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Department of Linguistics



Unit 1
Definition: approaches to the study of speech sounds articulatory, acoustic and auditory,
Anatomy and Physiology of speech: Vocal tract respiratory system, phonatory system
(laryngeal system) and Articulatory system (Supralaryngeal system); initiation of speech
Air stream mechanisms (Pulmonic, Glottalic and Velaric); phonation.
Unit 2
Articulation: Point and Manner of articulation, Identification and classification of Speech
sounds - Vowels and Consonants, Primary and Secondary cardinal vowels, diphthongs;
sonorants and obstruents, sonorant consonants.
Unit 3
Suprasegmental features stress, pitch, length and loudness; tone, intonation and rhythm;
Multiple Articulation - co-articulation and secondary co-articulation; Phonetic
transcription Phonetic Alphebet, IPA-Chart and Symbols, Outline of Malayalam
Unit 4
Acoustic phonetics Acoustic properties of vocal tract; Transmission and reception of
speech sounds; a Physical characteristic of speech sounds: Periodic and Aperiodic sounds
frequency and amplitude; airflow, pressure and turbulence.
Unit 5
Frequency analysis: Speech spectrogram; Fundamental fre quency

Harmonics, Formant frequency and Resonance; Acoustic characteristics of different
speech sounds; Tone and intonation in connected speech, voice onset time, speech
segmentation, speech synthesis.


Reading List
Abercrombie, D
Jones Daniel
Gray, G.W & Wise C.M

Malmberg, B
Ladefoged, P
Ladefoged, P
-do-doPrabodhachandran V.R

Elements of General Phonetics, Edinburgh University

Press, Edinburgh 1967
Phonetics, University of Michigam Press, 1962, America
An Outline of English Phonetics, Cambridge, England,
The Bases of Speech, Harper & Row Publishers, New York,
Manuel of Phonetics
Elements of Acoustic Phonetics, University of Chicago
Press, Chicago 1962
Three areas of Experimental Phonetics, Oxford University
Press, 1967, New Delhi
A Course in Phonetics, Har Court Brace Publishers, New
York, 1975
Consonants and Vowels, Blackwell Publishing, USA, 2005
Svanavijnaanam, Kerala Bhasha Institute, TVPM, 1980

Relevant Online references

Arden R.Thorum
Debnath, Rupak

Phonetics: A Contemporary Approach, Jones & Bartlett

Learning, Burlington, 2013
A Glossary of Phonetics & Phonology, Abhijeet Publishers,
New Delhi, 2010.



Unit 1
Relation between Phonetics and Phonology- Phone-phoneme-allophone, The premises of
Pike, Hocketts principles of Phonemic analysis, Pikes procedures of Phonemecisation Morphophonology connection to morphology, neutralization.
Unit 2
Preliminary and analytical problems in Phonemic analysis, marginal phoneme, multiple
complementation, neutralization, archiphoneme, overlapping of allophones, analysis of
complex phonetic units into phonemic sequences and phonetic sequences into single
Unit 3
The concept of syllable, structure and types of syllable, suprasegmental phonemes, tone,
toneme, intonation, Phonemic stress, pitch, duration, juncture, phonotactics distribution
of phonemes, clusters, functional load Rule writing, rule ordering.
Unit 4
Jacobsons binary principle, development of binary features, distinctive generative model,
domain of phonology, levels, modes and representation.
Unit 5
An outline of Malayalam Phonology. Not less than fifteen well had chosen problems to
be worked out.


Reading List
Pike, K.L
Hockett, C.F

Phonemics, Michigan Press, Chicago, 1947

A Course in Modern Linguistics, Surjeet
Publications, New Delhi, 1958
Aspects of Phonological Theory, Harper & Row

