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FORKLIFT

SAFETY TRAINING
MANUAL

Assessments
The forklift assessment paper you are about to sit for has 97 questions. There are 30
critical (star questions) and 67 non-critical questions. On test day you will be required to
answer 52 questions: 30 critical and 22 non-critical randomly chosen by the Assessor.

YOU MUST ON THE DAY OF YOUR ASSESSMENT


BRTNG YOUR IDENTIFIpATION.
YOU MUST ALSO HAVE AN OPERATOR'S LOGBOOK
CORRECTLY FILLED IN AS REQUIRED BY
WORKCOVER.

- NO TEST
NO LOG BOOK - NO TEST
NO ID

lf you are successful on the day of your assessment you will be issued with an interim
licence and paperwork that must be iaken to a participatirrg Australia Post, Bank @
Post, Office and handed in within a 60-day period. The 60 days starts from the date the
assessment took place.
lf you are unsuccessfui on test day, you will be required by WorkCover to wait 21 days
before you can resit another test.

To locate a participating Australia Post office that is a Bank @


Post outlet, please refer to the below contact details.
Phone:
WorkCover

Australia

NSW

Post

13 10 50

13 13 17

Websites:

Updated 4 September 2406

Page 2

ldentity Reg u irernents


An Assessor musi verify the applicant's identity, date of birth, signature and current
address prior to commencrng an assessment. Acceptable forms of identification are set
by WorkCover, and must be complied with.

Nate:

One acceptable photo lD must be supplied as one

form of identification.
WorkCover requires that 100 points of identification tc be shown to be eligible for a
forklift licence assessment.
These documents should be the same documents that will be provided io Australia Post
Customer Service Officer when an application for a forklift licence is lodged.
All documents provided must be original documents; certified copies will not be
accepted.
The table below lists exactly the identity documents that are acceptable and their point
value. Documen_ts NO,T listed are NOJ accepta9le
Points

Document Type

Document

Primary Documents

Australian Birth Certrf rcate or Birth Card issued by the


Regisirar o{ Births. Deaths and Marriages

ONLY use ONE

printary docunent

Passport - Australian or lnternational (Current


within last 2 years, but not cancelled)

or exprred

Australian Crtizenship Certrf icate

Secondary Documents

Current Australian issued driver's ltcence

l.

Allowed to use

Current Australian issued learner driver's licence/permit

a cambination
of secondary
documents.

Current Australian boat operators licence with photo

Current NSW iirearnrs piioto licence

lf you want ta use


more than one

Current Australian rssued NCOC photo licence (post 2OO6) or


High Rrsk Work Licence

credit anci savings


account card,
they must be frorr
different banks.

Current Australian state or terrrtory proof of age/photo card


(eg NSW RTA issued photo card)

2.

Australian Dcfence or Police photo identiftcation card


Departrnent of Veterans Aflairs card
Centrelink Carc
Property (Council) rates notice
Property lease agreement
Home rnsurance papers

A utrlity bill (eg water. electrrcrty, gas)


Telephone account

25

Credit cardsrsavings account cards"bank staiernents


Medicare card
Motor vehicle registration or insurance documents

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 3

The Forklift Truck


Forklift trucks transport and stack materials; they are a short wheel based truck with a
vertical mast; and there are two main types; counterbalanced and non counterbalanced.

Cou nterbalanced Forkl

ift

Trucks
Counterbalanced forklift trucks use
the front wheel axle in the same way
as the fulcrum of a lever. The load is
on one end, counterbalanced by the
weight of the machine at the other
end. They can have a battery
electric, petrol, LPG or diesel motor.

load centres

trulcrum

Counterbalance

Point of balance

Non-Counterbalanced Forklift Trucks


ln non-counterbalanced forklift trucks, the centre of
the load is behind the fulcrum point. They are known
as 'reach'trucks or'straddle'trucks. These units are
usually battery electric driven.
This type of forklift truck reaches out to deposit the
load or straddles the stack for depositing the load.
They are used for particular load stacking functions
and are less versatile than the counterbalanced type.
They are best used when aisle space is very tight, due
to their tight cornering ability.

Rough Terrain Vehicles


A counterbalanced forklift truck specially
designed to have high clearance and still
low centre of gravity.
Special tyres are fitted, similar to tractor
tyres.
Mainly used on rough or unstable terrain,
such as work sites (unsealed).

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 4

Practical Safety Checks


Pre-Operational Ghecks
The following must be checked prior to operating the forklift truck:

'/

Lift and tili system


Mast assembly
F Tyre condition, wheel nuts and pressure
Engine oil
'F Hydraulic oil level
Transmission oil
Battery security, water level and cleanliness
Brake fluid
Coolant
Power steering
Air filter indicator (if diesel)
Seat adjusted and secured
Seat belt (condition and security)
Mirrors adjusted, and clean
Windscreen condition and clean
Overhead guard (condition and security)
Load Plate
Load backrest (condition and security)
Security of LPG gas cylinder, tank in date and condition of system
Compliance plate for gas installation
CcnCition and security of batteries
Condition of fork arms or aitachmenis
Pins or other locking devices checked for security

'?

'r

.
/
r'/
/
r
',
'/
./
/'/
/
/'.
'/
/
/
'r

Hazard and Site Checks


The following in the surrounding areas must be checked:

r Power lines
/ Doorways
/ Overhead service lines (inside and/or outside)
r Bridges
./
Obstructions
'/ Other
equipment in area
r Personnel in area
r Dangerous materials
/ Railway lines
'/ Applicant immediately removes hazards, or ensures hazards are eliminated by
/

instigating appropriate safeguarding measures


Before operating, applicant ensures that site personnel are made aware of forklift
operation and any access restrictions for pedestrians

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 5

is impoltant he/she is wearing this equipment


Forklift truck type is suitable for load and height limitations. Applicant explains
his/her reasons why the forklift truck would be suitable
Attachments and fittings are appropriate for load type

Pre-Operational Start-Up Checks


The following must be checked or adhered to:

All functions must be tested to the full extent of their movement.

were detected during the pre operational and start up checks

Note:

If any major faults are found during any safety check:

machine

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 6

Safe Practices for Operators


The following "Safe Practices" have been compiled to help safeguard the operator and
their fellow workers. They must be strictly observed in all forklift truck operations.

