 GAL Goes
Lean and Green
by Ricia S. Hendrick
EW visits elevator component manufacturer
GAL, which seems poised for an excellent year.

38 ASME Symposium


on the Use of Elevators

in Emergencies

Reaching for the Sky

by Robert S. Caporale, MSc

EW covers the December ASME symposium
held in Orlando focusing on the use of
elevators in emergencies and a review of
code updates.

96 EESF Celebrates
17th Annual Safety Week
by EESF Staff
The Foundation receives a significant
response from its 2010 Safety Week.

Field Safety
92 The Real Clout of
Consensus Standards

6 Editors Overview
8 Re-Call-Backs



100 Technology:
Modern LVDT Position Sensors

20 U.S. Industry News

* Lerch Bates Signs Joint Agreement
with QEI Services
* Eklunds Opens New Manufacturing Facility
* MESA Announces Scholarship
Awards and Policy Updates
* And much more . . .

28 International Industry News

* Zero Emission Certificate for
ThyssenKrupp Elevadores
* 25th Anniversary of CAN Protocol
* IEC Launches eNewsletter
* And much more . . .

by Paul Waters

150 Product Spotlight

This article tries to answer some nagging

questions regarding company compliance
with consensus standards.

* Meiller Heavy-Duty Sliding Doors

* Peele Replacement Door Panel
* And much more . . .

84 Elevator Movies, Part One
by Dr. Lee Gray
The first installment of a new series looking
at movies that feature elevators as a primary
setting begins with an overview of 1974s
The Elevator.

Industry Dialogue
19 Theres Going to
be a Morning After

154 Patents
* Device for Working on an Escalator
* Escalator or Travelator
* And much more . . .


Advertisers Index
Last Glance

by Ricia S. Hendrick
Hendrick discusses the current state of maintenance in the industry, the economic situation
and how the industry can take advantage of
the poor economy to enhance its reputation.

68 City of Miami Beach:
Representation of an
Authority Having Jurisdiction
by John Antona
An illustration of Authority Having Jurisdiction
in the City of Miami Beach, including: states
delegation of authority, organization charts,
inspection reports and forms, responsibilities
of private and city inspectors, and the local
ordinance process.

Visit EW Online for this

months extras, available
only on the web:
* Bonus information on the Shard London
Bridge skyscraper
* Additional coverage of the KONE Jump Lift
* More from the Council on Tall Buildings and
Urban Habitat on the tallest buildings in the
* Additional U.S. patents
Always available on
* Daily News * Industry Links * Magazine Features *
Calendar * Classifieds * Bookstore * Message Board *
Find-A-Part * Research Center * Museum * Safety *
Find-A-Contractor * Continuing Education

by John Matlack and Mike Puccio

A chronicle of how the LVDT has evolved
into a reliable, cost-effective linear feedback
device for the positioning of elevator cars.

106 Technology:
Semiconductor Technologies
for Novel Elevator Sensors
by Beat De Coi and Felix Lustenberger
3D light curtains have their limitations, but
novel semiconductor technologies may make
up for those shortcomings.

116 Technology: Optical

Elevator Door Sensor System
with Planar Detection Area
by Emiko Sano, Masahiro Shikai,
Yuki Kawae, Akihide Shiratsuki,
Hajime Nakajima and Toshio Masuda
A newly developed optical door sensor
system improves detection performance,
increases safety and overcomes the
weaknesses of conventional door systems.

124 Technology: Membrane

Potentiometers Simplify
Position Sensing
by Guido Woska
Discusses how membrane potentiometers
have changed the way engineers think about
sensing and how they improve upon
mechanical potentiometers.

128 Technology:
Its a Sensitive Elevator
by Don Simons
A look at how load weighing devices feature
into modern elevators.

132 Technology: Sensor

Solutions for Elevators
by Jim Dunn
There are many types of sensors available for
person/object and car/cabin detection. This
article examines some of the current elevator
sensor solutions.

Mission Statement
The mission of ELEVATOR WORLD is the intelligent collection, management and distribution
of information for the benefit of the industry,
while providing a global marketing platform
that expands the reach of the industry to all
corners of the world.
Mail: P.O. Box 6507; Mobile, Alabama 36660
Shipping: 356 Morgan Avenue;
Mobile, Alabama 36606
Phone: (251) 479-4514 or toll-free: 1-800-730-5093
Fax: (251) 479-7043
E-mail: or
Subscriber Services & Back Issues
ELEVATOR WORLD is available in both print and
digital verisions. Questions regarding new print
or digital subscriptions, renewals, bulk
subscriptions, subscription payments, change
of address, back issues or billing may call (251)
479-4514 or 1-800-730-5093, ext. 42 or 23.
News, Press Releases and Article Submissions
Submissions to be considered for publication
should be sent to
Editorial space is non-paid; material is accepted
based on newsworthiness or educational value
and may be edited. Contact Editorial Manager
Terri Wagner, ext. 30.
To order editorial or advertising reprints, call
Patricia Cartee, ext. 23.
To obtain permission to use any part of
ELEVATOR WORLD, call Ricia Hendrick, ext. 25.
For display, classified or online advertising
information, contact Assistant Advertising
Manager Lesley K. Hicks, ext. 29.
The Bookstore
For educational books, posters, CDs, DVDs and
videos, contact Robin Lawley at ext. 19; online
at; or see our
supplemental booklet in this issue.
Online News, links, calendar,
classifieds, bookstore, feature articles, people
and products of the industry. Site updated daily. Take a tour of the
history of the elevator industry. Complete Safety
Handbook PDF plus current revisions, quizzes,
safety products, toolbox meetings and links.
cgi?b=107638: Express your opinion, ask for help,
join a forum or get technical and business tips. Covers
information about the free quarterly magazine
ELEVATOR WORLD India, including a complete
archives section. Contains details
regarding the yearly EURO Source directory,
including the most recent directory in digital
Mailing Lists
ELEVATOR WORLD does not release its
subscriber list.
The Elevator World Source published yearly in
January provides a comprehensive list of elevator
industry suppliers, contractors, consultants and
associations. Call Michelle Hanks, ext.42, for
more information.

Founder: William C. Sturgeon
President and Publisher
Executive Vice President

Ricia S. Hendrick, ext. 25
T. Bruce MacKinnon, ext. 20

Editorial Manager
Editorial Associates
Editorial Administrative Associate

Robert S. Caporale, ext. 26

Terri Wagner, ext. 30
Lee Freeland, ext. 41
Elizabeth Pate, ext. 13
Thomas Smith, ext. 36
Deloris D. Browder, ext. 34

Production Manager
Graphic Design Associates
Web/Graphic Designer

Lillie K. McWilliams, ext. 15

Bambi Springer, ext. 24
Jessica Trippe, ext. 16
Dan Wilson, ext. 27

Director of Commercial Operations
Vice President of Marketing
Advertising Manager
Advertising Account Executive
Advertising Assistant
Subscriptions/Customer Service Specialist
Educational Sales Service Associate

Patricia B. Cartee, ext. 23

Brad OGuynn, ext. 38
Lesley K. Hicks, ext. 29
Scott O. Brown, ext. 31
Cleo Brazile, ext. 12
Michelle Hanks, ext. 42
Robin P. Lawley, ext. 19

Director of Administration
Financial/Human Resource Associate

Linda A. Williams, ext. 33

Jeanna Kenny, ext. 11


Edward A. Donoghue; Dr. Lee Gray; Jim Marcusky; Zack McCain; Al Saxer; George Strakosch; and Dee Swerrie
Argentina: Carmen Maldacena; Australia: John Inglis; Brazil: Edilberto C. Almeida; Canada: John Murphy;
Czech Republic: Jan Dvo
rk, Lubomr Janovsky ; Germany: Andreas Wirths; Hungary: Marius Makovsky; India:
TAK Mathews; Iran: Amir Reza Hashemi; Israel: Ami Lustig; Japan: Yutaka Otagiri, Youichi Saji; Kuwait: S.
Hemanth Kumar; Mexico: Raul Gonzales Mora; New Zealand: Bob Johnston; Peoples Republic of China: Peng
Jie, Zhang Lexiang, Zong Qun, Dr. Albert So; Philippines: Clodoveo Soriano; Russia: Viktor Khristich, Yury Kireev;
Saudi Arabia: Mubarak Ali; Singapore: Kenneth Chan Man Wong; Taiwan: Shigeharu Kitamura; Turkey: Ersan
Barlas; United Arab Emirates: M.J. Mohamed Iqbal; United Kingdom: Roger Howkins, Dr. Lutfi
Al-Sharif, David Cooper; United States: John Brannon, Jim Coaker, Galen Dutch, Lawrence Fabian, Richard
Gregory, Ronald Schloss
Richard Baxter, Don Charest, Jo Chateau, Bob Denniston (Chairman), George Gibson, Ricia Hendrick (President,
Vice Chair), Paul Horney, Martha Hulgan, Achim Htter, T. Bruce MacKinnon (Executive V.P.), Davis Turner, Linda
Williams (V.P. Administration, Secretary/Treasurer), Tricia Cartee (V.P. Commercial Operations), Robert S. Caporale
(Senior V.P. Editorial Operations), Brad OGuynn (V.P. Marketing)
Argentina: Revista del Ascensor, Subir y Bajar; Brazil: Revista Elevador Brasil; Germany: Lift Report, Lift Journal;
Greece: Anelkistiras Greek Elevation Magazine; Iran: Donya-ye Asansor; Italy: Elevatori; Japan: Elevator Kai;
Korea: Elevator & Parking Systems; The Netherlands: Liftinstituut Mededeling, Liftbouw; Peoples Republic of
China: China Elevator; Poland: Dzwig Magazyn; Russia: Lift Russia; Spain: Ascensores y Montacargas, Vertical Report; South Africa: Lift Africa Magazine; Turkey: Asansorxpress; United Kingdom: Elevation
ELEVATOR WORLD India is a quarterly magazine pubished by Elevator World, Inc. (Mobile, Alabama) and Virgo
Publications (Bangalore, India). Advertising and subscription information can be found at website: elevatorworld
ELEVATOR WORLD is a registered trademark and all rights reserved. Copyright 2011. For permission to reprint
any portion of this magazine, please write ELEVATOR WORLD at P.O. Box 6507; Mobile, AL 36660. ELEVATOR
WORLD is published in the interest of the members of the elevator industry, to improve communication within the
industry and to further the continuing education of members of the industry. ELEVATOR WORLD publishes articles
by contributing authors as a stimulation to thinking and not as directives. ELEVATOR WORLD publishes this material
without accepting responsibility for its absolute accuracy, but with hopes that the vast majority of it will have
validity for the field. The ideas expressed therein should be tempered by recognized elevator engineering
practices, guidelines, codes and standards. Publication of any article or advertisement should not be deemed as
an endorsement by ELEVATOR WORLD. Printed by Cummings Printing, Inc., 4 Peters Brook Drive, Hooksett, NH
Periodicals postage paid at Mobile, Alabama and at additional mailing office. Post Office Publication Number
172-680 (ISSN 0013-6158), under the act of March 3rd. U.S. Pat. Office. POSTMASTER: address all correspondence to Elevator World, Inc., P.O. Box 6507, Mobile, AL 36660; Fax: (251) 479-7043. Published on the 1st
of the month. Subscription rates (print): U.S. and possessions: $75/one year, $125/two years, $175/three years.
International, including Canada: $125/one year, $225/two years, $325/three years; Digital format: $25; Single
copies (print or digital): $15; THE ELEVATOR WORLD SOURCE (print or digital): $46. (All subscribers receive

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E ditors Overview
by Robert S. Caporale, MSc

Reaching for the Sky

In a year dominated by news coverage of the Burj
Khalifa, the worlds new tallest building, 2010 has seen
the completion of more skyscrapers than any previous
year. Including the Burj Khalifa, eight supertall buildings
were among the tallest 20, four of which are over 400 meters in height. A look at the diagram of the current 20
tallest buildings in this months Last Glance indicates that
the U.A.E. and China had an incredible run last year, together accounting for 14 of the 20 projects. The U.S.
barely made the list with the Legacy in Chicago coming in
at 19. A total of 66 buildings exceeding 200 meters in height
were completed in 2010, and by the end of this year, the
top-20 list will change again.
In recent years, our industry has developed and implemented innovations that make many of these projects possible. These allow buildings to be designed and built with
more efficient utilization of occupied spaces, which
makes such projects more viable. The continuing development of innovations in conjunction with progressive codes
and standards that allow such innovations to be implemented can give rise to a way out of the economic doldrums that we are currently experiencing. This has been
the case throughout much of the world, and the implementation of the ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 code,
along with its reference to the ASME A17.7-2007/CSA
B44.7-07 performance-based code (PBC), should foster skyscraper development throughout North America, as well.
In North American jurisdictions where the latest editions
of the A17/B44 codes have been adopted, the use of the
PBC will allow a structured process for the implementation and approval of new technology. And, in those areas
where the legislative process precludes the immediate
adoption of the new A17/B44 code, the National Elevator
Industry, Inc. (NEII)-developed and NAESA Internationalendorsed Interim Process for the Introduction of Alternative
Technology should be used by elevator companies to implement and obtain building-department approval and
acceptance inspections of new technology. This interim
process has been previously described in ELEVATOR
WORLD and is posted on the NEII website as follows:

Where an application under Section 1.2 of ASME A17.1 is
based on technical documentation the applicant shall supply the AHJ with the following:


1. Equipment or system description, including drawings or

diagrams detailing the components for which the application is being made.
2. Documentation detailing the prescriptive requirements in
the ASME A17.1 Code that the alternative technology does
not meet.
3. Information to demonstrate that the alternative technology
meets the requirements of Section 1.2 of the ASME A17.1
Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators, is safe for
the intended use and details how the alternative technology will provide equivalent safety to that which would be
provided by conformance to the corresponding prescriptive requirements in ASME A17.1. The documentation shall
include the risk assessment and risk reduction methodology used (e.g. Hazard Analysis, ISO/TC 14798, FMEA,
fault tree analysis, etc.) describing hazards that have been
addressed and any supporting test data.
4. Documentation detailing operational and maintenance
instructions for inclusion in the Maintenance Control
Program (e.g. ASME A17.1, requirement
5. Documentation detailing procedures for inspecting and
testing to verify compliance with the above provisions.
6. Certification documentation from independent third party,
if available.
7. The name of jurisdictions that have accepted the alternative technology, including conditions of acceptance.
8. A signed application that includes a statement that in the
opinion of the applicant the alternative technology meets
the requirements of Section 1.2 of the Safety Code for
Elevators and Escalators, ASME A17.1 and is safe for the
intended use. Where required by the AHJ, the application
shall be signed and sealed by a professional engineer.

It is imperative that the North American elevator industry moves forward in the aforementioned manner
during the upcoming decade. This will encourage innovation and inspire the development of the type of buildings that have been built here in the past and are being
developed throughout the rest of the world. It will also
ensure that North American nations do not fall too much
further behind the standard for which they had been
known their ability to innovate and Reach for the sky!


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R e-Call-Backs

by William C. Sturgeon, ELEVATOR WORLD Founder

In several reporting visits to Japan it always amazed
me that the island nation about the size of California
could be next after the U.S. for the past three decades.
The island has few natural resources and was destitute
after its defeat in World War II. The American wise heads
at the time allowed the Emperor to remain as the countrys figurehead. However, the nations future was placed
in the hands of General Douglas MacArthur, who molded
Japan into democratic capitalism. Although the loss of life
and property was horrendous, the Japanese lan was not
destroyed and the population set about rebuilding under
what was to be improved circumstances. As much teamwork was exhibited in rebuilding the economy as the
military had spent in its war-making enterprises.
The emphasis was getting the job done together.
Many worked as one organism. I particularly remember
standing on a balcony overlooking the Otis Elevator factory floor, seeing hundreds of large, colorful banners
flying above the energetic workers. I commented that I
must have come on a special holiday. The Otis general
manager smiled and said, No, the workers are on strike
and if you could read the banners you would find some
pretty bad things about the company and me, personally.
But they are still working! I exclaimed. The general
manager replied, The Japanese are loyal to the company
as well as the union. They would lose face if they let their
company and the group down. They are blowing off
steam, and, soon, we will all sit down and compromise
on a solution. Incidentally, when my milkman went on
strike he arose earlier to deliver his route and then went
to the union meeting!
Later, I asked my guide, Correspondent Tom Fukuta, a
former chief elevator engineer, about the incident. He
replied, In the old days, farming was the main occupation. As our country has a small area, rice fields were
terraced on every hillside. The irrigation began at the top
and then that farmer was trusted to open the gate and
allow the water down to the next field and so on. This
kind of teamwork, all working for the betterment of the
whole, has become part of the culture. Your country
values strong individualism. There is no Japanese word
for individualism but many for compromise. We have few
lawyers in Japan about as many as in New York City. It
is much better to mediate. If a case goes to court the loser
loses face, but the winner also loses face because he


made someone else lose face. Affairs should work out so

that everyone wins!
Even though in recent times Japan has been edged out
of second place by China, the island nations income per
person is still 10 times greater than of its huge neighbor
and its products reflect precision engineering cameras,
televisions and automobiles. However, China is no slouch
when it comes to the use of manpower remember its
usage at the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2008
Summer Olympics.
A Japanese example of this teamwork was observed in
a new high-rise office building in which Mitsubishi had
been given the elevator contract in one bank and Hitachi
the other. Otis received the escalators and another company the freight hydraulics. Everyone won! The owner
could be certain that each company would be striving to
have the best maintenance!
It has often been said that the best way for a country
to develop a healthy economy is to lose a war with the
U.S. Germany, the long-time third largest economy (now
fifth) was a smoldering heap after World War II, with homeless in the tens of thousands. The Marshall Plan injected
funds into Europe and triggered a return to normalcy. The
Germans rebuilt on the basis of a democratic capitalism
and is among the strongest economies in Europe. In their
own way, the Germans are great teamwork players.
Another military opponent of America was Vietnam.
The U.S. was defeated and the Southeast Asia country
was left in shambles. It now sports high-rise hotels and is
a popular tourist venue. Its stock market is seen as the
ultimate symbol of capitalism, as people have the freedom
to choose their financial fate. In 10 years, the listings on
its exchange have gone from two to almost 600!
Americas rugged individualism devil take the hindmost: no free lunch; factionalism; winner takes all may
have sound value in the short run, but these traits have
brought a growing chasm between the wealthy and those
with low income. If the U.S. can help defeated nations
develop strong economies, why cant it learn to do so at
home where everybody wins?
The most efficient teamwork in the U.S. is that between
special interest lobbies and the members of Congress.


of Events

To have an organizations meetings

listed in the Calendar, send details to
Mobile, AL 36660. Material must be received two months prior to the date(s)
of the issue in which you would like the
event listed.

Spring Hill Suites Marriott,

Hanover, MD. Sponsor: NAESA
International (NAESA). Contact
NAESA toll free: (800) 746-2372,
fax: (360) 292-4973, e-mail: or website:

13-15 ECA Annual Meeting,


Sarasota Ritz Carlton, Sarasota,

FL. Sponsor: Elevator Contractors
of America (ECA). Contact
ECA Treasurer Buddy Potts
at phone: (413) 786-7000,
ext.118 or e-mail:

seminar; workshop/congress;
meeting; convention;

MARCH 2011
1-2 CIBSE Lifts Group Traffic
Analysis & Simulation
Open Forum, Institute of
Physics, London, UK. Sponsor:
Chartered Institution of Building
Services Engineers (CIBSE).
Contact Elizabeth Evans of
Peters Research at phone:
(44) 01494717821 or e-mail:

18 NAESA International Webinar

on How to Perform
Inspections. Sponsor: NAESA
International (NAESA). Contact
NAESA toll free: (800) 746-2372,
fax: (360) 292-4973, email: or website:

19 NAESA International Webinar

on A17.6. Sponsor: NAESA
International (NAESA). Contact
NAESA toll free: (800) 746-2372,
fax: (360) 292-4973, email: or website:

3-5 ASA Business Forum and

Convention 2011, Naples Beach
Hotel & Golf Club, Naples, FL.
Sponsor: American Subcontractors Association (ASA). Contact
ASA at phone: (703) 684-3450,
03) 836-3482 or e-mail: ASA or website:

22-24 OIPEEC Conference and

25th OIPEEC General
Assembly, the Offshore
Technology Research Center
(OTRC) at Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX. Sponsor:
Organisation Internationale
Pour L'etude De L'endurance
Des Cables (OIPEEC). Contact
Jeffrey Gilbert at phone: 1-248994-7753, fax: 1-248-994-7754,
e-mail: or website:

4 NAESA International Code

Update Seminar, DRCOG,
Denver, CO. Sponsor: NAESA
International (NAESA). Contact
NAESA toll free: (800) 746-2372,
fax: (360) 292-4973, e-mail: or website:

23-25 ELEXPO 2011, Suzhou

7-11 NAESA International QEI

Training Course and Exam,
Full calendar with associated
industry events is available
on our website. Visit

International Expo Center, China.

Sponsors: China Real Estate
Chamber of Commerce, Suzhou
Municipal Peoples Government
and Suzhou Glory Exhibitions
Co., Ltd. Contact: China Elevators
and Accessories Expo 2011 at
phone: (86) 512-62804021, fax:
(86) 512-62804864, e-mail:

or website:

26-29 NAEC Educational

Conference, JW Marriott
Las Vegas, Henderson, NV.
Sponsor: National Association
of Elevator Contractors (NAEC).
Contact Patti Bonner toll free:
(800) 900-6232, phone: (770)
760-9660, fax: (770) 760-9714,
e-mail: or

30-31 BuildingsNY Expo, Jacob K.

Javits Convention Center, NY.
Sponsor: Reed Exhibitions.
Contact organizer toll free at
phone: (888) 334-8702 or website:

APRIL 2011
8 NAESA International
Code Update Seminar, DFW
Airport & Conference Center,
Irving, TX. Sponsor: NAESA
International (NAESA). Contact
NAESA toll free: (800) 746-2372,
fax: (360) 292-4973, email: or website:

14 NAESA International Code

Update Seminar, Clarion
Fontainebleau Hotel, Ocean
City, MD. Sponsor: NAESA
International (NAESA). Contact
NAESA toll free: (800) 746-2372,
fax: (360) 292-4973, e-mail: or website:

14-17 Asansr Istanbul 2011 Expo,

Tyap Fair and Congress Center,
Istanbul, Turkey. Sponsor:
Istanbul Fair Organization (IFO).
Contact organizer at phone:
(90) 212-2757579, fax: 90
(212) 288 36 11, e-mail: or
website: www.asansor

15-16 NAESA Eastern Region's

Spring Workshop, Clarion
Resort Fontainebleau Hotel,
Ocean City, MD. Sponsor:
NAESA International (NAESA).
Contact Morris A. De Simone, Jr.
at phone (301) 773-0072, fax:




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in stock!
Palmer offers elevator
pads in the widest variety
of materials and colors

18 NAESA International
Code Update Seminar, Holiday
Inn Express & Suites, Austin, TX.
Sponsor: NAESA International
(NAESA). Contact NAESA toll
free: (800) 746-2372, fax: (360)
292-4973, email: Felicity@naesai
.org or website:

29 NAESA International Webinar

on A17.6. Sponsor: NAESA
International (NAESA). Contact
NAESA toll free: (800) 746-2372,
fax: (360) 292-4973, email: or website:

30 NAESA International Webinar

on How to Perform
Inspections. Sponsor: NAESA
International (NAESA). Contact
NAESA toll free: (800) 746-2372,
fax: (360) 292-4973, email: or website:

MAY 2011
2-6 NAESA International QEI
Training Course and Exam,
DoubleTree Guest Suites,
Phoenix, AZ. Sponsor: NAESA
International (NAESA). Contact
NAESA toll free: (800) 746-2372,
fax: (360) 292-4973, e-mail: or website:

6 NAESA International
Code Update Seminar,
Sheraton North Houston,
Houston, TX. Sponsor: NAESA
International (NAESA). Contact
NAESA toll free: (800) 746-2372,
fax: (360) 292-4973, email: or website:

8-12 IAEC Annual Forum, Westin

W.E. Palmer Co.

850 Albany Street, PO Box 191490,
Boston, MA 02119-0029
(800) 600-PADS (7237)
FAX (617) 442-1152
Hablamos Espanol



Hotel, New York City, NY. Sponsor:

International Association of
Elevator Consultants (IAEC).
Contact IAEC Executive Director

Gordon Ernst at phone: (425)

957-4641 or e-mail: gordone@ or Forum
Chairman Nicholas J. Montesano
at phone: (718) 321-0343 or

12-14 AIA National Convention &

Design Expo, New Orleans, LA.
Sponsor: The American Institute
of Architects (AIA). Contact
AIA toll free: (800) 242-3837,
fax: (202) 626-7547, e-mail: or website:

13-14 NAESA Western Region's

Spring Workshop, MCM
Elegante Hotel, Albuquerque, NM.
Sponsor: NAESA International
(NAESA). Contact NAESA toll
free: (800) 746-2372, fax: (360)
292-4973, e-mail: Felicity@ or website:

16 NAESA International Code

Update Seminar, Hilton Garden
Inn, Secaucus, NJ. Sponsor:
NAESA International (NAESA).
Contact NAESA toll free: (800)
746-2372, fax: (360) 292-4973,
e-mail: or

16 NAESA International Code

Update Seminar, State of HI,
DLIR, HIOSH, Honolulu, HI.
Sponsor: NAESA International
(NAESA). Contact NAESA toll
free: (800) 746-2372, fax: (360)
292-4973, e-mail: dotty@ or website:

17 NAESA International Code

Update Seminar, Hilton Garden
Inn, Secaucus, NJ. Sponsor:
NAESA International (NAESA).
Contact NAESA toll free: (800)
746-2372, fax: (360) 292-4973,
e-mail: or

22-26 13th International

Conference on Automated
People Movers and Transit
Systems (APM-ATS), Le Palais


Includes the most up-to-date safety procedures for protection of field employees on
every construction or maintenance job. Make sure your employees carry this VITAL
tool, because slogans dont keep them safe.

If yours isnt green give us a ring!



The cost of
going up


des Congrs de Paris, Paris,

France. Contact APM-ATS at
e-mail: apm2011@europe or website:

23 NAESA International Code

Update Seminar, University of
Illinois Seibel Center, Urbana,
IL. Sponsor: NAESA International (NAESA). Contact NAESA
toll free: (800) 746-2372, fax:
(360) 292-4973, e-mail: or website:

31-June 4 Batimat Expovivienda

2011, La Rural Predio Ferial,
Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Sponsor: Reed Exposition.
Contact organizer at phone:
(44) 2082712134, fax: (44)
20891078223, e-mail: rxinfo or website:

Elevate Training Course
March 17, 2011 London, U.K.

Pflow vertical lifts provide an alternative.

Fast, efficient and reliable movement of
materials in multi-level buildings at a
fraction of the cost of a standard elevator.

Elevate Training Course (advanced class)

March 18, 2011 London, U.K.
Elevate Training Course
November 24, 2011 Hong Kong

Put an unused elevator shaft back

Custom engineered to order
in service
Over 14,000 installations
Guaranteed code approval in all
The best warranty in the business 50 states meets ANSI/ASME
B20.1 Code
Pflow also manufactures the Cartveyor line of
Shopping Cart Conveyors. Transport shopping carts
between multiple retail levels. Can run parallel to an
escalator or as a stand alone unit.

Elevate Training Course

November 28, 2011 Sydney, Australia
Elevate Training Course (advanced class)
November 29, 2011 Sydney, Australia
For complete details on Elevate Training
Courses, contact Peters Research Ltd. at
website: www.


For information on all courses,
contact ASME toll free: (800) 843-2763
(outside North America: [973]-882-1170),
fax: (973) 882-1717 or (973) 882-5155,

Superior design. Better service.

For more information on all NAESA
International Education programs and
QEI testing, contact Dotty Stanlaske at
phone: (360) 292-4968, fax: (360) 292-4973,

Call 414-352-9000 for a custom application assessment or visit:


Elevate Training Course (advanced class)

November 25, 2011 Hong Kong


JUNE 2011
1 Virtual Elevator Event (VEE)
Conference and Expo with an
on demand feature available.
Contact T. Bruce MacKinnon
at phone: (251) 479-4514,
ext. 20, fax: (251) 479-7043 or
e-mail: tbruce@elevatorworld

3 NAESA International Webinar,

Topic: TBA. Sponsor: NAESA
International (NAESA). Contact
NAESA toll free: (800) 746-2372,
fax: (360) 292-4973, email: or website:

7-9 Elevator U Conference, Penn

State University, University Park,
PA. Contact Elevator U at

12-15 2011 NFPA Conference and

Expo, Boston Convention and
Exhibition Center, Boston, MA.
Sponsor: National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Contact
NFPA toll free: (877) 303-3393 or

13-17 NAESA International QEI

Training Course and Exam,
University of IL Seibel Center,
Urbana, IL. Sponsor: NAESA
International (NAESA). Contact
NAESA toll free: (800) 746-2372,
fax: (360) 292-4973, e-mail: or website:

14-18 CECA Annual Convention,

Victoria, British Columbia,
Canada. Sponsor: Canadian
Elevator Contractors Association
(CECA). Contact CECA at

15-17 Lift Expo Russia 2011,

All Russian Exhibition Center,
Pavilion 75, Moscow, Russia.
Contact organizer at phone: (7)
495 981-8220, fax: (7) 495-8221,
e-mail: or

23 Pop Joe Golf Outing, Middle

Bay Country Club, Oceanview,
NY. Contact Vincent Moscato at
phone: (718) 383-3395, e-mail: or

26-28 BOMA International

Conference and The Every
Building Show, Gaylord

National Resort & Convention

Center, Washington, DC.
Contact Building Owners &
Managers Association (BOMA)
International at phone: (202)
408-2662, fax: (202) 326-6377,
or website: www.boma

29 Fifth Annual Chicago Cruise,

Summer of George on Lake
Michigan, Chicago, IL. Sponsor:
Elevator Escalator Safety
Foundation of Canada (EESFC).
Contact EESFC toll free: (800)
949-6442, phone: (251) 4792199, e-mail: or

16-18 NAESA International
Annual Workshop, Embassy
Suites Hotel, Portland, OR.
Sponsor: NAESA International
(NAESA). Contact NAESA toll
free: (800) 746-2372, fax: (360)
292-4973, e-mail: Felicity@ or website:

18 IAEC New York Region Dinner

Cruise, World Yacht Princess.
Sponsor: International Association
of Elevator Consultants (IAEC)
New York Region. Contact Melissa
Aponte at phone: (845) 708-5560,
fax: (845) 708-5559 or e-mail:

11-16 NAEC Convention, Hilton
New Orleans Riverside & New
Orleans Convention Center.
New Orleans, LA. Sponsor:
National Association of Elevator
Contractors (NAEC). Contact
NAEC toll free: (800) 900-6232,
fax: (770) 760-9714, e-mail: or website:

3-5 APTA Expo and Annual
Meeting, Ernest N. Morial

To lift the
of your elevators
and escalators
to a new level

Convention Center, New

Orleans, LA.. Sponsor: American
Public Transportation Association
(APTA). Contact APTA at phone:
(202) 496-4800, fax: (202)
496-4324 or website: www

March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |



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selector systems


18-21 Interlift Augsburg 2011,

Messezentrum, Augsburg.
Sponsor: AFAG Messen und
Ausstellungen. Contact organizer
at phone: (49) 1805-860700-0,
fax: (49) 1805-60700-500 or

22-25 NECA Convention and

Trade Show, San Diego, CA.
Sponsor: National Electrical
Contractors Association (NECA).
Contact organizer at website:

7-11 NAESA International QEI
Training Course and Exam,
Homewood Suites by Hilton,
Clearwater, FL. Sponsor: NAESA
International (NAESA). Contact
NAESA toll free: (800) 746-2372,
fax: (360) 292-4973, e-mail: or website:

9-10 NAESA Canadian Region's

Fall Workshops, Holiday Inn
Midtown, West Montreal,
Quebec. Sponsor: NAESA
International (NAESA). Contact
NAESA toll free: (800) 746-2372,
fax: (360) 292-4973, e-mail: or website:

10 Canadian QEI Exam, Hilton

Garden Inn, Secaucus, NJ.
Sponsor: NAESA International
(NAESA). Contact NAESA toll
free: (800) 746-2372, fax: (360)
292-4973, e-mail: dotty@ or website:

13-19 National Elevator Escalator

Safety Awareness Week,

1725 Arlington Road, Suite B; Richmond, VA 23230

Ph: 804-421-4091 Fax: 804-355-3933
Also Programmable Cartop Selectors for new
and existing elevator systems.
Replaces all types of cartop selectors including ESCO

Visit our Website for quote form and other info:

Sponsor: Elevator Escalator

Safety Foundation (EESF).
Contact EESF at toll free: (800)
949-6442, e-mail:
or website:

14 NAESA International Code

Update Seminar, Hilton Garden
Inn, Secaucus, NJ. Sponsor:
NAESA International (NAESA).
Contact NAESA toll free: (800)
746-2372, fax: (360) 292-4973,
e-mail: or

16-18 NAESA Canadian Region's

Fall Workshops, Holiday Inn



Toronto International Airport.

Toronto Ontario. Sponsor:
NAESA International (NAESA).
Contact NAESA toll free: (800)
746-2372, fax: (360) 292-4973,
e-mail: or

13-16 2012 International Builders
Show Expo, Orlando, FL.
Contact organizer toll free: (800)
368-5242, ext. 8111 or website:

16-18 IEE Expo 2012, Sponsor:
Virgo Communication.

Contact Virgo at phone: (91)

80-25567028/29, 41493996/97
fax: (91) 80-25567028, e-mail: or website:

MARCH 2012
24-27 NAEC Educational
Conference, Intercontinental
San Juan Resort & Casino,
Carolina, Puerto Rico. Sponsor:
National Association of Elevator
Contractors (NAEC). Contact
Patti Bonner toll free: (800) 9006232, phone: (770) 760-9660,
fax: (770) 760-9714, e-mail: or website:


Canadian Elevator Contractors
Association (CECA) Central Region
Contact Joe Kerr at phone: (416)
291-2000, ext. 2302; fax: (416)
291-9754; or e-mail:
Canadian Elevator Contractors
Association (CECA) Eastern Region
Four meetings per year on an
as-needed basis. Contact Pedro
Oughourlian at phone: (514)
745-4455, fax: (514) 745-6613 or
Canadian Elevator Contractors
Association (CECA) Western Region
Four meetings per year on an
as-needed basis. Contact Ryan
Wilson at phone: (604) 294-2209,
ext. 1020; fax: (604) 294-2188;
or e-mail: ryan.wilson@
Chicago Elevator Association (CEA)
First Thursday of each month,
September-June (no meetings
during July and August). Contact
Tom Przybyla at phone: (708)
371-2444 or fax: (708) 371-2477.
Elevator Association of Florida Meeting
are held on the second Tuesday of
January, April , July and October.
Contact President Tom Waardenburg at phone: (954) 987-2038, fax:
(866) 644-0130, e-mail: or website:
Elevator Association of Minnesota
(EAM) Contact Rick Lowenberg of
Minnesota Elevator, Inc. at phone:
(507) 245-4208.
Elevator Conference of New York (ECNY)
Dates to be announced on the

ECNY website. Contact ECNY at

website: or
Elevator Industry Group of Southern
California (EIGSC) Third Tuesday of
each month, January-May and
September-December at Les
Freres Taix Restaurant, 1911
Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles,
beginning at 11:30 a.m.
Contact EIGSC at website: www.
Massachusetts Elevator Safety
Association (MESA) Meetings are
held on the second Tuesday of
each month (except June, July and
August) at the Phillips Old Colony
House, Boston (Dorchester), MA.
Contact President Eric Tragash at
phone: (860) 678-7987, Treasurer
Joe Zarba at phone: (508) 586-3610,
e-mail: mesassoc@ or
website: The
annual safety seminar is held in
October of each year, with the golf
outing in September of each year.
National Association of Vertical
Transportation Professionals
New York (NAVTP-NY)
(IAEC-New York Region)
Meets quarterly in March, June,
September and December on the
second Tuesday in New York, NY.
Contact Joe Neto, Jr. at e-mail:
Northern California Elevator Industry
Group (NCEIG) Second Wednesday
of each month (except July, August
and September). Contact NCEIG at
website: for meeting dates and locations.

you only
need to
one name

March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |


Industry Dialogue

Theres Going to be a Morning After

by Ricia S. Hendrick

In a recent industry meeting, all

The elevator industry, with no

were bemoaning the economy and

new buildings in which to install

its affect on our industry. Someone

new equipment, is like an army with

said Yes, its bad, but it will eventu-

no war to fight. In the military, a lack

ally get better. Most of us have lived

of war leaves men and women

through a number of economic turn-

standing around potentially twid-

downs. The question now is, How

dling their thumbs. However, sol-

can we take advantage of the poor

diers dont get laid off or put on

economy and improve the reputation

the bench; they clean, paint, rewire,

of the elevator industry?

reprogram, test, tear down, polish

When no one is constructing new

and rebuild their equipment until it is

buildings, large and small contrac-

needed again. When their weapons

tors alike live on maintenance and

and vehicles are called back into

repairs. Another comment from the

service, they are in the best condi-


tion possible.