Paul, M.Postal
Publishers, New York, 1968
Studies in Phonetics and Phonology, Oxford Univ.
London, 1965
Martinet, A
Phonology as Functional Phonetics, Oxford Univ.
Press, London, 1962
Pike K.L
Tone Languages, Abor Univ.,Michigan Press,1961
Jackobson,Fant & Halle
Preliminaries of Fundamentals of Language
Hockett C.F&Kenstowicz,M
Manual of Phonology
Kisseberth, C
Generative Phonology Description and Theory
Sehene S.A
Generative Phonology
Chomsky & Halle
Sound patterns of English, Harper & Row publishers
New York, 1968
Kenstowicz, J Michael
Issues in Phonological Theory
Jones, Daniel
The Phonemes, its nature and use
Roger Lass
Phonology, Cambridge Univ.Press, New York,1984
Carlos Gussenhoven
The Phonology of Tone and Intonation,Cambridge
University Press,2004



Unit 1
Language: Descriptive Approaches to language study, synchronic vs diachronic;
descriptive vs prescriptive; Historical vs Comparative, Morph, allomorph; etic vs emic
Unit 2
Identification of Morpheme: Nidas principle & Hocket, Structural relationship of
morphemes: additive, replacive, substractive; positional relationship of morphemes:
successive, inclusive, simultaneous.
Unit 3
Distribution of morphemes; Bound vs Free, Root vs Stem, Nuclei vs Nonnuclei, Nuclear
vs peripheral, Continuous vs Discontinuous. Types of morphemes: Empty, Zero,
portmanteau, Roots and Affixes- prefix, suffix, infix, suprafix, Word formation., word
Unit 4
Immediate constituents, Principles of immediate constituent analysis, functional
relationships between immediate constituents relationship between the parts to the
whole; Endocentric vs Exocentric. Models of grammatical description; item and
arrangement, item and process, word and paradigm. Morphological typology- isolated,
agglutinated, inflected.
Unit 5


Types of morphological structure monomorphemic, poly morphemic; Derivation vs

Inflection; morphological structures vs syntactic structures. Phonological and
Morphological criteria for establishing the limits of morphological structures.
Morphophonemic stem Alternants Sandhi Lexeme lemma content word, Function
word and clitics.
Unit 6
The students will work out not less than ten problems.
Reading List
Nida, E.A.
Hockett, CF

Morphology (Cha.1,2,3&4)
Problems of Morpheme Analysis
(Language. 23, 231, 43)
Two models of Grammatical description (Word 10-210-31)

Well, RS
Joos,M .Ed.
Hockett, CF
Bloch & Trager
Harris Zelling

Immediate Constituents( Lg.23-81-117)

Readings in Linguistics
A course in Modern Linguistics
An Introduction to Descriptive Linguistics
Outline of Linguistic Analysis
Morpheme Alternant in Linguistic Analysis
( Lg.18-169-80)
Harris Zelling
From Morpheme to Utterence Lg.22-161-83
Language (chs, 10, 11, 12, 15 & 16)
Mathews PH
Recent Developments in Morphology New
Horizons on Linguistics. 1980, John Lyons Ed/Ebeling, CL
Linguistic Units
Collected Papers
Robert Hall Jr.
Introductory Linguistics
Bauer, Laurie 2003 Introducing Linguistic Morphology
Washington DC, Georgetown, University
Katamba, Francis 1993
Morphology. New York St.Martins Press
Mathews Peter 1991 Morphology. Cambridge University press
Spencer, Andrew, Zwicky,
Handbook of Morphology, Oxford Blackwell


LIN 521


Unit 1
Dialectology, idiolect- dialect, and language, mutual intelligibility common
core, structural dialectology. Linguistic variation- causes regional, social, caste,
etc.Nature of dialect variation lexical, grammatical, and semantic, etc.
Unit 2
Dialect survey models and techniques, questionnaire, methodology, types of
survey, dialect dictionaries and dialect atlases; isogloss, focal area, relic area,
transition area.
Unit 2
Dialect Geography History of Dialectology Western, Indian and Dravidian
Dialect Studies, Dialect Survey in Malayalam , Griersons Linguistic Survey of
Unit 4
Bilingualism Definition, causes, psychological and socio-cultural settings,
Acculturation Bilingual Description interferences phonic, grammatical and
Unit 5
Bilingual- individual, community, language convergence and maintenance,
language loyalty, Current research in Bilingualism Inter-disciplinary approach
to Bilingualism

Reading list
Weinrich Uriel
Subramaniam V. I.(Ed)