1.

Only persons who have been issued with a National or State licence to operate the
forklift can use them.

2.

ln the event of a fault being revealed by the pre operation check, or if at any time
the forklift should become unsafe during operations, report the matter immediately
and do not use the forklift until the fault or unsafe condition has been rectified.

3. Do not operate with a leak in the fuel system.


4.

Do not make repairs, alterations or adjustments to any forklift, unless competent


and authorised to do so.

5.

Do not use the forklift for any other purpose other than for which it was designed,
eg towing, pushing. bumping, etc.

6.

Report the occurrence of any new hazard.

7.

Report all accidents, including accidents with personnel, buildings, structures,


equipment and stock.

Ensure that all safety equipment, eg flashing lights, reversing beepers etc are
maintained and in working order.

9. Safeguard pedestrians at all times. Pedestrians have right of way.


1

0. Do not carry or allow passengers to travel on the forklift, unless an approved seat
and footrest are fitted.

11. Do not allow any persons to stand or pass under elevated forks or attachments,
whether loaded or empty.
12. Never reach through or around the uprights of the mast, keep whole body in
confines of forklift while travelling.
13. Do not add additional countenveights or use personnel to increase the load
capacity of any forklift.
14. Never lift a load that is beyond the rated capaciiy of the forklift, or the attachment
you are using.
15. When using attachments on the forklift. treat it as partially loaded.
16. Always raise the load with the mast vertical or tilted slightly backward.
17. Only raise or lower loads while stationary.

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 7

18. Load should only be lifted high enough to clearany obstacle orto give clearance
when placing on stack.
19. When travelling, keep the load or forks (unladen) as low as possible to the ground.

20. When carrying high loads be aware and avoid contact with any overhead electrical
systems (minimum distance 2 metres), or any other hazard unique to your arca.
21. Do not use forklift as an elevator or work platform for personnel unless it is
equipped with an approved and secured work platform that complies with AS2359.
22. When carrying bulky loads, which block fonruard vision, have a competent person
direct you, or drive with the load trailing (except up a ramp or an incline).
23. Ascend and descend ramps slowly and at all times keep the load of the forklift
facing up hill.
24. Always carry a load with the heavy end against the heel of the forks.
25. While travelling with a load use back tilt.
25. When entering or exiting through doonvays or around blind corners, or any other
area where vision is obstructed, sound the horn.

27. Do not turn, or drive across a slope.


28. Be aware of any other plant or other forklifts working in your location.
29. When operating on wet slippery surfaces, reduce speed and proceed with caution.
30. Avoid sudden starting or stopping as this can cause your load to shift and fall.
31. Always check any ramps, or truck decks for width and security before proceeding
onto them.

32. Do not run internal combustion engines in confined spaces.


Forklift truck drivers must know:

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 8

Know Your Forklift Truck


Mrtt or uprtght

Stnglc sctlog hydrauuc hgtsa rom


Loed chaln
Foat gusrd
*Lasd
or apton guard
( toad back reet ax la n t ta n)

Counterwelght
-

oad apron

Latd lattng ptdte

Hotst contJola

\ For^t
/(mutt

be centrad)

Mast
The mast is the support member providing the guide ways that permit vertical movement
of the carriage.

Carriage
A support structure for forks or attachments, it is generally roller mounted travelling
vertically along the mast.

Forks
Two or more cantilevered arms arranged together and attached to the load carriage, for
handling palletised and similar loads.

Backrest/Load guard

The portion of the carriage and forks used to support the load when it is tilted rearward
and upward.

Lift Cylinder

Controls the amount by which the mast structure, forks and carriage may be raised or
lowered vertically.

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 9

Tilt Gylinder
Controls the amount by which the mast structure, forks and carriage may be tilted from
the vertical position forward or backward.

Overhead Guard
A framework structure fitted to a forklift for the protection of the operator from falling
objects.

Counter Weight
The weight installed by the manufacturer of the forklift to give stability when lifting loads.

$teering Axle
Means for directing the forklift truck movements during its operation (rear wheel steering).

Pneumatic Air Filled


Tractor Rough Terrain
Tyre

Pneumatic Air
Filled Conventional
Tyres

WffiI
ff/fffiil

i'q\#l
l'Wl

Solid Puncture
Proof

Split Rims, Two


Halves Bolted
Together

ffi

Tyres
Pneumatic
These are inflatable (tubeless)tyres and are mounted on rims. These tyres make less
demand on the floor surface. Pneumatic tyres may blow out and create a safety hazard.
Also be careful when handling split rims, tyres must be fully deflated before changing.

Semi Pneumatic
These tyres contain a number of air filled cells. This gives less flexibility but life
expectancy is greater. These tyres are proof against blow-out, a valuable feature where
terrain is unsatisfactory, eg scrap steel yards.

Solid
These are a solid tyre that has good wearing properties and are proof against blow out,
but provide no shock absorption to the machine.

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 10

Refuelling
Before refuelling or recharging the forklift truck, the operator shall observe and carry out
the following Safety Precautions.

'/
'/

Lower forks to the ground; apply the hand brake, place gear lever in neutral switch
off the engine or power supply.
Open flame and smoking are prohibited within 10 metres of any forklift being
refuelled or recharged.

Diesel or Petrol

'/
'.

No smoking, naked flames or other sources of ignition will be permitted in the


designated refuelling area.
Care should be exercised to avoid spilling any fuel or overflowing the tank during
refuelling, (keep spill kit handy). Replace the cap securely, flush down any spilled
fuel and allow sufficient time for any spilled fuel to evaporate before starting the
forklift.

Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) Refuelling


cylinder refill or replacement area.
locations designated for iirat purpose (well ventilated, isolated from all sources of
ignition).

cylinders.

'/
/
'/
r

Ensure that the engine is switched off and that the isolating valve is shut before
attempting to disconnect the cylinder.
Handle all cylinders and associated plumbing with extreme care. Damage from
dropping or abuse could result in a serious fire.
Ensure that the cylinder is correctly positioned, so that the safety relief valve is
uppermost.
Do not use chains to replace straps in the cylinder-clamping device.

forklift and should be protected from abrasion or sharp edges.


immediately, remove keys and tag the forklift out of order to prevent its use until
the leak has been repaired.
Updated 4 September 2006

Page

11

Note:

LPG forklifts should not refuelled or parked in close


proximity to open pits, as there could be a "build up" of

vapours in these confined spaces.

Battery Gharging and Changing


area.

purpose (well ventilated areas).

forklift has been disconnected.

designated on the name plate.

Note:

The gas given off when a battery is being charged


(Hydrogen) is highly flammable. All refuelling operations
shall be carried out in a defined isolated area, eg a clean
open area.

What precautions should be taken by the operator when a leak in the fuel system is
suspected or detected?

fr

1 Should a Forklift be refuelled when the engine is running? Explain your answer.

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 12

The Motor
lnternal Combustion engines are powered by diesel fuel, petrol or LP gas. An LP gas
motor is a petrol motor converted to use gas instead of petrol.

Warning; lnternal combustion engines


produce odourless but
poisonous gas, carbon
monoxide. A person working in
a confined space where carbon
monoxide is present could
become seriously ill. Carbon
monoxide builds up in the
body and can kill in 20
minutes. Make sure that there
is adequate ventilation where
forklift trucks with internal
combustion engines are
operating.
Do not refuel an internal combustion forklift truck unless the motor is stopped and the
ignition is turned off.

Changing LP gas bottles


LP gas is a highly voiaiile explosive. Change gas bottles in a well-ventilated area well
clear of a naked flame or source of ignition. LP gas botiles must be changed only by
those trained and authorised to do so.
Beware of burns from escaping gas. Always wear gloves and safety glasses and do not
smoke while changing LP gas bottles:

LP gas bottles should be inspected and stamped by a competent person every 10 years.
All LP gas forklift trucks must have an installer compliance plate.

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 13

tU Why is it dangerous to use internalcombustion engines in confined spaces?

* rt

Why must you not smoke when charging or changing Forklift truck batteries?

Data Plates
Forklift Trucks
Load Centre
Fork Length
Mast
Height

Updated 4 September 2006

Max SWL
Mast Vertical

Max SWL
Mast Tilted

Foruard

Page

14

Every lndustrial forklift truck should have attached in clear view a manufacturer's Data
Plate, which should contain the following information:

vertical and forurrard tilt

Jib attachment etc

Safe Working Load


Most forklift trucks have two safe working loads (SWL) stamped on the load rating plate.
They are:

The load rating plate is usually found next to the driver's seat. lf attachments are fitted a
separate load rating notice needs to be displayed. To prevent accidents the weight of the
load must be checked against the specifications of the forklift truck.
SWL's must not be exceeded. lf the load weight is too great, the forklift truck can tip over.
As the mast is tilted forward, the centre of gravi! moves away from the fulcrum so that
the SWL decreases.
Operators must be able to understand the
load plate and the conditions of loading at
all times. The load rating is taken from the
front face of the load backrest to the centre
of the load.
It is the responsibility of the owner to
provide a load plaie that displays the lifting
capacity of the machine under all lifting
conditions. Do not use a forklift truck that
does not have a load plate.
The load plate is
aiways situated where
it can be easily read by
the driver.

5 During your pre operational check you notice the Data Plate is missing or unreadable,
What action do you take?

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 15

Travelling with a Load


When travelling with a load ALL relevant points detailed in the section Safe Practices are
to be observed, and in addition:

necessary to give adequate ground


clearance (safe travel height is
approximately Below front axle or as
close to the ground as possible)
fonruard tilt

/
Note:

* t,

accelerating or turning, as the force


applied will alter the balance of your
forklift
Ascend and descend gradients slowly,
and at all times keep the load facing up
the grade. Drive up/Reverse down

---==

The maximum incline on which a forklift may operate is 1 in 10.

What direction must the load face when travelling up a ramp?

On inclines operate with load up hill. Travel fonrvard


going up and in reverse going down to keep the load
from falling off. Don't descend with the load in front.
Always go up and down grades slowly.

,O What direction must the load face when travelling down a ramp?

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 16

When travelling with a load


Travel height:
on a flat surface you
approximately front
should always keep your
axle height or as
fork arms or load at
close to ground as
approximately front axle
possible.
height or below and as
close to the ground as
possible. lf travelling on an
uneven surface lift to clear
any obstacles and return to
FREE LiFT
travel height as soon as
possible.

* tt

c::-.::::.:::.:-_:

When travelling, at what height should the load and fork arms be?

Forklifts are one person vehicles. Do not carry a passenger unless an approved seat and
footrest have been fitted to the forklift.

The only rvay that a person can be raised on a forklift is by the use of a Work Platform
that has been approved and is secured.

Stay to the left in two way traffic aisies.


Do not lift or carry passengers on the bare fork
arms.
Reduce speed and proceed with caution on wet or
greasy surfaces.
Do not attempt to turn on a ramp or sloping surface
as this can affect the lateral stability and cause the
forklift to tip over sideways and your load may shift.
Always drive up and down inclines slowly. (Check
with manufacturer's specifications for any special
features that the forklift you are operating has

operating up and down hill).

When travelling with large loads that


obscure your vision travel in reverse or
have someone guide you.

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 17

Lateral Stability
(Resistance to Overturning)
Loss of lateral stability means that the forklift truck will tip sideways.