This is what we should be talking

We could do this in the elevator

about . . . the state of maintenance

industry. Its inevitable that in a slow

and the opportunity the economy

economy some will be laid off, but it

offers. Right now the state of the

doesnt need to be in the numbers

economy and the state of elevator

we are hearing, considering the con-

maintenance are the same both

tinued profits reported. We should be

are bad. There will certainly be a

using this down time to spit-shine

morning after for the economy, but

our products to make them the

what about the maintenance repu-

cleanest, safest, most efficient ele-


vators and escalators possible. I

New technology and remote mon-

know there are working and laid off

itoring have allowed for less mainte-

mechanics out there who wish they

nance per unit, however, not all

could spend time on the existing

elevators have this technology, and

maintenance base units they could

most still need basic time consuming

again take pride in if they just had a


little more time to practice their pro-


fession. When the economy turns

editorial by Martha Hulgan chastised

around, those companies who in-

the industry, saying that the decline

vested in their maintenance base

in elevator maintenance was like a

will be better positioned to get the

family secret everyone tries to hide

new work.

in the closet, (EW, September 2010).

Who do you think will get the big

EW Editor, Robert S. Caporale, has

modernization jobs and the new in-

written several editorials about the

stallations? Will it be the companies

growing number of units on a route

who put profits back into their repu-

(150-200) and the condition in which

tations? I think so.

it leaves our industry equipment.

March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |



Industry News



Serapid, Inc., a company specializing in horizontal and

vertical motion technology for more than 40 years, announced in January that it hired three
new staff members. Keith Redmond
joined the companys estimating and
spare parts sales department; Diana
Pickens joined the purchasing department; and Chi Chung works in electrical
engineering. Serapid manufactures the
Rigid Chain Technology,
which is a telescopic
mechanical actuator that is flexible in
one direction and rigid like a steel beam
in the other. Serapids
equipment is an appropriate solution for several different types of
lifts, and push/pull horizontal movement systems. The companys
systems are also suite for replacement
of existing lift systems, including hydraulic systems.

Power Efficiency Corp. (PEC) announced in December

2010 that it had been granted a patent from the U.S.
Patent and Trademark Office for a core algorithm incorporated in its E-Save Technology platform. The patent
encompasses the method, system and apparatus for controlling electric motors and optimizing their energy use.
Steve Strasser, chairman and CEO of PEC, noted:
This is a very important patent for PEC. This patent
covers the core control algorithm for reducing electricity
use by an electric motor when it is lightly loaded and so
is an integral part of our E-Save Technology platform. We
are extremely proud of this technology, because of the
significant savings it creates for applications driven by AC
induction motors, the workhorses of industrial and commercial equipment throughout the world. This is the second patent the company has been granted to date as part
of its E-Save Technology platform.
The platform was developed to reduce electric-motor
energy consumption by matching the power supplied to
the motor with its load. Most electric motors are sized for
the worst-case operating conditions of the equipment
they power. Since most equipment does not operate constantly at its peak potential load, it is common to see a
motor operate at less than 40% of the rated load for significant periods. E-Save Technology allows for variation
in the load profile and adjusts the amount of energy
required to optimize the energy use of the motor. This
typically results in energy savings of up to 35% in appropriate applications.


The Massachusetts Elevator Safety Association (MESA)
announced David Ilacqua and Alex Marc-Aurele as the
winners of its G. Gahr Finney Scholarship in January.
Ilacqua is attending the University of Massachusetts,
where he is pursuing an engineering degree, and Aurele
is attending Worcester Polytechnic Institute in Worcester,
Massachusetts, also pursuing an engineering degree.
In addition to announcing the scholarship winners,
MESA discussed the Department of Public Safety (DPS)
emergency permit policy and updates. A concern expressed
at the meeting was whether or not mechanics should
sign the permit and attach their license number to the
job. An issue that could arise from the mechanic signing
the permit is that the mechanic signing the permit is not
likely to be the sole mechanic or may not even be the
installer at all. On January 7, the DPS issued a mass e-mail
outlining the new process for emergency repair permitting and updating the existing permit forms.







Advanced Lifts and Elevators, The Elevator Company
of North Salt Lake, Utah, completed a disillusion process
in December 2010. Its active operations ceased in January
2010, but a statement of disclosure was disallowed until
2011. The disillusion was forced due to the unexpected
failure and closure of the firms bank by the Federal
Deposit Insurance Corp., compounded by the last-minute
evaporation of a merger in process. The company was a
manufacturer of residential elevators with a dealer network, as well as six direct locations. Founded in 1993, it
manufactured over 600 elevators per year from a Utahbased factory with annual revenues of approximately
US$15 million.


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the efficiency of your existing door protection system
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U.S. Industry News




Magnetek Inc. announced in December 2010 that it hired
Mark Wilson as its new sales manager
for its Elevator Systems business. Wilson
will manage the companys Elevator
Divisions Sales Operations. He has nearly
10 years of experience in the elevator
industry and previously worked for
Schindler Elevator Corp. and Otis Elevator
Co. He is a National Associate Member
of the Building Owners and Managers
Association and has a bachelors degree in Business
Administration from Indiana University.


Lerch Bates has announced that it signed an agreement with QEI Services to jointly market and provide the
American Society of Mechanical Engineers QEI initial
certification training and to conduct continuing education
courses related to maintaining QEI certification. The classes
would be executed through Lerch Bates network of
branches across the U.S. to generate interest and enrollment in QEI certification.
Bryan Hines, vice president of Lerch Bates, said:
Lerch Bates is excited with the opportunity to partner
with QEI Services to promote better code awareness
which will ultimately improve elevator and escalator
safety to the riding public.
President of QEI Services Michael Robinson, said:
This is a great opportunity to extend the QEI Services
brand with Lerch Bates on a national and international
scope, along with raising the level of education in the
elevator industry.


For more information on QEI Services, visit website:, and a schedule of upcoming classes
can be found at


The Austonian, a recently completed Austin, Texas,
luxury residential building, received a four-star rating
from Austin Energy Green Building (AEGB) in November
2010. Fifty-six stories tall, the high rise sits in the downtown business district and sets the stage for the Austin
City Councils push to encourage density and urban living
in the downtown area. The Austonians four-star rating is
the equivalent to the U.S. Green Building Councils Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Gold rating.
Bob Albanese, design and construction manager for
The Austonian, stated:
We are extremely pleased to have achieved a four-star
rating from Austin Energy Green Building. This accomplishment is the result of support from our developer to
realize a goal, keen attention to detail and a lot of hard
work by the design and construction team.


Eklunds of Southlake, Texas has opened its second
manufacturing, sales and future showroom facility located
in the Baltimore/Washington, D.C. area. The new location
features equipment for designing and creating elevator
cabs, cab interiors and architectural products for elevators
and escalators. Adding approximately 20,000 square feet
of manufacturing space to its current capacity, Eklunds is
positioning itself as a primary source for total elevator
cab solutions throughout the U.S. Eklunds standard cab
line can be custom designed with an online tool that
allows users to specify cab interior components within
minutes (
Eklunds President Beth Cunningham said:
Our mission is to provide safe and aesthetically pleasing
conveyance systems to modern organizations and businesses through the architectural design, manufacture
and installation of elevator and escalator products.

Paul J . Wat ers

SunTrust Financial Centre,
Suite 1700
401 East Jackson Street
Tampa, Florida 33602-5250
813 223 7333 tel 813 223 2837 fax
813 209 5006 dir 703 447 0352 cell

Representing employers nationwide in enforcement and rulemaking proceedings before

the federal Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission and state occupational
safety and health agencies. Also representing clients before the Department of Labors
Administrative Review Board defending whistleblower retaliation claims administered
by OSHA under such statues as the Occupational Safety and health Act, Surface Transportation Assistance Act, & Sarbanes-Oxley.


Kandiyohi County in Willmar, Minnesota, is required to
modernize 11 elevators in county buildings by January 1,
2012. During a routine elevator inspection in late 2010,
the county was told that new safety codes had to be
implemented. County Administrator Larry Kliendl stated
that if the modernizations are not completed, the eleva-

tors will be shut down. According to a consultant with

Elevator Consulting Services, Inc., the new code for existing elevators and escalators was adopted by the state in
2007, and there is no plan to extend the compliance time
table of five years. One of the major codes is a multiphase firemans service operation which is expected to
have limited use.
Wilmar is not the only county being required to upgrade all elevators installed before 1987; the entire state
of Minnesota is required to modernize all elevators to
comply with the latest safety code.

house, craft and retail shops, and offices. The total project is expected to cover 140,000-170,000 square feet. It
has received support from the Downtown Development
Authority and nonprofit groups like the Grand Rapids
Community Foundation.


In November 2010, Clear Channel Airports in conjunction with AdRailUSA debuted escalator handrail advertising

Enterprise Homes, Inc. started the
redevelopment project of Harper
House Apartments in Columbia,
Maryland, in December 2010. The
nine-story building consists of 100
apartments for low- to moderateincome families. Renovations are
scheduled to be completed in
November and include elevator
upgrades and energy-efficient windows. The US$21-million project is
being financed through a loan from
the Maryland Community Development Administration through the
federal New Issue Bond Program and
low-income housing tax credit
equity from Enterprise Community
Investment, Inc.

A tax credit for a renovation project in Grand Rapids, Michigan, that
will include barrier-free access with
elevators and ramps was approved
by state officials in December 2010.
The US$5.4-million brownfield tax
credit will aid Grand Rapids Urban
Market Holdings LLC as it invests
US$31 million to renovate former
warehouses at 435 Ionia Avenue
Southwest and 109 Logan Street
Plans are for a year-round fresh
food market including restaurants,
food processing, a rooftop greenMarch 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |


U.S. Industry News


at Chicago OHare International Airport. Sixteen branded

rail sets were installed in all three of OHares main domestic terminals. The airports first escalator ad campaign ran from November 17 to December 31. The
patented AdRailUSA technology allows advertising and
branding messages to be applied to existing handrails of
escalators and moving walks. AdRailUSA says the wraps
also increase safety by helping passengers better gauge
the speed and motion of an escalator.



Lift Solutions, Inc. announced in January that it had
hired Steven Cowling as its new estimator and project manager. Cowling grew
up around the construction industry and
has been working in the elevator industry since April 2010. He received his
BS in Construction Management from
Brigham Young University-Idaho. Cowling
will be working specifically as the companys chief estimator and project manager to streamline and ease the order process for customers
from bid to delivery.


The 2010 Space Elevator Conference was held at the
Microsoft Campus in Redmond, Washington, on August
13-15. Its presentations were targeted solely toward the
study of the Space Elevator. For the first time, a full day of
the conference was centered on one theme: Space Elevator
Survivability Space Debris Mitigation.
This conference also marked the inauguration of both the
Pearson and Artsutanov prizes, established by organizer
International Space Elevator Consortium (ISEC) to increase our understanding of the space elevator. Executive
Director of the Leeward Space Foundation John Lee
sponsored the US$1,500 undergraduate-level Pearson
Prize, which is awarded for a paper on the annual theme.
The Artsutanov Prize was sponsored by ISEC.

The conference also hosted Yuri Artsutanov (third from left) and Jerome Pearson
(third from right), two of the original inventors of the modern-day idea of a space
elevator. Here, space-elevator community members greet the guests at the Sea-Tac

Upcoming events involving the space elevator include

the European Space Elevator
Challenge at the Technical
University of Munich in
Munich, Germany, on June
10-12. This is a climber challenge for climbers that can
carry at least 10% of their
weight as payload. On October 3-7, the International Astronautical Congress will
take place in Cape Town,
South Africa. This meeting
has historically enjoyed a
large representation and participation from ISEC and the
rest of the space-elevator


Jerome Pearson speaking on his electrodynamic debris eliminator spacecraft

Century Elevator, Inc. recently modernized a VIP
elevator in a Boston night club which dated back to 1900.
The refurbishment included chrome, new mirrors and
lighting. According to John Powers of Century Elevator, a
lot of the equipment had to be tracked down. Powers
commented, The older a unit, the more chance we may
need to [piece together] parts from other sources.
According to Powers, many customers call in for elevator
repairs or upgrades because they feel safety is being compromised or because they want to cut down energy costs.


The latest edition of OSHA General Industry Regulations
was released in January. Updated through January 1, this
edition, along with Mancomms other major regulatory
releases, features a colorful new cover design. The volume
is made with RegLogic, a graphical approach intended
to make reading and using government regulations less
difficult. It also includes a Quick-Find Index for users to
quickly access needed information.

Smartrise Engineering announced in January that it
appointed Greg Houghton as its Northeast region manager. His responsibilities include marketing and sales of
Smartrise elevator control solutions from Virginia to Eastern
Canada. Prior to joining Smartrise, he
worked with Motion Control Engineering
for six years in a similar role.
Smartrise Vice President of Sales and
Business Development, Ali Ezzeddine,
Smartrises unique control solutions and
commitment to customer service is allowing [us] to grow through a tough time
in our industry. With [Houghtons] industry knowledge,
regional expertise and business leadership, his contributions will allow Smartrise to continue to exceed our goals
for growth.

ph 800.422.9737
March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |



Team members preparing for the Strong Tether Challenge

This edition includes the 1903 regulations about inspections, citations and proposed penalties; 1904 regulations
about recording and reporting occupational injuries and
illnesses; and the 1910 regulations applying to all general
industry operations.
The book also includes a
Sharps Injury Log, an improved version of the OSHA
300 Log, incident report forms
and selected OSHA letters of
interpretation, as well as a
listing of OSHA locations and
phone numbers. It is available
from Mancomm as a book or
in CD format at website:

U.S. Industry News




Lerch Bates announced on January 12 that it named
Alyssa McGrath as regional manager of its Boston office,
which provides services throughout New
England and upstate New York. Prior to
joining Lerch Bates, McGrath was the
senior account manager in the financial
district of Otis Elevators Boston office.
She has also held the position of general
manager at ThyssenKrupp Elevator and
senior account engineer at Montgomery
KONE. She has more than 14 years of
elevator industry experience and is very familiar with the
Boston market.


Vertacan, LLC announced its opening as a verticaltransportation management and consulting service in
January. Its two founders and principals, Santi Rodriguez
and John Walker, discovered that consulting had taken on
a commodity approach in the elevator industry. They felt
that the sector was in need of new methods and innovations to assist clients with vertical-transportation decisions.
Vertacan develops customized programs to address
individual client needs. The firms two principals are both
certified elevator inspectors and provide a combined 50plus years of industry experience. Rodriguez started his
career over 24 years ago at Elevator Products Corp. (EPCO)
assembling fixtures. After completing his undergraduate
degree at Rutgers and earning his MBA, Rodriguez
became involved in international Schindler projects. He
worked with architects, property managers and engineers
in the design and implementation of people-moving equipment. Later, as product line manager, Rodriguez launched
the Schindler 400A machine-room-less (MRL) product
line. He later worked for KONE as Region Modernization
manager. Most recently, Rodriguez held the position of
general manager-New York for Lerch Bates Inc.
Walker has over 35 years of experience in the elevator
industry, during which time he has had the opportunity to
design and manage projects on six continents. He began
his career with Otis and progressed through management
and technical positions to leadership functions in other
companies. While at Schindler, Walker led the high-rise
initiative and later was general manager, responsible for
all traction products in North America. His consulting
career commenced at Jaros Baum & Bolles, with subsequent posts at Barker Mohandas and RMD Elevator


(l-r) Rodriguez and Walker

Consultants. Most recently, Walker joined the Lerch Bates

team in New York.
The companys contact information is as follows: 81082nd Street, North Bergen, New Jersey 07047; phone:
(201) 600-1976; fax: (201) 882-5827; and website:



Robert J. (Bob) Cleary of Pembroke, Massachusetts,
died on January 2. Cleary grew up in Dorchester,
Massachusetts, and worked in the elevator industry
before founding Cleary Elevator of
Quincy, Massachusetts, which specialized in elevator maintenance, installation, repair and modernization in the
greater Boston area. He is survived
by wife Catherine (Mason) Cleary;
brothers Edward, Kenneth and Richard;
sister Ellen; children Carolyn ClearySullivan, Robert Cleary, Jr., Kiersten
Long, Heather Regan, Kathryn Cleary, Shawn Cleary,
Michael Cleary and Courtney Langevin; and 22 grandchildren.
Eric Tragash, president of the Massachusetts Elevator
Safety Association (MESA) commented, I know I speak
for the entire MESA family when I offer Bobs family
our sincere condolences.
Clearys funeral mass took place at St. Marys Church
in Hanover, Massachusetts, on January 15. Donations
in his name may be made to the Neeley House at Tufts
Medical Center, 750 Washington Street, P.O. Box 0716,
Boston, Massachusetts 02111.

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ThyssenKrupp Elevadores factory in Guaba, Brazil,
reduces the emission of greenhouse-effect gases (GEGs)
that contribute to global warming. One of the main gases
contributing to global warming is carbon dioxide (CO2),
also known as carbonic acid gas. Starting with the acquisition of carbon credits, the company has compensated
100% of its emitted GEGs and received a Zero Emission
The carbon credit, also called certified emission reduction, is a tool implemented by the Kyoto Protocol to
reduce the greenhouse effect to protect the environment.
A total of 2,130 carbon-dioxide credits were acquired
by ThyssenKrupp Elevadores in its Brazilian branch. They
correspond to the total GEGs emitted by the factory from
October 2009 to September 2010, reaching levels 1 (gases
and fuel), 2 (energy) and 3 (logistics, employee transportation, flights, etc.) and calculated on the International
Guidelines for GEG Inventory and Report.
The carbon-dioxide credits were purchased from
BAESA, a company responsible for the operation of the
Barra Grande Hydroelectric Power Plant between the
Brazilian states of Rio Grande and Santa Catarina. The
project is registered in the Amsterdam Power Exchange
Voluntary Carbon Standard, the international entity that
controls emission projects and negotiation of carbondioxide credits. This entity is certified by Bureau Veritas
Certification Holding.
Marcelo Nery, Supply Chain Management vice president
and coordinator for the Sustainable Efficiency Program
developed by ThyssenKrupp Elevadores Manufacture,
With this purchase, we will help develop our region,
because the BAESA Project also allots 30% of its resources
to a development fund to financially support small manufacturers in the region, in addition to the efforts toward
reduction of CO2.
The complete Zero Emission process, from the data
collection for the GEG inventory to the purchase of carbon credits, was audited by the International Specialists
of British Standard Institute. The project to compensate
GEGs is one of the goals achieved by ThyssenKrupp
Elevadores Sustainable Efficiency Program. This program

was kicked off in 2009, and it includes all levels of production operations. Its goal is to find solutions to make
the elevator production cycle a sustainable process.
Thyssenkrupp Elevadores aims at reducing the present
consumption levels of nonrenewable natural resources
and GEGs such as CO2 in the production process.
Reported by Carmen Maldacena, EW Correspondent.

KONE has acquired the assets related to CNIM Canada
Inc.s elevator and escalator business, including its
approximately 1,300 maintenance contracts in Montreal,
Toronto and Ottawa metropolitan areas. We are thrilled
to be adding great new customers and employees in
Canada, said Kelly Leitch, president and CEO of KONE

As of December 2010, Hong Kong had plans to implement a Buildings Energy Efficiency Ordinance. The ordinance was written on December 3, 2010, and will come
into effect on a day to be appointed by the secretary for
the environment. The ordinance will cover buildings in
both public and private sectors and will require compliance with codes of practice to be promulgated by the
Electrical and Mechanical Services Department concerning building services installations, which include lift and
escalator installations. The ordinance will impose different requirements on buildings constructed before and
after the ordinance is effective.

Schindler Elevator Americas announced in December
2010 that it and Compaa de Servicios S.A. executed a
Term Sheet for a Share Purchase Agreement and, later,
an intended merger in the country. The transaction will
result in a strategic alliance combining Schindlers global
resources with the Andino brand of Coservicios, a local



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elevator manufacturer. The resulting entity, provisionally

named Schindler Andino, will have access to locally
produced elevator equipment through a planned procurement agreement with Coservicios. The acquisition and
intended merger, which is subject to approval by the local
government, will increase efficiencies and promote competitively priced elevator service, modernization, installation, maintenance and distribution.

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and its
partners International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) and International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
launched a new electronic newsletter in January to provide
concrete examples of how standards impact the bottom
line; stimulate economic growth, productivity and innovation; and allow businesses to access broader markets.
The newsletter goes out under the banner of the World
Standards Cooperation, which the three organizations
established in 2001 to strengthen and advance the voluntary consensus-based international standards systems of
IEC, ISO and ITU. To subscribe to the WSC eNewsletter, which
will be published three times a year, visit website: http://

EN 1808 1999 and EN 81-1 standards (used as a reference)

by Liftinstituut B.V. in The Netherlands, and at the end of
the evaluation, it was determined the False Car met the
appropriate requirements for CE certification.
After it had been used for over 20 years in the U.S.
market for rail and other component installation, Wurtec
saw increased interest in the False Car internationally
and felt it was critical to achieve CE certification for customers in Europe and other appropriate regions. The
product has been used on such projects as the Burj
Khalifa in Dubai (ELEVATOR WORLD, November 2010),
the Petronas Towers in Malaysia (EW, 1998-2000
SOURCE) and the Freedom Towers in the U.S. It is also
planned to be used in the construction of the upcoming
Costanera Center in Chile, as well as numerous projects
throughout India.


Wurtec announced in January that it received Conformit
Europene (CE) certification for its False Car product, a
working platform designed for installing and dismantling
lift components inside an elevator shaft. The product was
evaluated against Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC, and

(l-r) Dennis Lindeboom and Eric Verkaik of Liftinstituut, and Rob Wurth of Wurtec

International INDUSTRY NEWS

Send to the editor: P.O. Box 6507, Mobile, AL 36660;
fax: (251) 479-7043; or e-mail:

ELECTRONICS LTD. Manufacturers of Industrial Controls

10-32 47th Road, Long Island City, NY 11101
CALL 718-784-0571 FAX 718-482-9471


VFA-Interlift e.V. announced in December 2010 that
Matthias Hippe will give two presentations before Interlift
2011 at the Augsburg Conference Centre. The casualexperienced coach will hold four-hour courses on May 11
and October 17 in both English and German. Hippe will
provide tricks for an optimal trade-fair appearance. He
presented a similar seminar at Interlift 2009.
For more information, contact Anja Gietz of VFA-Interlift
at Rahlau 62, D-22045 Hamburg, Germany; phone: (49) 040-727301-50; fax: (49) 0-40-727301-60; e-mail; or website:


CAN in Automation (CiA) has announced the 25th
anniversary of the CAN protocol. It was presented to the
public for the first time in February 1986 by Bosch as a
serial bus system dedicated for embedded networking in
passenger cars. A year later, Intel introduced the first CAN
standalone controller, and its use was later seen in Philips
Semiconductors in 1988. Since then, the CAN protocol
has become a mainstream communication technology.
According to the nonprofit CiA users and manufacturers group, more than two-and-a-half billion CAN modules have been sold. More than 50 companies offer CAN
protocol implementations. Among other industries, CAN
networks are used in machine control and public transportation. As CiA Managing Director Holger Zeltwanger
said, In any system in which more than three microcontrollers need to communicate, CAN is an opportunity.
There have also been recent developments on the physical layer and implementation of the venerable system.

For example, CAN transceivers with integrated galvanic

isolation have been introduced, and a CAN transceiver with
selective wake-up capability has been submitted for
international standardization. Fields for new CAN applications are also on the horizon. Regardless, the CAN protocol remains the same. This has been one of the reasons
of the success, according to Zeltwanger.


Elevator wire-rope manufacturer Gustav Wolf Seil-und
Drahtwerke GmbH & Co. KG announced in January that
Gustav Wolfs sites in Guetersloh and Herzebrock have
received certification per the environmental management
system ISO 14001. A three-day audit by TV-Saarland took
place at the sites in October 2010. The certification covers
wire and rope manufacturing, ready-made products and
the testing laboratory. The Gustav Wolf facilities in Nebra,
Germany, and Suzhou, China, were successfully audited
and certified compliant with ISO 14001 by TV in 2009.

In January, the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra
was undergoing several elevator installations in order
to better facilitate the movement of medical staff and
patients. The lifts are being installed by CFAO Ghana Ltd.
and are expected to be complete by the end of March.
Four double-deck elevators in the Maternity Block were
completed in January. Each lift has a capacity of 21 persons. Another five single limit lifts with a capacity of 13
persons were installed at the Chest, Eye, Ward A and G
and Radiology Departments. According to an online

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International Industry News


report, the hospitals elevators have been obsolete for

several years, but new installations were delayed due to
the procurement procedure, as well as the time needed to
dismantle old equipment.

Indias Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) has launched a
new tool for improving building efficiency. The ECOnirman
Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) Conformance
Check Tool is an online web interface that allows architects and engineers to assess how their designs compare
to Indias ECBC. According to a report by Switchboard, by
utilizing an interactive web format that targets the frontend of construction design, the ECOnirman provides a way
to increase energy efficiency. The tool was developed by
BEE in conjunction with the ECO-III project, which is a
collaborative program of the Government of India and
the U.S. Agency for International Development.
Indias buildings account for 33% of the countrys electricity consumption and the sector is continuously growing. Therefore, the use of the ECOnirman tool will help
users implement changes now that will shape building
growth into sustainable development.
The tool is accessed via the web, where users are
prompted to provide basic building information such as
location, power load, construction materials, etc. Then,
ECOnirman generates a report that simulates the energy
performance of the building based on climate. In addition, it identifies which systems or design components
conform or do not conform to the code. Furthermore, a
trade-off function allows users to modify certain aspects
of the design, such as swapping materials and specifications to improve efficiency. Improving building designs is
among the best ways for the country to curb its growing
energy needs.
For more information, visit website: http://www.eco3


Wittur received the E 120 fire-rating certification for its
Luna range of round landing-door types (series 3600)
according to European standard EN 81-58. The certification covers various dimensions from door widths of 500
to 1,800 mm, and door heights of 2,000 to 3,500 mm for
any door radius. It is available for several door finishes.
In addition, different frame
dimensions with landing
operating panels as well as
different materials and installation types have been
certified and are available.
Mechanism cover boxes are
also included in the certification, which is also applicable to Wittur underdriven
round doors from its 3602
series. Furthermore, EN 8158 E 120 round doors are now available in standard IP54
or IP67 protection degrees.

In January, KONE announced that in the fourth quarter
of 2010 it was awarded a contract to supply elevators for
the Jaber Al Ahmad Al Jaber Al Sabah Hospital in South
Surra. The order includes 25 KONE MonoSpace special
elevators and 68 KONE MiniSpace elevators. Developed
by the Kuwait Ministry of Public Works, the project will be
among the largest medical centers in Kuwait and the
Middle East region.

International Industry News


Designed by Langdon Wilson International in cooperation with local firm Gulf Consult, the development includes
an 11-story hospital, a two-story dental building and a
four-story residential building for nursing staff. The project is expected to be completed at the end of 2013.

including introductions to manufacturers and OEMs of

elevators, escalators and related components in Asia.
The two companies will also collaborate to develop new
products utilizing PECs patented E-Save Technology.



Designed by NORR Consultants and local architect AlJazera Consultants, the twisting 216-meter Trade Centre
Tower located on the First Ring Road rises from a four
level retail mall and features
panoramic elevators that
provide passengers views of
the city. Structurally, the
tower was designed around
a circular concrete core with
perimeter columns arranged
in a larger concentric circle.
The design allowed NORR to
achieve a sculpted spiraling
form for the tower with a
simple vertical structure and
reduced torsion. On the
exterior, the glass faade of
the tower is triangulated to
allow for a warped external surface. The tower was completed in 2010 after five years of construction and provides class-A office space.

In November 2010, Managing Director of Bode Components GmbH Heinrich Reiter received certification from
Liftinstituut for the EC type approval test for the Bode
overspeed governor (types 7, 8 and 9). This covers safety
components for passenger lifts, with an aim to monitor
excessive lift speeds, put braking systems into operation
and detect unintended cage movements when shaft doors
are open. The certification took place based on the latest
standard under the European Lifts Directive EN 81-1:1998
+ A3: 2009. Prior to the certification, all data, drawings
and documentation were checked by Liftinstituut, in
addition to calculations and risk evaluations.
Reiter commented, In this way, we are once again
demonstrating that we are continuing to ensure our
products comply with the very latest European safety

Power Efficiency Corp. (PEC) announced in December
2010 that it had signed an agreement with Penang-based
Interplex Group, a diversified holding company that owns
and operates a variety of technical businesses involved
in the manufacturing of various products, including MS
Elevators, one of the largest manufacturers of and service providers for elevators and escalators in Southeast
Chairman and CEO of PEC Steve Strasser commented:
We are extremely excited about this agreement because
it gives PEC access to the Asian market and the ability to
offer our E-Save Technology platform and suite of motorefficiency controllers to the fastest-growing and largest
markets for elevators and escalators. Our intention has
always been to expand into Asia, and through this relationship, we are joining with a long-established business
which distributes elevators and escalators to 26 countries,
primarily in Asia and the Middle East.
The agreement calls for the companies to work together on product development, manufacturing and sales,


(l-r) Dennis Lindeboom, international account manager Liftinstituut; Robert

Kaspersma, senior specialist Liftinstituut; Reiter; Dimitri Sapronow, Technik Bode
Components GmbH

KONE Corp. announced in January that it signed a major
contract with German shipyard Meyer Werft GmbH to
supply all the elevators and escalators for two Norwegian
Cruise Line ships. KONE will design, supply and install 60
custom elevators and four escalators equipped with its
KONE MonoSpace and KONE MiniSpace solutions for
the ships, which are expected to be delivered in 2013 and
2014. The contract also includes options for the delivery
of equipment for two additional identical ships.

Heikki Leppnen, executive vice president, New Elevators and Escalators, KONE, noted:
With this collaboration, we continue our long-term
commitment to the marine industry and strengthen our
market-leader position as the elevator and escalator
provider for the cruise-ship segment.





DMCI Homes of Makati, Philippines, has developed
Hanalei, a Hawaiian-themed resort in Alabang, Philippines.
The resort is comprised of seven five-story buildings,
each named after a key destination of Hawaii, and their
configuration mimics the shape of the Hawaiian Islands.
Hanalei features a scenic elevator that provides a view
into the communitys garden atrium. The resort occupies
more than 6,000 square meters.

United Kingdom
Building contractor John Sisk & Son Ltd. was awarded
a contract to provide the first phase of a 680,000-squarefoot mixed-use development at Rathbone Market in the
London borough of Newham. Sisk will deliver the full
design and construction of Plot One to provide 271 apartments and shops. The development will be comprised of
four high rises of 21, 12, eight and six stories each. Plot
One is scheduled to be complete by summer 2012, with
additional phases to come and project completion scheduled for early 2016.

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The development is part of the Canning Town &

Custom House Regeneration Programme, and is one of
six being delivered by the English Cities Fund public/
private partnership. Nigel Warnes, director of major projects at Sisk, said, Our approach is to work with the community, for the community, using local labor and to help
train a new generation of skill for the sector.

Memco, a global provider of elevator safety and communications systems, has upgraded its business application software to better support its operations in the U.K.,
Germany, France, Spain, Italy and the Czech Republic.
The software is capable of advanced planning and scheduling, helping to increase accuracy in Memcos production, which takes place in the Czech Republic. Having
previously used SyteLine 6.0, the upgrade to Info ERP
SyteLine 8.0 is expected to increase the speed of Memcos
inventory and stock-take process, saving four days each
year, equating to a productivity increase of 2%. SyteLine
facilitates visibility of customer orders across all sites, helping to ensure products are delivered on time and in full.
Memcos Financial Director Simon Goffin, said:
SyteLine 8.0 is easy to use and adapts to the needs of
each department. Given that the upgrade was quick and
straightforward, the business benefits of the system are
already being experienced.

Send to the editor: P.O. Box 6507, Mobile, AL 36660;
fax: (251) 479-7043; or e-mail:

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March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |


International Industry News




London Underground started consultation with the

City of London on plans for major improvements to the
Bank station subway in December 2010. The plans include
high-capacity lifts to relieve congestion and provide stepfree access to the Northern line platforms. The plans also
include re-tunneling the Northern line of the station. If
approved, work will start in 2015 and be completed by
2021. Work has already started on the new entrance onto
Walbrook for the Waterloo & City line at Bank station,
which includes two lifts and four escalators. The Walbrook
development is scheduled to be completed in 2015.



A Fife Council-commissioned plan includes establishing a true pedestrian zone, public art and a new civic
square in Dunfermline. Escalators would help link to the
square, and the pedestrian zone would be established in
High Street.
Paul Hogarth Co.s master plan has already been
backed by the City of Dunfermline area committee. It
includes a Dotto Train, which would run on a circuit
around the city center. Work could start this year and go
on until 2014.

According to 2010 research, the number of bacteria

present on a lift button is more than three times higher
than that on a public toilet seat. A study that looked at
hotel, restaurant, bank, office and airport elevator buttons
found that the buttons average 2,200 colony-forming
units per square centimeter. The average public toilet seat
has eight units per square centimeter.
Dr. Nicholas Moon, director of Technical and Regulatory
Affairs at Microban Europe, said:
In a busy building, a lift button can be touched by
dozens of different people who will have come into contact with all kinds of bacteria every hour. Even if the
buttons are cleaned regularly, the potential for the buildup
of bacteria is high.
Moon also stated that elevator buttons in high-traffic
locations could be a major potential point for crosscontamination and the spread of disease.
Reported by Elevation.





Bestseller List
January 2011

2010 Elevator Industry Field Employees Safety

Handbook published by Elevator World, Inc.

Safety Meetings, 5th Edition

published by Elevator World, Inc.

The Vertical Transportation Handbook, Fourth Edition

by George R. Strakosch and Robert S. Caporale

Maintenance on New Equipment Designs

by John Koshak

Elevator Maintenance Manual and Field Handbook Set

by Zack McCain


Elevators 101, 2nd Edition by Zack McCain

CIBSE 2010 Guide D: Transportation Systems in Buildings

published by CIBSE


Elevator Field Testing Manual, 3rd Edition

published by Elevator World, Inc.

Installation Manual published by Elevator World, Inc.

Elevator Man Stories by Jim Collett


Manuel B. Kamietzky (better known in the elevator

industry as Manuel de Bernardi) passed away on
December 22, 2010 in Buenos Aires at the age of 89.
Founder and editor of Revista del Ascensor, he often
used its pages to reflect on the events that took place
in the sector so that they could be spread throughout
Argentina, Latin America and some European countries.
A native of the Crdoba province of Argentina, de
Bernardi worked in various publishing houses as a
reporter and corrector. He set up his own business,
Editorial Buen Vivir, in the mid 1960s.
This company covered a wide range
of subjects, publishing over 40 magazines and tabloids. Fifteen years ago,
de Bernardi made an incursion into
the vertical-transportation industry by
creating Revista del Ascensor. He also
published standards and ordinances,
contributing to the defense of the sectors interests and those of elevator users, especially in
the aspect of safety.
De Bernardi is survived by children Nora and Horacio
Kamietzky, who, together with an efficient staff, will
go on with his craft and ideals. Submitted by Carmen
Maldacena, EW Correspondent.


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ASME Symposium on the

Use of Elevators in Emergencies
by Robert S. Caporale, MSc

On December 1-2, 2010 a symposium on the use of

elevators in emergencies was held at the Doubletree Resort
Orlando International Drive in Orlando. As published on
the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
website the purpose of the symposium was to focus on
the progress of the ASME A17 Task Group on Use of
Elevators by Firefighters and Use of Elevators for Occupant
Egress in order to provide a review of the code changes
under development that affect elevator, building, life-



safety, electrical and related codes. In addition, the

Symposium [examined] proposals and experiences from
U.S. and international experts in implementing changes
to building and elevator systems. Consideration of
human factors, including training of the public and firefighters [was] also presented. This event was a followup of a similar symposium held in March 2004, and it was
organized and attended by a diverse group of elevator
and building design experts and organizations.