Languages in Contact, Mouton & Co., Hague, 1964

Seminar on Dialectology, DLA, TVPM, 1973
Dialect Survey of Malayalam-Ezhava/Tiyya,DLA,
TVPM, 2007
Linguistic Survey of India Vol I-IV, Motilal
Banarasidas, New Delhi, 1927
Bhaasabheedavijnaanam, National Book Stall,
Kottayam, 1977
Indian Bilingualism
Dialectology, Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, 1998
The Handbook of Bilingualism, Blackwell
Publishing, USA, 2004

Grierson GA
Somasekharan Nair P.
Gopal Sarma and Suresh Kumar
Chamber JK and Trudgill Peter
Bhatia, Tej K & Ritchie,
William C


Unit 1
Linguistic theories: Nature, scope and types. Boundary between Morphology and
Unit 2
IC Analysis : Principles of IC Analysis, types of ICS, hierarchial structure, limitations of
IC analysis. Implications of ICA in Syntactic investigation : merits and demerits.
Unit 3
Chomskian Theory : Phrase Structure Grammar, Transformational Grammar; origin and
development. Inadequacy of PS grammars. Properties of
T-rules Types of
transformational operation : movement, deletion, insertion etc. Rule ordering : extrinsic,
Unit 4
General Linguistic Theory, Goals of Linguistic Theory, Universal grammar 1965 model
of TG : Components of grammar, relevance of Semantics in Grammar, deep structure and
surface structure overview of current trends in TG.
Unit 5
Syntactic processes in Malayalam : Relativisation, complementation, coordination. Major
types of sentences in Malayalam and their syntactic analysis.
Chomsky, N, 1957

Syntactic theories
Aspects of theory of syntax

Cook, Walter A 1969

Dinnen, 1967
Elson, B and Pickett, V1964
Hockett C F 1950
Longacre, R E 1965
Nida E.A 1949
Pike, KL 1967
Ouhalla, J 1994
Ratford A 1988
Verma SK and
Krishnaswamy N 1989
V.J.Cook & Mark Newson

LIN 523

Introduction to Tagmemic analysis

An introduction to General Linguistics
An Introduction to Morphology and Syntax
A Course in Modern Linguistics
Some Fundamental insights of Tagemmics,
Lge, 41
Morphology: A descriptive Analysis of
Language in Relation to a Unified Theory of
Structure of Human Behaviors
Transformational Grammar
Transformational Grammar : a First course
Modern Linguistics : An introduction
Chomskys Universal Grammar An
Introduction, Blackwell publishing,2010


Unit I Introduction: Sociolinguistics and Sociology of Language;

Speech Community; Language and Social Stratification. Variables:
social variables, linguistic variables and sociolinguistic variables.
Language and reality: linguistic relativity, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.
Unit II Use of language: Idiolect, Dialects, Sociolect. Register and
Style. Standard Language; Slang and Taboo. Language in Relation to
Sex, Gender and Age, Communicative Competence of Hymes and
Hebermas, Restricted and Elaborated code by Bernstein.
Unit III Language Variations: Regional and Social; Ethnic Diversity;
Code mixing, Code switching; Diglossia and Poliglottism. Language in
Contact; Pidgin and Creole.
Unit IV Language Planning: Monolingualism, Bilingualism and
Multilingualism. Language Attitude and Language Right. Language
Endangerment; Language Planning; Status Planning and Corpus
Unit V Sociolinguistic Research: Quantitative and Qualitative
Methods; William Labovs Fieldwork, Participatory Observation; Dell
Hymes and Ethnography of Speech; Discourse Analysis.

Reading List
Hudson, R.A.1980. Sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Chambers, J. 1995. Sociolinguistic Theory: Linguistic variation and its
social significance. Oxford: Blackwell.
Fasold, R. 1990. The Sociolinguistics of Language. Oxford: Blackwell.
Labov,Willam. 1972a. Sociolinguistic Patterns. Oxford: Blackwell.
Labov, Willam.1990. The intersection of Sex and Social Class in the
Course of Linguistic Change. Language Variation and Change
Hymes, D. 1974. Foundation of Sociolinguistics: An Ethnographic
Approach. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Levinson, S. 1983. Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hebermas, J. 1985. The Theory of Communicative Action. Vol.1.
London: Polity Press
Bernstein, B. 1964. Elaborated and Restricted Codes: Their Social
Origins and Some Consequences. American Anthropologist.