A forklift truck, empty or loaded, tends to become unstable when a new force is brought
into the balance of the unit. Eg the greater the truck speed and the tighter the turn will
introduce a force to roll or tip the truck sideways. With the forks in an elevated position,
this further increases the tendency to roll over sideways and to lose a load.

* tt

Why is it unsafe to turn a forklift truck on a ramp or sloping surface?

Always travel with the load as low as


possible, keeping the load low helps
maintain stability.
Never raise the load when approaching a
stack
Never attempt to turn on/or drive across
ramps or sloping ground
Always reduce speed when approaching
corners and when travelling over uneven
surfaces as Lateral Stability is affected
(can tip over sideways)
Never lift with one fork arm
Ensure that all tyre pressures are even
(both sides of the forklift truck)

{'55"

* tU When operating a forklift, why is it dangerous to turn a corner with a load raised?

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 18

Lifting Loads with


Two Forklift Trucks
Lifting a load with two forklift trucks is very hazardous. The precautions listed below must
be followed when lifting with two forklift trucks:

responsibility

/'/
'r

position of load centre and other factors affecting SWL


The load must only be carried the distance necessary to clear the load carrier
Order picking and turret type high lift industrial trucks must not be used for dual
lifts
Loads must be raised and lowered simultaneously

PrGssur agninst

msst

I
v

hegsure on tfie
Ups of tfi<r forl<s
rllpc along

=aLoad
iot'k srms

FLT'B'

FLT'A'

lf one forklift truck lowers more quickly than the other, the load becomes uneven. ln the
diagram below it shows forklift truck 'B' lowering more quickly than forklift truck 'A'
causing:

'/
/
r

The weight to move immediately to the tip of the fork arms on 'A'
Pressure on the mast of 'B' which could cause it to bend or break
The load slips along the fork arms changing the position of the load centre

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 19

Picking Up and Placing Loads

Do not allow more than a third of the top section of an unwrapped load to stand
above the top of the load backrest extension. A load not backed by the load apron
can fall back and tangle with the mast, or if the load is very high, can topple back
onto the driver.
Do not raise the load with just one fork.
When tilting the load:
Raise the load clear of the stack before tilting the
load backwards
Always travel with the load tilted backwards and
low to the ground
When putting down, always bring the load over
the stack before tilting fonvard
Deposit load with the Mast vertical or slightly tilted
forward

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 20

Handling Palletised Loads


Picking up and depositing palletised loads:
provide more even distribution of
weight
stringer to balance load
level, don't drag them on the floor.
Lift forks to contact pallet before
tilting load back.

This Way

Not This Way

When moving any loads that are


unbalanced (load too far forward on
pallet), always pick the pallet up form the
heaviest end to keep your forklift from
becoming unstable.

Bagged goods
Bagged goods are crossed stacked to a height of 1.5 metres then stepped in (pyramid
shape)together to form a compact load.

20 A pallet contains an unbalanced load with one end heavier than the other. Which end
should be against the heel of the fork arms?

Bagged Goods

When the weight of a load is not known there are some


ways that can help you find out the load weight:

Consignment note (Con note)/lnvoice


Calculation: where the load is made up of the
same items you would take one and weigh it, then
multiply by all others on the pallet
Weighbridge docket: for containers or large heavy
loads

*'

UO How would you determine the weight of an unmarked load?

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 21

Forklift Trucks and Electricity


O-anger
SZQne

Clgangcc from liw aenal canductots

FRAA{T VIEW

Keep a safe distance from


electric power lines. Find out
where all power lines are
located in your workplace. Do
not unload a truck under
power lines. (To avoid the
mast making contact with the
lines when the forks are
raised).
stDE

wtl

(a) Distribution lines on poles


&nger
TZone

Stay at least 2 metres away


from distribution lines on poles
and at least 6 metres away
from transmission lines on
towers. These distances are
quoted in Australian Standard
AS1550.1 Cranes, safe us general requirements. One
precaution is the requirement
to have appropriate earthing
systems fitted and in contact
with the ground.

FRONT VIT&I

lf contact with Domestic or Transmission lines does occur there are some steps you can
follow:

down the lines.

'.

Stay on the forklift if safe to do so and wait for help to arrive (power turned off),
ground at the same time.

23

What is the minimum distance you should keep your forklift truck and load away from
Domestic powerlines and high voltage Transmission lines?

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 22

Forklift Movement
Vertical Travel
-l--

Collapsed Height

Collapsed height is the distance from


the ground to the top of the mast
when the forks are in their lowest
position.

t::

COLLAPSED

t hiut

I:il
l

.--.-r

I'

)
:.-

.'.

Overall Extended Height

g::-:

CVERALiEXTEN CEI]
HEIGHT

Overall extended height is the


distance from the ground to the top of
the load back rest (load guard), when
the mast is fully raised.
These refer to questions 30 and 31 in
the non-critical section.

Working on and Around Roadways


Forklift in Use
Signage
FSFKLIFTS

ril u8E

Danger Forklift
Operating Area
Signage

FilftF;LlTT

sFi11nTll/G
i{.!1

fL

When working across roadways or around people with a forklift truck you should put out
appropriate signage, barricades or a flagman or guide to direct staff or traffic in the area.

33 What should be provided when a forklift truck is working over a roadway, footpath or
areas open to the public?

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 23

* tO

Name two safeguards to protect other personnel when loads are being moved by a
forklift?

Rear End Swing


Many accidents occur with industrial trucks because operators do not understand rear end
swing.

Turning Sharp Corners

>,

THIS WAY

NOT THIS WAY

Keep Close to
lnside Corner

Don't Starf Turn


From Middle of
Aisle

(countenrueight) swinging wide and fast when turning.


Ensure that the rear end swings clear of materials, racks, stacks, equipment and
pedestrians when rounding corners or manoeuvring in aisles and tight areas.