The event was sponsored by ASME; the National

Elevator Industry Inc. (NEII); the National Fire Protection
Association (NFPA); the National Institute of Standards
and Technology (NIST); Elevator World, Inc.; the Massachusetts Elevator Safety Association; Koffel Associates,
Inc. and the National Association of Elevator Contractors
(NAEC). Co-sponsors included Coaker & Co., P.C.; the
European Lift Association; the International Code Council
(ICC); the Pacific Asia Lift and Escalator Association; Rolf
Jensen & Associates (RJA); and the U.S.
Access Board. The event drew more than
100 attendees from the U.S., Canada, the
U.K., China and Korea.
The first speaker of the event was
John Miller, fire chief of Orlando. In
his opening remarks, he reiterated his
welcoming statement published in the
Symposium program, which in part
stated the following:
Historically, elevator application issues were initially
addressed in ASME-sponsored symposia (Baltimore, 1991
and 1995). Events of 9/11 made an indelible mark on the
world of emergency response. Since that time, ASME
sponsored a symposium (March 2004, Atlanta) to further
address effective use of elevators during emergencies and
incorporate lessons learned from 9/11. Leaders and professionals from diverse communities (including elevator

design, building technology, human factors engineering,

firefighters [and] emergency response personnel) have
joined to address professional concerns of mutual interest. This symposium will bring participants up to date
on what is happening and outline directions for future
development, as well as provide a forum for exchange of
thought among interest groups.
With this purpose in mind and a commitment by the
symposium participants to come out of this event with a
way forward for the utilization of elevators in fires and other emergencies, the
event began with a series of presentations and panel discussions offered from
an esteemed group of elevator-industry
and building-design experts, and firefighters from the U.S. and Canada.
Following Miller was the Symposium
moderator, A17 Standards Committee for
Elevators and Escalators chairman Jim Coaker. After
welcoming the group to the symposium and thanking
attendees for their commitment to the task at hand,
Coaker recognized the sponsors, organizing committee
and ASME staff who put the event together. An overview
of the upcoming schedule was presented, and the group
was encouraged to actively participate in the discussions
throughout the event, emphasizing that the goal was to
stimulate thinking on the subject of the conference.

ASME staff (l-r): Riad Mohamed, Geraldine Burdeshaw, Patricia Reddington and
Allyson Byk

Symposium steering committee and speakers

March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |




Twenty-two firefighters from the U.S. and Canada attended the event.



Following Coaker, David McColl, manager, Codes and

Standards Group, North America for Otis Elevator Co.,
reviewed the work of the A17 Task Groups on the Use of
Elevators by Firefighters and the Use of Elevators for
Building Evacuation. This work has been in progress
since 2004, and the provisions of the Task Groups proposal for incorporation into the A17 code were described,

and comments from attendees were solicited. A discussion of the proposed provisions followed McColls presentation, setting the tone for the remainder of the symposium during which each presentation was thoroughly
considered and discussed.
The following schedule provides an overview of the
topics presented and considered:



Day One

The work of the A17 Task

focused on two general
topics: Use of elevators by firefighters and use of elevators by
occupants during emergencies.
. . . David McColl


Occupation Evacuation Elevators

(Model Building Codes), Ron Cote,
Fire Service Access Elevators (Model
Building Codes), Beth Tubbs, ICC
ASME A17.1 proposals: Occupant
Evacuation Elevators and FireService Access Elevators, McColl,
Otis Elevator Co.
Applications of Elevators for FireService Access and Occupant
egress, Richard Bukowski, RJA
Human Factors: The paradigm shift
for the public, Jake Pauls, National
Research Council of Canada, and
Glenn Hedman, University of Illinois
in Chicago
Opportunities for additional research and study, Jason Averill,



Day Two

What is needed is a more

protected elevator that
provides more confidence to firefighters in high-rise buildings.
. . . Ron Cote






Related Standards, Brian Black, NEII

A17.4 Guide for Emergency
Personnel, Dave Beste, Bellevue,
Washington Fire Department
NFPA 72 (Relating to Occupant
Notification), Lee Richardson,
IBC/ADAAG (Relating to Accessible Means of Egress), Kim
Paarlberg, ICC
Jurisdiction Experiences/Post WTC,
Barbara Schultheis, fire marshall
for the City and County of San
Vision of Developing Evacuation
Plans Around the Use of Elevators,
Jack Murphy, JJM & Associates,
Economics of Egress Alternatives,
David T. Butry, NIST



Any meeting focused on use of

in fires and other emergencies should consider
attitudinal impediments as well
as technical problems and
. . . Jake Pauls





OEO is given time to operate successfully. When buildings equipped with OEO
systems appear, it will be critical that the
fire service is trained to recognize these
new systems.
. . . John ODonoghue


The fire service must be given the

and the training to ensure


Fire Service Response and Training Including the Use of Robust

Fire Service Elevators, Occupant
Evacuation Operation (OEO) and
Emergency Evacuation from Elevator, John ODonoghue, Cambridge,
Massachusetts Fire Department,
and Ken ODonnell, Boston Fire
The event concluded with a question-and-answer session based on
the speakers presentations, and an
extensive discussion of the next steps
needed to implement the recommendations presented by the speakers
and how best to address the suggestions and concerns offered by the
The symposium was filled with an
expression of gratitude on behalf of
the events organizers and sponsors
for the enthusiastic input provided
by the speakers and participants.
Commitments were made to support
a follow-up symposium sometime
after the current A17 Code proposals
are adopted and sufficient implemented experience is obtained. It was
also announced that any revisions
made to the A17 code as a result of
this work will be incorporated in the
2013 edition of the A17 code, which
will be able to be obtained from ASME
WORLDs Bookstore at www.elevator

March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |





Category 2:
Elevators, Modernization

Crescent Tower:
Elevator Modernization
by Thorsten Elsaesser

Thorsten Elsaesser is the modernization

manager at ThyssenKrupp Elevator (U.A.E.)
With more than 15 years of elevator industry
experience, Elsaesser started his career with
Thyssen Aufzuege in 1991. He has been involved in a range of modernization projects
within the U.A.E. from hospitals to office
towers and residential buildings. He graduated from the University of Esslingen, Germany, with Engineering and Business Administration degrees.



The 22-story Crescent Tower

is located on the corniche (a
road on the side of a cliff or
mountain) of Sharjah, a prime
location in the U.A.E. Built in
1996, the tower is owned by
Emirate-NBD, a large banking
group in the Middle East, and
houses oil and gas company offices. Prior to the modernization of the buildings elevators,
tenants experienced long waits
during peak travel times. In
addition, the elevators did not
conform to the latest safety
standards. A prerequisite to the

modernization was to increase

reliability and safety of the
elevators, and improve traffic
The project started in October
2009 and was completed in
April 2010. One of the main obstacles ThyssenKrupp Elevator
(U.A.E.) faced during the modernization was in the building
structure itself. The company
modernized four elevators capable of speeds up to 3 mps: three
1150 kg passenger elevators
and one 1600 kg service elevator. However, the machines

and machine frames could not

be transported through the narrow staircases in the building,
and therefore, required a crane
to hoist the equipment to a
height of 100 m to the top of the
building. In addition, the machine room had no opening to
bring the machines inside, requiring a 2- by 3-m opening to
be cut to reinforce 300 mm of
concrete. During the modernization the building was fully
occupied, and work had to be
done during late afternoon and
night shifts.

Elevator Features
and Specifications
ThyssenKrupp installed its
destination selection control
(DSC Booster) to the ground
floor and mezzanine floor elevators, with conventional push

buttons at all other landings.

The DSC Booster decreased waiting times by approximately 30%.
The equipment also featured
regenerative controllers and
gearless drives with permanentmagnet motors in order to fulfill
the clients request for energyefficient motors and protection
against uncontrolled movement
in the upward direction. The
door operators are closed loop
to help achieve faster door
opening and closing times, and
there are LCD direction and
position indicators for all landings and cabins.
ThyssenKrupp replaced the
roller guides and diverter pulleys
on the cars and counterweights
to enhance riding performance.
The elevators are equipped
with an automatic rescue device

that evacuates the elevator at

the next landing in case of a
power failure. All interiors were
modernized with custom panels,
floors and ceilings. All landing
floors (88 total) have custom
finished cladding with Islamic
designs in mirror etched stainless steel.

Opposite page (l-r):

Crescent Tower
Equipment being hoisted into the building
via 140-ton mobile crane

This page:
Top row (l-r):
Equipment being hoisted into the building
DSC Booster
Bottom row (l-r):
being lowered into building
Elevators inside the Crescent Tower

March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |



The Electric Counterweight

by Sebastiano Acquaviva

Sebastiano Acquaviva has been CEO and partner of Encosys s.r.l. of Turin, Italy, since 2008.
He specializes in inverter systems with energy
accumulators for elevator control, particularly
with hydraulic lifts. He also works with the design,
power, driver, power supply and control hardware. From 1997 to 2008, he was a technical manager and partner at Elmo, where he focused on the
study, design and development of inverters with
energy accumulators for solar energy, in addition
to the study, design and development of DC brush
and brushless motor control boards for industrial
applications. He has an Electrical Engineering degree
from Politecnico di Torino in Turin.


The discussion about the best technology for lifts has been open for some
time. An essential parameter in this
comparison is the energy consumption, or rather the two factors that
determine it the power and energy.
Another important parameter for choosing the most appropriate lift technology is the speed of the elevator car.
Table 1 shows a direct comparison
between different types of lifts in accordance with current technology. A first
analysis tends to indicate that gearless
technology is more appropriate. But,
a closer inspection shows that the difference is determined by two parameters: the overall efficiency and counterweight. The contribution of energy
efficiency is typically evident for any
type of system. In geared or gearless
lifts, the difference of the input power
is only due to the gearbox efficiency
that reduces the overall result.
The presence of the counterweight
plays an important role in the motor
size, and on the power necessary for
the proper operation and speed. Since
the power required is given by the
weight raised times the travel speed,
the presence of the counterweight
allows the car speed to increase,
while using relatively low power.
Because hydraulic lifts need to
operate with high oil pressure, equipping the counterweight for this type
of lift is not usually convenient.


Table 1: Lift

Moreover, only a reduced part of the

weight can be balanced from the
counterweight; therefore, the power
reduction will be small. The cost of
the counterweight and what needs
to be connected to it do not justify
this choice. This paper describes an
electric system that works as a counterweight especially for hydraulic lifts.
There are several advantages
compared to mechanical counterweights. For example, the electric
counterweight is an energy-storage
system, and it can indifferently be
used on electric and hydraulic lifts.
The system also intervenes in reducing the power usage (up to 80%) depending on the lift type and the lift
duty cycle, and reducing the consumed energy (over 40%) also depending on the lift type. The electric
counterweight can be installed on
existing elevator systems (in that
case, the energetic advantages are
slightly smaller) or, on new systems
predisposed for optimal use.

Technical Analysis
1.1 Basic Cycle Definition
For energy comparisons that can
be repeated and understood by everyone, it is important to refer to a standard cycle. Since the lift is a machine
that works with a highly variable
duty, the basic cycle definition particularly focuses on what concerns
hydraulic lifts[1].



Figure 1: Car speed in a basic cycle

1.1.1 Basic Trip Cycle

The trip is a cycle composed of up and down travel,
each including an opening- and closing-door time (ta), by
acceleration and deceleration time (td) and steady-state
time (tr). The total cycle time is T, and Figure 1 illustrates
the cycle. The running time is referenced by
tc = 2 td + tr.

1.1.2 Energy Basic Cycle

The energy cycle for hydraulic lifts is 50% of the travel
with an empty car, 30% with 25% of the load, 10% with 50%
of the load and 10% with 75% of the load[1]. For energy
evaluation purposes, the following base cycles are
adopted for every installation type: 100,000 for residential
and industrial installations and 300,000 for commercial
and hotel systems. It is assumed that the trip distance is
50% of the maximum (complete for installations with two

1.1.3 Basic Power Cycle

To evaluate the maximum power engaged from the net
supplier, we define the power cycle as a basic trip cycle
having 100% of the load in upward travel and an empty
car in downward travel, repeated continuously at the
maximum travel distance.

Figure 2: Motor efficiency vs. load

1.2 Motor Loads Definition

In the following, the electric-motor working conditions
are evaluated in different situations during the basic trip
cycle. These evaluations are made with the motor operating in standard mode with or without an inverter.

1.2.1 Upward Load

For the evaluation of motor loads, upward travel is
divided into four phases: startup, acceleration, steady state,
and deceleration and stop. During the starting phases,
the motor goes from a no-load condition to a condition
determined by the car load. Motor standard working
points can vary from 50 to 100% of the nominal load.
Figure 2 shows the efficiency versus the load of a typical
motor for hydraulic lifts. Clearly, as the motor works
mainly with an empty car for the energy evaluation, the
efficiency of the elevator system is significantly reduced.
Using an inverter programmed with a maximum efficiency
tracking point can significantly reduce consumption.
Figure 3 shows the input current of a hydraulic lift with
and without a variable-voltage, variable-frequency (VVVF)

Figure 3: Input current

during upward trip





inverter. The yellow area in Figure 3 represents the energy

savings obtained by using a VVVF inverter during upward
travel. It is also possible to reduce the positioning phase
to the floor, reducing both the total run time and the
energy during the positioning phase. This advantage for
short runs can be important.

1.2.1 Downward Load

Like upward travel, downward travel is also divided
in four phases: startup, acceleration, steady state, and
deceleration and stop. Unlike upward travel, for traditional solutions without inverters, downward travel is
completely driven by the valve group in a dissipative way,
and the motor is not involved with the lift movement.
Using the VVVF inverter, the motor can manage the car
by movement working as a brake and regenerating the
energy for successive use.

1.3 Power and Energy During a Basic Trip Cycle

For hydraulic lifts, during acceleration and deceleration phases, the power due to the inertia load is low compared to the power required for lifting. Since the load
is unidirectional, the inertial effect during acceleration
compensates the inertial effect during deceleration, from
an energy point of view. Then, to simplify, the inertial
effect can be neglected, not having any contributions
at the end of the cycle. Figure 4 shows the energy and
power during a trip cycle. Starting from the lower floor
with the load (Mp), traveling the distance (h) and returning downstairs with the load (Mb), the following energy
balance can be made:

M .g.h
Es = t
; Ed = Mb . g . h . =

Mb 2
Mt . Es

Where Es is the input energy absorbed from the supply

during upward travel; Ed is the regenerated energy during
downward travel; g = 9.81 mps2 is the acceleration due to
gravity; and is the efficiency of the entire installation.

The energy consumed at the end of the cycle will be:

Ec = Es - Ed =

( 1 - MM . ) M .g . h = ( 1 - MM

. 2


Clearly, consumed energy strongly depends on the performance of the entire installation.
With Mb /Mt = 1 and = 0.5 (72% for the electric motor
and 70% for all the other parts of the system, a real condition in the majority of existing installations), the energy
loss is 75% (or, the maximum possible energy recovery is
only 25%).
With = 0.65, and a high-efficiency brushless motor
(equal to 93%), the energy loss is 58% (or, the maximum
possible energy recovery is 42%). The use of a highefficiency electric motor (hopefully not a submersible,
brushless type) is strongly recommended. Also, the use of
a low-pressure drop valve group contributes to energy
recovery, increasing the efficiency of the remaining parts
of the installation.
The power (Ps) required by the supply in upward travel,
average power of the cycle (Pc), total travel time (tc), minimum time for a complete cycle (T), can be expressed:

M . g. . h
Ps = t s = t . t
; Pc = T c =

(1-M . )

( 1 - MM


. . .
. 2 Mt g h

2 ( 1+ t a )
Figure 5 shows the ttrend of Pc /Ps in function of ta /tc

with the ratio Mb /Mt = 0.5 (upward travel at full load,

downward travel with empty car). The condition without
energy recovery is also shown. In the worst case, (i.e.,
without energy recovery) and with time to a minimum
(ta), or continuous operation, the power draw from the
net can be reduced to 33% of the nominal value, (i.e., for
a 12-kW installation, in the worst conditions, only a 4-kW
installation is possible). The graph also shows that increasing the system efficiency will reduce power. In residentialor office-building systems with low traffic density or low-

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4

Figure 4: Energy and power during one cycle



Figure 5: The trend of Pc /Ps

rise buildings where the ratio (ta /tc ) is higher, the power
can be reduced to 20-25%, which remains within 3 kW.

The Electrical Counterweight System

2.1 Characteristics of an Energy Storage System
In the first part of the paper, the energy characteristics
of hydraulic lifts were briefly analyzed. It was found that
the average power in a cycle is below the operational
maximum power, and that it can be significantly reduced
by increasing the efficiency of the system or increasing
the ratio (ta /tc ), or both. Similarly, the energy consumed
for each complete cycle can be reduced if the installation
can recover the energy during downward travel, i.e.,
using a suitable valve block that allows the control
through the pump, then through the electric motor. The
energy recovered during downward travel can be added
to the energy not absorbed due to the use of an efficiency
tracking point VVVF inverter controlling the motor in the
operating range of the lift. Considering that the lift works
about 50% of the time with an empty car, the efficiency of
the motor is low if powered directly from the supply.
In order to achieve the above, or to reduce the installation power and absorb the average power from the
supply, the lift must be provided with storage and regenerating systems for descending energy, providing the surplus
power needed during upward travel. Because of this,
the storage system must be efficient, allowing the energy
to be recovered and stored quickly during the descent
phase, and have a long service life and low purchase and
maintenance costs.

2.2 The Electrical Counterweight System

Figure 6 shows the block diagram of the proposed system. There are four blocks: power factor correction (PFC),
accumulator regulator, accumulator and the elevator
motor inverter. The PFC block can be single or three phase,
having a unity value cos throughout the operating range,
and can be regenerative or not. It limits the input power
to a value set by the control, thus ensuring that it does not
exceed the provided power from the supply.

Figure 6: Block diagram

The accumulator regulator is controlled in order to

manage the energy flow of the accumulator. It controls the
power to compensate for the energy difference between
the power required by the lift and the energy absorbed by
the supply. If the lift needs up to 15 kW for its movement
but the power drawn is only 3 kW, then the system accumulator regulator and accumulator operate as a generator
and provide the missing 12 kW to the lift.
In downward travel, it works as an accumulator and
recovers the energy regenerated, which in the conventional
inverter is dissipated into braking resistors. The elevator
motor inverter is programmed for the hydraulic lift in order
to operate with the maximum efficiency tracking point. It
can control induction or brushless motors. It controls upward travel of lifts in old or new installations with modified
valve blocks for downward travel. To control downward
travel, it is necessary to mount a suitable valve block.

2.3 Advantages of the Proposed System

At full charge, the energy accumulated into the system
is about 600 kJ. A 450-kg (six-person) capacity system
with a 15-meter trip (5 stops), a 0.63-mps travel speed, a
5.8-kW mechanical power and an overall efficiency of
50%, requires 12 kW of installed power. The ride takes
about 24 seconds of running time (tc), whereas the opening/closing doors and waiting time (ta) is 10 seconds. The
cycle time (T) is 68 seconds, or nearly 100 trips per hour.
Under these conditions, the power required is 12 kW.
Installing the proposed system, a single phase of 3 kW can
be used, with the remaining 9 kW being supplied by the
accumulator, which has enough power for two complete
trips. During the standby time, the stored energy can be
used to power ancillary services such as car lights. Such
a system may be installed within a few minutes on all
existing elevator systems without any changes. It reduces
the required power to 20-25% of instantaneous power. In
the absence of downward travel energy recovery, it can
reduce the energy consumption by about 20%, which is
mainly driven by the better performance in which the
motor works. Using a suitable valve block for the downward travel energy recovery, the energy savings can reach
up to 40%, and the oil heating is reduced, avoiding the
need for the heat exchanger on those systems with heavy
duty (at least 100 trips per hour; 50 up and 50 down).
Power can be either single phase or three phase. The
power factor is always in unity, and the current consumption is always at the minimum value. If there is a lack of
electricity from the supply, the system continues to run
without interruption and stops at the desired floor.
Only after people exit the car will the lift be blocked until
the supply comes up again. While using the proposed system, the supply sees the average power instead of the
instantaneous power of the lift. The car speed can be
increased without having any effect on power. Doing so,

March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |












Figures 7 and 8: Input current and voltage

the hydraulic lift can be used at a speed of 1 mps. If,

instead of the traditional induction motor, a high-efficiency
brushless motor is used, the overall system performance
is increased, providing energy savings.
The motor can be non submersible, reducing the rotational losses, as well as saving the amount of used oil. In
addition, the benefits from tax rules to encourage the use
of high-efficiency motors should be added.

3.1 Experimental Results
Figure 7 shows the voltage and current drawn from the
supply. The input power is 3.4 kW, single phase. The
graph also shows how the current and voltage are in perfect phase. Figure 8 shows the systems energy operation
during lift rides. The black curve represents the input
power by the supply (in this case, 1.5 kW). The blue curve
represents the power exchanged by the lift (in this case,
up to 9 kW in upward travel at full load and 1.5 kW in
downward travel with an empty car).
The red curve in Figure 8 represents the power transferred from the accumulator, while the green curve is the
residual energy. During upward travel, the power absorbed
from the supply is 1.5 kW, and the remaining 7.5 kW are
supplied from the accumulator. Once the floor is reached,
the accumulator continues to draw 1.5 kW from the
mains to recharge. During downward travel, regenerated
energy is also drawn by the accumulator, which absorbs
Plants type






Table 2: Energy consumption of hydraulic lift in Italy



3 kW. With only a 1.5-kW-single phase connection, a lift

that normally absorbs 9 kW can be run. The system also
has recovered an average 20% of energy and consumed
about 20% less during upward travel for the overall efficiency, saving about 40% of the total energy.

We can say that by installing electric counterweight systems, hydraulic lifts may be limited to an input power of 3
kW single phase from the supply and can reach a speed of 1
mps without limitations. Some of the advantages include:
Reduced power (from 15 kW to 3 kW)
Single phase or three phase
Operation with electricity drawback
High speed (1 mps)
Adaptation to all existing systems
Connection to renewable energy sources
No changes to existing installations required
Capability of running without interruption in the absence
of electricity and stops at the desired floor
Easy installation
High energy savings
Analyzing the elevator park in Italy (Table 2), applying
this system on an existing hydraulic plant could save
about 300 GWh per year.
[1] E4 Energy Efficient Lift and Escalator (

Reprinted from Elevatori

Average energy
per cycle

Annual plant

Global annual

Save with electrical






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Building Design

Comparison of Dedicated and Swing

Public/Service Elevators in Hospitals
by Samson Rajan Babu
photos courtesy of HydraulikLiftsysteme Walter Mayer GmbH, InterMetro, Cambro,
Schindler, Lobby Solutions, Swisslog, Construction Specialties and Dural GmbH

This article investigates the challenges of swing public/service elevators and the factors to consider while
providing a dedicated service elevator. In a modern hospital project,
architects recommend a variety of
elevator types: public elevators, bed
service elevators, staff elevators,
general-purpose goods elevators,
dumbwaiters, and both sterile and
soiled theater elevators. Architects
typically wish to reduce the number
of elevator cores to the minimum
possible in order to gain more usable
space. There is often a tendency to
double the role of public elevators to
move materials, supplies and service/
support personnel. It is also common
for public elevators to be used to
transport patients confined to beds
and wheelchairs.

Access security controls

Key controls
Serves all floors, including basements and mechanical floors

Typical Arrangements


Samson Rajan Babu is a

senior vertical transportation engineer for Burt Hill,
a Stantec Co. He offers
expert elevator traffic analysis, group planning, verticaltransportation system design, specification writing,
tender management, postcontract construction management and project
execution quality control for elevator and escalator systems. Babu is also responsible for interfacing with other trades. He has 11 years working
experience in elevator/escalator group design,
specification development, post contract, project
management, installation management, and project
sales of elevators and escalators.

A service (or bed service) elevator allows the vertical transportation

of materials, supplies and miscellaneous goods. It also helps segregate
movement of tradespeople, service
and maintenance personnel on duty.
In a hospital, it could also be used to
transport non-ambulatory patients
confined to beds, wheelchairs and

Typical Features
Large payload
Deeper car (to accommodate bed/stretcher-shaped items)
Side-opening telescopic doors
Simple and sturdy cab finishes and
Crash rails

A service elevator can be provided

several arrangements, such as:
Dedicated service elevator: The service elevator is located away from
the public elevators and has its
own service approach lobby and
staging areas. The elevator core
shape corresponds to deeper car
types for the transport of stretchers, carts, etc.
Swing public/service elevator
common public lobby: The service
elevator is among the public elevator group, and the main lobby is
also used as a service lobby and
staging area. The elevator core
shape could be for a standard,
wider passenger elevator car. This
shape cannot accommodate stretchers. Alternatively, the service elevator core shape could be for the
deeper car type, with the remaining public elevators for the wider
car type. This results in a staggered
elevator core shape that could
negatively affect the surrounding
rentable area.
In rare cases, the entire public elevator group and service elevator
are arranged in the deeper car type
to achieve a uniformly shaped
elevator core. While a deeper car
serves well for service traffic, it is
not a preferred arrangement for
passenger traffic. Deeper car types
cause longer passenger transfer



Measurement & Analysis

for the Elevator/Escalator Industry
levator ride quality is a first indicator
of the quality of design, installation
and service. The EVA-625 has become

the International Standard for the

absolute measure and analysis of ride
quality and vibration & sound. The EVA
system includes powerful analytical
software tools to fully analyze all
aspects of the elevator mechanical
and control system.
The highly accurate response
of the EVA system, and the
powerful analysis capabilities
offered by the EVA
Elevator/Escalator Analysis

Ride Quality (re: ISO18738)

3 Axis Vibration, Sound Level
Maximum/A95/Jerk Zone
Peak to Peak

Performance (ISO18738)
Velocity (Maximum & V95)
(Maximum, A95)
Jerk (Maximum)

Drive Controller Function
Locate Rail Joint Misalignment
Guide Rollers
Sheave(s)/Ropes/Counter Weight
Frequency Analysis (FFT)

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Pre-Bid Analysis
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that is the result of the function of all dynamic aspects

of the elevator system. Problems with roller guides,


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the vibration and sound that people feel and hear, yet
allows analysis of the broad-band vibration and sound


Elevators / Escalators

The Absolute Measure . . .

Building Design


times at each stop, affecting round-trip time. In addition, the passengers stand as in a queue inside the
deeper car, which is an undesirable feeling.
Swing public/service elevator rear service lobby: The
service elevator is among the public elevator group but
has a through-type car with two car entrances at 90.
The front entrance is used for passenger traffic, while
the rear entrance is used for service traffic.

Typical Control Systems

Independent control mode: Service elevators are usually provided with independent key controls and card
readers to take command of the elevator for service
use. This is the ideal operation mode for service elevators, with which the service traffic is handled separate
from the public traffic.
Rear-entrance operation mode: Service elevators adjacent to public elevators and/or part of public elevator
groups are provided with group separation operation
controls and a dedicated set of car operating-panel
and hall-call stations, and indicators for rear-entrance
operation. Using a group separation control, the public elevator is removed from the group and becomes a
single service elevator. It then operates exclusively
based on commands from the rear-entrance controls.

(a) Patient beds

(d) Dirty linen carts

Figure 1: Types of service traffic within a hospital



Hospital Traffic Movement

In a hospital, there is a wide range of materials, equipment and supplies that need to be transported to various
floors through the service elevators (Figure 1). Operatives
and service personnel also require service elevators to
commute to upper floors. Materials and supplies are
different types that cannot be mixed but need dedicated
trips. Items such as hot food require rapid distribution.
Material movement within a hospital can be affected
by manually operated carts and trolleys or automated
guided vehicles.
Typically, the following types of service/personnel movements are observed within a hospital:
Patient beds and wheelchairs
Linen carts
Meal carts
Hot food distribution
Nourishment distribution
Housekeeping, stationery and administrative equipment
supply trolley
Scan/portable medical equipment movement
Pharmacy/clinical supply trolley
Waste collection (medical and nonmedical) trolley
Sterile items supply trolley

(b) Housekeeping trolleys

(e) Clean linen carts

(c) Meal delivery carts

(f) Automated guided vehicles

Building Design


Janitor, maintenance and support staff movement with

tools and trolleys
In addition to the general service traffic, non-ambulatory
patients movement is also necessary to move patients to
treatment/scan areas and operation theaters. Here, two
to three attendants accompany a patient. Depending on
the number of beds, transport cart sizes, dimensions and
volume of materials and various other operational factors,
the required number of elevator trips must be calculated,
and the total duration of elevator usage for hospital traffic
movement must be calculated.

Dedicated Service Elevator

Improved traffic flow: In large hospitals with a considerable number of upper floors and high occupancy rates,
the service traffic is high. By segregating and diverting
the service traffic to the dedicated service elevator, the
public elevators performance is unaffected with regard
to waiting times and trip times, especially during peak
hours. Also, public lobbies are clear of obstructions,
enabling faster public passenger transfers in and out of
elevator cars. Apart from everyday traffic, damage and
repair is restricted only to the dedicated service elevator,
and time lost in repair does not affect the performance
of the public elevator group.
Improved hygienic conditions: Patients within a hospital have weak immune systems and are thus prone to
infections. By using exclusive bed service elevators for
patient movement, infectious germs and contaminating
agents brought in by the visitors are restrained from
spreading to the patients. Also, any undesirable personal
hygiene practices of service elevator users is limited to
the service elevator. Finally, improper disinfection and
sanitizing of car interiors, and dirt, mold and fungi buildup
and odor inside a service elevator could otherwise affect
a sick patient.
Contact/droplet/airborne germs are generally present
in a common/public service elevator, as it carries sick
patients. Such germs can infect visitors when they touch
contaminated surfaces and objects (such as handrails or
push buttons). By using a dedicated bed service elevator,
visitors are protected against such infections. This also protects visitors against hazardous wastes and sharp objects.

Larger floor plate: Depending on the preferred service
elevators location within the plot limit, the floor plate
may need to be increased in order to accommodate the
service elevator cores, lobbies and staging area. A large
service lobby and staging area must be provided to match
the various turning radii of items moved. Rentable space
is lost to the dedicated service elevator.
Restrictions on material and service personnel flow:
With a dedicated service elevator, the operatives should use



a specific predetermined route to approach and exit the

service elevator. This route is typically laid away from the
main circulation routes and calls for more time spent to
reach a destination, which is often directly above the origin.
Additional costs: A dedicated service elevator adds to
the projects investment, operating and maintenance costs.
It also mandates additional expenses on the structural
elevator core; mechanical, electrical and plumbing service;
fire and life-safety equipment; communication systems; and
building-management equipment.

Swing Public/Service Elevators

Some concerns of healthcare planners about swing
public/service elevators include the following:
Public traffic into sanitized service zones: There is no
control of visitor movement, and visitors could penetrate
other hospital zones. These are usually kept sanitized
and are prone to contamination from visitor traffic.
Cross infection between patients and visitors: Patients
sick with communicable diseases can infect unsuspecting visitors. Similarly, visitors with or who recently had
communicable diseases can transfer germs to newborns
and patients with weak immune systems.
Unpleasant experience and breach of privacy: For visitors, looking at patients on wheelchairs/stretchers
could be an unpleasant experience. Similarly, a patients
privacy is breached when unknown visitors see the
patient, possibly causing embarrassment to the patient.
Tidiness and hygienic environment: General service
traffic (materials, food, supplies, etc.) brings in debris,
dirt, odor, spillover and stains. When not cleaned and
sanitized properly, these can cause mold and fungi
buildup inside the elevator car. Thus, a healthy environment cannot be guaranteed within general service
elevator cars at all times.
Injuries and health risks: General service traffic could
leave behind sharp objects, fluid leaks and radioactive
objects inside the public car. Sharp objects could cause
injuries to visitors and cause further infection. Hazardous healthcare waste could leave behind traces of
infectious agents and spread to visitors, causing further infections.
Other concerns about these elevators are:
Service elevators have larger capacities when compared to public elevators. However, a service elevator
is allowed to operate at a lower speed than public elevators, only needing to travel between the terminal
floors within 60 seconds. However, when part of a
public elevator group, the upgraded service elevator
cannot be slower, but must operate at a high speed in
order to satisfy the criterion of travel time between
destination floors. (The public elevators in a hospital
must travel between the terminal floors within 24 sec-

Cost savings: Initial investment cost is reduced, and cost

savings are made by eliminating an additional service
elevator and the related elevator infrastructure equipment.
Running costs pertaining to operating and maintaining
an additional service elevator are also eliminated.
More rentable space: By doubling the usage of a public
elevator as a service elevator, valuable rentable space
is freed on all floors.

Cab interiors and entrance architraves of a public elevator could be invariably damaged (even with the use
of protection pads) when used as a service elevator.
When damaged, repair takes time and requires shutdown of the public elevator. Until repaired, it presents
an inferior look to the public.
Odor, dirt, trash and stains are usually left behind after
service use.
Car size (1800)






600 (500)

Approximately 2440 with pump

attached to end of bed

elevator is part of a public elevator group, then any fire

at the public elevator area will shut down the elevators, including the service/firefighters elevator. This
will deprive the firefighters of an effective means of
vertical transportation for firefighting and rescuing.

Clear car size (2700)

onds.) In effect, this combination increases the initial

equipment cost.
Housekeeping, service and maintenance operatives
(with their tools and carts) must share the same lobby
as the visitors do. Visitors find it difficult to move in
and out of the lobby, and this increases passenger
transfer times. This also results in an untidy lobby.
Depending on the codes followed for a specific project,
there could be a risk of overloading the swing service/
public elevator car beyond the machinery capacity. For
example, Japanese elevator codes (Figure 2) allow 3.75
m2 for a 1000-kg capacity bed elevator. When used by
the public, the same elevator (due to its larger car area)
could be overloaded up to 80%. This could lead to a
very unsafe situation.
Service elevators are required to handle large beds,
furniture, etc. For this purpose, the entrance door size
(width and height) of a service elevator is quite different from that of public elevators. Hence, a service
elevators entrance door stands out in a public elevator lobby due to its unusually large size, (Figure 3).
Increasing the entrance size of a public elevator to
match that of a service elevator would only lead to
unnecessary equipment costs.
Since service elevators handle large beds and other
furniture, their lobbies must be spacious in order to
accommodate the turning radii with a sufficient working
clearance (Figure 4). When the service elevator is part
of a public elevator group, the lobby needs to be much
wider and deeper when compared to a public-only
lobby width and depth. More rentable space is lost,
which is loss of revenue.
It is always preferred to double the role of a service
elevator as a firefighters elevator. When there is a
dedicated service/firefighters elevator (away from the
public elevator group), it results in redundancy by
location, as any fire in the public elevator area will not
affect the service/firefighters elevator. However, if this


Figure 2: Comparison of car areas according to Japanese and European codes

Width of space for attendants

to turn bed 180 degrees


Car size,
Rated capacity
Equ. rated capacity Actual capacity as
area as per JEA
as per JEA
as per EN 81-1
per CIBSE Guide D
1500 mm x 2500 mm
1000 kgs. (13 persons) 1830 kgs. (24 persons) 19 persons
3.75 sq. mtrs.

4310 (3980)

(a) Passenger elevator

(b) Passenger elevator

(c) Service elevator

Figure 3: The larger entrance of a service elevator in a public elevator lobby

presents an odd look.

Length of space for attendants

to turn bed 180 degrees

Figure 4: Extra lobby width is required to accommodate the turning radius of

a large, motorized bed.

March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |


Building Design


Negative effects on the originally planned handling

capacity and waiting time of the public elevator group.
Under certain conditions (such as defective controls or
a lost key), the service operatives may end up using the
first available elevator in the public group for service
traffic. All the elevators in a public elevator group will
then be exposed to these disadvantages.

Design Considerations
Dedicated Service Elevator
If planning a dedicated service elevator or bed service
elevator, the following should be considered:
Based on number of floors and beds, and operational
factors, estimate the required quantity and intensity of
bed, wheelchair, trolley and cart movements, and
other maintenance/service personnel movements.
Estimate the running elevator hours consumed exclusively for bed/material movement. Justify the requirement for a dedicated service elevator.
Estimate car floor size, car clear height according to
desired cart/trolley sizes and their quantity per trip,
and the size of the largest equipment moved through
the elevator.
Estimate payload capacity according to the desired cart/
trolley loads per trip and the weight of the largest
equipment moved through the elevator.
Allow for a service entrance lobby with suitably sized
staging and operating space. The lobby must be selfcontained without extending into other functional space.
Allow for sufficient lobby width for the turning radius
of the equipment with the longest dimensions.
Estimate door clear width and height according to the
largest equipment dimensional requirements.
Locate the service elevator core away from public elevators to increase the redundancy level during fire
Verify the availability and connecting lobby to the alternate service elevator should the main one fail.
Avoid dirt-catching, hard-to-clean crevices, recesses and
joints inside the car.