Unit 1
Transformational generative grammar development : formalization of IC, finite state
grammar, PSG, Limitations of PSG, 1957 model of TG.
Unit 2
Standard theory, Interpreted vs generative semantics. Extended standard theory, Revised
extended standard theory.
Unit 3
X-bar theory head, complement, specifier. Government and Binding framework
projection principle, principles of case binding, theta theory, theta marking, bounding
theory PRO and control.
Unit 4
Some syntactic operations and constructions : Movement and trace NP
Movement(Passive raising) wh-movement (questions, relativization), topicalization,
deletion (VP-deletion, gapping) - constructions, small clauses, clefts, pseudo clefts.
Unit 5
Some Recent developments: Minimalism.
Chomsky N


Syntactic structures
Aspects of the theory of syntax
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Studies on semantic in generative grammar
The minimalist programme
Jackendoff,R 1981
X Syntax: A study of phrase structure
Lisnak and Uriagerek1988 A Course in GB Syntax
Namboodiri EVN 1977
Vakya ghadana
Ouhalla, J
Transformational Grammar
Radford A
Transformational Grammar-A first Course
Ross, JR
Constrains on Variables in Syntax
Reimsdl JK and Williams 1986
Introduction to the Theory of Grammar
Stockwell 1973
The Major Syntactic Structures of English
Verma & Krishnaswamy 1989
Modern Linguistics An Introduction
Grammatical roles and relations 1998
Andrew Radford
Minimalist Syntax 2004
-doTransformational Grammar, 1999
-doSyntactic theory and the structure of English
Robert D.Van Valin, Jr.
Randy J.Lapolla
Syntax Structure, meaning and function,1997
Randall Hendrick(Ed)
Minimalist Syntax, Blackwell publishing, 2003


Unit 1
Aim synchronic and diachronic approaches to language : interrelationship between
diachronic and synchronic data. Sources: written records/recorded literature,
inscriptions; unwritten/unrecorded dialect forms, folklores growth and development
of 19th century historical and comparative linguistics.
Unit 2
Language chance : sond change Neogrammarian theory of gradualness and regularity of
sound change; contribution of grimm, grassman and verner, phonetic and phonemic
change: split and merger, conditional vs unconditional change; types of theories/sound
change assimilation and dissimilation, coalescence, metathesis, deletion, enpenthesis;
Transformational generative approach to sound change rule addition; rule deletion,
rule generalization, rule ordering; social motivation for change; lexical differsion of
sound change, analogy and its relationship to sound change.
Unit 3
Reconstruction: reconstructing the proto stages of languages internal reconstruction
and comparative method principles and procedures definition of the word cognate
cognate collection their scopes and limitations; innovation and retention.
Unit 4

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Language classification: notion of language family subgrouping within a family: family

tree and wave models present Dravidian family of languages and its classification into
subfamilies and sub groups.
Unit 5
Typological classification of languages genetic and non-genetic typologies,
Lehmann, W.P.
Allen R.Keller
Antilla Raimo
Henry M.Hoenigswald

An Introduction to Historical Linguistics, Oxford & IBH
Publishing, New Delhi, 1962
A Reader in Historical and Comparative Linguistics
An Introduction to Historical and Comparative Linguistics,
Macmillan Co., New York, 1972
Language change and Linguistic Reconstruction, Phoenix
Books, London, 1960

Masica, C.P.

India as a Linguistic Area

Bynon Theodara

Historical Linguistics, Cambridge University Press,

Historical Grammar of old Kannada, Deccan College,
Poona, 1946
Comparative and Historical Linguistics 1972, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge,1972

Govind Swami Rao

Allen Heter
John M.Anderson &
Charles Johnes
Ilse J.Lehiste
Brian D Joseph
Ringe, Don and Eska,
Joseph F