'/

arrives at the exact destination. To help you develop such a skill the following
diagrams have been prepared.
A careful study of these diagrams, followed by praciice at handling your forklift in
such situations should greatly assist you to achieve safe and efficient driving.

Negotiate turns by keeping close to the inside corner and start to turn when drive wheels
meet corner.

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 24

i-----_lr
iill
L___ il

',

W'RENG

Erit h T

--^\....<:.....-.,

THIS WAY

NOT THIS WAY

Keep as Far as
Possrb/e from

Don't start Turn


Near Middle of
Aisle

Stockpile

Approach turn as far away from stockpile or obstacle as possible; begin to turn early
before you reach the middle of ihe aisle.

*' aU Why is "rear end" swing dangerous on forklifts fitted with rear end steering?

Rear End

Swing
Signage
ffiW*HE
ffFAfr Efi$
ggtl{G

Updated 4 September 20A6

Page 25

Loading

- Carrying - Unloading

When loading or unloading with a forklift truck the following practices are to be observed.

Picking Up a Load
until the load has been picked up or put down. lf you do not then you are working
against safe operating procedures.

load centre as well as mass).

sudden collapse of block stacking has often been caused by these items being
damaged or deteriorated.
position of a load for pick up may not be convenient for stacking.
pallet of any type, nor more than one loaded container type pallet.

tt,

-r+ 'l*----

.:

,*-.1

Follow the recommended procedure:

sufficiently to ensure stability of the load, and ensure that there is ample clearance
beneath the load to insert the forks.
are correct for entry. lnsert the forks under the load keeping the load squarely on
the forks. Then raise the load carefully, take the strain, elevate slightly and apply
sufficient backward tilt to stabilise the load. Raise the forks to a position just clear
enough from the ground to avoid level variations.
stack, and then lower the load to a safe travel height.

* Ut

Should a load be raised or lowered near or over people? Explain your answer.

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 26

Do not carry passengers on the load or on the fork arms at any time as this is against
regulaiions.

UO ls it permissible to carry passengers on the bare fork arms or load? Explain your
answer.

Working Platforms
Lock

H anctr

ail

Head prolection (optionat) * this extensaon


is inlended to protect the palsonlsJ in the
glatform from being 'driven.inro overhead
obstruct,ons. lr iS nOt a tailing OOjeCt
protection a^d t'le(eto( does not
{equi(c int;ll ..,_

Toe guard

Updated 4 September 2006

Toe

ouard

Page 27

Safe Use of Work Platforms

Forklift operators must be assessed as competent by a registered assessor, or have proof


of training/experience as required under the pre-April 1995 legislation, prior to the use of a
forklift.

elevated in the work platform.


must not be moved from place to place other than for small positional adjustments.

counterbalanced type, it must have a maximum capacity of 1800k9 or 5 times the


combined mass of platform and rated load, whichever is greater. For other loading
conditions, refer AS 2359.1.
the platform to a maximum rate of 0.6mis if there is a failure in the hydraulic system.

* Ut

By what means can people be raised on a forklift truck

64 ls a stepladder or other device allowed to be used to gain extra height whilst working
from a work platform?

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 28

Load Centre
Another factor that affects the forward stability is
the centre of gravity of the load being picked up.
Load centre is the point at which the centre of
the load (centre of gravity) is placed ahead of
the vertical face of the fork arms, with the load
resting on the forks.

'Ji:l'lT!:l[
nr

Measured as the distance from the vertical face


of the fork arms to the loads centre of gravity (C
of G).

Other factors that can alter the load centre:

''.,

i;.'

F'.

I:

,^

/t:.

-r-

-:r:

I ' .-;rlf

Having a load not hard against the


vertical face of the fork arms
Using too much forward tilt of the mast
Not having the heavy end against the
vertical face of the fork arms
The size and centre of gravity of a
load may change the safe lifting
capacity of your forklift truck due to
altered leverage. This will reduce the
lifting capacity.

'/

The larger the distance between the vertical


face of the fork arms and the centre of gravity
of the load (the load centre), the less weight
the forklift is capable of lifting.

ft

mast tilted fonarard, the centre of gravity of the


load will move forward and so increase the
tendency of the forklift truck to tip forward.

'/
'r
'/

- -.,.
--L'I

An overloaded forklift truck will make the rear


end light; may not be able to control the
steering.
Overloading can also strain the hydraulics
and mast components, possibly resulting in
damager to your forklift.
A load that is apparently safe at ground level
may be dangerous when elevated.

j'
.

,1

Allowances should always be made for bad surfaces, high winds, steep inclines and
similar hazards.
Updated 4 September 2006

Page 29

* r,

* tt

What is meant by load centre distance?

How does increasing the load centre affect the capacity of the forklift?

Notes:

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 30

Forward Stability
Principle of Counter-Balanced Forklift Trucks

"t-rii
-.-.'..

'---*

F-.z'.
---;.*ri
;'?l

FULCRIJiV

'li"

The counterbalanced forklift truck operates on the see saw principle.


The principle being that the weight to the right of the fulcrum counter balances the weight
of the load.
The Fulcrum (fonvard point of balance) for a forklift truck is:

A vertical line passing through the centre of the front axle that meets the ground.

CCUNTER
.

i:
.rl

IritrtniiT

F'ULCNUII

* tu

where is the forurard point of balance (fulcrum)for a forklift?

* tU

ls all the weight behind the point of balance acting as a counter weight?

Updated 4 September 2006

Page

31

* ,,

The forklift trucks in attachment A are rated at 2000kg at a 600mm load centre, which
one is overloaded?

78

The forklift trucks in attachment B are rated at 4500k9 at a 600mm load centre. Which
the
loads are within the capacity of the forklift truck?
of

Attachment A

1000 mm

l?

Updated 4 September 2006

Attaehment B

1000 mm

Page 32

Parking
When parking an industrial forklift the following precautions should be observed.