Figure 5: Coved-end flooring



Use heavy-duty floor tiles with good tile grip or checkered plate flooring within the elevator car.
Use coved-end flooring to facilitate easy cleaning
(Figure 5).
Use easy-to-clean, smooth stainless-steel finishes for
cabin interiors.
Verify elevator interface requirements with automated
guided vehicles.
Allow for bumper/crash rails inside the car on all three
Allow for kick plates at the bottom level of the car to
absorb tire impacts.

Swing Public/Service Elevators

If planning a swing public/service (or a swing
public/bed service) elevator, the following should be
Estimate the required quantity and intensity of movements and running elevator hours as described above.
If this figure is large, do not use a swing public/service
Schedule the service trip timing so as not to clash with
peak-hour public traffic.
Avoid hot food distribution, which can create intense
traffic within a short duration (usually within 20 minutes). Instead, allow for devices at each floor to reheat
the food.
For nonperishable items (such as linen and administrative supplies), provide storage shelves at upper floors
and replenish stock during off-peak hours.
Do not also use the public entrance lobby for service
traffic. Always provide dedicated rear service entrance
and a rear service lobby.
Use special operating modes, communication devices,
delay alarms and visual indicators, forcing operators to
use the swing public/service elevator sensibly and to
return the elevator to public service promptly.

Figure 6: Card reader control inside elevator car

Devise suitable operational procedures (forms) to control and authorize the use of a public elevator as a
service elevator (Figure 6).
Allow for crash rails and permanent hooks at the top level
of the car for removable car protection pads (Figure 7).

Operation and Maintenance Considerations

In both dedicated and swing service elevators, implementing the following operational procedures can help
organize the service traffic evenly and improve public
health and hygienic conditions within a hospital:
Devise and implement material/service personnel movement policies and monitor compliance. Address issues
such as authorized usage and approved timelines for
service elevator usage, and record the duration of service elevator usage.
Include access security (card readers, passwords and
keys) for gaining exclusive command of elevator car
(Figure 6).
Include floor access security for sterile floors, burnsunit floors, etc.
Always use fully covered trolleys and carts, and soakfree disposal bags to transport loose or sharp objects.
Handle odor and stains securely and discreetly.

Maintain schedules for regular cleaning and sanitizing

service elevator cars. Conduct regular audits on schedule
compliance and surprise checks on the car interiors.

A hospital is a space for the sick to recuperate, and it
should provide a comfortable healing experience for patients and chaperones. For visitors, a hospital is also a space
that should be hygienic. For healthcare professionals, a hospital should also be functional, and easy to use and maintain.
A hospital operator cannot afford any shortcoming on
patient comfort, hygiene or public health. This could be
detrimental to the business aspirations of the hospital.
Expert selection and arrangement of transportation and
circulation elements are extremely essential in order to
maintain high levels of patient comfort, patient privacy
and public health. As consumer demand and awareness
for services and quality of services increase, it is the
authors understanding that a dedicated service elevator
will soon become the norm of the healthcare industry.
[1] AIA Guidelines For Design And Construction Of Health Care Facilities: 2006.
[2] Health Technical Memorandum 08-02: Lifts: 2010.
[3] CIBSE Guide D: Transportation Systems in Buildings: 2005.
[4] Japanese Industrial Standard A 4301:1983: Sizes of car and hoist way of

(b) Car protection pad

(c) Entrance protection pads

(a) Car with complete accessories: kick plate, handrail and crash rails

(d) Crash rail with handrail

Figure 7: Elevator car and entrance protection

March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |


Special Pre-Publication Price available at


joined Express Lift

Co. in Northampton, the U.K., in 1978. Over
the next 18 years, he held a range of positions with Express Lift. In 1996, he joined
the elevator engineering group at the University of Northampton (then Nene College)
as a Senior Lecturer, teaching the Lift and
Escalator Industry Association Professional
Diploma in Engineering (Lift and Escalator
Technology). He led the team that developed
the internationally recognized Northampton
MSc in Lift Engineering, then the Foundation Degree in Lift Engineering. In 2003, he was promoted to Principal Lecturer and Divisional Leader for engineering. From 2000 until his retirement
in 2004, Andrew served on the National Interest Review Committee for the
ASME/ANSI A17 code committee and represented the university on Committee MHE/4 of the British Standards Institution responsible for lift safety standards within the U.K.

joined the elevator engineering group at the

University of Northampton (then the University
College Northampton) as a senior lecturer in
2002. In 2003, he became the course leader
for MSc Lift Engineering, then postgraduate
field leader for Lift Engineering. He is currently Reader in Engineering Science at the
University of Northampton. Dr Kaczmarczyk
has published over 70 journal and international conference papers in the area of vertical transportation and elevator engineering. He has been serving on the
Institute of Physics Applied Mechanics Group Committee and initiated and
developed a series of international conferences linking the U.K. and overseas-based academic and industrial research groups working in the area
of mechanics of slender structures, with particular emphasis on applications in elevator engineering.


Lift 2010
by Robert S. Caporale, MSc
During the week of November 17, 2010 neither the frequent rain showers, nor the global economic climate did
much to dampen the spirits of those who attended Lift
2010 in Milan. The event was again held in the Fiera Milano Exhibition Center. Easily accessible from the onsite
Milan Metro station, the exhibition center provided an excellent, well-lit venue for the towering exhibit stands displaying multi-level lift-equipment systems. During this
biannual event, elevator industry members from across
the world visited the 172 exhibit stands which displayed
and demonstrated the latest elevator-industry equipContinued
ment, products and services.

March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |



Although there were fewer

participants and exhibitors
than at Lift 2008, Lift 2010
exhibitors indicated that the
quality of attendees was high.
The majority of exhibitors reported that many visitors were
also decision makers in the
industry and that participation
in the event was beneficial. The
attendees also stated that participation in the event was rewarding, while the exhibits and conferences were informative and
Stands that displayed the latest elevator door equipment;
operation and control systems;
and geared, gearless and machine-room-less (MRL) lift machines were included in the event.
A number of the exhibits included
two-stop elevators for commercial and residential use with
standard and customized interior car-enclosure finishes. Elevator monitoring systems equipped
with standard or project-specific
monitoring and video features
were also displayed.
As is often the case at European trade fairs, many of the
stands included accommodations
for private business meetings,
which appeared to take place a
lot throughout the event. In addition to Italian elevator industry association meetings, several educational conferences
were offered. Adjacent to the
exhibit area meeting rooms
provided excellent seating and
speaker accommodations at
the Rho Center, where these additional events also took place.
Speakers from Europe, Asia
and North America provided

Lift 2010

Lift 2010

In the


March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |


Lift 2010

In the




March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |


Component suppliers were in abundance at

the event, displaying limit switches, roller
guides, car and counterweight buffers, door
hangers and tracks, hoist ropes, electrical cables, hydraulic elevator pump units, tanks and
control systems. Several MRL lifts were also
displayed and available for viewing through
glass hoistway enclosures and, in some cases,
test riding.




information and offered their views on a wide range of topics. Most of the presentations were well attended.
The following conferences and meetings were held
during the event:
The Lift. . . How? At the Centre of the Project
Giancarlo Marzorati, Alberto Salvati,
Francesco Paolo Chieca, Sergio
Roccheggiani, Marco Battistelli,
Jessica Astolfi, Leonardo Servadio,
Giuseppe Maria Jonghi Lavarini and
Matteo Volpe
The Role of the Notified Bodies in the
Lift Safety Inspection
Gianfrancesco Vecchio, Antonella
DAlessandro and Vincenzo Correggia
The Italian Lift Component Industry
and the Made in Italy Lifts in the World
Fabrizio Nicoli, TAK Mathews,
Tadeusz Popielas, Undine StrickerBerghoff, Jean Claude Georges,
Luigi Martino, Paolo Vicini, Dario
Laffranchi and Fabio Liberali
International Markets: Up and Down
Fabio Liberali, Italy; Tadeusz Popielas,
Poland; TAK Mathews, India; Zhang
Lexiang, China; David Cooper, U.K.;
and Robert S. Caporale, U.S.
Accreditation and Constitution of the
Federation of Notified Bodies (ON/OA)
Michele Candreva, Roberto Cianotti,
G. Nicola Babini, Lorenzo Thione
and Mario Alvino
Educational Workshops for Foreign
The Italian Vertical Transportation
Industry: Structure & Trends
Fabio Liberali
Law Evolution of the Elevators in
Paolo Tattoli
Amendment A3 to the Laws EN 81-1 & 2: 1998
Against Uncontrolled Movements of the Elevator Cars
Giovanni Varisco
Lift 2010 was an exceptional elevator-industry event,
and was very much appreciated by attendees and reported to be a good investment of resources for the exhibitors.
The next Lift expo is scheduled to be held in 2012. For
more information, visit website:




Lift 2010

March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |



City of Miami Beach:

Representation of an Authority Having Jurisdiction
by John Antona
Chief, Elevator Safety Section, Miami Beach, Florida, USA

This paper was presented at
Lucerne 2010, the International Congress on
Vertical Transportation Technologies and first
published in IAEE book Elevator Technology
18, edited by A. Lustig. It is a reprint with
permission from the International Association
of Elevator Engineers

(website: This paper is an exact reprint

and has not been edited by ELEVATOR WORLD.
Key Words: Elevators, jurisdiction, violation,
safety, contracted, inspector

Giancarlo (John) Antona began his career as the

General Manager of Mabrat Electrical Technical &
Trading Company in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. After
immigrating to the United States, he worked for
Dover Elevator Company for 14 years: first, as Sales
Engineer in Los Angeles, then as Branch and
District Manager in Sacramento; subsequently, he
was promoted to Dover Regional Service Manager
in the New York area and then opened the Dover
New York City office, where he was delegated the
position of District Manager. John left Dover to
join U.S. Elevator Company in Los Angeles as
their Southern California Zone Manager. In 1998
he moved to Miami, Florida, where he has been
employed for the last 12 years as Chief of the
Elevator Safety Section for the City of Miami Beach.
John is a Certified Elevator Inspector Supervisor
(QEIS) with the National Association of Elevator
Safety Authorities International (NAESA). He is
also Chairman of the Florida State Elevator Safety
Technical Advisory Council, a member of the
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and
serves on the A17 Regulatory Advisory Council
and Inspections Committee. John holds a B.A. in
Business Administration and is fluent in Italian,
French and English.

The City of Miami Beach is one of

five jurisdictions delegated by the
State of Florida to administer and
enforce regulations governing the
design, construction, installation,
alteration, inspection and testing
of more than 2,000 City elevators.
Utilizing standardized forms and
reports, and demonstrating manpower
flexibility with an inspection program
that employs both private and City
inspectors, costs have been controlled
and program efficiency has been
strengthened. This paper illustrates
the structure of an Authority Having
Jurisdiction, including: States delegation of authority, organization charts,
inspection reports and forms, responsibilities of private and City inspectors,
and the local ordinance process.

The City of Miami Beach (CMB)
was incorporated on March 26, 1915.
It is currently governed by a city
commission, composed of a publicly-elected mayor and six commissioners, who together serve as the
policy-making body of the City. The
City Manager ensures that policies,
directives, resolutions and ordinances
adopted by the City Commission are
enforced and implemented.
Miami Beach is a small, big city,
beach town with a variety of residents.
A 24-hour, 7 day-a-week restless population of citizens and tourists mingle
with the easy-going, slow-paced
retirement community often, they
co-exist in the same neighborhood.
The CMB is actually situated on a
7.1-square mile island located directly

to the east of the City of Miami, and

it is connected to the mainland by
four main bridges. There are 93,721
permanent residents, with at least an
equal number of visitors. Within the
CMB limits, there are 9,000 residential units per square mile, 2 million
square feet of office space, 16,000
hotel rooms and 3,400 businesses
a U.S. density second only to the
island of Manhattan, New York City.
Vertical transportation is a critical
element of the infrastructure because
the CMB must serve such a large and
diverse population.
The CMB was designated as an
Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ)
in 1990, pursuant to Chapter 399,
Florida State Statutes, after signing an
Interagency Agreement with the State
of Florida, Department of Business
and Professional Regulations (DBPR),
Division of Hotels and Restaurants.
Under this Authority, the CMB can
administer and enforce regulations
governing the design, construction,
installation, alteration, inspection and
testing of elevators. Other Florida
jurisdictions enjoying the same privilege are the City of Miami, Reedy
Creek Improvement District (the environs of Disney World), Miami-Dade
County, and Broward County (Fort
Lauderdale area). The Bureau of
Elevator Safety (BES), within DBPR,
monitors the States Contracted
Jurisdictions (CJ) for compliance and
is the AHJ for remaining territories in
the State of Florida.
The CMB disengaged from MiamiDade County and opened an independent Elevator Safety Section (ESS)




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as a component of the Citys Building Department for

several reasons.
To improve the process leading to issuance of Certificates of Occupancy by providing local coordination
between different building trades during plan reviews
and inspection processes, thereby facilitating timely
completion of projects.
To improve the safety of the riding public by managing
elevator inspections and witnessing of tests, and by
enforcing compliance at the City level.
To improve communication and provide better service
to constituents by following up on complaints and
other issues that require intervention.
The ESS is managed by a Chief Elevator Inspector. He
is assisted by two Senior Elevator Inspectors who perform compliance and permitted inspections, and by one
Permit Clerk. They are complemented by administrative
support personnel within the Building Department. Additionally, three Contracted Inspection Companies (CICos)
assist the ESS with periodic inspections and tests of
existing elevators; the CICos report directly to the Chief
Inspector. Comprehensive roles of the ESS and CICos are
detailed under Section 2, Organization.
Assigned responsibilities of the ESS and CICos include
the periodic inspection and witnessing of tests, with
related compliance inspections, of more than 2,000 elevator units. In combination, these inspections result in
consistent enforcement of units with pending violations.
Additionally, acceptance inspections and annual tests are
conducted on approximately 60 units, in concert with
more than 400 permits for alterations and repairs.

Perfection is achieved not when there is nothing more to
add, but when there is nothing left to take away.
Antoine de Saint-Exupery.

a reasonable fee for inspections performed by its

inspectors. Each agreement shall include a provision that the municipality or county shall maintain
for inspection by the department copies of all
applications for permits issued, a copy of each
inspection report issued, and proper records showing the number of certificates of operation issued;
shall include a provision that each required inspection be conducted by a certified elevator inspector;
and may include other provisions as the department deems necessary. The county shall enforce
the Florida Building Code as it applies to this chapter and may impose fees and assess and collect
fines as part of its enforcement activities. A county
or municipality may not issue or take disciplinary
action against a certificate of competency, an elevator inspector certification, an elevator technician
certification, or an elevator company registration.
However, the department may initiate disciplinary
action against a registration or certification at the
inspections be performed by its own inspectors or by private certified elevator
of a county
or assess
inspectors. The municipality
or county may
a reasonable fee for inspections
by department
its inspectors. Eachmay
include a provision
(2) The
municipality or county shall maintain for inspection by the department copies of all
for permits
issued, a copy ofor
inspection report
in the
for issued,
the and
records showing the number of certificates of operation issued; shall include a
that the
of this
that each required inspection
be conducted
by a certified
inspector; are
and may include other provisions as the department deems necessary. The county shall
with any
enforce the Florida Building Code as it applies to this chapter and may impose fees
and assess
and collect fines or
as part
of its enforcement
A county or finds
that theactivities.
municipality may not issue or take disciplinary action against a certificate of
elevator to
an elevator
technician certification,
the contract
or this orchapan elevator company registration. However, the department may initiate disciplinary
ter. aThe
by this act
action against
or certification at theto
of a county399
or municipality.
(2) The department may make inspections of elevators in the municipality or county
for the alteration
purpose of determining
that the
provisions offor
this chapter
are being
met and has
of an
a permit
may cancel the contract with any municipality or county that the department finds has
1990. to chapter 399 by
failed tobeen
comply issued
with the contract
or this
chapter. The
this act shall apply only to the installation, relocation, or alteration of an elevator for

a permit has
been issued
after October 1, 1990.

Figure 1 illustrates the structure of the Bureau of

Elevator Safety and its relationship to the State of Florida
Figure 1 illustrates the structure of the Bureau of Elevator Safety and its relationship to the
State ofContracted
Florida and Contracted
Jurisdictions (CJ).(CJ).
2.2 Florida State Structure

2.1. Delegation of Statutory Authority

The Elevator Safety Act (2009) delegates Authority to
the CMB to enforce applicable provisions of the Florida
Building Code:
Chapter 399.13 Delegation of Authority to Municipalities or Counties
(1) The department may enter into contracts with
municipalities or counties under which the municipalities or counties will issue construction permits
and certificates of operation; will provide for inspection of elevators, including temporary operation inspections; and will enforce the applicable
provisions of the Florida Building Code, as required
by this chapter. The municipality or county may
choose to require inspections be performed by
its own inspectors or by private certified elevator
inspectors. The municipality or county may assess

State of Florida
Department of Business and Professional Regulations (DBPR)

Elevator Safety Technical

Advisory Council

Division of Hotels and Restaurants

Bureau of Elevator Safety (BES)

Miami Dade County

Broward County
City of Miami
City of Miami Beach
Reedy Creek Improve. Dist.

Contracted Jurisdictions (CJ)

9,850 units: 11 Inspectors Private inspections by owner
9,450 units: 11 Inspectors Only County inspections
3,300 units: 3 Inspectors Private inspections by owner
2,200 units: 3 Inspectors City contracted inspections
700 units: 3 Inspectors Only District inspections

State Jurisdiction
50,662 units 12 Inspectors Private inspections by owner
Figure 1. Structure
of Florida
State Bureau
of Elevator
Safety Safety
Figure 1. Structure
of Florida
of Elevator

The Florida State BES, Miami-Dade County, and the

City of Miami require building owners to hire a private
inspector to perform required periodic inspections and





witnessing of tests. Private inspectors must submit a copy

of their inspection report to the BES, or to the CJ and to
the building owner, within five days after the date of
inspection; failure to do so may result in suspension or
revocation of the certification provided to the individual
responsible for the inspection. Broward County relies
solely on inspectors employed by the County; Reedy
Creek Improvement District relies solely on inspectors
employed by the District.
The CMB combines both inspection systems and has
contracted three private inspection agencies to perform
periodic inspections and tests. In addition, the CMB has
two senior elevator inspectors performing compliance 5
inspections, acceptance inspections, and tests for new 5
elevators and existing units being modernized, or for
repairs requiring a permit.

2.3 CMB Structure, Functions, and Processes

AHJ Regulatory Authority is, the person or organization
responsible for the administration and enforcement of the
applicable legislation or regulation governing the design,
construction, installation, operation, inspection, testing,
maintenance, or alteration of equipment covered by this
Code. (ASME A17,1.-2005). Only those individuals who
are Certified Elevator Inspectors with the American Society
of Mechanical Engineers, holding the Qualified Elevator
Inspector (QEI) credential, and who are registered with
Florida State, DBPR, BES, are permitted to conduct elevator inspections within the CMB. The Citys Chief Elevator
Inspector carries an Inspector Supervisor certification.

2.3.1 Re-Organization and Structure of the CMB ESS

A series of events about two years ago served as a catalyst for the current structure of the Citys ESS. The ESS
found it increasingly difficult to schedule and perform
periodic inspections and witnessing of tests due to
increased regulatory requirements. The ESS asked City
administrative officials to provide an additional inspector
to supplement the ESS staff of four Inspectors and one
Chief. During this period, one of the City inspectors
resigned and a new Building Director assumed control of
the Building Department.
The ESS was then faced with employing two inspectors during a hiring freeze. The new Building Director and
ESS Chief brainstormed different scenarios, compared
feasibility studies, and finally devised a practical, flexible
and convenient solution: bid periodic inspections and

Did you

In 1953, the year ELEVATOR WORLD was

founded, the cost of a postage stamp was
$.03, and a loaf of bread was just $.16. Any
idea what the cost for a one-year subscription
to ELEVATOR WORLD was? See page 74 for
the answer.


witnessing tests to inspection companies capable of providing qualified inspectors on demand. The City would
continue collecting fees from building owners and pay
the inspection companies for services, on an as-needed
basis. This proposal was approved by City administrators,
a procurement bid was issued for inspection services,
and three companies were selected to fulfill the contract.
The City now authorizes certified inspectors to cover
fluctuations in workload and eliminate bottlenecks, while
controlling costs in periods of high and low demand.

2.3.2 Functions of the ESS

Basic functions of the ESS are divided into three categories: Inspections, Administrative and Managerial, described further in Table 1 and Table 2, below.
1. City
of Miami
ESS Inspections
Table 1. City of
Table 1. City of Miami Beach ESS Inspections

Periodic Inspections
Periodic Inspections
of Tests, Category 1 Joint
Witnessing of
of Tests,
Tests, Category
Category 13 Joint
Witnessing of
of Tests,
Tests, Category
Category 35 Joint
of Tests, Category 5 Joint
Accident Reports
Inspections, Field Investigations
Field Investigations
Elevators Sealed
From Public Use
Report of Elevators
Acceptance Tenant
and Tests Joint
Use Inspections
Tenant Useand
Tests Joint
Inspectionsand Tests Joint
Tenant Use Inspections
Construction Use Inspections and Tests Joint
Construction Use Inspections and Tests Joint

12 months
By appointment
By appointment
By appointment

Table 2. City of Miami Beach ESS Administrative and Managerial

Table 2. City of Miami Beach ESS Administrative and Managerial Functions
Table 2. City of Miami Beach ESS Administrative and Managerial Functions


Entry of
of all
all Daily
Computerized Entry
Violations for
for Special
Special Master
Issuing Violations
Court Appearance
Violations for
for Customers
Research Violations
Plan Reviews
Building Plan
Applications, Elevator
Elevator Plan
Permits, Applications,
Filing, Phones
Typing, Filing,
Billing, Mailing
Annual Billing,
Managing Accounts
of Operation:
Operation: Research,
Certificates of
Grant Variances
Reports to the State
State of
of Florida
Quality Control Inspections
Manage and Coordinate
Coordinate all
all Functions
Customer Service
Coordination of Rules
Rules with
with State
State Meetings
National A17 Meetings

Figure 2,
2, below,
below, provides
provides an overview of
of the
the Distribution
Distribution of
CICos work
with assigned
Elevator Service
Companies (ESCos)
2, provides
an overview
of theand
Inspector. The
ESS Inspector verifies submitted
submitted reports
reports of
the ESS. CICos work with assigned
computer data

Elevator Service Companies (ESCos) and they report to

an ESS Inspector. The ESS Inspector verifies submitted
reports of violations for accuracy before they are entered
into the computer data system.


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Catalog and Inquires



205, 301, 302, 303,
304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309

109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 205, 305, 309

CICo 1
101, 102, 103, 104
Assigned ESCo

201, 204, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211

105, 106, 107, 108, 202, 203, 305, 309

CICo 2
101, 102, 103, 104
Assigned ESCo

CICo 3
101, 102, 103, 104
Assigned ESCo

Tasks by Function
Figure 2. Distribution ofDistribution
Tasks byofFunction
The CMB produces invoices

Processes of the ESS

- Modernization
and Repair
Figure 3, below, illustrates theThe
Cycle. The CMB produces invoices
and collects
Only ESS performs
these inspections
to ensure
owners to support administrative costs and
enforce compliance of existing units inspected by both
the ESS and CICos. The New Modernization and Repair
Distribution of Tasks by Function
Cycle requires elevator contractors to pay for permit
applications to install equipment and
for produces
by ESS Inspectors. Only
The New - Modernization and Repair
inspections to ensure consistent and uniform requirements
Only ESS performs these inspections to ensure
new and altered units.

the ESCo and provide a copy the violations report to the

owner and a copy to the ESCo. The original report is submitted to the coordinating ESS Inspector and scanned
into the ESS computer system. After 30 days, the report is
flagged for compliance verification and sent to the ESS
Inspector. If the elevator is found compliant, violations
are closed and a Certificate of Operation is mailed to the
owner. If found non-compliant, the report becomes a
violation and a case is opened for the Special Master Court,
where fines may be assessed. If fines are not paid, a lien
may be placed on the property, and/or the elevator may
removed from service. When compliance is achieved,
a Certificate of Operation is given to the owner.
Issued by Inspection Due Date and by ESCO
Issued To CICo
Conducts combined visit: inspection and
witnessing of tests
1 copy violation report to ESCo
1 copy violation report to owner (or posted)

Coordinates inspection, witnessing
and proper building access with ESCo


CMB bills yearly
for inspection and witnessing
of tests

Employing ESS

Building Owners
Pay invoice to

ESS Provides required

witnessing of tests

Enforces compliance

Employing CICOs

Witnessing Report
to ESS

Provides required

Issues permit to install

ESS Inspectors

Enforces compliance

Figure 3. ESS Process Cycles ESS Process Cycles

Figure 4 provides a description of the CMB Inspection

and Witnessing Process. Illustrated are the steps involved
by both CICo and ESS Inspectors to complete all functions
by task, from the day the inspection request is generated
to issuance of final Certificate of Operation.
Work Orders are issued to each CICo, divided by ESCo.
The Work Orders, by due dates, identify units needing
combined periodic inspections and annual tests, and separately, those units requiring periodic 5-year tests. CICos
coordinate building access and witnessing of tests with

Did you know?


In 1953, a one-year subscription

to EW cost $3.00, and a single
issue was $.35.


Verified by
ESS Inspector


Chief approves &

forwards to

Invoice for services

received from CICo

ESS Process
Elevator Contractor
Applies and pays for
permit to install

Inspection Report
to ESS

Reports scanned by
clerical (daily)
1 copy: CICo folder
1 copy: permit
database (30-day red


Inspection by
ESS Inspector

ESS Inspector


Inspection by
ESS Inspector

ESS Inspector to
open case in
Special Master


30-day flag

Verification of
compliance by ESS

ESS Inspector

Owner is
ordered to


Inspection and Witnessing Process

Figure 4. Inspection and Witnessing Process

2.4 Retroactive Compliance

Another important aspect of an AHJ is retroactive compliance on existing installations, as required by ASME
A17.3 and adopted by the State of Florida. Retroactive
compliance can be expensive and place a heavy burden
on the owner. The ESS has the authority to grant a variance on the installation, if the owner provides a Plan of
Corrective Action (PCA) acceptable to the Chief Elevator
Inspector. Figure 5 provides an illustration of the steps
required to obtain compliance with major violations or
retroactive ASME A17.3 violations.















































































Retroactive compliance can be

The ESS has the authority to grant a

A17.3 or Major Violations

Owner - Submits request for Variance and a PCA with extension of time


AHJ Chief verifies validity of request

Post Variance in Machine Room

30 days to comply

Owner submits final PCA to AHJ



Post Warning


Issue Violation,
Take to Court


AHJ Chief Verifies validity


Provide temporary
Certificate of Operation

Post Warning

Company applies for

Permit to install

Issue Violation,
Take to Court

Final Inspection

Procedure for Complying with A17.3 and Major Violations

Figure 5. Procedure
for Complying with A17.3 and Major Violations

After receiving an ASME A17.3 violation, a building

owner must submit a Request for Variance, with an initial
Plan of Corrective Action (PCA), to the ESS Chief. The
request specifies time required to seek proposals for the
work, to apply for and obtain funds for costs involved
with the PCA, and for assigning contracts to an elevator
and/or fire alarm company, and an electrical/mechanical
contractor, if necessary. The ESS Chief verifies the
validity of the PCA and grants a Variance, allowing for
use of the elevator while compliance of A17.3 violations
is in progress.
Within 90 days, the owner must submit a final PCA
with a copy of all signed contracts. The elevator permit
becomes the master permit for the project, while fire,
electrical, mechanical are treated as sub-permits. When
all inspections are completed and final inspection is
passed, the elevator(s) is issued a Certificate of Operation.
This process may take as long as five years for large
projects involving several elevators. Coordination of each
function between the ESS and the owner is essential to
ensure that building tenants are properly informed and
that the project is completed without exposing employees
and the public to unsafe conditions.

2.5 Local Ordinances

Local ordinances are also used to enforce compliance
above and beyond regulations codified by the State of
Florida or enumerated in National standards. They are
applied in specific local situations requiring special attention. One such example is CMB Ordinance 2009-3636,
issued in an ESS bulletin (Appendix A) after it was approved
by the Mayor and City Commission. This Ordinance provides more stringent regulations on ADA Lifts in response


to complaints received from visitors, and slow responses

from building owners, to comply with ADA requirements
through the standard violation process.


Laws too gentle are seldom obeyed; too severe, seldom

Benjamin Franklin
The goal of any AHJ is to protect the safety and welfare
of the riding public. This is done by ensuring that building
owners abide with the letter of regulatory codes which
serve as guiding processes to ensure safety and reliability.
At a minimum, an AHJ must be capable of performing
inspections and witnessing of tests at required intervals,
maintain records of all violations issued, and, after a prescribed time, assure that building owners have complied
with corrections of violations. It is only then, after these
essential tasks have been accomplished, that an AHJ
should authorize issuance of a Certificate of Operation.
The CMB has accomplished this critical mission by creating and achieving a full inspection cycle and by controlling compliance at the local level. With the incorporation
of an independent Section within the CMB Building
Department, ESS was molded on the desires and complexities of its constituents. Yet, the ESS has maintained its
authority to enforce State statutes and industry rules and
regulations designed for the safety of the riding public.
What truly distinguishes Miami Beach from other jurisdictions is the Citys innovative approach of using contracted inspectors to perform periodic inspections and
tests. Contracted inspection companies can adjust the
number of their inspectors according to fluctuating
demands provided by ESS Work Orders. Delays can now
be attributed to elevator companies providing insufficient
manpower to comply with inspection schedules, rather than
to failures of the ESS. Another distinctive feature of the
CMB can be attributed to the exclusive assignment of
compliance inspections and code enforcement requirements
to CMB inspectors; consequently, these assignments are
strictly controlled by the City jurisdictional authority.
With a more efficient distribution of administrative and
managerial functions, ESS inspectors now provide valuable customer service to constituents responding to
complaints concerning vertical transportation questions,
and offering, when necessary, clarification of violations
issued by contracted inspectors. ESS Inspectors also have
time to provide advice concerning best methods to comply with pending violations.
There are noticeable differences when a comparison is
made between inspection and compliance processes of
private elevator inspectors (as used in other jurisdictions),

service and safety to all who live, work, and play in our
vis--vis City-employed and contracted inspectors, as
vibrant, tropical, historic community.
used in the CMB. Private inspectors are hired by building
owners or by an elevator company maintaining the project
employment that may lead to conflicts of interest. To
The author acknowledges Alex Rey, Building Department
comply with jurisdictional authorities, private inspectors
Director, City of Miami Beach, for providing valuable
may have to write an extensive report of inspection
information in the preparation of this paper. Special
acknowledgement is also extended to Kathleen Antona
violations. To satisfy the authorities, building owners may
for assistance in editing and formatting this paper.
be forced to spend large sums of money, soliciting a neg6. REFERENCES
ative reaction toward the inspector. Similarly, writing
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (2005). Part 1: General, In:
violations that demonstrate poor service by an elevator
Addenda to ASME A17.1-2004 Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators,
company generates the companys negative reaction
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, pp. 1-15.
Chapter 399, Elevator Safety, Florida Statutes, Rule 399.13.
toward the inspector. Consequently, private inspectors
Construction Standards, Miami Beach City Code, Chapter 14, Article 2,
may feel reluctantly forced to relax their professional
Section 14-403 (2009). Ordinance No. 2009-3636, Enforcement of NonFunctioning Wheelchair Lifts.
judgment and engage in bad business practices.
If a city has been delegated as an
Authority Having Jurisdiction concerning elevators, all plan reviews for
different trades, including elevators,
will be coordinated at the local level
when new buildings are designed.
City of M iami Beach, 1700 Convention Center Drive, Miami Beach, Florida 33139.
On the other hand, if the Authority
BUILDING DEPARTMENT Elevator Safety Section
Having Jurisdiction for elevators is at
Tel: 305-673-7000 ext. 6830, Fax: 786.394.4040
a county or state level, there will be no
coordination for plan reviews between
JULY 1, 2009
elevators and the other building
trades. This may result in a process
that leads to costly errors and can
delay completion of projects.
It is the authors opinion, echoed
by Benjamin Franklins thoughts, that
code enforcement must be neither
too severe nor too gentle. The use of
unsafe and defective lifting devices
creates a significant probability of
serious and preventable injury, as well
$ 250.00
as exposes employees and the public
$ 500.00
to unsafe conditions, and municipal4 OFFENSE WITHIN A MOVING 12 MONTH PERIOD:
$ 1,000.00
$ 2,000.00
ities to potential liability. Enforcement
must accommodate the needs of
local constituents, while assuring
compliance with the critical AHJ goal
of providing for the safety of life and
limb. Including the ESS as a vital
component of the CMB Building
Department, and therefore as an
extension of the CMB government,
assures congruence with the Citys
ted to providing excellent public
March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |


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Exhibitors: V
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Project Spotlight

KONE Jump Lifts

Installed in the Shard
by Jennifer Chatham

Jennifer Chatham is a U.K.-based freelance

property and construction writer, with a
focus on the elevator and escalator industry.

In August 2010, KONE announced that its first Jump Lift in the U.K. was installed in the Shard London Bridge (ELEVATOR WORLD, July 2009). Developed
by KONE as a self-climbing elevator system, the Jump Lift provides an alternative to exterior hoists. The lift functions by using the buildings permanent shaft
during the construction phase and moves higher or jumps in the shaft as the
building gets taller. It allows shaft construction and lift installations to continue at the higher levels while the lift is operating in the same shaft at the
lower levels, below a protection deck.
This approach enables the lift shafts to be used to aid construction at the
same time as being fitted out with permanent cars and put into service as construction progresses. The system is expected to improve the efficiency and
safety of a buildings construction.
The principal contractor on the Shard is Mace, an international consultancy
and construction company. Coordinating with Mace, KONE has worked to ensure that the Jump Lifts meet the requirements of the delivery program. The
first lift has a capacity for 21 people and 1600 kg, and will mainly be used to
deliver site workers up and down the structure. It will initially serve up to level
12 and eventually extend to level 26.
Tony Palgrave, construction director for Mace on the Shard, stated:
This solution is fundamental to our strategy of transporting people and materials quickly and efficiently to the top of the building and down again in the
safest possible way. It represents our ongoing commitment to finding better
ways to deliver this landmark project.
Michael Williams, managing director of KONE U.K., added:
We work hard to deliver pioneering solutions for clients and it has been a privilege to be involved with Mace on such a significant project as the Shard. KONE
Jump Lifts are an innovative solution that improve people and goods flow, and
speeds up construction. Our team has worked closely with Mace to ensure
[that] the installation of the Jump Lifts runs smoothly and enhances the conContinued
struction process.
March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |


KONE Jump Lifts

Installed in the Shard


Eventually, there will be a total of five Jump Lifts on the project, the largest
of which will be equipped to transport 45 people, with a capacity of 3500 kg,
serving up to level 34. The lifts will follow the rise of the structure into the London skyline. The highest of the Jump Lifts will go to level 66. KONE is supplying and installing a total of 10 escalators and 36 lifts at the Shard, including the
five Jump Lifts and 13 double-deck lifts.
The 310-m-tall project is being developed by the Sellar Group, a strategic
real-estate investment and development company. Construction of the skyscraper began in 2008 and completion is scheduled for May 2012. More than
twice the height of the London Eye and adjacent to London Bridge railway station, the 70-story Shard is the first phase of the London Bridge Quarter regeneration scheme, covering almost two million sq. ft. The Shard will provide
586,509 sq. ft. of office space, residential apartments, a five-star hotel, restaurants and viewing galleries offering 360 views of London.
When first announcing the contract to supply the elevators and escalators,
Ari Lehtoranta, executive vice president and area director for Central and
North Europe at KONE, stated:
We are extremely pleased to be chosen by Teighmore Ltd., Mace and Renzo
Piano Building Workshop for this project. Renzo Pianos building design will be
a wonderful addition to the skyline of London.