Historical Linguistics I & II, North Holland Pub.Co.,

Amsterdam, 1974
Present day Historical and Comparative Linguistic
An Introduction 1975, E-story-scientia, Los Angeles, 1975
Principles and Methods for Historical Linguistics 1979,
MIT Press, London, 1979
Dravidian Historical Linguistics 1999, Institute of Oriental
Studies, Moscow, 1999
Handbook of Historical Linguistics 2003, Blackwell
Publishers, Oxford, 2003
Historical Linguistics: Toward a twenty first century reintegration, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2013

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LIN 505 Techniques of Translation

Unit I
Translation Studies; "History of Translation - Translation Theory. Science of
Translation - Early Translation Theory. Translation and Literary Genres. Problems
of Tone and Style, Contemporary Translation Theories- Translation And
Specificities Of Particular Languages. Types of Translation, - Inter-lingual, Intralingual and Inter-semiotic Partial Vs Full, Total Vs. Restricted, Rank Bound Vs.
Rank Free, Continuous Vs. Discontinuous Vertical And Horizontal Translation.
Paraphrasing, Transcription, Authoriesed Translation, Interpretation, Instant
Unit II
Meaning And Emotion Lost or Gained in Translation Equivalence and Untranslatability Textual And Translation Equivalence, Nil and Zero Equivalence,
Formal Correspondences, Transference And Translation Shift, Limit of
Unit III
Linguistic Aspects of Translation - Semiotics Of Translation, Translation and
Globalization, Translation in the Scientific Context. Philosophical Implications of
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Translation, Language Varieties in Translation, Technical Terminology, Lexical

and Semantic Borrowing
Unit IV
Translation and the Cultural Context, Translations of Religious Contexts,
Translatability of Cultures; in Search of the Universal in Language, Translating
Radical Difference, Identities in Translation, Gender and Translation, Cultural
Translation in a Postcolonial Context.
Unit V
Future of Translation Studies, Translation Training, Becoming a Translator - Task
of the Translator, Literature in Translation. Translation Evaluation, Quality of
Translation, Translation Authority, Translation Policy, Translation and IT, Use of
Computer in Translation, Machine Translation, Linguistic and Computational
Aspects of Translation, CAT, Processes in MT, Pre- editing and Post editing, MT
Systems in Indian Languages.

Reading List
Andrewskutty, A. P. (1988). "Correlatives in Translatability" in Translation as
Synthesis, Annamalai.
Basnett, Susan (1999). Quoted in Literary Translation, A Monograph of the
University of Hyderabad.
Baker, M. (1998): Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies, London,
BASSNETT, Susan. 1991. Translation Studies. Revised Edition. London and
New York: Routledge.
BASSNETT TR., S & A. Lefevere (eds.) 1990. Translation, History and
Culture, London and New York: Pinter.
BASSNETT TR., S & H. Trivedi (eds.) 1999. Post-Colonial Translation: Theory
and Practices, London and New York: Longman.
BENJAMIN; W. 1923/2000 The task of the Translator, translated by H. Zohn
(1969) in L. Venuti (ed.) 2000, pp. 15-25.
BERMAN, A. 1985/2000. Translation and the Trials of the Foreign, in L. Venuti
(ed.) 2000, pp. 284-97.
Budick and Iser, The Translatability of Cultures
CATFORD, J.C. (1965) A Linguistic Theory of Translation, London: Academic
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CHESTERMAN, Andrew. 1997. Memes of Translation. Amsterdam

Philadelphia: John Benjamins Pub. Co.
Darwish, Ali (1999). "Towards a Theory of Constraints in Translation". Kasparek,
Christopher, "The Translator's Endless Toil," The Polish Review, vol.
XXVIII, no. 2, 1983, pp. 83-87. Includes a discussion of Europeanlanguage cognates of the term, "translation."
Fasold, R (1990). Sociolinguistics of Language, Oxford.
Edwin Gentzler, Contemporary Translation Theories
Heylen, R. (1993): Translation Poetics and Stage: Six French Hamlets, London,
Jin, D. (1998): In Search of the Principle of Equivalent Effect, Beijing, China
Translation and Publishing Corporation.
Jin, D. (2003): Literary Translation: Quest for Artistic Integrity, Manchester,
St. Jerome.
Kelly, L.G. (1979). The True Interpreter: a History of Translation Theory and
Practice in the West. New York, St. Martin's Press..
Lawrence Venutti, Scandals of Translation
Newmark, P. (1993): Paragraphs on Translation, Clevedon, Multilingual