(R
49

Never park or leave forklift in front of any doonrray, walkway, first aid station, fire
fighting equipment, blind corner, emergency exit, or in such a position that it
obstructs items of equipment to persons may require access.
Unless it is unavoidable always park on flat level ground. lf you are required to park
and leave your forklift on a slope, normal parking procedures then chock the
wheels.
lf required to park near a railway line, ensure that no part of the forklift is any closer
than 2 metres to the nearest rail.
Before leaving the forklift unattended, the operator must take the following precautions:

with the ground.

90 Name three locations within the workplace where you would not park your forklift
truck.

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 33

Attachments

ii
/:a-4--F- t.\.\\\
:L-

Clamp Attachment
I1--r-

i
/4-

-'- I

t"-.\-_+*44-.---

Itt f
\-.

Carpet Sprke

---1r"
i,^.

'-

-yli*-=.

\J

Rotating Clamp

When using a jib attachment on a forkliftthere are some operating precautions to follow.

'.
/

Keep jib attachment low, drive and corner slowly.


Keep the load low to the ground when travelling

Jib attachments must have Safe Working Load (SWL) marked at each hook position.

Rotating Grab Attachments

'/
'r
'/
,

The vehicle must be stationary when


lifting or rotating the load
Ensure the forklift truck is approved to
use a roll grab
Ensure that the grab has been approved
to be used
Ensure they are firmly attached

Updated 4 September 2006

Synthetic webbing Slings: WLL is shown by the colour o


to the sling^

ffiWlil;*;.S.*,ea**i1.#ffid&i;-do;.*;a;

*"is;,

iffi

The Lifting Ring


and the Slings

Attached Must
Have Same SWL

.&::.9

4fr

ning

t4
frr*",

Jib Hook
Must
Swivel

w
Secure the Pin in
a Shackle fo Sfop
it Unscrewing

Updated 4 September 2006

.E

Page 35

Wire Ropes

Defects for Wire Ropes

\\J-

Crushed

Bird Caging

-;-=
'**5#
Kinked
z.a------.
-\r-

Broken Wires

Updated 4 September 2006

-------)-

Page 36

Model Oral/Written Answers


Unit 1
Element

1.1

1.

You are required to inspect your forklift truck before use. Name at least four liquid
levels that would form part of your inspection.
Hydraulic oil, engine oil, transmission oil, brake fluid, cooling water, fuel, battery
electrolyte level in each cell.

2.

You are required to inspect your forklift truck before use. Name at least four parts
which would form part of your inspection.
Brakes, controls, lights, warning devices, tyres, attachments, security of
attachments.

What precautions should be taken by the operator when a leak in the fuel system is
ft - a. suspected
or detected?

lsolate the fuel supply if possible; the machine should be immediately stopped;
the leak reported to an authorised person and an appropriate warning notice
placed on the forklift, indicating the forklift must not be used.

4.

During your pre operational check, a hydraulic leak is detected. What action would
you take?
Report it to an authorised person and place a warning notice on the forklift
indicating it must not be used.

fr

S. During pre operational check, you notice the Data Plate is missing

or unreadable.
What action would you take?
Report it to an authorised person and place a warning notice on the forklift
indicating it must not be used.

6. Under what circumstances could an operator make minor repairs. alterations

or

adjustments to a forklift?
Only if the operator is a competent person and was authorised by the employer.
7

lf you noticed a crack in the heel of the fork arm, would you try and repair it
yourself?

be reported to an authorised person and a warning notice placed on


the forklift indicating it must not be used.
No, it must

8.

A tyre is found to have low pressure. When would you attend to this problem?
Immediately.

What important function does a load backrest (load guard) perform on a forklift
truck?
A load backrest sfops the load from fouling the mast and prevents the load

falling onto the operator.


10. To protect the operator from falling objects, what should be provided on a forklift

truck?
Overhead guard, load backrest.
Updated 4 September 2006

Page 37

Element 1.2
11. Should a forklift truck be refuelled while the engine is running? Explain your answer.
No, the running engine could ignite the fuel.

ft

t2. What direction must the load face when travelling up a ramp?
The forklift must travel up the ramp fomvards; therefore the load must face uphill.
13. When travelling up a ramp, why must the load face uphill?
To ensure the stability is maintained and to prevent the load from falling off the

fork arms.
14. What direction must the load face when travelling down a ramp?
The forklift must travel down in reverse; therefore the load facing uphill.
15. Why is it unsafe to turn a forklift truck when it is on a ramp or sloping surface?
The lateral stability is affected and the forklift could overturn or the load could

slide.
16. When operating a forklift, why is it dangerous to turn a cornerwith the load raised?
The lateral stability is affected and the forklift could tip over sideways.

17. How should you drive a forklift across railway tracks?

At an angle of 45 degrees and at a slow speed,' ramps or bridging plates should


be used if instability is likely to occur.
18. When travelling, at what height should the load and fork arms be?

At approximately axle height ar a reasonable minimum distance from the


operating surtace.
19. When travelling, name two items/conditions that would influence your speed of
travel.

Surtace conditions, physical layaut of work area, potential hazards, the size of
the load to be moved, proximity to pedestrians, weather conditions, speed limit
signs, and workplace policy.

=+
^

20. A pallet contains an unbalances load with one end heavier than the other. Which
end should be against the heel of the fork arms?
The heavier end of the load must always be against the heel of the forks.
21. What would you do if you noticed a badly damaged pallet supporting a load?
The load should not be lifted. The load should be removed and restacked on an
undamaged pallet.

22. How should bagged goods be transported and stored?


Bagged goods should be stored on pallets. Bags should be cross-stacked and
sfepped (pyramid shaped) above 1.5 metres.