Additional Jump Lift Projects

Despite being the first Jump Lift to be installed in the U.K., this solution has
played a role in the international construction marketplace for more than 20

Labeled shaft diagram



Lift shaft in the Shard

years. The first Jump Lifts were developed and installed in Australia in the late
1970s, and the first self-climbing Jump Lift was installed by KONE in 1988 at
the Waterfront Place project in Brisbane, Australia.
Since that time, the solution and process has been further developed. Most recently, one of the largest Jump Lift projects in the world
was completed the Marina Bay Sands project in Singapore where
there are 13 KONE Jump Lifts installed.
Currently, the tallest building that uses Jump Lifts is the 381-m Elite
Residence Tower in Dubai. This tower will be completed in September
and will include some of the largest (4000 kg-capacity) and fastest (4
mps) Jump Lifts that KONE has installed.
So, what made KONEs R&D teams totaling around 600 people at
various facilities throughout the world focus their attention on the development of such technology?
KONEs U.K. Managing Director Michael Williams explains:
One of the biggest logistical challenges during any construction project
is getting building workers, materials and goods to the right place at the
right time, with maximum safety and efficiency. This is a big challenge
for any project. With optimum planning and the right combination of
people-flow solutions, builders can save hundreds of man hours every
day, and weeks or even months on every project. The cost and environmental benefits of these savings are enormous. The traditional exterior
hoisting system that has been used for over 50 years at construction
sites around the world has long been a focus of concern in relation to
safety and efficiency.
KONEs Jump Lift technology helps replace the need for traditional
systems, which can increase productivity on the work site due to higher
speeds, larger loads and safer transportation channels. Workers spend

The Shard


March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |


KONE celebrated its centenary
in October 2010. From its start as a
tiny machine shop in Helsinki, it
has become a company with approximately 34,000 employees and
operations worldwide. Today, it is
among the technology leaders and
has established itself as a major
player in the worlds fastest-growing markets, as well as maintained
its position in its traditional markets.
It has more than 30 elevator test
shafts, where all innovations are
trialled and developed. KONEs
high-rise laboratory is one of the
tallest such facilities in the world,
located 333 m underground in the
Tytyri mine in Lohja, Finland. Elevators with speeds up to 17 mps
can be tested. The mineshaft is an
underground community with an
intricate network of shafts, transportation routes and tunnels, and
is a tribute to the future of verticaltransportation solutions.


KONE Jump Lifts

Installed in the Shard


less time waiting for exterior hoists and more time working. There is minimal
disruption, a safer working environment and the ability for a team to continue
to work in various weather conditions.
The increased productivity helps every trade and service partner on the site
work in the safest and most efficient way. The building owner can choose to
put completed floors into active use, offering the option to generate business

What Is a Jump Lift?

The KONE Jump Lift is a self-climbing elevator system that is installed as
soon as the first levels of completed floors are emerging. As soon as the elevator shaft can be waterproofed, technicians start installing the permanent lift
equipment, which forms part of the Jump Lift solution. The Jump Lift then uses
the buildings permanent hoistway for construction-time use, putting completed floors into use while allowing the installation to continue above.
Delivering the earlier availability of a permanent elevator, the Jump Lift
houses a temporary machine room that moves upward (jumps) in the hoistway under its own power as the construction work progresses. The temporary
machine room is installed inside the shaft, and the elevator can begin service
for the first two floors as soon as the building reaches floor seven. Typical, recommended jumps are three floors at a time to a maximum of five, although
each jump can be carried out at times that suit other construction activities.
From the third floor onwards, the lift starts moving manpower, as well as
small equipment to the relevant floors, all the way to the top. When the building structure is finished, changing over to the permanent elevator is a straightforward matter of installing the final machinery and finishing the material surfaces of the elevator car, landing doors and signalization.


Numero 20 - Italy


MONTEFERRO: one identity for many companies.

From Europe to Asia, from North America to South America the mission of our group is the same:
to provide our customers with the best service for guide rails systems.
This is our experience, our strength and our vision.
And this is our great Identity.

Simply Up



Elevator Movies, Part One

by Dr. Lee Gray

Lee Gray is associate dean for the College of

Architecture at the University of North CarolinaCharlotte with a specialty in architectural history.
He earned his PhD in Architectural History from
Cornell University. He is a
member of the Southeast
Chapter of the Society of
Architectural Historians
and has published several
articles and one book on
vertical transportation and
skyscrapers. Gray is curator of theelevatormuseum
.org, created by ELEVATOR
WORLD. His most recent book, From Ascending
Rooms to Express Elevators: A History of the
Passenger Elevator in the 19th Century, is available in the museum bookstore at www.elevator

The release last year of M. Night

Shyamalans Devil, in which an elevator serves as the primary location
for much of the movies action,
caused me to wonder if other movies
have relied on the elevator as more
than just a prop that facilitates
action. I have already discussed one
of the most famous of these movies,
Lady in a Cage (1964), in my Its Only
a Movie (ELEVATOR WORLD, April
2007). However, I was curious to see
if I could find more films that used
the elevator as a primary setting.
Thus far, I have found seven movies
that fit this criteria. These films, produced between 1974 and 2010, will
be the subject of a three-part series.
Some films will be examined in
detail, while others will be examined
in a more cursory fashion. It should,
however, be noted that in most
instances, these films should be
approached with great caution by
industry members, as they may make
you laugh (or perhaps even cry) for
all the wrong reasons and at the
wrong time (at least as far as the
filmmaker is concerned).
The first movie in this series followed the star-studded disaster movie
theme that began with Airport (1970)
and included The Poseidon Adventure
(1972), Earthquake (1974) and The
Towering Inferno (1974). However,
unlike its predecessors and contemporaries, this film was produced not
for the big screen, but for TV. On
February 9, 1974, the ABC Movie of
the Week was The Elevator. The cast,
while perhaps not star studded, did
feature many well-known actors:
James Farentino, Roddy McDowall,
Craig Stevens, Don Stroud, Teresa
Wright, Myrna Loy, Carol Lynley,

Arlene Golonka, Barry Livingston

and Jean Allison. The plot was simple it centered on the plight of eight
people who become trapped in an
elevator. While on the surface, this
seems to lack any particular drama
(in a normal situation, the passengers would simply wait quietly
for rescue by trained personnel),
Hollywood provided the necessary
components to ensure appropriate
suspense. In fact, the movie falls into
the category of thriller/drama.
The audience is introduced to the
elevator when the building manager
(Roddy McDowall) takes a prospective tenant (Myrna Loy) up to the
penthouse office suite. During the
ride, the building manager notes
that the modern elevator travels at
the remarkable speed of 10 fps. The
setting for the elevator is an underconstruction 40-story skyscraper;
although its lower and upper floors
have been completed and are partially occupied, the interiors of floors
23 through 35 have not been completed and are vacant. The accident
occurs on a Friday prior to a threeday weekend. The building is scheduled to close at 5:00, and all tenants
and visitors are expected to leave,
with only two security guards and a
custodian remaining in the building.
The accident occurs approximately 25
minutes into the movie, which is 75
minutes long.
The stage is set for the accident
when 10 passengers, including two
workmen transporting a 700-pound
safe on a rolling pallet, board the
elevator at the end of the day. The
elevator stops at one of the vacant
floors to allow the workmen to exit
with their load. However, while the



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safe is being rolled out, a wheel becomes stuck in the gap

between the car and landing. As the workmen attempt to
free the wheel, the rocking of the safe causes the car to
shake violently, and the movie audience sees various
shots of the elevator machine room, where sparks begin
to fly, bolts fall out, and other mechanical disasters occur.
After the workmen free the safe and exit the elevator, the
doors close, the car drops suddenly, the safeties activate,
and the car is stuck somewhere between floors 28 and 35.
The passengers at first remain calm and seek to attract
attention by pressing the alarm button, which, of course,
does not work. Upon remembering that the car is also
equipped with an emergency phone, the building manager opens the compartment, only to find that the phone
has not been installed. At this point, panic begins to set
in as the passengers realize that they are stuck between
vacant floors, the building is empty, they are on the eve
of a three-day weekend, and no one can hear their cries
for help.
Adding to the drama is the fact that one of the passengers is one half of a pair of robbers who stole a briefcase
full of money from a tenant on an upper floor. The pair
was separated because the elevator was too full to
accommodate both of them. The robber on the elevator
(Eddie, played by James Farentino) has the stolen briefcase and is extremely claustrophobic. During a violent
panic attack, the case springs open, spilling money on the
floor, at which point Eddie draws his gun. This event
coincides with the realization that the car has an escape
hatch in the roof. Eddie climbs on top of the car and fires
his gun into the shaft, which attracts the attention of his
partner (Pete, played by Don Stroud) and his girlfriend
(Wendy, played by Arlene Golonka), who had secretly
reentered the building to look for him.

Pete is able to open the shaft doors to the landing

immediately above the car, and Eddie is rescued. However, upon learning that the other passengers are aware
of the robbery, Peter seeks to silence the witnesses by
attempting to cut the elevator cables with a welding
torch, which a worker has conveniently left adjacent to
the shaft. When Eddie intervenes to save the passengers,
Pete pushes him into the shaft, grabs the briefcase, and
runs away. When Eddie strikes the top of the car, it suddenly drops a few more floors. Wendy rescues Eddie by
lowering the welding-torch hose, which Eddie uses to
climb out and after which he and Wendy flee the scene.
Following these events, a teenage boy (Barry Livingston)
attempts to climb the welding hose to safety. Upon nearing the open landing doors, he slips and falls down onto
the car, which drops several more floors. This event, as well
as the prior drop, is accompanied by more shots of sparking elevator engines and control panels; however, now when
the elevator stops, the doors slide open, revealing that the
car is halfway to a landing. Clearly oblivious to the danger
involved, all of the passengers scramble out of the narrow
opening. For full dramatic effect, immediately after the last passenger has exited, the car crashes to the bottom of the shaft.
In spite of numerous lapses in the realistic depiction of
elevator systems and operation, the movie is quite good
it moves at a brisk pace, has a reasonable balance between
humor and action and effectively utilizes the full range of
elevator systems from car to machine room to shaft and
cables. In fact, The Elevator not only entertained (and perhaps amused) industry members in the U.S., it was also
released throughout Europe, airing as The Elevator (England),
Fahrstuhl des Schreckens (Germany), Hissikuilu (Finland)
and Panique dans lascenseur (France). Next months article
will continue this survey of elevator-centric movies.

Front cover of
The Elevator

Rear cover of
The Elevator









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Emergency Preparedness

The Happening:
The Effects of New Zealands Earthquake
by Bob Johnston, EW Correspondent

Christchurch, New Zealand, has been home to me and

my family for 24 or so years, after crossing the Tasman
Sea from Hobart in Australia. My mother always warned
me about potential earthquakes, and even after traveling in New Zealand without incident, my mothers fear
always remained.
Fear has always interested me because of how much
of a role it plays in life, affecting everyone differently. On
September 4, 2010, at 4:35 a.m., it called to those who
live on the 43.3 south parallel in Christchurch, disturbing
deep slumbers with a rising noise, followed by a forceful
earthquake reaching a magnitude of 7.1 on the Richter
scale (ELEVATOR WORLD, December 2010). I quickly
became fully awake and aware. I soon realized there was
no immediate collapse of the house around me, and I
remember thinking it was probably best to remain in bed.
On the other hand, my wife Jan was out of bed and downstairs before I realized she was frantically searching for a
flashlight and battery radio.
What seemed like minutes turned out to be only about
40 seconds of uncontrolled movement, combined with
sharp jolts that shook the windows, and for us, brought
some things to the floor (but, interestingly, broke nothing).
After the wild ride (and being in the dark), my response
was to try to sleep until first light.

The Effects
Brick chimneys fell through the roofs of some houses.
In the downtown part of the city, streets were covered
with bricks after building walls collapsed; some local
streams had disappeared; some houses had cracked and
sunken floors; and geysers of soil oozed into backyards,
streets and even through the floorboards of some houses.
This sort of damage took place only 5 km from my home.
And so the heartache began: some buildings were unfit
to live in, historical businesses needed to be relocated,
high-rise tenants had to temporarily relocate while interiors were refurbished, sewer systems in some areas
needed to be realigned, drainage systems had to be
re-laid, and roadways had to be repaired. And yet, one
could land at the airport and drive across town and not
know an earthquake had taken place unless one stumbled into specific areas of the city.



The Effects on the Lifts

How did this earthquake impact the citys lift industry?
Since it happened on a Saturday morning, most people
were in bed, and fortunately, not a single loss of life was
lost. The majority of lifts were stationary and parked at
the ground level of their buildings when the earthquake
struck. Since there was no weekday rush of commuters,
there was enough time for the center of the city to be
closed off, allowing minimal access to buildings.
Since the 1980s, earthquake codes have included counterweight displacement sensors fitted on all buildings
with over 15 m of travel. These were not only found to
activate with counterweight displacement, but in practice,
seemed to also trigger through aftershock building sway
with magnitudes over 5.0, counterweight displacement.
To try and quantify the impact of this earthquake in the
first few weeks, a survey of lift service in Christchurch
was conducted. (Table 1).
It is obvious that the effect on the lift industry in
Christchurch was relatively minor and could be handled
by the infrastructure in the city. The effect on building
users varied, with the biggest inconvenience being lifts
shutting down from aftershocks reaching magnitudes over
5.0. This caused displacement of detectors, requiring them
to be checked and reset. This was not due to counterweight displacement, but by building sway.
Questions only cover the first two weeks


Number of lifts in Christchurch?


Number of displacement earthquake detectors fitted?


Number of CWTs out of their guide rails?


Where were CWTs released? Upper Mid - Lower

How many repeat EQ sensor resets?
At approx. which seismic level did EQ sensors trip?
How many governors tripped during this period?


How many passenger entrapments occurred?15

How many lifts were unable to be returned to service?


How many lifts required major repair or replacement?

How many lift shafts had structural damage?

How many overtime EQ hours were worked?

How was the cost of additional hours accounted for?
How many staff were absent from work due to EQ?
Table 1

20% ins

Building damage

suggest that it should be used as an earthquake detector

for all lift installations in New Zealand. At present, upon
initiation of the detector, the lift slows to the nearest floor
and shuts down with its doors open, and a mechanic is
required to check the site and reinstate the lift.
There were no persons entrapped by lift failures in the
initial earthquake. However, over the following two
weeks, 15 entrapments, which were mainly due to typical

Building style susceptible to earthquake

The 30 displacements of the counterweights from the

initial 7.1 magnitude earthquake mainly reflected a larger
bracketing span or general weaker installation practice,
as all could be easily remedied through strengthening
and/or reducing counterweight rail support spans. I think
its fair to say that the earthquake reflected inconsistency
in installation and, probably, inspection. The main reasons
for low damage were the time and day the earthquake
happened, the locking down of the central city and the
efforts of lift companies and emergency services to check
all lifts before clearing buildings for use.
The emergency services prohibited initial access to
buildings downtown. It became part of the emergency
services process only after the lift companies approached
the emergency service control center to request that lifts
not be used until cleared. Beforehand, they hadnt thought
of the ramifications of people entering buildings and
using lifts, creating additional damage. The outcome may
have been very different if the earthquake had happened
during working hours.
The effectiveness of this lift design was mainly adopted
for displacement of the counterweight from the guide
rails in buildings with travel over 15 m. This might also

Sensor diagram

March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |


Emergency Preparedness


stoppages combined with a few related to the ongoing

effects of the aftershocks, were reported. In addition, some
ropes came off diverter sheaves, where rope retainers
were defective. Lift shaft structures worked as designed,
and other than the few failures already mentioned, longer
stoppages were due to external elements, such as water
entering the lift shafts, requiring repair or replacement of
damaged components.
In generalizing the overall effects of the earthquake on
the lift industry in Christchurch, it can be said that the
design and codes in building construction have proven their
worth, with no lives lost, damage kept to a minimum,
and, other than some inconvenience to building users
and service provider personnel associated with the need
to check before reinstating automatically stopped lifts,
the overall effect was not severe.
The lifts without sensors with their shaft integrity remaining relatively sound and with less than 15 m of travel rise
would more than likely continue to operate. Although
entrapment occurrences would be higher, it wouldnt be
drastically different under this magnitude of earthquake.

What We Have Learned

Little has emerged relative to suggested changes to
codes and installation practices by the industry. Though,
with the effectiveness of the displacement detector, the
secondary added detection of building movement or

sway in an earthquake might suggest that all lifts have

this solution fitted to ensure that when a significant
tremor happens, all lifts shut down until they are able to
be assessed. This may need an emergency service procedure to identify critical buildings and notify lift service
providers to inspect and reset the listed units.

Key points of this experience:

Displacement detectors are location and magnitude
specific in operation. Therefore, the effect of the earthquake varies significantly within the affected areas.
Displacement detectors minimize the likelihood of
entrapment of persons during an earthquake.
Where the magnitude of an earthquake or unexpected
operation is sufficient enough to displace the counterweight, it minimizes entrapment, as well as the significant threat to life and further damage of equipment.
Automatic shutdown at the nearest floor minimizes
potential entrapments and additional damage to equipment from earthquakes with a magnitude of 5 or higher.
Emergency services need to have a procedure to enable
quick and efficient assessment of damage to any lift
through notification to service providers and authorization to enter buildings.
Existing codes and industry practices are probably sufficient as they stand, with the consideration of fitting
displacement detectors to all lifts.

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Field Safety

The Real Clout of Consensus Standards

by Paul Waters

ics such as electrical system design

Over the past two years or so, I
or installation being removed and left
have received many questions from
to the National Electrical Code.
companies about compliance with
Then, in mid 2008, the latest NFPA
so-called consensus standards
70E was released, with an effective
such as NFPA 70E, the National Fire
date of September 5, 2008. Even prior
Protection Association (NFPA)s stanto that, though, my phone began ringdard for electrical safety in the working as companies asked urgently what
place. Companies performing elevait meant and what force of law it
tor repair or construction have been
would have. The new NFPA 70E conparticularly concerned about NFPA
tained significant revisions to prior
70E. Their questions generally include,
versions, including provisions setting
Can OSHA cite me for not following
forth calculations of such things as
NFPA 70E? That is a good question
an arc flash protection boundary for
with no easy answer.
workers, the contents of electrical
The original NFPA 70E was pubsafety programs, procedures for evallished in 1979 to address certain peruating hazards/risk of electrical work
ceived problems in OSHAs electrical
and analyses on the permissibility and
safety standards, such as those in
practices for energized
construction (Subpart
work. EmK, 29 C.F.R. 1926.400,
Can OSHA cite me for
et seq.) or general in- not following NFPA 70E?
ployers committed (and
dustry (Subpart S, 29
continue to expend) sigC.F.R. 1910.301, et seq.). One major
nificant resources trying to ascertain
reason for NFPA 70E was to provide
what is required of them under the
a speedier and more-streamlined
new standard.
guide to safe work practices that
The first obvious question concould not be matched by the procecerns why any employer should be
dures required of OSHA in Section
concerned with NFPA 70E. It is im6(b) of the Occupational Safety and
portant to note that, as a voluntary
Health Act (OSH Act) to amend its
consensus standard, the NFPA 70E
standards. Another reason was to
has no independent legal force; it is
provide an explanation of safe work
voluntary. It is not an OSHA stanpractices that average employers
dard, nor has it been adopted by
could understand and apply in their
OSHA through the proceedings set
forth in Section 6(b) of the OSH Act
By 2004, NFPA 70E had expanded
to make it law. Thus, on one level, it
in scope to cover topics such as peris only a guide for employers for
sonal protective equipment (PPE)
making decisions about safe work
and safe work practices in a level of
practices, programs and PPE. An
detail far exceeding OSHAs electriemployer cannot be cited by OSHA
cal safe work practices standards. By
merely because it does not follow
this time, the sole reason for NFPA
the provisions of a consensus stan70E was to set forth the latest in elecdard like NFPA 70E.
trical work practices to guide OSHA,
Moreover, the process for creating
employers and employees, with topa voluntary consensus standard is

Paul Waters represents

employers nationwide in
enforcement and rulemaking proceedings before the
federal Occupational Safety
and Health Review Commission and state OSHAs.
He also represents clients
in civil litigation, ranging from
whistleblower claims to employment and housing
discrimination. Waters has handled multiple trials
and numerous appeals in state and federal courts
concerning related cases. He regularly speaks on
these issues and has been a panelist at the annual
Occupational Safety and Health Review Commissions judges conference. He has also participated
in industry panels concerning environmental
safety and health issues in the field of nanotechnology. He received his JD from Boston College
Law School in 1994.




Type: EMERALD 10

Duty load: 630 kg

Persons: 8

Speed: 1,0 m/s

Travel: 12,2 m

Stops: 4



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order to grant free access to the elderly, to persons with disabilities, as well as to families with young children, the lift has been
engineered in full compliance to EN81-70. LM LIFTMATERIAL and its British partner International Lift Equipments supplied the
unusual lift, while Apollo Lifts took care for its installation. With know-how to the top!

Field Safety


An employer of even modest size faced with penalties

significantly different than the process for creating a legally
based on each instance of an employee who allegedly did
binding OSHA standard. For example, parties like vennot receive proper PPE or training could quickly see prodors of machinery and PPE to abate the hazards covered
posed penalties such as USPS has experienced.
by the consensus have a significant role in crafting the
A repeated concern voiced by employers, especially in
standards terms. Many would argue that such parties
the elevator/escalator industry, was that the NFPA 70Es
have a significant conflict of interest. Without the mechapparent sweeping application could mean millions of
anisms that exist in an OSHA rulemaking proceeding to
dollars in purchases of new PPE. By applying the NFPAs
protect the regulated community, requirements of conkey tables, such as Table 130.2(c) (Approach Boundaries
sensus standards may overstate potential hazards and
to Live Parts for Shock Protection) and Table 130.7(c)
require measures that many industries consider overkill
(9)(a) (Hazard/Risk Category Classification), work tasks
based on their experience with actual working conditions.
that had previously been thought to present only minimal
The whole answer concerning a consensus standards
risks now seem to clearly fall into elevated hazard/risk
legal force, however, is not that simple. Although the
categories. Then, by applying tables like 130.7(c)(10)
NFPA 70E is not law, OSHA can use provisions of the
(Protective Clothing and PPE Matrix) and 130.7(c)(11)
NFPA 70E to support citations of OSHA regulations and
(Protective Clothing Characteristics), this work apthe General Duty Clause of the OSH Act. For example,
peared to require specialized PPE that had not previously
certain OSHA electrical PPE standards are written in very
been considered necessary. Quite literally, work by an
general terms. Section 1910.132(a) requires PPE when
adjuster on an energized control panel would require an
necessary by reason of hazards. Likewise, 1910.132(c)
outfit that would make him look like Neil Armstrong on
requires equipment to be of safe design and construction
his moonwalk.
for the work performed, while 1910.132(d) requires
It is important to note that these concerns were not
that employers provide equipment that will protect the
from employers looking to shirk their responsibility to
affected employee from the [identified] hazards.
protect workers they were already
These general standards do not
A repeated concern voiced
spending millions of U.S. dollars on
specify which equipment to use under
by employers, especially in the
various types of PPE nationwide, and
particular circumstances, allowing
they consistently put safety first and
employers flexibility in determining
tried their best to protect their workwhat is appropriate based on working
was that the NFPA 70Es
ers. Elevator companies, for example,
conditions. However, OSHA can cite
apparent sweeping application
have had employees performing ceran employer for not providing suitable
could mean millions of dollars
tain tasks on control panels repeatPPE for the work being performed and
in purchases of new PPE.
edly and for decades, with virtually no
use the provisions of NFPA 70E as
incidents. Suddenly, because of the guidelines in the new
evidence to support that violation. Similarly, in a case
NFPA 70E, the industry is being told that those tasks were
where a specific standard does not apply, OSHA could
potentially far more hazardous than extensive field expeuse NFPA 70E in a citation for a violation of the General
rience has shown them to be.
Duty Clause, Section 5(a)(1) of the OSH Act. There, NFPA
Other issues have shown the difficulty of applying
70E is used as evidence that the alleged hazardous conbroad consensus standards like NFPA 70E in particular
dition was recognized by industry and that a feasible
settings. For example, an elevator company servicing
method of controlling the hazard existed. OSHA has taken
those approaches with NFPA 70E to issue multiple citaequipment at a host employer may have employees doing
tions for violations of the electrical safe work practices,
diagnostic work on energized control panels. There may
training and PPE standards to the U.S. Postal Service
be multiple employees doing such work each day, with
(USPS) over the last year, amounting to hundreds of
some employees doing service calls at multiple locations
thousands of U.S. dollars.
in a single day, with little to no advance notice. Most
Therefore, given that OSHA can utilize NFPA 70E to
panels would contain parts operating at less than 240V,
support citations involving electrical safe work practices,
while others might have lines into the panel greater than
PPE and training, a reasonable employer cannot blithely
240V, but reduced to 240V or less in the area of the box
conclude that the standard is hogwash and ignore it simwhere work was to occur (but still putting the employee
ply because it does not seem relevant to the employers
within the arc flash boundary for the higher-voltage
work. This is especially so when given OSHAs recent
part, assuming, without calculating, that it is 48 inches).
emphasis on using its egregious or instance-by-instance
There could be multiple transformers serving circuits, as
penalties for violations in areas such as PPE or training.
well, which would not be known beforehand. Under NFPA



70E, such conditions could be construed as requiring a

detailed arc flash hazard analysis for each instance of
service and piece of equipment, despite the fact that in
decades of diagnostic work industry wide, no arc flash
injury had occurred.
In addition, NFPA 70E tables meant to provide a quick
and easy decision tree to avoid an arc flash hazard
analysis technically may not be used, because their use
is conditioned upon knowing such things as short-circuit
current and fault clearing times for the equipment serviced.
Thus, what previously had been routine work thought to
present no extraordinary electrical hazards (where PPE
could consist of appropriate gloves, boots, safety glasses,
natural-fiber pants and long-sleeve shirts) is elevated to
work requiring higher-level math skills for an arc flash
hazard analysis, an arc flash suit hood or balaclava and
face shield, coveralls with an arc rating of at least eight,
and the like. This would all be in a situation where no
previous serious incidents had occurred.

Thus, what previously had been routine

thought to present no extraordinary
electrical hazards is elevated to work
requiring higher-level math skills for
an arc flash hazard analysis.

The foregoing is a simplification, but not by much.

Obviously, the intent of consensus safety standards like
NFPA 70E is to prevent accidents before they occur, so
the mere fact that an industry has not had an accident
does not mean a provision in a standard is not needed or
not useful. Industry experience, however, is important to
illustrate the difficulty of giving consensus standards the
force of law.
Unfortunately, a consensus safety standard meant to
be broad in application cannot help but sometimes be
over-inclusive by its nature. This is partly why the procedures for the way OSHA makes rules exist, so as to minimize nasty surprises on the regulated community and
provide an opportunity to have the rule reflect industry
and worker concerns. Here, given that OSHAs use of
NFPA 70E will be to show what allegedly is necessary to
protect against identified hazards, an employer could
justifiably assert that its lengthy experience and lack of
incidents in its industry proved that its PPE was perfectly
adequate, despite not being what was mandated by the
NFPA 70E. Unfortunately, of course, such an argument
most likely would come during a battle with OSHA (after
violations have issued), with OSHA waving NFPA 70E
before the judge.


EESF Celebrates 17th Annual Safety Week

by EESF staff

National Elevator Escalator Safety Awareness Week

(Safety Week) provides a focal point for the industry, on a
local and national level, to join together as individuals,
companies and organizations and spread the word about
public safety in the elevator and escalator industry. In
2010, Safety Week was celebrated on November 14-20. In
addition to promoting public-safety awareness for the
industrys equipment, Safety Week celebrates the contributions made by the industry to the quality of life. Volunteers reach millions of riders with important safety messages in many locations during this event.
Safety Week is led by the Elevator Escalator Safety
Foundation (EESF), which sends requests to each states
governor requesting an official proclamation of Safety
Week in the respective state. Mayors of the top 200 most
populated U.S. cities also receive a proclamation request.
The Foundation received a remarkable response in 2010,
with 23 governors and 46 mayors signing the proclamation. This increased from 18 states and 32 cities in 2009.
The following governors and mayors signed Safety Week
proclamations in 2010:

Alabama Governor Bob Riley
Arkansas Governor Mike Beebe
Colorado Governor Bill Ritter
Connecticut Governor Jodi Rell
Florida Governor Charlie Crist
Georgia Governor Sonny Perdue
Iowa Governor Chester Culver
Illinois Governor Pat Quinn
Kentucky Governor Steven Beshear
Louisiana Governor Bobby Jindal
Maryland Governor Martin OMalley
Michigan Governor Jennifer M. Granholm
Montana Governor Jeremiah Nixon
Nebraska Governor Dave Heineman
New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson
North Carolina Governor Beverly Eaves Perdue
Oregon Governor Theodore R. Kulongoski
Rhode Island Governor Donald Carcieri
Tennessee Governor Phil Bredesen
Utah Governor Gary Richard Herbert
Washington Governor Christine Gregorie
Wisconsin Governor Jim Doyle
West Virginia Governor Earl Ray Tomblin

City of Arlington, Texas Mayor Robert N. Cluck
County of Arlington, Virginia Chairman Jay Fisette
City of Austin, Texas Mayor Lee Leffingwell
City of Baltimore Mayor Stephanie Rawlings-Blake
City of Bellevue, Washington Mayor Don Davidson
City of Birmingham, Alabama Mayor William Bell
City of Boston Mayor Thomas Menino
City of Buffalo, New York Mayor Byron W. Brown
City of Chattanooga, Tennessee Mayor Ron Littlefield
City of Chicago Mayor Richard Daley
City of Colorado Springs, Colorado Mayor Lionel Rivera
City of Columbia, South Carolina
Mayor Stephen Benjamin
District of Columbia Mayor Adrian Fenty
City of Durham, North Carolina Mayor William Bell
City of Fort Wayne, Indiana Mayor Thomas C. Henry
City of Fremont, California Mayor Bob Wasserman
County of Hawaii Mayor William Kenoi
City of Henderson, Nevada Mayor Mike Beebe
City of Jackson, Mississippi Mayor Harvey Johnson
City of Jacksonville, Florida Mayor John Peyton
City of Kansas City, Missouri Mayor Mark Funkhouser
City of Las Vegas Mayor Oscar B. Goodman
City of Louisville, Kentucky Mayor Jerry Abramson




of McKinney, Texas Mayor Brian Loughmiller

of Mesquite, Texas Mayor John Monaco
of Mobile, Alabama Mayor Sam Jones
of Montgomery, Alabama Mayor Todd Strange
of Nashville, Tennessee - Mayor Karl F. Dean
of New Haven, Connecticut Mayor John DeStefano
of Norfolk, Virginia Mayor Paul Fraim
of Ontario, Canada Mayor Paul Leon
of Orlando Mayor Buddy Dyer
of Pittsburgh Mayor Luke Ravenstahl
of Rochester, New York Mayor Robert Duffy
of Rockford, Illinois Mayor Lawrence Morrissey
of Sacramento, California Mayor Kevin Johnson
of San Antonio Mayor Julian Castro
of Savannah, Georgia Mayor Otis Johnson
of Scottsdale, Arizona Mayor Jim Lane
of Sioux Falls, South Dakota Mayor Mike Huether
of Springfield, Massachusetts Mayor Domenic Sarno
of Stockton, California Mayor Ann Johnston
of Tampa, Florida Mayor Pam Iorio
of Tulsa, Oklahoma Mayor Dewey Bartlett
of Warren, Michigan Mayor James Fouts
of Winston-Salem, North Carolina Mayor Allen Joines

Anchorage, Alaska
Paul Bender, manager of Construction and Modernization at Otis Elevator in Anchorage, Alaska, presented the
Safe-T Rider program for the third time. Bender educated
45 Anchorage third graders and their teachers.

Los Angeles
On November 16, 2010, Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics
USA and the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit
Authority (MTA) promoted Safety Week at three MTA stations. Volunteers from Mitsubishi Electric and MTA handed
out EESF brochures, coloring books and information pamphlets, while answering questions from riders. EESF posters
were utilized and installed at many locations throughout
the entire transit system. The event was well received
and even prompted a YouTube video. Mitsubishi Electric
volunteers were very enthusiastic and appreciated the
opportunity to discuss safety directly with the public.
Mitsubishi Elevator & Escalator volunteer employees
included: Mike Corbo, Erik Zommers, Rob Slack, Hiroko
Kane, Marlene Marshall, Betty Wilson, Ivan Andrews, Kathy
Dozal, Jarrad Jones, Harrison Gray, Peter Park, Lance,
Kuramoto, Jeff Linn, Kim Halladay and Terry Williams. Los
Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority volunteer
employees included: Loreta Ferem, Bridgette Murray, Fe
Alcid-Little, Onetta Gray, Ron Gregg, Eugene Villacorta,
Nicole Honaker, Chris Talamantez, Vance Gilless and
Rich Morallo.

Tom Sybert of C.J. Anderson & Co. said of his volunteer
Today was my day to give back and share the message with the general public about elevator and escalator
safety. Ive [wanted] to do this for a long time, and after
permission from the company [that] manages Union
Station in Chicago and a special permit, I was set.
I had packed my backpack full of EESF literature but
chose the Rise Up Safe Rider brochure for my main
handout. This was perfect, as the majority of people I saw
were adults. I spoke with an elderly couple from New
York who had just arrived from a long trip looking weary
and lost. I helped them find the exit and handed them a
Rise Up Safe Rider brochure, along with some Safe-T
Rider coloring books and stickers for their grandkids,
who they were in town visiting.
I positioned myself on the lower lobby by the escalators, believing that this was a perfect place to stand and
passed out the brochures. The biggest hit of the morning
happened when families with kids in strollers would pass
by looking for the elevator. I directed them, but first took
the opportunity to pass out the Safe-T Rider activity
book and [give] each child a sticker. They truly seemed to
love these items. It seemed to be the highlight of what
appeared to be a long journey for many of them.

(l-r) Peter Park, Dave Limon and Ivan Andrews

Looking back, the kids are who really made this day
special. Im happy to have participated in Safety Week
and plan on participating next year. Thank you, Union
Station, for permitting me to hand out the Rise Up Safe
Rider brochures to the people who traveled through your
historic building and for helping them understand the
importance of Safety Week.
RBN & Associates worked with the Foundation to get
the word out about Safety Week to its elevator-industry
clients. Matthew Dennett put together an e-mail blast
that included a copy of EESFs Safety Week brochure so
that each client could look over the safety information.
The company also encouraged its clients to celebrate
Safety Week with their own presentations.

New York City

Volunteers from the New York City Department of
Buildings (DOB) scheduled program presentations nearly
every school day of Safety Week. In all, volunteers went
to 15 area public schools and two senior centers, where
the two organizations employees taught participants how
to be safe on elevators, escalators and moving walks.

The superintendent of industrial compliance for the Ohio Department of Commerce

(front, right) presented the states proclamation to Norman Martin, Ohios chief
elevator inspector (front, second from left). The others pictured include some of the
54-member inspection staff, which holds QEI supervisory designation.

March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |





As the department visited PS 124 in Chinatown, Elevator

Inspector Supervisor Louis Rodriguez had the opportunity to appear twice on the morning news show NY1. As
New York City has approximately 66,000 elevators and
22,000 escalators, Rodriguez explained that the department has come up with the safety slogan of Ring, Relax
and Wait in an effort to help children remember the
safety rules they learn with the Safe-T Rider program.
He explained that DOB teams up with EESF each year
to educate as many children as possible on safe riding
rules. PS 124 Principal Alice Hom also appeared on the
news show to reiterate how important the Safe-T Rider
program is to her students as a proactive form of safety.

In recognition of 2010 Safety Week, the Technical
Standards and Safety Authority (TSSA) promoted the
importance of safe riding on elevating devices to Ontarians
through several activities. Promotional safety signage was
featured at major shopping centers and office buildings
throughout the province, with potential exposure to millions of shoppers and tenants, in partnership with Oxford
Properties, Cadillac Fairview and Brookfield Properties.
TSSA also continued its partnership with the Toronto
Transit Commission (TTC), potentially reaching one million daily transit users with escalator safety tips through
its Move with the Grooves TTC Escalator Safety subway
posters, as well as voice script recordings and screen
messages on TTCs public address and platform-videoscreen systems. Lastly, TSSA issued a news release entitled Going Up or Down? Ride Safely on Escalators,
which offered key safety reminders for the public to keep
in mind each time they ride an escalator.

presented the Safe-T Rider program to first- and second-grade

children. The team then went
to Ruby Majors Elementary in
Nashville and presented the
program to first-grade students. Overall, the group
educated approximately 450
children in 21 different
classrooms. Volunteers were
Barry Lambert, Kreigh
Bourff (who played Safe-T
Rider), Jeremy Creech, Ty
Jewell, Tex Stohl, La Doris
Patton and Donna Montgomery. Montgomery said
the children were very attentive and absorbed the information like sponges. They were eager to
share what they had learned with Safe-T Rider on his visits to each classroom.