Muegge, Uwe (2005). Translation Contract: A Standards-Based Model

Solution. Author House
Simms, Norman, editor (1983). Nimrod's Sin: Treason and Translation in a SnellHornby, M. (1988): Translation Studies: An Integrated Approach,
Amsterdam, John Benjamins.
Venuti, Lawrence, editor (2002, 2nd edition 2004). The Translation Studies
Venuti, Lawrence (1994). The Translator's Invisibility. Routledge.
Web References
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Unit I :
Semantics-definition and scope - semantics and meaning,
role of semantics in Linguistics historical semantics, relationship with
other discipline. Communication and information - maxims of
Unit II :
Lexical semantics: Sense, Relations - Synonymy,
Antonymy, Hyponymy, Meronymy, Metonymy, Polysemy and
Pomonymy, Troponymy, Color systems; Sense, Reference, Denotation,
Connotation. Multiple meaning context - meaning and use - semantic
change, meaning components, entailment relations.
Unit III : Language as a semiotic system - Signification, Symbols,
Icons; Semiotics of Culture, concept by Peirce C.S and Ferdinand D
Saussure. Logic and semantics - logic and language, Propositional
logic, Predicate logic, Time and modality.
Unit IV : Semantics and pragmatics - Performatives and Speech act,
Presupposition. Semantics and Grammar Formal grammar,
Grammatical categories, Grammar and Lexicon, Grammatical relations.

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Unit V
Indian theories of meaning Traditional Concepts of
Meaning - Paninian Concept, Spoda Theory.

Reading list
Palmer F R.1996. Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
John Lyons.1984. Semantics Vol.I &II. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Levinson, S. 1983. Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Sebastian Lobner . 2002. Understanding Semantics. London: Arnold
Francis Recanati. 1981. Meaning and Force. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press
Ann Shukman. 1977. Literature and Semiotics. Amsterdam: North
Holland Publishing Campany
Danial Chandler . 2002. Semiotics the Basics. London: Routledge
Indian Book/webliography

LIN 541 : Historical Grammar of Malayalam

Unit I
Sources of History, Internal and external sources, Region and the people, the terms
Keeralam and Malayaalam, contact with Non Dravidian speakers : Aryan,
Arabs, Jews, Chinese, Persian and Western countries, Geographical and socio
cultural factors
Unit II
Theories of Malayalam Origin, Evolution of Malayalam language, different
theories on Evolution of Malayalam language, - Six Nayas of Kerala Panini on
Development of Malayalam from Tamil
Unit III
Grammatical tradition, Periods in the History of Malayalam - Old, Middle and
Modern Malayalam, Characteristics of Malayalam in the early periods 9 th-12th
century AD, Structure of Malayalam in Liilathilakam
Unit IV
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Evolutions of Grammatical Structure of Malayalam, Development of Malayalam

writing system and Script, Foreign contribution - European contribution,
Influence of other Languages on Malayalam
Unit V
Characteristics of Malayalam in Ramacharitham, Kannassaramayanam,
Krishnagatha and Ezhuthachan, Kerala Panini, Gundarts work

Reading List
Ramaswamy Aiyer L.V. : The Evolution of Malayalam Morphology, 1936
Rajarajavarma A.R. Keralapaniniyam. 1895
Rajarajavarma A.R. Kerala Bhasayute Vikasaparinamangal
Rajarajavarma A.R., Liilathilakam
Prabhakaravariar (Ed) History of Malayalam Language
Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyar Kerala Sahitya Charitram
Sekhar A.C.: Evolution of Malayalam
Prabhodhachandran Nayar : Malayalam A Linguistic Description, 1972
Godavarma K. : Kerala Bhasa Vinjaniiyam
Joseph PM : Malayalathile Parakiiya Padangal
Ezhuthachan K.N. : The History of Grammatical theories in Malayalam 1975
Gundart Hermann : Malayalabhasavyakaranam 1851
And the references from Websites on the topic
Unit 1
Comparative and Contrastive Linguistics, Growth and development of Comparative
Dravidian Studies Pre-Caldwell and post Caldwell developments.
Unit 2
Comparative Dravidian Phonology: Reconstruction of Proto Dravidian phonemic system
Vowels, consonants, consonant clusters and their major correspondences vowel
alternations syllabic structure Reconstruction of PDr. Roots and suffixes Principles
of etymological analysis Phonemic composition of roots and suffixes
Morphophonemic rules of Dravidian bases.
Unit 3
Comparative Dravidian morphology: Reconstruction of Dravidian form classes Nouns;
Pronouns personal, demonstrative and interrogative Number gender system
Numerals Case markers Verbs; Finite and non-finite tense past Non-past
Transitive causative Negative and infinitive suffixes.
Unit 4
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Comparative Dravidian Syntax : Main types of sentence structure simple, complex,