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 38

=L
''{

23. What is the minimum distance you should keep your forklift truck and load away
from domestic powerlines and high voltage transmission lines?
At least 2 metres from domestic pawerlines, and at least 6 metres from high
voltage fransmiss ion li nes.
24. What would you do if you drove your forklift truck mast into powerlines? List three
actions.
Warn others to stay clear and not to touch the farklift; try and break contact with
the powerlines by moving forklift if possible; remain in or an the forklift until
informed conditions are safe; if you must leave the forklift, jump clear ensuring
that you do not contact the forklift and the ground at the same time.
25. Why is it dangerous to use internal combustion engines in confined spaces?
Persons in the confined space could be overcome by dangerous gas generated
by the combustion engine.
26. What is the most suitable type of forklift truck to use in combined spaces?

A battery powered forklift truck.


27.Why must batteries be charged in a well-ventilated area?
To reduce the risk of explosive gases building up.
28. Why must you not smoke when charging or changing forklift truck batteries?
Ihe gases given aff by the batteries will explode if ignited.
29. What type of forklift truck should be selected for working on rough or unstable
terrain?
Four-wheel drive or rough terrain type forklift truck.
39. What is meant by "collapsed height" in relation to a forklift truck?
tt is the distance fram the ground to the top of the mast when the fork arms are at
their lowest position.
31. What is meant by "overall extended height" in relation to a forklift truck?
tt is the distance from the ground to the top of the load backrest when the mast is
fully raised.
32. When travelling with a large load that obscures your vision, what precautions would
you take?
Travel in reverse or use another person to guide you.

=4-

'^{

33. What should be provided when a forklift is working over a roadway, footpath or
areas open to the public?
Barriers with appropriate safety signs, or alternatively a flag person at all times.

to.il?ffi

to protect other personnel when loads are being moved by a

ll,?nr.r*nuards
Posf srgns, place barriers, control movement of personnel, use of lights and
horn.

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 39

35. Why is "rear end" swing dangerous on a forklift fitted with rear end steering?
The rapid sideways movement at the rear of the forklift truck creafes a hazard,
particu larly to pedestrians nearby.

36. Why is a work permit to operate a forklift truck necessary at some work sites?
Ta ensure safety control measures are in place and are followed before
operating.
37. May a load be carried by only one fork arm of the forklift truck? Explain your
answer.
No, the fork arm carrying the load may be overstressed and the lateral stability
the forklift will be seriously affected.

of

38. Are you allowed to add additional counterweights to a forklift truck without referring
to the forklift manufacturer? Fxplain your answer.
No, unless advised otherwise by the manufacturer, the existing counterweights
have been designed for the maximum safe working load of the forklift truck.
39. What precautions should the operator take when operating the forklift truck on wet
slippery surfaces?
Reduce speed and proceed with caution. Turn corners slowly and drive in a

manner consistent with operating surtace.


40. What checks must be made before using an attachment on a forklift trick?
The attachment must be an appropriate type suitable for the forklift truck and the
Ioad lifted. Must be properly attached to the forklift with a suitable device. Data
plate must allow for the use of the attachment.

41.|t you are required to use an attachment you are not familiar with, what should you
do?

Familiarise yourself with the equipment before starting work, and if necessary
undergo additional training with an experienced person.
42. Name three operating precautions that must be taken when using a jib attachment?
Travel at low speed and make all turns slowly, load must be kept as low to the
ground as possib le, jib must be kept as low as possrb le and not tilted forward
past vertical, treat the forklift as if it is partially loaded at all times, even when no
Ioad is on the jib.

43. ls it permissible to use the fonrrard tilt when lifting loads with a jib attachment?
Explain your answer.
No, the mast must be vertical or on back tilt at all times.
44. What must be marked at each hook position on a jib attachment?
Safe Working Load (SWL)
45, When operating a forklift fitted with a carpet spike, what precautions would you
take?
The operator must be aware of the protruding length of the spike and that
Iongitudinal stability and load centre are significantly reduced. Particular care
must be taken when turning.
Updated 4 September 2006

Page 40

46. Why should a side-shift attachment be centralised before travelling with a load?
The forklift truck will be unstable if the centre of gravity of the load is off to one
side.
47. When using a revolving attachment is it permissibie to rotate the load while
travelling? Explain your answer.
No, forklift stability can be affected. Rotation of the load should only take place
when the forklift is stationary.
48. What should be used to carry drums with a forklift truck?
With a drum clamp or on a pallet,
49. What must a lifting ring and slings attached to it have in common?
Both must have equal lifting capacity or Safe Working Load.
50. Should a jib attachment, lifting hook be fixed or able to swivel?
Able to swivel.
51. For what reason must you ensure that the jib attachment hook is centred directly
over a load before lifting?
To ensure the forklift truck's stability is not affected and to prevent the load from
swinging on lift.
52. When should slings be inspected?
Prior to use, AS 1666.1.
53. When inspecting wire rope slings, list five defects that would render the sling unsafe
to use?
Stretched wire, affected by heat, rust, crushing, acid attack, damaged eye
splicing, illegible tags or missing tags, bird caging and more than 10% of wires
broken within a length of I times the diameter af the wire rope'
54. How would you determine the working load limit (WWL)for synthetic webbing
slings?
By colour coding to Australian Standards, by label or tag attached to sling.
55. Why is it important to secure the pin in a shackle?
To prevent it from unscrewing.
56. What percentage of wear in a shackle would make it unsafe to use?
10To wear.
57. How would you determine the Safe Working Load of a multi-leg chain sling?
By the metal tag attached ta the upper terminal link or sling immediately adiacent
to it or calculate using the appropriate formula.
58. Should a load be raised or lowered near or over people? Explain your answer.
No, not under any circumstances, loads must never be raised or passed over
people; it is againsf safe operating procedures.

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 41

59. What must be provided on a forklift truck to allow a passenger to be carried?

An approved seaf and faotrest.

UO.

:tr[#il

tsible to carry passengers on ihe bare fork arms or load? Explain your

No, it is against regulations.

61. By what means can people be raised on a forklift truck?


By use of a correctly secured and approved cage (forklift truck work platform).
62. When using a work platform to lift people, what position must the travel controls be
in, and in what position must the parking brake be?
Travel controls must be in neutral. Parking brake must be engaged.
63. Where must the operator of a forklift remain when a person is raised in a work
platform?
The operator must remain at the forklift controls at all times.