Salt Lake City

Chris and Nikki Harris of A+ Elevators & Lifts were
invited to a third-grade class at Foxboro Elementary School
to teach about elevator and escalator safety. Nikki Harris
said, It was a blast teaching the class. We look forward
to educating new third-grade students next year.

KONE, Inc. encouraged all its North American employees to forward a Safety Week document to as many
people as possible in order for the campaign to go viral.
The company suggested that employees send e-mail to
friends, family and coworkers.
The Smithsonian Institute distributed safe riding rules
to all Smithsonian Institute staff worldwide. Members
were reminded of each of the rules involving elevators,
escalators and moving walks. This safety message was
also included in the correspondence: At the Smithsonian
Institution, we ask that if you see someone using escalators or elevators in an unsafe manner, that you politely ask
them to stop and/or notify security.

Nashville, Tennessee
KONE, Inc. employees in Nashville went to Scales
Elementary in Murfreesboro, Tennessee, where they



TSSAs elevator safety poster

Focus on

Modern LVDT Position Sensors

by John Matlack and Mike Puccio

The linear variable differential

transformer (LVDT) has evolved from
its limited use as a laboratory tool
more than 60 years ago into a reliable
and cost-effective linear feedback
device, making it an appropriate technology for critical and reliable linear
displacement measurements in an
array of industrial, dimensional gauging
and military/aerospace applications.
Whether implemented as a standalone component or as part of a control or safety system, the LVDT, also
known as a linear position sensor, is
capable of providing linear displacement measurements from micro
inches to 2 feet under various operating and environmental conditions
with high accuracy and reliability.
Essentially, the LVDT provides the
information critical for a control system to perform its job.
For example, the electromechanical control systems used in elevators
rely on spring-loaded LVDTs to provide the necessary position feedback
for proper alignment of elevator cars
at building floors upon arrival. Measuring the difference between the
frame and car position, the LVDT
linear position sensors provide output to a control system that uses the
displacement information to adjust
the travel of the frame, so when the
doors of the car open, the car floor
is level with the floor upon which
passengers are exiting.
John Matlack is the global business development
manager at Macro Sensors. Matlack can be contacted
at e-mail:
Mike Puccio is an application engineer at Macro
Sensors. Puccio can be contacted at e-mail: position


LVDT Evolution
While the LVDT linear position
sensor can be found in a myriad of
critical applications today, this was
not always the case. Prior to World
War II, LVDTs had limited use as
manufacturing tools, such as align-


ing two pieces of an aircraft fuselage

during assembly. Eventually, LVDT
linear position sensors found a way
into aircraft, submarines and weapons/
munitions systems.
However, despite many wartime
application successes, LVDTs were
not considered commercially viable
linear displacement measurement
technology until 1946, when Herman
Schaevitz authored a scientific article entitled The Linear Variable
Differential Transformer published
by the Society for Experiment Stress
Analysis. This paper became a major
milestone in the future development
of the LVDT, as it presented complete
technical data for linear position displacement technology, along with
several potential applications in which
these transducers are still used today.
While LVDTs were used in numerous industrial applications such as
process control and power generation,
it wasnt until the arrival of affordable microcontroller-based electronics and new corrosion-resistant/hightemperature materials over the last
decade that LVDTs became a more
competitive displacement sensing technology, both in terms of performance
and price (Figure 1).
In the past, the electronics necessary to operate an LVDT properly were
complicated and expensive, prohibiting its wide use for displacement
measurement. However, applicationspecific integrated circuits and microprocessors combined with new construction materials and manufacturing
processes, have driven down manufacturing costs, while simultaneously
improving performance, making the
LVDT more competitive with other
sensor technologies.

Focus on


New winding techniques and computer-based winding

machines are also allowing the sensor body length to be
reduced, while maintaining or increasing the stroke-tolength ratio. This smaller size reduces the required installation space, thereby allowing the LVDT to be considered
for space-limited applications (Figure 2).

How It Works
In basic terms, a transducer is an electromechanical
device that converts a linear position or motion to a
proportional electrical output. More specifically, the LVDT
position sensor produces an electrical output signal
directly proportional to the displacement of a separate
movable core. Typically, the LVDT body is held in place,
and the ferrous core is attached to the moving element
on the piece of equipment requiring position feedback.
The basic LVDT design consists of three elements:
One primary winding
Two identical secondary windings
A movable magnetic armature or core
The primary winding is excited with an AC supply generating a magnetic field which, when the core is placed in
the central or null position, induces equal voltages in
both of the secondaries. The secondaries are wired series
opposed so that their combined output represents the difference in voltage indicated in them, which in this case,
is zero. As the core is moved left or right, the difference
in inducted voltages produces an output that is linearly
proportional in magnitude to the displacement of the
core. In addition, as the core passes through the null
position, the phase relationship between the primary
excitation voltage and secondary output voltage abruptly
shifts 180, thereby allowing the user to discern the direction of displacement.
As LVDTs are frictionless, there is no physical contact
between the core and internal bore of the coil, resulting

Figure 1: Macro Sensors linear and rotary position sensors



in transducers that offer unlimited life, as their mechanical components do not wear out or deteriorate. The corresponding absence of friction also results in truly infinite
resolution and no hysteresis. Furthermore, because they
have a low mass core, they are ideal for use in dynamic
motion measurement situations. In elevator applications,
for instance, the constant change in core position due to
passengers or cargo being loaded and unloaded and the
inertia of the elevator car as it begins to move and then
slows to a stop would cause contact devices such as
potentiometers to dither and wear.
While a vast majority of applications requiring position
feedback can make use of traditional sensors including
LVDTs, there are many applications in which an LVDT
linear position sensor is, technically, one of the best solutions. Compared to other displacement technologies such
as the contacting potentiometer, magnetostrictive transducer, optical sensor and capacitive sensor, the LVDT can
perform in extreme environmental applications such as
power generation, down-hole oil and gas exploration,
steam valve control systems, actuators, blast furnaces, and
aircraft engine and flap controls.
In an elevator, vibration, shock and dirt/grease are
present. Potentiometers, as previously discussed, can wear.
Optical sensors will have issues if blinded by dirt or grease,
and magnetostrictive sensors typically do not handle
vibration and shock well over time due to the internal
wires in their tubes breaking.
Using off-the-shelf materials and components, Macro
Sensors can design an LVDT to operate from -60C to

Figure 2: LVDT construction involves three sets of winding one primary and
two secondary. The primary coil is driven from an AC signal, normally
between 2.5 and 10 kHz. The secondary coils will pick up the signal through
magnetic induction as the core moves.

200C. With modifications to the LVDT core, housing,
electrical interface and winding materials, the temperature
range can be extended to -200C to 500C.
With its hermetic seal and non-contacting operation,
LVDT linear position sensors are among the only technology that can deliver accurate and reliable performance,
while operating at pressures up to 7,500 pounds per
square inch (500 bar) with mean time between failure of
5 million hours. Even at stroke ranges of +/-0.050 to +/
-2.0 inches, these hermetically sealed sensors (IEC IP-68)
can survive heavy shocks common with elevators, as well
as the effects of dirt, water, steam and other corrosive
elements without affecting performance.

floor are properly aligned at arrival, a Macro Sensors

spring-loaded LVDT position sensor is used to measure
the difference between frame and car positions. Specifically, the sensors are measuring spring deflection as a
result of the load.
Depending on the elevator manufacturer, sensors are
mounted under or above the elevator platform. When
measurement is made from above, the probe of the
spring-loaded LVDT position sensor typically compresses
and extends as the load increases. When sensors are
installed below the elevator platform, measurement is made
in an opposite application where the sensor compresses

Remote Monitoring with Modern Electronics

In certain critical and demanding applications such as
high temperature, radiation, shock and vibration, signal
conditioning electronics may need to be located remotely
from the sensing device. Some elevator manufacturers
prefer that the signal conditioning electronics be contained inside the LVDT body, while others prefer them to
be located in the elevator control system.
In comparison to capacitive, magnetostrictive and other
high-frequency technologies in which the electronic circuitry cannot be segregated from the sensing elements,
the LVDT can be installed up to 100 feet (31 meters) from
the conditioning electronics. The low drive sinusoidal
frequency operates below the radio frequency spectrum
and does not radiate electrical noise.
Signal conditioning and processing functions can also
be put inside the LVDT housing, rather than requiring a
secondary external box. Modern microcontroller-based
electronics allow complete drive and processing circuitry
for the compact, easy-to-use LVDT linear position sensor.
These electronics allow the customer to select the drive
frequency, filtering options for speed and noise. And,
LVDTs can produce digital outputs directly compatible with
computerbased systems and standardized digital buses.

LVDTs Help Ensure Accurate Floor Landing

Spring-loaded LVDT position sensors serve an integral
role in ensuring the accurate positioning of elevator cars
at building floors. As passengers travel on elevators at
speeds upwards of 2,000 fpm, electromechanical control
and safety systems rely on sensors to provide the necessary feedback to ensure that elevator cars and building
floors are properly aligned upon arrival.
To ensure a smooth and comfortable ride, the elevator
car is suspended by springs within an outer frame that
provides cushioning against the effects of acceleration/
deceleration and initial starting and stopping jerks to
overcome inertia. As an elevator is loaded with passengers the springs compress, changing car position within
the frame. This can affect the final car position at the destination floor. To ensure that both the car and building

Macro Sensors headquarters

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March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |


Focus on


as load increases. Output is fed into a control system that

uses the displacement information to adjust the travel of
the frame, so when the doors of the car open, the car floor
is level with the floor upon which passengers are exiting.

About Macro Sensors

Macro Sensors manufactures an extensive line of
linear and rotary sensors used for position measurement
and feedback in a variety of industrial applications,
including factory automation, motion control systems
(such as elevator control systems), metal fabrication and
automotive assembly, as well as power plants, and gas/
steam turbines. Incorporated in 1994 and headquartered
in Pennsauken, New Jersey, Macro Sensors traces its
origins directly to Herman Schaevitz, who founded
Schaevitz Engineering in 1945 and commercially introduced LVDT technology.
Schaevitz is widely recognized as the pioneer developer of LVDT technology. He transformed the LVDT from
a hand-made laboratory device to the position sensor it is
today and built Schaevitz Engineering into a successful
enterprise with the LVDT as its core product. Following
Schaevitz retirement, he was succeeded as CEO by his
son, Howard, who presided over a decade of corporate
growth and product expansion.
After the sale of Schaevitz Engineering to a larger firm,
several members of the Schaevitz brain trust formed
Macro Sensors, a division of Howard A. Schaevitz
Technologies, to design, manufacture and market position
sensors and related products. Macro Sensors personnel
bring knowledge and experience to the position-sensor
industry with more than 500 cumulative years of design
and manufacturing knowhow.
Supported by a worldwide distributor network, Macro
Sensors employs an internal engineering staff of design,
mechanical and electrical professionals with application
knowledge and design expertise to work alongside customers to engineer solutions to position measurement
problems. Macro Sensors has designed more than 800
custom designs to meet customers particular applications.
In 2005, American Sensor Technologies, manufacturer
of Krystal Bond Technology micro-electro-mechanical
pressure sensors, acquired Macro Sensors, thereby creating a single source offering customers both pressure and
position sensing expertise. Macro Sensors recently redesigned its website to make it easier for design engineers
to find LVDT linear position sensors and rotary variabledifferential transfomer position sensors that meet the
performance criteria of applications in specific industries.
Finding that many engineers were unsure of what type of
sensor might meet their application requirements, Macro
Sensor segments LVDT and rotary variable differential transformer position sensors into application categories.



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Focus on

Semiconductor Technologies for

Novel Elevator Sensors
Beat De Coi and Felix Lustenberger
ESPROS Photonics Ltd., Switzerland

This paper was presented at
Lucerne 2010, the International Congress on
Vertical Transportation Technologies and first
published in IAEE book Elevator Technology
18, edited by A. Lustig. It is a reprint with
permission from the International Association
of Elevator Engineers

(website: This paper is an exact reprint

and has not been edited by ELEVATOR WORLD.
Key Words: Sensors, safety, performance,
hoist way information

Beat De Coi is the founder, President of CEDES

which was established in 1986. The company designs and manufactures optoelectronic devices,
e.g. elevator light curtains. In spring 2007, De Coi
founded the new company ESPROS Photonics
Corporation in Switzerland. ESPROS is a semiconductor fab that designs and manufactures photonics
chips for the open market. De Coi became Entrepreneur of the Year in 1998 and in 1999, he was
awarded as the most innovative entrepreneur in
the Canton Grison. In 2004, he won the European IST-Grand Prize, which is the most distinguished prize for the research and development of
new technology in the field of information science
technology. The pioneering research was in the
field of time-of-flight cameras. This research project
was a collaboration between CEDES and CSEM.
De Coi is member of the board of the University
of applied sciences in Chur and Member of IAEE.
Felix Lustenberger, Senior Vice President of
ESPROS Photonics Ltd., Graduated as Ingnieur
en Microtechnique dipl. EPFL (M.S.) at cole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne, Switzerland. He
got his post diploma in Information Technology,
ETH Zurich, and Doctor of technical sciences
(Ph.D.) also from ETH Zurich with a work in digital data communication. After two years startup
work with the canadian company Snowbush Microelectronics (today Gennum) as systems architect
and analog/mixed-signal design engineer, he became
engineering manager at CSEM in Zurich. His focus
was on the development of 3D camera chips. He
is senior member of the IEEE, active member in
SPIE and Photonics 21.


Starting in the late 80s, optical multibeam safety sensors for door protection
gained the majority of the market.
Thus, everybody in the industry is
familiar with light curtains. However,
comparing the safety and the comfort
of todays safety devices with those
for production machines, elevator
safety is way behind them. The crucial
point for elevator door safety sensors
was the lack of three-dimensional area
recognition. A first step was made with
the introduction of 3D light curtains.
Because of unsatisfying performance
of these devices, limited success is
visible. Novel semiconductor technologies allow closing this gap.

Over the past 5 years, CMOS image
sensors (CIS) have become ubiquitous:
more than one billion of cell phone
cameras and digital still picture cameras are produced every year with
still a dramatic growth rate in the
two-digit range. At least for applications in the visible range, these camera products make steady technical
progress. Typically, the semiconductor processes utilized to implement
these kinds of products are based on
enhanced standard CMOS processes
either used in memory technology or
mixed-signal ASICs. However, fundamentally the same limitations are
observed in all of these CMOS sensing elements: while a non-negligible
dark current limits the achievable dynamic range (DR) and signal-to-noise
ratio (SNR), relatively low quantum
efficiencies (QE) and optical fill factors (FF) are impairing additionally
the ability to detect single photons in


highly-integrated imager systems.

Although these limitations are a nuisance in consumer camera products,
they present fundamental limitations
in high-performance industrial sensors and scientific instrumentation.
This is mainly due to the fact that
those application areas heavily depend on the ability to detect signals
in the near-infrared (NIR) range.
It has been concluded from many
previous attempts to fundamentally
change the behavior of CIS technologies based on traditional approaches
in CMOS manufacturing that there is
a need to drastically change the way
of producing CMOS imagers. Instead
of taking a basic CMOS process and
trying to add technology modules
that enable decent photo-sensing in
the visible and NIR range, we think
that it is much more advisable to
tackle the problem the other way
around: do whatever is necessary to
achieve ultimate photon-detection performance and then add the means of
a CMOS process technology to implement the necessary signal conditioning, signal processing and interface
to form a complete high-performance
opto-sensor product. Although many
of the basic concepts to achieve this
goal have been around since quite
some time, they only became feasible in terms of commercial value and
fabrication by the avenue of modern
deep-submicron CMOS process technology. Espros Photonics Corp. (EPC)
has been founded in early 2007 to
implement and realize some of these
novel concepts in order to provide a
radically new technology platform in
CMOS-integrated photonics. Continued

Focus on


This article is organized as follows: a brief introduction

to market areas and business potentials for highly integrated optical systems-on-a-chip (OSOCs) and optical
systems-in-a-package (OSIPs) will motivate and precede
the presentation of the fundamental technology requirements and basic approaches to reach single-photon sensitivity in complex opto-sensing of section 3. Then, we
will outline avenues of approaches to increase the value
of OSOCs by combining traditional packaging methods
with additional photonics functionality. In section 5, we
then give practical examples of product classes and their
roadmap from discrete component assemblies into highly
integrated OSIPs in the near future. Finally, we summarize and conclude this work in section 6.


Optical sensors are swarming around us in our daily
life without being remarked all the time. This is mainly
due fact that those sensors operate invisible to the
human eye in the near infrared range. These sensor products make our life safe and comfortable in elevators and
public buildings, in smoke and fire detectors, at sliding
doors and moving gates, around dangerous machinery
and robots as well as in public transportation and health
care. They all have in common that they do not need to
be seen to operate properly. If you then open up such
product and give it a closer look, you remark instantly
that most of these products are built from a plethora of
discrete components. While this may make complete
sense for some of the low-volume specialty products, it is
definitely a problem for high-volume products such as
light-barriers or light curtains. Besides from the obvious
advantages in terms of component pricing and geometrical size, they would greatly benefit from higher integrated
optical sensor products in the domain of product reliability and assembly complexity and hence assembly cost.
Although the massive aggregation of discrete components inherently provides high flexibility in the product
design, each component represents a non-negligible
assembly cost in the surface mounting devices assembly
line (SMD) as well as it comes with a non-zero failure
rate per pin that is soldered to the printed circuit board
(PCB). Higher integration levels tackle both elements at
the same time.
However, it is clear that chip-integration of optical
sensors comes at a cost: flexibility is partially lost if one
does not pay attention to it. It becomes immediately evident that you need to compensate for this loss of flexibility by adding configurability and programmability to
these optical sensor chips. First of all, this is necessary to
compensate for manufacturing variations in the actual
sensing element. But further more, programmability is

also crucial for flexible signal processing in order to

create application specific systems-on-chip (SOC) or even
standard sensor products. It has been observed in the
past that many electronic circuits became very successful
because they had a custom programmable signal conditioning and processing part integrated into it which
enable the usage of this circuit way beyond what it was
first intended for. But to be successful, one shall not stop
at the output of (pre-) processed information and you
need to think about the interfacing to the external world.
In quite many application one needs to aggregate information from several different sensors in different locations and some times even from different kind of signal.
It becomes extremely important to provide the necessary
means of interfacing that provide ease-of-use at the same
as high security of data transmission in a harsh industrial
A further important aspect of such highly integrated
optoelectronic chips is packaging. It normally represents
a sizeable part of the overall product cost. In standard
electronic components it has the only benefit of protecting the circuit from environmental influence and make it
available to standard assembly methods in electronic
production lines. In the case of optoelectronic sensors,
this may look completely different: by adding optical
functionality such as filtering-off non-wanted components of the light spectrum and adding simple or more
complex beam-shaping capabilities right into the package, one can add good value into the package to lower
the overall system cost. However, it is important that
components packaged and packed with such elements
keep being machine-solderable. Otherwise a key benefit
would be lost and would need to be compensated by
higher manual assembly cost.
Hence, the combination of a good optical front-end
with flexible signal conditioning and reasonable interfacing to a variety of different sensors, packaged into a
machine-solderable package makes up a good optical
sensor product. Traditional semiconductor industry that
mainly focuses on high-volume mainstream products is
not interested in investing into semiconductor process
technology that enables such opto-sensoric products.
In the overall annual semiconductor market which by
2008 exceeds 300B$, the estimated 1-2B$ market for optosensoric chip products is simply too small to be considered
by a large integrated device manufacturer (IDM). This is
further accentuated by the fact that these large IDMs
need to amortize their multi-billion dollar investment
they did into their deep-submicron fabrication facilities
for process nodes beyond 90nm. However, with the right
setup of a technology platform it will represent attractive
niche markets even when considering the diversity of



Focus on


products and applications to be handled. But it clearly

needs a lot of flexibility and dedication towards smaller
customers to be successful in this market area. Not
only the fabrication process but also all of the business
processes need to be adapted to that non-traditional

Modern semiconductor manufacturing processes for
CMOS technology rely on several key approaches to increase production yield. Unfortunately, those approaches
inherently impede the ability to integrate good photo sensors in the near infrared range (NIR) together with CMOS
electronics on the same chip. The most flagrant impediment is the use of high background doping levels in the
base silicon wafer material together with high oxygen
concentration. In order to achieve state-of-the-art photosensitivity and noise values, one needs to overcome these
technological limitations. Furthermore, highly-integrated
sensor products rely on a number of additional features
required on top of a standard CMOS technology to complete the integration effort: High voltage transistors enable
industrial-grade interfacing to the real world of applications whereas non-volatile memory is required to safely
store configuration and calibration data on the chip.

modern deep-submicron processes and hence unacceptably low quantum efficiencies in the NIR range. Using a
thick epitaxial layer or using through-substrate configurations might overcome this limitation; see Figure 1 for
a comparison of the two cases. However, the second limitation in the thickness of the depletion zone in the junction comes from the background doping of the wafer
base material. With normal Czochralski (CZ) wafer material, the lowest doping levels available are in the order of
50Ohm*cm. This basically limits the junction depth to
about 10m maximum and hence the intrinsic quantum
efficiency in the 950nm wavelength regime to less than
50%, typically 10%. In turn, this is clearly too far away of
the quantum efficiency of greater than 90% that is seen
in todays commercial discrete PIN photo diodes. Hence,
high-resistivity wafers are required to achieve decent
absorption volumes for NIR radiation.

3.2 Low-Noise Detection and Ultra-Low Dark Currents

Another limit of the classical CMOS substrates is the

dark current in such thick junctions necessary for NIR
detection. Dark current and its attributed shot noise are
directly contributing to the total noise power in the signal
chain of the detector and cannot be eliminated by classical noise-reduction techniques such correlated double
sampling (CDS) and bandwidth limitation required to reach
3.1 High Quantum Efficiency in NIR Range
the single-photon detection limit. The relatively high oxygen
The absorption length in silicon around 850nm to
content in traditional CZ base material acts as gettering
950nm exceeds 15m. On the other hand, the junction
sites for heavy metal ions, which inevitably appear even
depth in CMOS process technologies scales with the
in the most advanced single-wafer processing machinery.
process node achieving only 1m at the maximum with
Working as cleanly as possible to avoid contamination
by heavy metal ions in the production
facility is certainly a good starting point
but is definitely not enough to keep a
good dark current behavior as well
as a high yield in the production line.
Standard CMOS wafers show carrier life
times in the order of several 10s maximum, which together with a 10m thick
junction lead to dark currents of several
10nA/cm2. On the other hand, discrete
photo diodes exhibit dark currents in
the order of 10pA/cm2, i.e., at least one
order of magnitude lower than the case
in standard CMOS wafers. Furthermore,
scientific CCD-based imagers built on
highly resistive float-zone (FZ) silicon
have been shown to exhibit sub-pA/cm2
dark current behaviors at room temperature. Hence it seems to be a reasonable
assumption that high carrier-lifetime
Figure 1: Options for CMOS integration with high quantum-efficiency NIR detectors: Thick epi layer
wafers processed in a clean environment
option (left) and high carrier lifetime option (right)



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18th to 21st October Augsburg Trade Fair Grounds - Germany

Results of the
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assessed their participation as very good or good,
26% as satisfactory
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rely only on the interlift as their source of information
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to not to degrade their excellent dark current properties

are a good starting point for ultra low-noise detection systems in the NIR spectral range. A very interesting side
effect of minimizing the current for NIR applications is
that such technology inherently will enable single-photon
detection capability if junctions are operated in avalanche

3.3 High Voltage Interface

Capable CMOS Process Node
When combining various aspects of product requirements in terms of analog as well as digital capabilities, it
boils down to the choice of a 130nm process node which
is technically as well as commercially well balanced:
the 1.8V digital core voltage leads to competitive current
consumptions for low complexity micro controller cores
like the ARM7 architecture. The memory density in this
node is the 1.0Mbit/mm2 range and the logic density of
200kgates/mm2 is compatible with moderate DSP accelerator functionality required for digital signal processing.
Within the 130nm node, most radio frequency (RF) functions
for the important 2.4GHz ISM band for wireless communication utilized in Bluetooth, Zigbee, GSM, etc. are readily
available, hence allowing a simple integration of the radio
interface electronics. Yet, the second gate oxide for such
a process node is still compatible with 3.3V and 5V applications avoiding the complications of a triple gate-oxide
process. By implementing drain-extended MOS (DEMOS)
structures, IO voltages up to 40V can be realized, enabling
the realization of a wide variety of industry standards.

3.4 Non-Volatile Memory

To complete the integration strategy for a high quantum efficiency NIR detector with a 130nm
CMOS process node, a high-density nonvolatile memory solution is required to
safely store configuration and calibration
information within the detector system
and to allow an easy customization of the
sensor application towards customer
needs. The well-known Flash and EEPROM memory technologies fit well into a
130nm technology node.

up more than 100% of the unpacked chip or component

cost. Hence there is a tremendous potential of cost savings buried in the individually packaged devices. In order
to keep competitiveness in the worldwide market of opto
sensors, an immediate solution is to decrease assembly
and packaging cost to the minimum. This can be achieved
through various avenues: one of them is striving for package-scale or even chip-scale integration levels as shown
in Figure 2. A first immediate action will be the implementation of package-scale photonics chips. They rely on
BGA housings using conventional PCBs with solder balls.
Standard pick-and-place machines in SMD assembly
lines can handle them. Focal lengths of more than 10mm
are possible. Such a package will contribute about 20%
to the chip price while still being reasonable in terms of
production setup cost. Hence, it is well suited for low to
high volume quantities.
Figure 2 shows such an optoelectronic chip assembled
to a PCB by conventional SMD machines and lead-free
soldering. The chip (encircled on the photo) has a size of
0.86 x 1.16mm and a thickness of 50m. The light comes
from the top whereas the active part of the electronic circuitry is on the bottom side of the chip. Also, the solder
joints to the PCB are made by stud bumps in the bottom
side of the chip. Thus, a fill factor of 100% is achieved
which means that the whole chip area on the backside is
photosensitive. This chip contains approx. 150,000 transistors and builds a complete sensor node of a light curtain.
If one targets higher volumes or smaller package sizes,
it is inevitable to go for chip-scale packages. They are
based on fine-line PCB technology and realistically allow

The traditional approach of mounting
myriads of discrete electronic components
on a single PCB or PCB stack has the
inherent limitation of requiring packaging
of each individual component and hence
each time contributing to the total price
of the system. Depending on the type of
component, the packaging cost can make



Figure 2: Comparison of package-scale vs. chip-scale integration.


Focus on


Figure 3: Example of a light curtain for elevator-door application.

for focal lengths of up to 4mm. In such a case, the package will only contribute approx. 5% to the chip price. In
both cases, the top cap of the package can contain the
optical lens system together with optical filters, polarizers,
and other photonic components fabricated in plastic injection mold or reflow technology. It can be assumed that
a full-fledged system-level OSIP will cut system cost in
half: the component count can be reduced by more than
a factor of 3 while at the same time achieving an area
reduction of 4 and a volume reduction by a factor of 10.
These systems can be delivered to customers fully tested
and will open up many new sensor markets due to their
extremely interesting price-performance ratio.

5.1 Intelligent Photo-Diode Receivers
Single-beam and multi-beam light barriers as well as
light curtains are a class of industrial opto-sensors that
are produced in quantities beyond tens of millions of
pieces per year. Whereas the light-barrier products suffer
from the lack of highly integrated photo detectors mostly
in view of a limited degree of miniaturization, there exists
a distinct bottleneck in the economics of light curtains. In
order to understand this problem, we need to have a
closer look into how light curtains are built and operated
today: Light curtains are built out of several identical
pairs of transmitters (LEDs) and receivers (PIN photodiode plus electronics) located in two aluminum or plastic
profiles as shown in Figure 3. In order to minimize the
wiring within the profiled edges, the transmitter elements
and receiver elements are located in XY-matrix arrangement and are addressed individually by a proper scan-

ning of the matrix wiring. An internal or external controller takes care of the required timing of the light curtain. Each receiver element in the light curtain is only
powered-up shortly before the expected arrival of the
light pulse. In order to satisfy safety applications, the
scanning operation of the light curtain needs to be extremely fast which immediately translates into a very
rapid power-up behavior of the receiver nodes built from
discrete SMD components. However, the price erosion
that has been observed in the light curtain market over
the last decade basically makes it impossible to continue
the traditional route and ask for new architectures in this
product segment.
Higher integration levels for the individual receiver
elements addresses the dilemma form various angles of
attack: a fully integrated optical front-end with highperformance signal conditioning, on-chip signal and information processing together with robust interfaces will
reduce the component count and hence reduces component and assembly cost while at the same time increasing the technical performance and reliability. Figure 4
details the concept of the first step towards a fully integrated, intelligent NIR receiver/transmitter chip which
will be the core of future light curtains as well as singlebeam or fork light barriers.
As can be seen in Figure 4, the communication between
the sensor elements is handled through a two-wire powerline interface tailored to the timing and safety needs of
such opto sensors. Figure 5 exhibits the individual blocks
within the intelligent NIR receiver/transmitter chips. In a
following step, the external photo-diodes will be replaced
by on-chip photodiodes in order to further increase optical sensitivity and reduce component count and cost. It is
foreseeable that in the future, there will be packaged sensor nodes available that are directly crimped to the
twisted pair power-supply lines.

5.2 3D-TOF Cameras

The classes of products that have been discussed in
the previous subsection where either point based (singlebeam light barriers) or operating on a plane (light curtains).
However, the real world environments of todays manufacturing sites as well as demand for safety and comfort
in domotics and public areas ask for much more complex

Figure 4: Basic architecture of

new-generation light curtain
based on intelligent sensor
nodes and two-wire bus.



decision making processes out of 3D information. It is
well known since the beginning of image processing that
it is extremely difficult to guess a 3D environment from
2D color or grayscale images. Sooner later every algorithm
devised to extract 3D information from 2D images fails
due to the lack of a true measurement of target distance.
However, many approaches exist today to directly measure 3D maps through various approaches. Among them
the 3D time-of-flight (3D-TOF) approach that measures
directly or indirectly the flight time of single photons is
very popular. Unfortunately, devices capable of measuring photon flight times are either mechanically complex
such as laser scanners [2] or they require enormous
amounts of active illumination due to their lack of highly
sensitive photon receivers in the NIR range [3, 4, 5].
Either case leads to rather bulky devices and high pricing
which reduces their applicability in mass-market applications such as safety-devices for automotive, humanmachine-interfaces for computers and gaming, doors and
gates, machine safety, domotics and many others. Highly
integrated 3D-TOF cameras with a reasonable image resolution, both, laterally and distance wise paired together
with on-chip signal and information processing will open
up application fields comparable to what web-cams have
done in the past. As long as the tricky part of measuring
the photon flight time is shielded from the user and only
an external interface simple as a microcontroller is presented to them, they can fully concentrate on the application itself instead of tricky physical measurement tasks.

spectral range. The basic building blocks have been around

individually for quite some time but have never been
integrated together mostly for economical reasoning of
traditional semiconductor manufacturers of standard
electronic devices. It further has been shown that the
existing market for such integrated OSOCs and OSIPs is
substantial enough to justify the implementation of a
dedicated wafer fab in this domain. Over the period of
the next several years, it is foreseeable that many highvolume products present but usually not remarked in the
everyday life will be migrated from the traditional discrete
assembly technologies of SMD components on a PCB into
higher integration levels. This has been illustrated on the
example of intelligent photo-diode receivers as well as
low-cost 3D-TOF cameras.
ESPROS Photonics AG,
Sick AG,
Mesa Imaging AG,
PMD Technologies,

It has been shown in this paper that radically novel
approaches are required to implement highly integrated
photonic detection systems that are sensitive in the NIR

Figure 5: Block diagram of the intelligent opto-sensor node epc100 with

integrated photodiode. The same integrated circuit is useable for light-curtain,
single-beam and multi-beam, as well as fork light barriers by configuring it
(refer also to Figure 2).

Figure 6: 3D-TOF camera used for 3D elevator door protection.

Figure 7: IMS 100 (3) is implemented by using a full-field 3D-TOF camera designed for full 3D elevator door protection. The picture shows the recessed
mounting option (4) installed in the car door transom

March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |


Focus on

Optical Elevator Door Sensor

System with Planar Detection Area
Emiko Sano, Masahiro Shikai, Yuki Kawae, Akihide Shiratsuki, Hajime Nakajima and Toshio Masuda
Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Japan

This paper was presented at
Lucerne 2010, the International Congress on
Vertical Transportation Technologies and first
published in IAEE book Elevator Technology
18, edited by A. Lustig. It is a reprint with
permission from the International Association
of Elevator Engineers

(website: This paper is an exact reprint

and has not been edited by ELEVATOR WORLD.
Key Words: Safety, automatic door, optical

Emiko Sano joined the Mitsubishi Electric Corp.

in 2002. Her current research is optical sensing system for safety and security. She has developed optical door sensors and fingerprint sensor for security.
Masahiro Shikai joined the Mitsubishi Electric
Corp. in 1990. He is a group manager at the
Advanced Technology R&D Center. His main field
of interest is in sensors for elevators and escalators.

Conventional light curtain sensors

used in elevators have gaps between
their beams that make them ineffective at detecting objects small enough
to fit between the gaps. To overcome
this weakness and other weaknesses
in conventional elevator door sensors,
we have developed a new optical
elevator door sensor system with a
gap-free planar detection area. The
system has two long, narrow strips
of light sources and two imaging
sensors mounted within the elevator
door posts. The sensors can detect
passenger fingers and other small
objects, preventing them from becoming trapped by opening doors or
pinched by closing doors. As an
added safety feature, the red light
source strips flash to let passengers
know when elevator doors are about
to open or close.

Yuki Kawae has joined the Mitsubishi Electric
Corp. in 2007. He has been engaged in work of
development of elevator electric systems. Especially, he is good at developing optical door sensors.
Akihide Shiratsuki has joined the Mitsubishi
Electric Corp. in 1998. He has been engaged in work
of development of elevator hard wares. Especially,
he is good at developing optical door sensors.
Hajime Nakajima joined Mitsubishi Electric Corp.
in 1985. He is a group manager with the Advanced
Technology R&D Center. His current research interests include optical sensing system. Mr. Nakajima
is a member of the Institute of Electrical Engineering
of Japan, the Japan Society of Applied Physics, the
Optical Society of Japan and SPIE.
Toshio Masuda has joined the Mitsubishi Electric
Corp. in 1988. He is a manager of the elevator
hardware development section. Especially, he is
good at developing optical door sensors and monitoring units of elevator/escalator.


Elevator safety is very important

for passengers and an important part
of barrier-free design. There are three
common types of accidents that can
happen on elevators hands or objects
can be pulled into the gap between
an opening door and the door post
(trapping accidents), hands or objects
can become pinched between the closing doors (pinching accidents), and
passengers running to board an elevator can collide with the closing doors
(collisions). Various sensors are currently used to prevent these accidents.
To prevent trapping accidents (when
doors are opening), non-contact optical sensors are used to detect when
hands or handheld objects are about
to be pulled in. To prevent pinching


accidents (when doors are closing),

elevators use sensors such as noncontact optical light curtains and
mechanical safety shoes that detect
pressure. To prevent collisions, elevators have systems that use ultrasound or light to detect passengers
or objects approaching in the hallway.
However, these sensors have certain weaknesses. They cant always
detect when an object or person near
the doors is in an accident-prone
position, and they cant detect passengers or objects of certain sizes
and materials. To improve elevator
safety, there was a need to develop a
new type of sensor able to remedy
the defects of current sensors.
To address this need, we devised
and developed an optical elevator
door sensor system with a planar
detection area. The new system
overcomes the defects of current
sensors, enabling a single of set of
sensors to prevent all three common
elevator accident types. We started
by analyzing why the sensors in current use sometimes fail to detect
each type of common accident. This
paper describes the findings of that
analysis, and describes the configuration, detection principle and operation of the sensor system we developed in response.


This section describes the types of
accidents that can occur when elevator doors open or close, the methods
used by current safety equipment and
safety sensors to prevent them, and
their weaknesses.

Focus on


2.1 Trapping Accidents (When Doors Open):

Figure 1 is a top view showing the configuration of an
elevators doors and the surrounding structures. Elevators are designed so that the landing doors operate in
response to the operation of the car doors. There are
spaces between each car door and landing door. When
the doors open, it is possible for passenger hands or
handheld objects to become pulled into and trapped
(caught) in the gap between one of the doors and the
door post (the points labeled A in Figure 1).
Two main types of sensors are currently used to prevent this type of accident. One is a sensor that detects the
load torque of the motor used to drive the doors. When
the additional torque exceeds its threshold value, the sensor deems that some type of object has been pulled into
the gap. To prevent the object from being pulled in further, it stops opening the doors and starts closing them.
This sensors weakness is that it can only detect objects
once they have been pulled in to the gap.
The other type of sensor designed to prevent trapping
accidents is a non-contact optical type that detects
objects that have approached the vicinity of a gap. These
sensors irradiate infrared beams in the vicinity of each
gap between the door and door post, and detect objects
that cross any of these beams as potential causes of trapping accidents. Since this type of sensor triggers just by
having its beam broken, it has the benefit of being able to
detect objects before they become pulled in, unlike the
first type of sensor. But its weakness is that it has difficulty detecting hands placed in gaps between infrared
beams and door posts, since its infrared beams do not
cover all the areas that hands could be pulled into.

2.2 Pinching Accidents (When Doors Close):

Hands or handheld objects can become pinched between the edges of closing elevator doors (the points
labeled B in Figure 1). The sensors currently used to prevent this type of accident detect objects between the
doors, and reopen the closing doors when an object is
Door post
Landing doors

Again, two main types of sensors are currently used to

prevent this type of accident. The most common type is a
mechanical safety shoe. This sensor detects the pressure
of an object contacting a door edge, and determines that
there is an obstruction when the pressure exceeds the
predetermined value. However, since this sensor doesnt
trigger if the pressure applied does not exceed the predetermined value, it has difficulty detecting soft fabrics
or strings.
The other common type of sensor is the non-contact
optical type, such as light curtains. These sensors shine
multiple infrared beams between the doors to detect obstructions, so can detect the soft fabrics and strings that safety
shoes have difficulty with. The weakness of these sensors
is that the gaps between their beams prevent them from
detecting any object small enough to fit between the gaps.

2.3 Collisions (When Doors Close)

Along with pinching accidents, the other type of accident that can happen when elevator doors are closing
occurs when passengers attempting to board dont anticipate that the doors are about to start closing, and collide
with the closing doors. The sensors currently used to prevent this type of accident use ultrasound and infrared
beams to detect passengers approaching the elevator.
But a passenger running to board the elevator may be too
fast for the doors to reopen in time after the sensor triggers, resulting in the passenger colliding with the doors.

2.4 Door Accidents

As described in Sections 2.1 to 2.3, the sensors currently used to prevent trapping accidents and pinching
accidents have difficulty detecting soft materials such as
fabrics or strings and small (thin) objects. Current sensors
also have difficulty preventing collisions between doors
and passengers running to board the elevator. Table 1
lists the accident scenarios that are difficult to detect and
the reason for the difficulty in each case.
To improve elevator safety, we investigated and developed an optical elevator door sensor system with a planar detection area that overcomes the weaknesses described and can prevent all three common accident types.


The sections below describe the specific configuration
of each system module.

3.1 System overview

Car doors
Door post


Figure 1: Structure of elevator doors showing danger zones. Hands can

become trapped in gaps (A) or pinched between door edges (B).

To find a method of overcoming the weaknesses of the

sensors in current use (discussed in Section 2) and develop a system that can prevent all three common accident types (trapping accidents, pinching accidents and
collisions) with just a single set of sensors, we devised an
optical elevator door sensor system with a planar detection area covering the entire door plane. We also gave the



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Focus on

The Elevator World


Accident type

accidents (when
doors open)

accidents (when
doors close)

... only a

click away!












Collisions (when
doors close)


Accident scenario
difficult to detect

Sensor type
Sensors detecting
load torque

Detecting potential accident

before hand or object is
pulled into gap

Detects physical load

on doors.

Infrared beam

Detecting small (thin)

objects in gaps between
infrared beams

Has regions that the

infrared beams miss.

Safety shoes

Detecting soft materials

such as fabrics or strings

Detects pressure.

Infrared beam

Detecting small (thin)

objects in gaps between
infrared beams

Has regions that the

infrared beams miss.

sensors, infrared
beam sensors

Preventing collisions
between doors and
passengers running to
board the elevator

Passengers cant
anticipate when the
doors are about to
start closing.

Table 1: Sensors in current use and their weaknesses

system a light-based signal function.

The system features are described
Optical sensors can detect soft

objects before accidents occur.

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To enable detection without physical contact, we developed non-contact optical sensors. To prevent trapping accidents, our sensors can
detect obstructions before accidents
occur impossible with sensors that
detect load torque. To prevent pinching accidents, our sensors can detect
soft fabrics and strings difficult
with safety shoes.
Gap-free planar detection area

can detect small (thin) objects

Among the infrared sensors in
current use, even types that use multiple infrared beams such as light
curtains have difficulty detecting
small objects in the gaps between
the beams. To overcome this weakness, we developed original new light
source strips that generate a planar
detection area without gaps. These
light sources can detect almost all
things that enter the area, even objects as small as a finger.
Detection area covering nearly

entire door plane can prevent both

trapping and pinching accidents
Among the infrared sensors in
current use, even types that use multiple infrared beams such as light

curtains have difficulty detecting

small objects in the gaps between
the beams. To overcome this weakness, we developed original new light
source strips that generate a planar
detection area without gaps. These
light sources can detect almost all
things that enter the area, even objects as small as a finger.
System lights to let passengers know

when doors are about to close

By letting passengers anticipate
when the doors are about to start
closing, the system prevents passengers running for the elevator from
colliding with the closing doors.
To incorporate all these features,
we developed an original optical
sensor system comprised of imaging
units and light source strips.

3.2 Configuration and

detection principle
The sections below describe the
specific configuration of each system

3.2.1 Configuration
The system consists of two light
source strips each having a triangular detection area, and their corresponding imaging units. The two
light source strips work together to
form a rectangular planar detection
area. The light source strips are
mounted vertically along the door
posts. The imaging units consist of a
lens and imaging element. Each is



Focus on


mounted on the door post opposite its corresponding

light source strip, angled to place all its light sources
within its field of view. The imaging units image the long,
narrow light source strips, and detect any object entering
between themselves and each light source strip by detecting breaks in the light source image.
The left side of Figure 2 shows the sensor configuration. Figure 2 (a) shows the light source image when no
object has entered the detection area. Figure 2 (b) shows
an example of the light source image when an object has
entered the area. The light source strips and imaging unit
optics needed to overcome various technical difficulties
to implement the features described in Section 3.1 and
enable the system to be mounted in elevators of various
door sizes. The features of the light source strips and
imaging units are described below.
Light source strips
In addition to their primary function as light sources
for optical detection, the systems light sources also have
a function that lets them act as display lights to signal
passengers. Implementing their primary function required the creation of unbroken light source strips that
would create a gap-free planar detection area. To do so,
we optimized the placement interval of the red LEDs in
each strip, and mounted light diffusion plates to enable
continuous light emission of uniform intensity. This
design resulted in light sources that create a planar
detection area free from the gaps of conventional lineshaped detection areas.

Car doors

Detection area

Imaging units
To detect small objects at nearly any point in the entire
front plane and enable use in many different types of elevator, the imaging units needed to be small and support
a variety of door widths without refocusing. While overcoming both these problems was difficult, optimizing the
aspherical lens design enabled a large depth of field
(2,200 mm) and wide angle of view (66degree) while
keeping the total lens unit length under 10 mm.

3.2.2 Detection principle

As shown in Figure 2 (a), when no object is in the
detection area, each imaging unit detects the unbroken
image created by its light source strip. When an object
enters the detection area, it disrupts part of the light shining on either of the imaging units from its light source
strip, and creates a break in the image as shown in
Figure 2 (b). The sensor system uses these to detect
objects in the detection area.

3.3 System specifications

Table 2 shows the main specifications of our sensor
system. Its planar detection area supports doors of 1,800
mm in height and of any width between 800 and 1,200
mm. It can detect all non-transparent objects larger than
9 mm in diameter at any point in this area. It can detect
thinner objects in some locations, and can detect objects
of 3 mm in diameter at the center of the door opening.
Since the light sources are also used to alert passengers,
we selected red as the light source color for its common
use as a warning color. The light sources light from near

Figure 2: Sensor module configuration

Door post

Top view
Elevator car doors
Door post

Door post




Imaging unit 1

Detection area 1

Light source
strip 1

Light source strip 2

Detection area 2

Imaging unit 2

Front view


Image created by
light source strip

floor height to a height of about 1,800 mm, making them
readily visible by passengers with widely varying lines of
sight, ranging in age from children to adults to seniors.
Figure 2 shows the appearance and detection area of the
sensor system mounted in an elevator car.

3.4 Sensor and

door operation
To prevent trapping accidents (from opening doors),
and pinching accidents or collisions (from closing doors),
sensor systems need to do more than just detect obstructions they also need to open and close the elevator
doors in the proper timing as the elevator operates. Our
systems sensor modules detect obstructions and its light
sources flash in conjunction with door OPEN and CLOSE
operations. The elevator control module controls the
door OPEN/CLOSE operation and plays recorded voice
messages selected according to the detection status.
These sensor and elevator control operations are designed to keep the elevators routine operations efficient.
The sections below describe the operation performed to
prevent each type of accident.

3.4.1 Preventing trapping accidents

When the elevator car is moving, the system turns off
sensor detection and the light sources. Before the car has
arrived at the destination floor, the system starts flashing
the light sources and starts sensor detection. Starting to
flash the light sources at this point in time enables the
passengers in the car to anticipate when the doors will
start opening, and alerts them. If a sensor detects an
obstruction at this time, before opening the doors, the
system plays a recorded voice message alerting the passengers that the doors are about to open and prompting
them to move away from the doors. Delaying the start of
the door OPEN operation gives the passengers time to
move away from the doors. When the door OPEN operation starts, the light sources stop flashing and the detection operation stops. Detection stops to prevent drops in
routine operation efficiency due to unnecessary detection
of passengers attempting to get out through the gap
between the opening doors. The operations described in
this section help prevent trapping accidents.

3.4.2 Preventing pinching accidents

When the system detects an obstruction before the
doors start closing, it turns off the light sources and
Supported door widths

800 to 1,200 mm

Detection area height

Near floor height to 1,800 mm

Detection area width

[Same as door width]

Minimum detectable
object size

9 mm diameter (anywhere in detection area)

Size of light source

emission area

5 1,805 mm (W H)

Light source color


extends the FULL OPEN wait time. If it doesnt detect an

obstruction, it starts to close the doors, flashes the light
sources and continues the detection operation. If the system detects an obstruction while closing the doors, it
shuts off the light sources and starts opening the doors
again. If it doesnt detect an obstruction, it continues the
detection operation until the doors have closed.

3.4.3 Preventing collisions

While the doors are open, the system turns off the light
sources. Then starting from about one second before the
doors start closing, it flashes the light sources and starts
the detection operation. Flashing the light sources before the
doors close lets incoming passengers anticipate when the
doors are about to close, preventing collisions with them.

To improve elevator passenger safety, we developed a
new non-contact optical sensor system with a gap-free
planar detection area. The system can prevent all three
common types of elevator accidents (trapping accidents,
pinching accidents and collisions) with just a single set of
sensors. It can detect soft materials and objects small
enough to slip between the beam gaps in conventional
sensors, while its light sources double as display lights to
prevent collisions. This sensor system has already been
released as a product.

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Table 2: Sensor system specifications

March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |


Focus on

Membrane Potentiometers
Simplify Position Sensing
by Guido Woska

Guido Woska is the CEO

of Hoffmann + Krippner,
Inc. He has a Bachelors degree in Economics and Management, and a Masters
degree in Digital Business
from Berlin University. He
is a member of the Board
of Directors of the German
American Chamber of Commerce, Atlanta, and is
on several other advisory boards.

Membrane potentiometers have

changed the way engineers think
about sensing. With some only 0.5 mm
(0.05 cm) thick, ultra-flat membrane
potentiometers feature comparable
product characteristics to conventional potentiometers, but are liberal
with design freedom at significantly
lower costs.
Todays membrane potentiometers
can be used in the same applications
as conventional potentiometers, and
can also fit into space-constrained
areas. The function can follow the
form, a feature not often seen with
mechanical potentiometers.
Because most producers of membrane potentiometers offer customized
products with only small tooling efforts, the costs are competitive, even
for small prototype quantities. Three
additional advantages are found in
the basic construction of the membrane potentiometer: the ability to
be fully sealed; the possibility for a
hollow shaft design; and numerous
wiper options, including operation
by hand.
Most membrane potentiometer
products can be sealed at up to an
IP65 (NEMA4x) rating and higher.
Conventional potentiometers require
a difficult assembly of the wiper, particularly in a hollow shaft assembly, which is more reliable and cost
efficient. Because of the simple
nature of many membrane potentiometers, such technical adjustments
are not required. The wiper for the
membrane potentiometer can be as
simple as a small plastic knob sliding
across the surface and it requires no
external electrical contact. Most mem-

brane potentiometers can also be

operated by sliding a finger over its
surface and some even offer contactless magnetic versions.

Design Characteristics
In general, a membrane potentiometer is a voltage divider constructed as an open circuit that only
gives output when the wiper connects the top and bottom circuits by
applying pressure to the membrane
surface. The spacing between the
top and bottom circuit is constructed
mainly of a sealant adhesive, which
allows the potentiometer to be sealed
against external environmental factors, such as moisture or dust. This
spacing adhesive requires a minimum
width of 2 to 3 mm (0.2 to 0.3 cm) on
all sides of the membrane potentiometer. The ideal width of the resistive active area should be between 3
and 6 mm (0.3 and 0.6 cm), but can
also be extended to 10 mm (1 cm) or
even 12 mm (1.2 cm). Linear elements
can reach up to 760 mm (76 cm) in
active length, while rotary elements
with a center hole can measure from
20 mm (2 cm) diameter to approximately 450 mm (45 cm) diameter.
The life cycle and operating temperature correspond to those of mechanical potentiometers more than
20 million movements, depending on
the design even up to 100 million operations are possible. The operating
temperature can range from -40C to
+85C (140F to 185F) and there are
even systems in development that
can withstand temperatures up to
125C (257F).
Due to the design of membrane
potentiometers, temperature compenContinued



Focus on


sation is not necessary if being operated in a voltage

divider mode, and electromagnetic interference will not
affect the system.
The standard actuation is a wiper or slider but some
types require a defined magnet instead of a wiper. For
hand tipping actuation, a SET-function (value does not
change) in Z-direction is available as an option.

Installation Process and Wiper Design

Due to the flat design of membrane potentiometers,
they can be brought close to the motion area of the device which it is measuring, and does not requires much
installation space. They are adhered on a substrate by
simply removing the protective paper and applying it to
the surface, other options are snap-in mounting or using
screws. The wiper can also be easily integrated into the
With small quantities, an off-the-shelf wiper might be
the easiest choice, while with higher quantities or space
limitations, a custom designed wiper might make more
sense. One application might require a spring-loaded
screw; others will require a spring-plate attached to a
POM/Delrin plastic; each application is particular to the
needs of installation space, cost and accuracy.
If lifecycle requirements are very high, a magnetic wiper
is recommended for contactless connection. In general, a
spherical wiper can be recommended. The typical wiper
covers about 10 to 50% of the active width. Materials such
as steel, brass, hard plastics (e.g. Delron, Delrin) are typical, but depend on the type of membrane potentiometers.
Engineers should always seek advice from the manufacturers regarding the right choice of material.

Electrical Characteristics
The electrical characteristics will vary somewhat with
the design, but are generally standard, with similar output
to a conventional potentiometer, e.g. as voltage divider.
In comparison to the conventional precision potentiometer, the most significant difference is the method of
achieving linearity. While the conventional potentiometer
might use laser-trimming to achieve linearity, membrane
potentiometers, which are based on PET-Material (a thin film),
rely on production improvements to improve linearity.
Hence, the typical linearity offered is 2% for standard linear
potentiometers, although FR4-based membrane potentiometers can reach as little as 0.5% as an option.
But, more important than linearity, is the repeatability
and hysteresis. The accuracy of membrane potentiometers
can be as good as 0.01 mm (0.001 cm) over a length of 500
mm (50 cm), but most standard membrane potentiometers
range anywhere from 0.05 mm (0.005 cm) to 0.1 mm (0.1
cm). The main impact on all of the electrical outputs is
found in the mechanical motion and stability of the wiper.
As a benchmark, energy dissipation of up to 1 W and a
dielectric strength of 500V is standard, with isolation
strength of 100VDC also possible.


Different surface pressures are defined depending on the

application, but in general 1 Newton (N) up to 6 Newtons (N)
is the range that is recommended for most applications,
depending on whether the membrane potentiometer is
configured in a standard foil layout or in a hybrid version
with additional metal bonds to strengthen the structure.
Standard off-the-shelf wipers are usually divided in a 1 to
3 N and a 3 to 6 N range.

A typical application, due to the small height of membrane potentiometers, is the linear measuring of actuators. Control valves are another benefited application, in
which the standard currently requires gears and a turning
sensor to measure position. The structure required to
install and use a membrane potentiometer is much more
simple and form-friendly than the large and difficult mounting of certain conventional potentiometers.
An improved design, creating linear output signals right
next to the motion device, can sometimes increase accuracy over a conventional rotary potentiometer, which is
connected by gears far from the actual motion which is
being measured. Hoffman + Krippners SENSOFOIL can
reduce these costs significantly.
In many applications, both rotary and linear membrane
potentiometers can be used in the same device, (e.g. a seat


Membrane potentiometer

Surface Pressure




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Because of its ultra-flat design and flexible usage,

combined with low costs, the membrane potentiometer
has opened up sensing possibilities
which were not possible before. With
new and innovative materials like
magnetic operations or hybrid membrane potentiometers, designers and
engineers can use these potentiometers in different applications. Complex
sensor constructions can be reduced,
simplified and integrated less expensively with modern membrane potentiometers.

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level adjustment requires linear motion), while inclining

the seatback angle requires rotary motion. Similar applications are found in automotive interiors, where sliding
doors, sun roofs, seats applications, etc. require small
installation spaces and low weight.
Another simple solution to space problems is using the
printed-circuit board (PCB), which already exists in many
applications, as a base for the membrane potentiometer.
The PCB can be fully populated, and afterwards, the membrane potentiometer can be adhered to the board and the
connectors inserted directly into the PCB. Additionally, few
manufacturers can even print a conductive ink directly on
FR4 and combine this with PCBs and components, as they
are able to directly assemble the components onto the PCB.
Other applications, which use a membrane potentiometer mainly for cost saving reasons, are string-pots/wire
sensors and magnetic tape. Additionally, membrane
potentiometers can be fully integrated into a keypad for
hand-control. Seamless integration makes the keypad
highly innovative and useful for position tracking. The
integrated potentiometer can avoid installation holes, as
needed by a standard potentiometer and can create a
completely sealed and washable front panel surface.
In relevance to elevator and escalator technology, membrane potentiometers can be integrated into a variety of
applications. They can be used in elevator door systems to
prevent doors from closing on passengers. Additionally, they
are appropriate for position sensing of the actual elevator
car relative to the position of the floors. The sensors do not
require contact between the moving cabin and any static
device, as they can measure current position and any
change in position contactless via the option of magnetic
operations. Membrane potentiometers can also be useful
inside the elevator car, as their functionality relies on
pressure. They can be integrated into touch panels and
work as input devices, both for direct input (i.e. pressing
of a button) or continuous input (i.e. slider functionalities).

Membrane potentiometer

March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |


Focus on

Its a Sensitive Elevator

by Don Simons

Technology has been improving

the safety and performance of almost
everything in our world over the years,
and the impact of sensors in the elevator trade is no exception. Everything
from determining how heavy a car is,
if someone is entering the cab, improving the installation and maintenance of wire rope, or determining if
an earthquake has happened are just
a few topics covered in this article.

Load-Weighing Sensors

Don Simons is the North Central Regional Sales

manager at Draka Elevator. Having been in the elevator industry since 1998, he was previously the
Commercial Wire Rope manager which included
troubleshooting wire-rope issues. Prior to joining
Draka, he worked at Reliance Electric designing
electrical control systems. Simons has also
worked at Boustead Electric, where he was in
charge of its Control Systems Division. He then
went on to work for Minnesota Elevator, where
he was the national Sales manager. Simons was
also on the elevator specifications writing board
for the American Public Transportation Industry.
He received an Electronic Technology degree
from Brown Institute in Minnesota.

Load-weighing devices are widely

utilized in modern elevators. There
are several different models to
choose from, depending on where
the device will be installed, potential
loads on the device and the type of
output required for the controller.
There are also several benefits associated with having load-weighing
devices installed. The most obvious
is eliminating overload conditions.
Most readers have been in an elevator when the maximum weight
capacity was exceeded, when the
elevator cab is typically quite crowded.
While wire ropes and associated
components are installed with a
generous factor of safety, maintaining the overall load inside an elevator cab to a specified maximum
weight is still necessary.
Elevators in high-traffic conditions
greatly benefit from having a loadweighing device installed, as they
are likely to reach load capacity on
more than one occasion. An intelligent load-weighing device can temporarily stop the elevator from operating until someone gets off, thus
reducing the load in the cab. Once
an acceptable load is detected by the
load-weighing device, normal operation is resumed.

Another feature of most loadweighing devices is hall-call bypass.

If the load in an elevator cab is near
capacity, the elevator can be programmed to ignore hall calls until
the load has been reduced. Again,
once an acceptable load is detected,
normal operation is resumed.
Children playing in elevators add
costs through wear and tear. A loadweighing device can curtail that
activity using presence detection.
If the load-weighing device detects
a load below a minimum weight
(65 pounds, for example), it can be
programmed to ignore commands,
assuming a child is playing in the
elevator. It can also be programmed to
ignore commands if no passengers
are detected.
A load-weighing device can also
combine with inverters and controllers to improve pre-torque adjustment,
roll-back control and floor leveling.
This real-time data flow informs the
controller of loads and avoids excessive force when starting, avoids sudden stops when braking and perfects
the floor-leveling process.

Light-Curtain Devices
Second, light curtains have had a
wide variety of uses for many years.
Manufacturing companies have made
heavy use of light curtains over the
years, primarily to ensure the safety
of machine operators. Over time,
designs have improved, making them
much more dependable and affordable.
As a result, cost and size of these
devices have allowed them to enter
the elevator trade.

As passenger elevators became
automated, elevator doors were typically equipped with mechanical safety



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shoes to ensure that people were not hit and possibly

injured by closing doors. The shoes had to make direct
contact with the obstruction (such as someones arm or
leg) to operate.
Because elevator doors were fairly heavy, it took time
to slow, stop and reverse the door direction. This often
resulted in personal injury or equipment damage. (A major
reason for litigation in the elevator industry was and still
is passenger injury when entering or exiting an elevator.)
Mechanical shoes were also prone to wear out or be
damaged by day-to-day operation. Electrical contacts would
corrode, and a significant amount of time and money would
be spent on the replacement of this equipment. The cost
of repair was aggravated by the inconvenience of downtime. Clearly, a way other than physical contact had to be
found to prevent doors from closing on passengers.
Enter the light curtain. Light curtains offer a means of
detecting a presence in the elevator door path without
actually making physical contact. They also provide signal
inputs to hold the doors fully open, while passengers enter
or exit an elevator, reducing the potential for physical
contact and possible injury. Light curtains allow passengers to move in and out of the elevator freely, holding
the doors open as long as light beams are blocked in the
door opening.

Here is a brief description of the operation of light curtains. Light Curtains (also called light grids, photoelectric
sensors or door edges) are paired arrays of infrared transmitter elements facing one another in separate housings.
The two housings create an array of light, in which each
receiver recognizes light from one or more transmitters.
When a target (such as an arm or leg) breaks one or more
light beams, the receiver no longer sees light from its
corresponding transmitter(s) and triggers the output state
to change.
A well-designed light curtain incorporates methods of
recognizing when its beams have been blocked for a
considerable period. Some units incorporate a buzzer/
nudging interface to audibly and physically signal that an
obstruction is present and should be moved before the
elevator will continue operating. This interface can also
provide reduced speed and torque instructions to the

Figure 1: A properly tensioned

rope fits into the sheave


Figure 2: A rope with high

tension becomes deeply
seated in the sheave groove


closing mechanism to shut the doors gentler and use

reduced pressure that causes no personal injury or damage
to equipment.

Wire-Rope Tensioning
Establishing the proper tension in a set of hoist ropes
is one of the most important aspects of elevator installation and maintenance, yet its importance is often overlooked. Proper tensioning of a set of ropes is one of the
most critical factors in extending rope and sheave life,
improving ride quality and maximizing cost savings.
Proper tension adjustment ensures that each rope assumes
an equal share of the total required load (Figure 1).
When ropes operate at different tensions, service life is
not optimized simply because some ropes are performing
more work than others. When the difference in tension
among a group of ropes becomes appreciably large, all
sorts of undesirable conditions may occur. The most common problem that occurs as the result of varying tension
is uneven wear on the traction-sheave grooves. Ropes with
high tension tend to reduce in diameter, placing excessive pressure on the sheave groove. They become deeply
seated in the grooves and cause abrasion to the sheave
(Figure 2).
Conversely, ropes with low tension tend to slide along
the sheave grooves in a fashion not unlike that of a saw.
The result is excessive abrasion to the sheave. The uneven
groove wear produced by these differences in tension
makes ropes operate at different speeds to compensate for
the differences in groove depths. The net result is reduced
rope and sheave life (leading to higher maintenance costs
in the long run).
It is also important to note that ropes passing over
uneven sheave grooves can never be properly tensioned.
Replacement ropes will last only a fraction of their expected
life, and each set of replacement ropes will have progressively shorter life due to differences in the sheave grooves.

Figure 3: Display before tensioning ropes

There are several ways to check the tension of the ropes,
from plucking, to utilizing an analog rope-tension gauge,
to a multiple sensor and control box with an LCD display
for real time adjustments. For now, lets explore the
latter. The system is comprised of two basic components.
Individual sensors are attached to each rope to provide
tension readings for individual ropes. The sensors are
connected to the control box, which provides a graphical
representation of the tension in each rope on a large LCD
display (Figure 3). The user simply reads the tension in
each rope and makes the necessary adjustments, eliminating test weights, calibration and guesswork (Figure 4).
In summary, maintaining hoist ropes in proper tension
can greatly reduce unnecessary wear to sheaves and
hoist ropes, and virtually eliminate the potential of early
sheave and/or rope replacement.

Seismic Sensors
An earthquake, even a light one, can distort or break
the precisely aligned components of an elevator system.
Possible damage due to a seismic event includes derailed
counterweights (which could collide with the cabs), damaged or unseated wire rope, and broken or damaged rails
or guide rollers. Even a small tremor could bend a rail
bracket and cause eventual failure of the rail months
later. An intelligent seismic detection system can keep
passengers safe by quickly getting the elevator to the
nearest stop and prompting the passengers to exit the
cab. Seismic countermeasures are fully addressed in
ASME A17.1. Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators.
Modern elevator systems have a couple of ways to
determine if they have sustained damage due to an earthquake. Ring on a string counterweight displacement hardware is a simple way to detect counterweight-derailment.
Two steel cables run parallel to the counterweight guide
rails and pass through a pair of eyebolts located on the
counterweight (Figure 5). If an eyebolt contacts a cable

Figure 4: Display after tensioning ropes

(which indicates counterweight displacement), an electrical circuit is completed,

which tells the controller to stop and
redirect the car immediately.
A more exact way to determine if and
when an elevator should be shut down is
an electronic seismic detector that senses
and measures acceleration on all three
axes. If this motion, measured in Gs,
exceeds a programmed limit, the detector signals the elevator controller to stop
the cab at the nearest floor to permit a
safe and speedy exit by the passengers.
A fully featured seismic sensor (like
Figure 5
the Draka P/N 010-4-0005 shown in
Figure 6) detects both primary (P) and secondary (S)
earthquake waves and will act accordingly. When the
sensor detects a P wave of sufficient amplitude, it will
send a signal to the elevator to stop at the nearest floor
and allow the passengers to exit the cab before the more
damaging S waves arrive. The elevator will remain out of
commission until it is repaired and reset by a qualified
technician. The product will also record the date, time,
duration and peak acceleration in each axis for a seismic
event that it detects. This can aid engineers in determining the extent of any damage.

Todays Smarter Elevator

The use of sensors in elevators today has improved
safety and efficiency. The elevator controllers are now
able to receive much more precise data, making better
use of power requirements and getting the public where
it needs to be faster. These sensors are assisting other
initiatives in our industry to become more green.
These are just a few of the sensors utilized in the elevator trade today. Their reliability, improved safety and
durability are just a few points by which they help sensors
make elevators more affordable for building owners and
safer for the general public.

Figure 6: Draka P/N 010-4-0005

March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |


Focus on

Sensor Solutions for Elevators

by Jim Dunn

Technical Overview
Sensing devices used in elevators
can be divided into two broad categories: sensors for person/object
detection, and sensors for car/cabin
detection. In the past, among the
most commonly used sensor for
person/object detection was a photoelectric sensor. These sensors use
light to detect the presence of an
object, usually by the object breaking
the beam. Photoelectric sensors consist of three essential components: a
light source (sometimes called a transmitter or sender), a receiver (also
called a photo-collector), and an output (can be a relay or a transistor/
electronic output signal). While there
are several different physical configuration options, a common arrangement is a through-beam pair, where
the sender and receiver are in separate physical housings, generally
placed on opposite ends of the cabin
door opening.
The sensors place an invisible beam
(infrared) of light across the door

opening, and when a person or

object breaks the beam by passing
between the two, an output signal is
generated and sent to the controller,
which will usually result in the door
either reversing travel to open, or
remaining open for a specific amount
of time after the person or object has
passed. While no longer commonly
used in elevator doors, these sensors
can be found in use on escalators.
Today, elevator door openings are
covered using a variation of throughbeam photoelectric sensors called
light curtains. A light curtain consists
of two sticks which are typically two
meters tall. Each stick contains multiple photoelectric light beams, which
create a crisscrossed curtain effect
across the door opening. A passenger only needs to break a single beam
to cause an output to be generated.
Light curtains function as photoelectric sensors but offer additional benefits. First, they completely cover or
protect over a height span of two
meters (6.6 ft.) or more, from the

An example
of a light
curtain from
Carlo Gavazzi

Jim Dunn is the Product Manager for sensors,

switches, and pilot devices at Carlo Gavazzi, Inc.
He has been with the company for more than 12
years and in the industrial automation industry for
over 18 years.



Focus on


floor to top of the cabin door, whereas a standard photoelectric sensor with a single beam can only protect a
limited space across the door span. Second, a properly
designed light curtain will continue to function even if
partially damaged, allowing the elevator to remain safely
in operation until a technician can provide service. Additionally, light curtains can be mounted to the cabin doors
and will automatically adjust their power level as the
doors open and close, allowing for efficient energy use
and flexibility for installation. Carlo Gavazzi offers a light
curtain series dedicated to elevator applications that
doesnt require additional or external components.
While the photoelectric sensors and light curtains are
ideally suited for detecting persons or objects in the door
opening, they cannot detect persons approaching the
door. For this application, a radar sensor can be mounted
above the elevator door frame, and be positioned to
detect persons approaching the elevator door; this can be
used to signal a car to come to the floor or to hold a door
open. The radar sensor, which operates on the Doppler
principle that measures changes in wave frequency
relative to the motion of an object or person, can ignore
people passing laterally in front of the door, but react to
people approaching the door. The RAD Series from Carlo
Gavazzi is appropriate for this application.
An even more advanced method for detecting persons
approaching the door, and even in the door opening, is a
vision based system that uses cameras and software to
detect motion towards the elevator door. The GUARDIAN1
from Carlo Gavazzi uses a camera instead of infrared
detectors. The software analyzes the images captured by
the camera in real time, and processes them to generate
an output if a person moves toward the door, but ignores
the person moving laterally in front of the door. Additionally, the sensor can be adjusted to ignore permanent

moving fixtures near the door opening (such as a plant or

rotating sign).
There are two common devices used for cabin detection: mechanical limit switches and magnetic sensors.
Limit switches use a lever or rollers that come into contact with the car as it travels in the elevator shaft. The
motion of the limit switch lever is transferred to a contact, which either opens or closes depending upon the
motion of the lever; when the car passes the switch, the
lever and the contacts return to their normal state. This
switch can be used to identify the floor that the car has
reached. A variation of the limit is used for over-travel
detection when the car has gone beyond its upper or
lower limits in the shaft. This switch will have a manual
reset, so that if a car goes beyond its normal travel limits,
the switch is tripped, causing an alarm to be sent, and
then will remain disabled until a maintenance engineer
has cleared the problem and manually resets the switch.
Magnetic sensors are also used for detecting the cabin.
These devices are non-contact, unlike limit switches
which rely on physical contact with the cabin. The magnetic sensor consists of a reed switch, which is activated
when a magnet with proper polarity enters the range of
the sensor. When the cabin (and magnet) pass out of the
range of the sensor, the reed switch returns to its normal
state, or if it is a bi-stable switch, will stay in its state until
the cabin passes again in the opposite direction, which
then causes the contacts to switch state again.

The RAD sensor by Carlo Gavazzi




Detecting people near or in an elevator door opening
is crucial to safe operation, as well as convenience for
passengers. For detecting persons in the door opening in
the past, limit switches and then photoelectric sensors
were used. While functional, these devices had limitations; for limit switches it required that a person or object

make physical contact with the door in order to activate
the switch. For standard photoelectric sensors, the detection area was limited by the number of sensors and their
positioning in the door opening. If an insufficient number
or improper placement of sensors occurred, it would be
possible for people to pass through the door opening
undetected, creating a potential for the door to close on
the person while still in the door opening.
Today, elevator light curtains provide full coverage of
the door opening, from floor to ceiling, and can safely
continue operation even if partially damaged, allowing for
increased safety and efficiency. These devices will effectively detect a person or object anywhere in the door
opening, without physical contact.
Radar sensors have the ability to ignore people passing
laterally in front of an elevator door, but react to people
approaching the door. This feature can be used to hold a
door open, allowing a passenger to reach the car before
the door closes. In some cases this device could be used
as an alternative or supplemental option to a call button,
providing the convenience of calling a car to the floor, or
opening the door of the car, before the passenger reaches
the door.
Camera based sensors provide both motion and presence detection in a single device. This allows the sensor
to detect persons approaching the door, and thus hold the
door open until they reach the car. It also detects if
people or objects are in the door opening, to prevent
the door from closing on them. Since this sensor is a passive device using a camera instead of radar signals or
photoelectric beams, it is virtually immune to any type of

Open door

When it comes to cabin detection in the shaft, such as

presence at the floor or speed control, magnetic sensors
are typically employed. The magnetic sensors are
mounted on the outside of the cabin, and appropriate
magnets are placed in the shaft at various locations,
depending upon the specific application. The feedback
from the sensors can be used to calculate speed in the
shaft, or if the car is properly leveled.
In todays climate of energy consciousness, many
users are seeking ways to reduce energy consumption.
An innovative approach to reducing energy consumption
in the elevator cars, where lights are typically on even
when the car is not in use, is to use the GUARDIAN1 sensor, which can detect motion in the car. When no motion
is detected after a specific amount of time, the sensor can
activate a signal to turn the cabin lights off, until the
doors open again for a passenger to enter, at which time
the lights can be turned on.

Carlo Gavazzi
Carlo Gavazzi is committed to meeting the needs and
requirements of the elevator industry. Founded in 1931, the
company is a global designer and manufacturer of electronics for industrial and building automation, with decades of
experience serving the lift and escalator market. It also has
an R&D group that is knowledgeable in the norms and
regulations of the global elevator/lift market.