:F
z\

0+. ls a stepladder or other device allowed to be used to gain extra height whilst
working from a work platform?
Not under any circumsfances.

65. On an electric forklift what would you use to isolate the power in an emergency?
The emergency isolator.

Element 1.3
66. Give reasons why pre operational checks are necessary before operating a forklift
truck.
To identify damage; prevent accidents; and

to ensure safe operation of the

forklift truck.
67.|t any defects are found or detected what must you do?
Report it to an authorised person.
68. Why is tyre pressure, and condition for pneumatic iypes, important to the stability of
a forklift truck?
A flat ar under inflated tyre can cause the forklift truck to tip over.

Unit 2
Element 2.1
69. Because of load length, two forklifts are used to handle the same load
(simultaneous use). Name any three operating precautions that must be observed.
Only experienced operators to used; the operation must be controlled by a third
person who is responsible and experienced; the load applied to each forklift
truck must be no more than 75% of its rated capacity taking into account of
stability; Ioad-centre distance and any other factors which may affect the forklift
trucks SWL; the distance travelled shall be limited to clearing the load carrier.

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 42

70. How would you establish the capacity and limitations of the forklift truck and
equipment you are required to use?
By the forklift Data Plate and by informatian provided by your employer and
documented by the manufacturer.
71. What is meant by the term "Rated Capacity" in relation to a forklift truck?
tt is the maximum load that a forklift is desrgned to carry at a specified load

elevation at a specified load centre distance.


72.Vrlhal is meant by load centre distance?
The distance measured from the vertical face of the forks to the loads centre

of

gravity.
73. How does increasing the load centre affect the capacity of a forklift truck?
Reduces the forklift truck's capacity.
74. How will a forklift truck be affected if the load is not hard against the heel of the fork
arms?
The forklift truck's capacity will he reduced and stability may be affected.
75. Where is the forward Point of Balance (fulcrum)for a forklift truck?
Where a line drawn vertically, passfng through the centre of the front axle, meets
the ground.

76. ls all the weight behind the Point of Balance acting as a counterweight?
Yes.

,r.

The forklift trucks in Attachment A are rated at 2000kg at 600mm load centre, which
one is overloaded?
Load A

Attachment A

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 43

forklift truck in Attachment B is rated at 4500k9 at 600mm load centre. Which of

=tt.78.A
,^'l the loads are within the capacity of the forklift truck?
Load C

Attachment B

1000 mm

ffi

79. Give two reasons why you check the weight of a load against the forklift truck
specifications.
To ensure load is within the forklift truck lifting capacity.
To prevent accidents and avoid damage.

To stop overloading.
80. How would you determine the weight of an unmarked load?
By calculation, consignment nofes (con note) or weighbridge certificate etc.
81. What is the approximate mass (weight) of a 200 Litre (44 gallon) drum full of water?
213 kg
82. How many Kilograms are there in 1 Tonne?
1000k9
83. What things should be considered when tiering (stacking) loads on top of each
other?
Loads should be stacked on a firm level site, heavy goods must be placed at the
bottom, and stack should not become unstable due to height.

Updated 4 September 2O06

Page 44

84. When should forward tilt of the mast be used?


Only when required to place fork arms under loads or out from beneath loads
just placed in position; or when placing a load on a stack and parking a machine

fitted with forks.


85. A pallet appears to be unsafely loaded. What would you do before attempting to lift
it?

Resfack it so it rs safe.

-?
,,\

90. Name three operating conditions that may cause a forklift truck to tip over
sideways? (Lateral instability)
Turning at speed; driving over uneven surtaces; unevenly distributed load;
driving with a flat or under inflated tyre; driving too fast (loaded or unloaded);
turning with the load raised; braking too hard when cornering; and side shift not
centred.

three operating conditions that may cause a forklift truck to tip forward
<,
/-{ 87.Name
length-ways? (Longitudinal instability)

Overloading; severe braking; incorrect use of the mast tilt (especially with the
load carried at a high level); load not positioned against the heel of the fork arms;
shifting of the load centre forward (centre of the load is forward of the approved
load centre); or operating on a sloping surtace.
88. What would be provided for the gap between a truck and a loading dock before
shifting a load?
Secured dock plates or bridge plates.
89. Which vehicles must you give right of way to during emergency situations?
All emergency vehicles.

Unit 3
Element

tO.

ffI"

3.1

three locations within the workplace where you would not park your forklifi

Near First Aid Stations; near fire fighting appliances; near doorways; on sloping
surfaces; on or near pedestrian walkways; emergency exits; where it obstructs
other traffic; or at a distance NOT /ess fhan 2 metres to the nearest rail track.
91. Why would you not park in front of a doorway?
The doorway may need to be used in an emergency.

92.|f your forklift truck must be parked on an inclined surface, what precautions would
you take?

ln addition to normal parking procedures, chock the wheels of the forklift.


93. When parking your forklift truck what must be done with the fork arms?
Fork arms must be lowered so that the fork arms are resting on the supporting
surtace-

Updated 4 September 20O6

Page 45

94. Why do you turn off the LPG fuel valve after parking and before leaving your forkliftruck?
To reduce the risk of explosion caused by leaking LPG.
95. Give three reasons why post-operational checks are carried out.
. To detect structural damage.
. To ensure all systems are closed off.
. To detect leaks in oil / hydraulic lines.
. To ensure forklift is ready for the next operator.
96. Whilst carrying out a post operational check, you notice a fault, what do you do
before leaving the forklift?
Remove the keys and place a warning notice on the forklift indicating the forklift
must not be used, and then report to an authorised person.
97. What is the reason for removing the ignition key when leaving the forklift truck
unattended?
To prevent unauthorised movement of the forklift truck.

Updated 4 September 2006

Page 46