ELEVATORS 101, 2nd Edition

by Zack McCain
Includes new illustrations for easy learning, code
updates and more! A must have for elevator salespersons, new hires in the industry or anyone who
wants a better understanding of elevator technology.
Visit for more information.
Photoeletric sensors

March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |


Manufacturer Spotlight

GAL Goes Lean and Green

by Ricia S. Hendrick

According to Reuters News Service, 2011 is the year of

companies that make things. If that is so, GAL is among
those poised for a great year. Herbie Glaser III, grandson
of the company founder, and affectionately known as
Three, told your reporter that the company has streamlined its manufacturing process, and at the same time is
manufacturing almost every piece of the products it sells.
In some cases, we even make the machines that make
the products. This keeps us from being held hostage by
suppliers either in quality or deadlines, Herb III added.
From his office he can watch the entire factory on a double-screen computer. There he can also review processes
and errors with an eye toward speeding up time and quality (1). Glaser also said that the lean initiative originally
came from Paul Seifreid, vice president of Operations.
Supervisors were trained and then they trained others.
Soon processes were streamlined, the factory floor reorganized, waste reduced and costs controlled all without
letting any of the 350 employees go.
Andrea Magaziner and Glaser showed your reporter
through the entire factory, including newly built areas
devoted to controller engineering. With manufacturing
areas and offices, GAL has approximately 100,000 square
feet of space with an additional 50,000-square-foot warehouse nearby.
First up was the new computer activated Lazar machine (2), which cuts and engraves. Beside it, a hoist
loads heavy materials onto a work platform (3).
Herb III noted that
the company can and
will manufacture replacement parts for
door operators from
the 1930s, if needed.
When change is required, it is easier to
design and make it inhouse. It can also manufacture more than
50,000 products in one
day. Many are small,
like those from the
in-house all plastics
injector molding ma4
chine (4). When the



Manufacturer Spotlight


system was manual they produced only 100 items per

day. New computerized machines have replaced manual
equipment with upgrades to punch presses, shears and
Lazar. Now, they have over 36,000 part numbers for new
installation, modernization, repair and maintenance.
The company makes nearly all of its own progressive
molds and dyes (5 and 6). It also uses the spincaster to
mold Braille for handicapped equipment. In addition, its
new push buttons that can be changed at the controller
for color and function were in this area (7 and 8).
In the engraving department, everything is automatic
and a cold-air gun to cool the engraving spindle is used
(9). Powder coating fills the engraving and a quick meltand-dry process proceeds. The painting process has been
improved with degreasers, and GAL has also moved to
galvanizing a one step operation that reduces time and

In addition, the companys door package is progressively assembled on the floor. Parts are manufactured
and go in the crate, which is put on a conveyor, moving
on from station to station. The final door equipment
conveyor line is 330 feet (10-13). Four people using
this conveyor can box 100 crates of door equipment
per day. According to Glaser the new lean initiative has
reduced delivery from 12 weeks to four, with an average
of 95% on time delivery.
The R&D department on the factory floor makes several tools and dyes as well as certain types of machines
(14). Clearly, the company is an engineers paradise and
the place is filled with them from the top (2nd generation Walt (15) and Herb Glaser (16)) to all levels of the
third generation of Glasers as well.
One of the most impressive machines is the Komax
wiring machine. Drawing from large spools, the machine










March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |


Manufacturer Spotlight


pre-labels controller wiring and then pulls wire for harnesses attaching the connectors and crimps (17).

much as possible. In addition, the Hollister Whitney non-

Near the wiring machine is the controller testing center

less (MRL) is used (19). For controllers, the test procedure

(18). There are no simulators here, and all testing is done

is recorded on a touch- screen system, and can be re-

with AC and DC machines, door operators and complete

viewed for data in the field if issues arise. Controllers

signal fixtures are used to replicate field conditions as






proprietary AC permanent magnet (PM) machine-room-

have a chip much like plug-in data storage for computers

(20). The chip can be revised and replaced as needed.
One of the most fascinating areas was the circuitboard room. GAL has manufactured all of the circuit
boards it uses for about two years. This has improved
inventory control and quality. Both technologies are used
surface mount and through hardware (21-23). For the
surface mount a machine solders the finished product.
Board repair and testing is also done in this area, along
with R&D (24).
In the nearby pick-up center, GAL handles 50 orders a
day, to help walk-in customers, sample products cover the
walls for identification.
In the office area above the factory and pick-up center
are sales and executive offices and a newly built 10,000square-foot space dedicated for the GALaxy controller
contract engineering, field technical support, software
engineering and R&D (25). A large training room contains equipment controllers, AC PM MRLs, door units,
etc. (26). It is here that many field personnel come to
learn about the GALaxy controller, the rope gripper, the
new fixture buttons and the door operators. Later during
the tour, Sales Vice President Doug Witham (27) mentioned that GAL has a couple of groups coming in for
training each week.
Ideally located across from New Yorks Yankee Stadium,
the new GAL is more efficient leaner and greener. The
first generation founded the company, the second generation initiated its growth, and the third is streamlining all
processes. Standing still is not an option.









March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |



LifePatron Advanced Earthquake Warning System

by Jergen Prybylak

An estimated seven million people
have lost their lives in earthquakes
over the last 500 years. Seismologists
record about 20,000 tremors annually. Experts agree that the millions
of people residing in large earthquake prone metropolitan regions,
in the near future, will be threatened
by the disasters, for which they are
not adequately prepared.
Despite improved building security measures through earthquakeresistant construction, thousands of
people die in big earthquakes due to
collapsing buildings and fires caused
by ruptured gas pipes and live highvoltage wires. Unfortunately, many
people do not know much about
earthquakes and the various problems they can cause.
Earthquakes are temporary vibrations of the soil, spreading from their

Jergen Prybylak is an electronic technician at

Secty Electronics. He worked on the LifePatron
project for six years in conjunction with GFZPotsdam scientists.
A graphical representation of P and S wave



point of origin in different waves into

all directions. Seismic waves are distinguished between primary (P) and
secondary (S) waves. The P wave
(normally non-destructive) travels in
a predominantly vertical motion and
has a velocity approximately twice
that of the horizontal S wave, which
normally has a larger displacement
potential and has the motion most
often associated with structural
damage. While the precise speed of
these waves from the earthquake
focal area is dependent on geology
and other factors, their relative speed
differential remains somewhat constant. Thus, reliable detection of P
waves provides an opportunity for an
automatic warning of the impending
arrival of the more damaging S
wave. Consequently, the P wave
always reaches the location of the
system first.


Establishing Equivalent Safety with

New Technologies and Applications
The dramatic growth of wind towers and the resultant proliferation of wind tower elevators to service
and maintain their turbines provide an excellent look into how companies are establishing equivalent
safety with new technologies and applications and why Underwriters Laboratories (UL) is at the
leading edge of this important work.
There is no safety code for wind tower elevators. Under the prescriptive ASME A17.1 or CSA B44
elevator and escalator safety codes, there is no uniform process for establishing the compliance of
new technologies, or, as in the case of wind tower elevators, use of older technologies in applications
not envisioned when the codes were written. This situation makes their adoption difficult, inefficient,
and very expensive.
ASME A17.1 does have provisions for equivalent safety in its preface; Section 1.2 notes that if a
manufacturer introduces an innovative product or process or new technology that does not meet or
is not covered by the prescriptive requirements of A17.1, it can be evaluated through the performancebased code A17.7 (introduced by ANSI in 2007). This process requires that an independent, accredited
elevator/escalator certification organization (AECO) evaluate the product to ensure that it meets
the requirements of the performance-based code for equivalent safety to A17.1. Of the three ANSI
accredited AECOs in the world, UL is the only one based in North America.

Addressing the Winds of Change

When determining equivalent safety for a wind tower elevator or anything else, a manufacturer must
understand the risks involved before it can move forward. The key element is the risk assessment,
which identifies the risks; then the manufacturer can move forward by determining how to mitigate or
eliminate them.
The manufacturer does the risk assessment with guidance provided by the AECO. Once a risk is
identified, it is ranked. What is the probability and severity level of an occurrence? Is this something
that needs to be addressed? If the hazard can cause severe injury or worse and can happen with
relatively high frequency, then action must be taken. In terms of moving machinery, you may guard
it; in the case of something thats a lower risk, you may introduce signage. Solutions can be applied
to either remove the hazard, which is preferable, or to mitigate the risk. Then the manufacturer
re-evaluates the hazard and quantifies how much this mitigation has improved the situation.
One of the concerns with wind tower elevators is the movement of the structure itself, which obviates
the use of traditional elements such as steel rails and dictates the use of steel wire ropes. Periodic
maintenance is considered equivalent based on lesser usage, and from an installation perspective, factors
such as weld integrity and the metrics used to measure it become important not things typically seen in
elevator applications.
The principles used in wind tower elevators apply as well to new technologies such as coated steel belts,
programmable controllers, and other products and materials emerging in new elevator design.

Why UL?
If you have a new technology or a new use for an existing technology that isnt covered by an existing
code, then AECO certification of equivalent safety is a good solution for improved market access.
UL is an active participant in standards committees, and invests heavily in staying informed about codes
and standards and where they are going. UL brings this intelligence to the risk assessment process when
working with manufacturers in establishing equivalent safety. UL is also driving AECOs toward collaborative
processes to ensure consistency across the industry, a strategy that manufacturers should find helpful.

For more information contact Kevin Connelly at 1.631.546.2691

or, or go to

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The international Richter scale describes the strength
of an earthquake in its Hypocentre (the position where
the strain energy stored in the rock is first released, marking the point where the fault begins to rupture) with the
help of seismographs. The different magnitudes include:
Earthquakes with a magnitude of 2.0 or less are described
as micro and are not usually noticeable.
2.0- to 3.9-magnitude earthquakes are noticeable to
most resting people.
4.0- to 5.2-magnitude earthquakes are noticed by most
Earthquakes with a magnitude greater than 5.2 are
noticed by all people.
A magnitude higher on the scale means the 32-fold
release of energy (logarithmic increase). The commonly
used Richter scale and other scientific expressions of
earthquake magnitude are logarithmic scales used to
quantify the amount of energy released by an earthquake.
They are not engineering scales and are often confusing
when comparing the effects of an earthquake at various
distances from the epicenter (area on the earths surface
toward which the earthquake energy is directed) or focus
(origin of the rupture within the earths crust).


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Because the effects of an earthquake felt at specific

distances from the epicenter vary widely, due to geology,
soil conditions, fault rupture mechanism and other factors,
the major consideration when contemplating potential
damage is not the Richter scale, but rather the intensity of
shaking experienced at the facility in question.

Complete Warning Time

The warning time (P and S1) is different for every
earthquake. We look inside the first P wave peak and
analyze its frequency, acceleration, and other properties.
It takes a fraction of a second to analyze a wave. Once
analyzed, the system then knows what the waves level

Graphic presentation and mode of action

of P- and S- waves

vertical shock



Test and diagram of a real earthquake



horizontal movement



of intensity will be when it reaches the site of the installed

system. An alarm will trigger and direct all switching
processes. The lower part of the diagram shows the
switching impulse of the system. If the threshold value
(intensity at the building) is higher than the adjusted
value, the system will give an alarm. By doing this, it is
possible to:
Give an alarm before the earthquake occurs
Shut off gas, electricity and water supplies
Activate emergency power generators
Park elevators
Open safety doors and gates
Switch traffic and tunnel lights off to stop traffic before
the actual wave strikes
Control railway signal installations
Run data back-up programs
Switch building management systems over to stop
elevators, shut off gas, water valves and electricity.

Place for the Installation

To carry out an exact measure, the earthquake sensors
must always be installed in the lowest floor of the building so that the direct assignment (earth/building) will
transfer 1:1 into the sensor. A sensor that analyzes the
vibrations at the installed position is inside every earthquake sensor. In the case of a transgression of the
adjusted swelling value, the signal of a bus communication cable is sent to the master. The master cyclically
scans all slaves and decides on the triggering of an alarm
of all earthquake detectors in the connected system. The
quantity of the earthquake detectors is dependent on the
Examples of the quantity of sensors:
Private house: one master and two sirens
Apartment with 10 flats: one master, one slave, one
power supply and 10 sirens
Shopping mall: one master and three to five slaves,
with power supplies dependent on the sirens
Control elevator by P wave: one master and one slave



We can park the elevator by P wave for a short time

(for example, 2 minutes) in the next floor, and, in case of
an S wave, the system can stop the elevator for control.

Description of the Devices

1. Earthquake detector master with display (EQm)
The basic version of the Secty LifePatron consists of a
standalone device with one integrated, rechargeable battery for emergency power for two connected 105-decibel
sirens to warn people of an impending earthquake.
One potential free relay ( 230V) for gas supply shutdown by means of an electromagnetic gas valve or
other switching processes
Handling of the system is menu-driven through an
LCD display (four X 20 characters), with a console
integrated into the front cover of the housing. All
pending information and indications are shown in
the display. There is the option of observing the
operation and control functions via TABD from a
remote location (security center or gatekeeper).
The system status is indicated visually by LEDs for
operation, failure and alarm.
Case dimensions: 217 X 250 X 122 mm
2. Earthquake detector slave (EQs)
Redundant security
For this purpose, EQs are connected via data lines in
a master/slave arrangement. The master scans all
slaves cyclically and decides on triggering an alarm.
A maximum of 16 advance earthquake warning
sensors can be connected
Two sirens may be installed on each slave
The system status is indicated visually by LEDs for
operation, failure and alarm.
Case dimensions: 217 X 250 X 122 mm
3. Power Supply
Provides low-voltage, via a low-voltage power/
electricity line. Two integrated, rechargeable batteries
provide emergency power to secure the operation of
the system in case of a power failure.



When the master reports an impending earthquake,

the optical/acoustic alarm is triggered and sounded
through the maximum six sirens connected to the
power supply.
Fifteen devices can be powered
The system status is indicated visually by LEDs for
operation, failure and alarm.
Case dimensions: 281 X 290 X 147 mm
4. Energy Management System (EMS)
The EMS system can control up to a maximum of
eight different electronically operated energy systems and building installations (eight potential free
contacts ( 230V).
When the master reports an impending earthquake,
an alarm is triggered that activates the EMS and
immediately actuates all connected energy systems
and electronic building and infrastructure installations.
The system status is indicated visually by LEDs for
operation, failure and alarm.
Case dimensions: 217 X 250 X 122 mm
5. Central serving and control member (TABD)
Control member in case the master doesnt have a
Installation in a control/security room
The system status is indicated visually by LEDs for
operation, failure and alarm.
Case dimensions: 120 X 200 X 57 mm
6. Board of Building Management
This board comes in the master device.
It has three potential free contacts ( 230V).
Users can send the information for operation, failure and alarm to the existing building management
system (BMS). From here, the BMS can control all
things in the building.

Technical Description
Secty Electronics GmbH developed this device for the
use of seismic warnings. The Secty LifePatron monitors the
ground movement in three spatial directions and evaluates the vibration severity in view of the possible arrival

Bring it back
down . . .
Bring it back



of seismic waves that originate from large earthquakes.

The GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences has
tested this product with respect to its sensitivity.

Sensor Technology
The electronic components used in the Secty LifePatron
and the measuring accuracy linked with it were checked
by comparative measurement. The components used
require the terminal equipment to fulfill the following
1) Sensor: Tri-axial (X, Y and Z axes)
2) Operating range: DC 40 Hz
3) Sensitivity: 1 V/g 4%
4) Nonlinearity: <2.5%
5) Cross sensitivity: <3%
6) Noise: ~ 0.01 mps2
7) Test temperature: -18C to 51.5C

Testing the Alarm by Exceeding Thresholds

The measuring system is to be used as a warning system in the event of an earthquake. It should not release
false alarms. This is ensured by the following measures:
Restriction of the analyzed signals to the frequency band
The implanted analysis algorithm is designed for the
detection of the P wave.
The bottom switching for the supervision system
amounts to 0.3 mps2.
Redundant earthquake net monitoring one master,
15 slaves (depending on the project)
Adjustment for eight different thresholds

Earthquake Experiences in Different

Countries with Alarm Systems
Chile: A German school in Chile received an alarm 30
seconds before the P wave hit and one minute until the
S1 hit.
Haiti: A warning system was installed after the earthquake on January 29, 2010. On February 23, 2010, the
system sent an alarm of a 4.7-magnitude aftershock,
warning about 5,000 people.
Pakistan: Four systems were installed in January 2009. A
large 5.4-magnitude earthquake occurred on February
20, 2009, and the systems gave an alarm before the
destructive S wave reached the people.
El Salvador: In a German school in El Salvador, the
system provided an alarm of an earthquake on April 4,
2008. The epicenter of the 6.1-magnitude earthquake
was located in Guatemala, approximately 150 km from
the school.

It is important that people receive warnings of destructive S waves. As a result, many affected people have
agreed that it would have helped them to have a LifePatron
warning system prior to their earthquake experience, even
if it provided only a few seconds of warning.


Bondhus Corp. has added hollowshaft nut drivers to its line of performance tools. The nut drivers feature
Bondhus Comfort Grip screwdriver
handle and high-strength, chromeplated shafts. They are available in
singles or sets, in sizes ranging from
5/32 to 1/2 inch and 4 to 13 mm.

Have your companys new or

improved products showcased
in Product Spotlight
Product Spotlight article
submissions should be sent to
the Elevator World Editorial
Department at one
of the following addresses:
Postal: P.O. Box 6507
Mobile, AL 36660

For more information, contact Nick

Marchuk of Bondhus at 1400 East
Broadway, P.O. Box 660, Monticello,
Minnesota 55362; toll free: (800)
328-8310; phone: (763) 295-2162; or

Meiller Aufzugtren GmbH offers
its new Heavy Duty HD sliding doors,
available with three, four or six sliding panels. All doors are fitted with a
3-mm-thick transom with laterally
welded side walls made of galvanized
sheetmetal. The guide rails are made

of 4-mm rolled galvanized profile steel,

is solid and welded
into a closed hollow
profile along its entire length. The door material has a



high resistance to fatigue and wear,

and can withstand high and low temperatures, as well as severe impacts.
For more information, contact
Meiller at Untermenzinger Str. 1 D80997, Munich, Germany; phone:
(089) 1487-0; fax: (089) 1487-15-66; or


International Welding Technologies,
Inc. (IWT) offers a line of portable and
flexible welding equipment for the
vertical-transportation industry. IWT
manufactures three different stud
welding machines weighing 18-33
lbs. In addition, there are four welding guns to choose from. The C-1 is
modeled from fiber-reinforced plastic and is fully insulated. The Lynx3
Quickshot Stud welder features rugged
housing design, increased duty cycle,
a heavy weld cable set and robust
connectors. The S-1 precision welding gun is appropriate for use in tight
locations, and has a 6-inch shaft
extension and an automatic trigger
switch. The M1 gun is designed to fit
in small and narrow locations where
standard welding guns cannot, and it
is designed to help keep studs perpendicular to the work surface.

For more information, contact IWT

at 2650 Egg Harbor Road, Lindenwold,
New Jersey 08021; phone: (856) 4358004; fax: (856) 435-4004; or website:

The Peelle Co. now offers replacement door panels. The panels reuse
existing operating equipment and
rails, require less field labor than a
complete new door replacement, are
less costly than complete new doors,
require less call backs, come with the
same warranty as new equipment,
and are Underwriters Laboratories
and Canadian Standards Association
approved. In addition, Peelle provides all necessary materials, as well
as turnkey installation services.

and a bar-graph power-demand indicator. A front optical communication

port that can enable quick access to
measurements and programming is
also available. Optional hardware
expansion modules include: serial,
Ethernet and BACNet communication with or without onboard storage
for data logging, digital inputs, static,
relay and analog outputs. In addition
to electrical measurements, the
WM40-96 is capable of temperature
and process-signal measurements.

a.) Twisted traveling cable

b.) Toe guard too short
c.) No car top safety railing
For more information, contact
Brad Hunt of Peelle at phone: (631)
231-6000, ext. 337 or website: www


Carlo Gavazzi has recently added
its WM40-96 Smart Modular Power
Analyzer to its line of energy meters.
The product provides solutions for
measuring electrical variables such as
current, voltage, power, energy and
harmonics. With its streamlined modular basic unit and plug-in modules,
the WM40-96 can be used in various
applications. The compact size of the
analyzer allows consumers to save
space in the back side of control
doors and switchgears.
It is also equipped with a keypad
and an innovative display that includes five rows of measurements

For more information, contact

Carlo Gavazzi at 750 Hastings Lane,
Buffalo Grove, Illinois 60089; phone:
(847) 465-6100; fax: (800) 222-2659;
e-mail:; or

Hitachi America, Ltd.s Industrial
Components and Equipment Division
recently announced its new SJ7002200HFU2 model inverter, with a
440A output current capability. The
new model fits in the gap at 300-350
hp in the SJ700 series, which now
covers the 1/2 to 600 hp range. The
new series is appropriate for elevator
applications, because it is equipped
with Hitachis 0 Hz Domain openloop control mode, and can develop
150% torque near 0 Hz.

d.) Buffer strike plate missing

to find out if you are right. You
can also view all past and
current contests.

Whats Wrong With This

Picture? Contest:

In the interest of promoting

jobsite safety, every two weeks
EW will post a photo on the
Elevator Industry Jobsite
Safety website that illustrates
unsafe working conditions or
habits. Correctly identify the
safety errors and you could
win a special prize!

March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |


Product Spotlight



For more information, visit website:

E-Switch, Inc. has introduced its
new illuminated push-button switch
series, the RP8200, which is offered
in a round design and available in a
threaded or snap-in panel mount
version. There are five LED color
options for the illumination or it can
come without illumination. The
RP8200 has an IP65 rating and a life
expectancy of 200,000 cycles.

For more information, contact ESwitch at 7153 Northland Drive North,

Minneapolis, Minnesota 55428; toll
free: (800) 867-2717; or website: www

Elevator Motors/Materials Corp.

(EMCO) has announced its new lightweight, portable sensor with control
specifically designed to measure the
tension of individual ropes in addition to car and counterweight values.
The Omega 806 control is provided
with a three-prong connector to plug
into 115 volt car-top power. It provides
both graphic and digital display for the
tension of each rope. The RTM sensor is provided with universal serial
bus connectors for fast connecting
and disconnecting from control.

The RTM sensor is available for

rope diameters from 1/4 to 3/4 inch.
It is also equipped with an LED indicator light to verify proper connection to the rope for accurate tension
measurement. The control and sensors can be provided with a portable
case to enable safe and easy transport to any jobsite.
For more information, contact EMCO
at 80 Carolyn Boulevard, Suite 1,
Farmingdale, New York 11735; phone:
(631) 293-4220; fax: (631) 293-2714;
e-mail:; or

Elevator safety is important, but
some situations may pose even more
risks than others, resulting in a greater
need for elevator door sensors.
Cypress Village, an elderly assisted
living community, observed that the
elevator doors were coming closer
to the less able-bodied residents
than they are suppose to, therefore,
the organization contacted its elevator maintenance manager and the
ThyssenKrupp representative in charge
of the elevator service contract.
The determined solution CEDES
IMS 100 3D door sensors from Adams
Elevator. The system features smart
camera technology based on timeof-flight principles, which measures
the distance to an object based on
the amount of time it takes for light
to travel to a given object and back
to the sensor. The systems self-contained sensor has a 3-foot field of
vision, and can distinguish between
objects approaching the door versus
those that are stationary. The IMS 100
safely monitors down to four inches
before the door closes. The system
also easily integrates with other door
protection systems and can be added
to existing 2D systems.
For more information, contact
Adams Elevator at 6310 West Howard
Street, Niles, Illinois 60714; toll free:
(800) 929-9247; fax: (847) 581-2949;
e-mail: adams_parts@adamselevator
.com; or website: www.adamselevators

Maintenance Modernization Safety
Construction Design Engineering





Hephzii Elevato







No. 132, 1st Floor, 5th Cross, Cambridge Layout, Bangalore - 560 008, India
Tel: +91 80 25567028/29, 41493996/97, Fax: +91 80 25567028


Urs Lindegger of Ebikon, Switzerland, has assigned to Inventio AG of
Hergiswil NW, Switzerland, U.S.
Patent No. 7,866,446 dated January
11, 2011.

Patents in this column are

given in synopsis form.
Complete information is
available and can be ordered
by the number stated in the
article from the Commissioner
of Patents and Trademarks,
Washington, DC 20231 or online

enable later entry into the operating

mode. The device includes a detecting unit in order to detect a use criterion describing the current use status
of the elevator installation. Moreover, a power-saving unit with a
microprocessor is provided in order
to bring the elevator installation from
the operating mode to the standby
mode in the case of non-fulfillment
of the use criterion and fulfillment of
standby criteria and to bring it from
the standby mode to the operating
mode in the case of non-fulfillment
of the standby criteria.


Patent No. 7,866,446

A device for reducing the energy
consumption is used in an elevator
installation which can be alternatively
brought into an operating mode and
a standby mode wherein in the
standby mode the elevator installation is separated from a main energy
source and connected with an auxiliary energy source, by means of
which basic functions of the elevator
installation are maintained so as to

Gerben van der Werf of Hamburg,

Frank Neerhut of Henstedt-Ulzburg,
Michael Tilkorn of Trittau, Reiner Ludwig of Schwarzenbek and Hartmuth
Willnauer of Witzhave, all of Germany
have assigned to ThyssenKrupp
Fahrtreppen GmbH of Germany U.S.
Patent No. 7,854,311 dated December
21, 2010.

Patent No. 7,854,311


ELEVATOR WORLDs 2011 Project of the Year Award Winner

Speakers Rostrum, US House of Representatives
Category 7: Accessibility

TEL 413.967.4980



An escalator or travelator comprising a circulating step belt or panel

belt. Each step or panel of a belt is
provided on each side respectively
with a supporting roller and a chain
roller, which are guided on supporting roller rails and chain roller rails
in forward travel and in return travel.
Supporting roller return travel rails
are adapted to support the supporting roller only partially.


Douglas B. LeBrecque of West
Springfield, Massachusetts, Craig A.
Buckley of Glastonbury, Troy R.
Chicoine of Granby, Thomas R.
Charney of Bolton and Richard S.
Blakelock of Bristol, all of Connecticut, have assigned to Otis Elevator
Co. of Farmington, Connecticut, U.S.
Patent No. 7,857,115 dated December
28, 2010.

disclosed example is useful for spanning at least a portion of an escalator

where the normal operating steps
have been removed for purposes of
working on the escalator. A disclosed
example includes a tread surface, a
riser portion that is at least partially

generally perpendicular to the tread

surface, a first axle hook and a second axle hook. The axle hooks rest
upon spaced axles associated with
the escalator for positioning a temporary step as desired for facilitating
working on the escalator.

Patent No. 7,857,115

A device useful for working on an
escalator provides a tread surface
that is obliquely oriented relative to
an incline of the escalator during a
maintenance or repair procedure. A

This new edition of

a one-of-a-kind
handbook provides
an essential updating
to keep the book
current with technology and practice.
New coverage of
topics such as
systems and current operation
and control procedures ensures that this
revision maintains its standing as the premier
general reference on vertical transportation.
A team of new contributors has been
assembled to shepherd the book into this
new edition and provide the expertise to
keep it up to date in future editions.

To view the Table of Contents

& pricing, visit website:


Request a Safe-T Rider sample kit from EESF online

or contact the Foundation directly.
Read over the information & ask EESF
if you have any questions.
Go to your local school or district and talk with
the appropriate decision maker about presenting
the program.
Contact the Foundation to have materials sent
to yourself or directly to the school.
Use the Teachers Guide for step-by-step instructions
on how to administer the program.
Safe-T Rider costumes are available for rent or purchase, based on availability.

Elevator Escalator Safety Foundation

362 Pinehill Drive - Mobile, AL - 36606

(800) 949-6442 - -

March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |



Classified Section

PAYMENT MUST ACCOMPANY SPACE ORDER. Calculate payment on the basis of $3.00 per
word for boxed composition (per insertion). Blind box advertising $50.00 extra (per insertion).
Color is available. Contact for pricing.
Per insertion rates and mechanical requirements for display ads are as follows:


Single Insertion

6-Time Rate

12-Time Rate

1/6 Horizontal 4-7/8 wide by 2-1/4 deep

1/6 Vertical 2-5/16 wide by 4-3/4 deep
1/12 Boxed 2-5/16 wide by 2-1/4 deep

A Supervisor's Guide based
on the Elevator Industry
Field Employees' Safety
Handbook, 2010 Edition

Available at:





Looking for a career with

an established leader in
the elevator industry?
Then come to the Midwest and join our
family as a member of the HOLLISTERWHITNEY Team. Here you can enjoy an
easy-going lifestyle on the banks of the
Mississippi River in a century-old familyoriented business.
We have an immediate opening for an
Engineering Supervisor. Were looking for
someone anxious to be part of our design
and manufacturing team. Someone interested
in leading the way to actively create the
newest cutting-edge elevator equipment on
the market.

Safety Meetings,
5th Edition

In notepad form, Safety Meetings, 5th

Edition, contains the complete script of the
2010 Elevator Industry Field Employees'
Safety Handbook, broken down into
69 short safety meetings.


DOVER I-2 & I-3


EECO All Styles of UV-5, DL

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BP, UV, DP, Check Valves

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P. O. Box 106
3471 E. 450 North
Lewi svi l l e, ID 83431
www. l i ndenel evator. com

If you think you would be interested in

solidifying your future, then email or send
your resume.

#1 Hollister-Whitney Parkway
POB# 4025
Quincy, Illinois 62305

Leading elevator equipment supplier is expanding his sales force and searching for part
time or full time sales representative in Florida,
Chicago and Toronto. Package includes
health benefits, 401K and vehicle allowance.
Must have elevator sales experience. Please
reply in confidence to Elevator World, attention
Box 1181. Email:
Fax: 251-272-4092.


FAX : 908-259-9013



Growing mid-sized NYC based full service

elevator company seeks an experienced
Service Department Manager interested in
a long term position. Salary and benefits
commensurate with experience.
Inquiries and resumes should be addressed

See our

Industry Handbook &

Testing Manual Combo
The Elevator Industry
Inspection Handbook and
the Field Employees
Elevator Testing Manual
will help you get results!
Whether you need to know
the results an inspector
should expect from a test or
how to perform the test these
materials are your guide to
getting the data you need.


Softcover Wt. 1 lb.

Subscriber: $27.20


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Phone: (954) 969-8605
Fax: (954) 969-8602

P: 630-876-8370 F: 630-876-8346
March 2011 | ELEVATOR WORLD |



Classified Section


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PWA - Replacement circuit boards for Dover,
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others. Fast turn around on repairs. Call for
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and other

Custom Plates made for Alterations

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Complete Research Service is
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Standard Plates are kept in Stock
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Tested and certified to ASME
1-1/2" x 60" = $285.00
2" x 72" = $330.00
F.O.B. Richmond, VA

Lift Business Advisors, Inc.

has successfully represented
the sellers of elevator industry
companies with combined
annual sales in excess of $125
If you are considering the sale
of your business, call Mark
Walters at Lift Business
Advisors, Inc. for a
confidential discussion and
complimentary ballpark
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17524 Southeast 45th Street
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Tel: (425) 373-5421 Fax: (425) 373-5422

PHONE: 804-421-4091
FAX: 804-355-3933
Replacement Selectors For ESCO
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Machines, generators, selectors
and obsolete parts.
Please call: (775) 323-2323
Fax: (775) 323-3694 or

Leistritz refreshed web site:

Completely neweasy to navigate
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building owners, architects, consultants
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site details the design and use of modern
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mid-rise passenger to heavy-duty freight
(201) 934-8262.


Various used and new parts, also rebuilt
escalators modified to any floor rise and
latest ANSI Code. Call 1-800-667-3891 or
(928) 684-2964.




Advertisers Index

Adams Elevator Equipment Company . . . .21

AFAG Messen und Ausstellungen . . . . . .111
AFD Industries, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cover 2
Akerman Senterfitt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Alps Wire Rope Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Brugg Wire Rope, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
C.E. Electronics, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
Canton Elevator, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
China Elevator Magazine . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Claddagh Electronics, Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Columbia Elevator Products Co., Inc. . . . . .23
Courion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
Draka Elevator Products . . . . . . . . . . .Cover 4
EHC Global . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125
Electronic Controls, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Elevator Components Co., U.S.A. . . . . . . . .16
Elevator Components Industries, Inc. . . . . .85
Elevator Escalator Safety Foundation . . . .155
Elevator Motors/Materials Corp. . . . . . . . . .11
Elevator Safety Company . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
Elevator World . . . .60, 78, 120, 147, 151, 159
Enterprise Elevator Products Corp . . . . . .144
EV Elevator International . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121
Formula Systems Ltd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
G.A.L. Manufacturing Corporation . . . . . . .109
Gillespie Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154
Global Tardif Elevator Manufacturing
Group Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
Gustav Wolf Seil-Und Drahtwerke . . .Cover 3
HIWIN Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
Hollister Whitney Elevator Corp. . . . . . . . . . .1
IGV Group S.p.A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
Innovation Industries, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Integrated Display Systems, Inc. . . . . . . . .123
J.M. Associates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Kumalift Co., Ltd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
Liberty Electrical & Elevator Supply . . . . . .73
Lift Expo Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149
Liftinstituut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15, 17, 19
LM Liftmaterial GmbH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Magnetek-Elevator Products Division . . . . .37
Monteferro SPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
Motion Control Engineering, Inc. (MCE) . . .33
Ningbo Xinda Group Co., Ltd . . . . . . . . . . .47
Palmer Pads (W.E. Palmer Company) . . . .12
Peelle Doors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Pflow Industries, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Physical Measurement Technologies . . . . .53
PTL Equipment Manufacturing Corp. . . . .145
Quality Elevator Products . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
Reuland Electric Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
Savaria, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
SEES Inc./Southern Elevator & Electric . . .13
Sematic Italia S.P.A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Shanghai BST Electric Co., Ltd. . . . . . . . . .95
Shanghai Yungtay Elevator Equipment
Co. Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
SJEC Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
Smartrise Engineering, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . .101
Suzhou Torin Drive Equipment Co., Ltd. . . .71
Titan Machine Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Tri-Lok Mfg. & Maint. Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
Underwriters Labs Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143

Union-Gard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
Unitec Parts Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
Usha Martin Americas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Vertical Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Virgo Communications & Exhibitions
Pvt. Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153
Westcoast Companies Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Wire Rope Works Messilot Ltd. . . . . . . . . . .55
Wurtec, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
Zhejiang Xizi Forward Electrical
Machinery, Ltd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91

Classified Advertising
ATEL Corporation
Ascenseurs Viau Elevators Inc.
Blain Hydraulics Gmbh
Canadian Brass and Copper Co.
Code Data Plate
Delaware Elevator
Denver Elevator Systems, Inc.
Elevator Components Co., U.S.A.
Hollister Whitney Elevator Corp.
Kolich Electric Motor Company Inc
Leistritz Corporation
Lift Business Advisors, Inc.
Linden Elevator Specialties
Maxton Manufacturing Company
Precision Escalator Products, Inc.
Silver State Elevator Company
Smart Elevator Tech LLC
Vator Accessories
Wagner Scavenger Pump
World Electronics

Visit with EW at any of these

2011 worldwide exhibitions
and let us know how we
are doing!
ELEXPO Suzhou, China
March 23-25
Asansor Istanbul
Istanbul, Turkey
April 14-17
IAEC Annual Forum
New York City, New York
May 8-12
Elevator U
Pennsylvania State University
June 7-9
Lift Expo Russia
Moscow, Russia
June 15-17
NAESA Annual Workshop
Portland, Oregon
August 16-18
NAEC Convention
New Orleans, Louisiana
September 11-15
Interlift Augsburg, Germany
October 18-21

Elevator W rld, Inc.


L ast Glance
2010: A Record Year for Skyscrapers
One may be surprised to learn that 2010 saw the completion
of more skyscrapers than any previous year in history. Besides
being the year that the new Worlds Tallest Building Dubais
Burj Khalifa was completed, 2010 was also the year in which a
building first surpassed the 600, 700, and 800-meter thresholds.
According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat
(CTBUH), 66 buildings with a height of 200-plus meters were
completed and, including the Burj Khalifa, eight supertalls were
completed more than any single year in history. With 2010s
additions, there are now a total of 50 supertalls around the
world. With what amounts to a 40% change in the worlds tallest
10 buildings in a single year, something that has not occurred
since 1930, it may be a little more difficult to keep track of whos
on top. This image from CTBUH should help. The composite skyline is comprised of the 20 tallest buildings completed in 2010
and includes each buildings name and rank. The image has also
recently been released as a poster by CTBUH, available at website:

Skyline of the 20 tallest buildings completed in 2010. CTBUH



Gustav Wolf makes dependable wire rope for

hoist, governor and compensation in a variety of
constructions. But we make three 8x19 hoist ropes
that are like no others in meeting
demanding applications.
Low-Stretch fiber core has all of the benefits of
pre-stretched rope without the associated cost.

PAWO F3 has a steel-reinforced core that fights

stretch in high rise/high speed installations.

CompactTrac is a compacted strand design

perfect for extending rope life
on reverse bend applications

Theres no need for a drawn out

explanation. When it comes to innovation in
wire rope, theres just one name.
Gustav Wolf.

Gustav Wolf wire ropes are available from:

Draka (US/Canada) 1-877-DRAKA-EP (1-877-372-5237)
Benfield (Metro NYC) 1-718-706-8600
S.E.E.S. Inc. (Florida) 1-800-526-0026
For technical support 1-919-878-5605