compound phrases, clauses and word order.
Unit 5
Not less than 10 problems related to the topic to be solved by the students.
Caldwell, Robert
Krishnamurti, Bh.
Burrow, T
Burrow and Emeneau
Emeneau, M.B
Andronov, M.S.

Subrahmanyam, P.S.
Kamil Zvelebil
Sambasiva Rao.G

A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South

Indian Family of Languages, Asian Educational Services,
New Delhi, 1987
Telugu Verbal Bases, Motilal Banarasidas, New Delhi,1972
Dravidian Studies, I-VI. BSOAS
A Dravidian Etymological Dictionary, Oxford, London,
Dravidian Comparative Phonology
Dravidian Languages, Nauka Publishing House, Moscow,

Dravidian Comparative Phonology

Dravidian Verb Morphology, Annamalai University,
Annamalai Nagar, 1971
Comparative Dravidian Phonology
A sketch of Comparative Dravidian Morphology,
Mouton, Hague, 1970
Comparative Study of Dravidian Noun Derivatives 1989,
Bhari Publications, New Delhi, 1989
General and Comparative or Languages and Linguistics
1994, T.R.Publications, Madras, 1994
The Dravidian Languages 2003, Cambridge University
Press, New York, 2003

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Unit 1 : Language and Linguistics: definition purpose and scope.
Language dialect idiolect, Register, style, jargon, slang, form vs
content, written vs spoken, colloquial vs standard, formal vs informal,
Pidgin, Creole.
Unit 2: Languages and Language families Distribution of world
languages genetic and typological classification, Linguistic area.
Language contact situation, monolingual, bilingual and multilingual
interference in different levels, code, code mixing, discourse.
Unit 3: Development of Modern linguistics-structural and post
structural models. Contributions of Saussure, Jakobson, Bloomfield and
Chomsky General survey and Review. Indian grammatical tradition.
Unit 4: Linguistics Levels, branches and tools. Levels of linguistic
analysis: Phonology, Morphology and syntax, Semantics and
Pragmatics. Selected branches of linguistics for study: Sociolinguistics
and Dialectology. Language in Mass Media. Language Planning and
development. Methodological tools: notions, notations, terminology
and rules.
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Unit :5 Applied Linguistics Aspects of applied linguistics

interdisciplinary nature of linguistics, Role of Linguistics in Social,
cultural communicative and literary studies, psychology, philosophy,
language teaching, language disorders, translation etc.
Reading List
Asher RE (1994) The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics
Bloomfield L (1935)
Catford JC(1969) A linguistic theory of Translation
Crystal D (1981) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language
Dinnen F P(1967) An introduction to General Linguistics
Gelason H A (1955)
Introduction to Descriptive Linguistics
Hockett CF (1988)
A Course in Modern Linguistics
Lehmann W P (1962)
Historical Linguistics: An Introduction
Miller GA (1951) Language and Communication


Unit1 Definition of Language- Expression and Content Planes. The term
Communication. Animal Vs human Communication- characteristic
features. Verbal and Non- verbal communication.
Language use- individual and social process; Langue and parole.
Language, culture and ethnicity. Language and Gender. History of
writing. Written and spoken variety of language, Language change,
language as behavior, language as art.
Unit 2 The semiotic and process schools of communication. Sign, signifier
Signified; syntagmatic and paradigmatic relation, diachronic and
Synchronic study, arbitrary and conventional nature of linguistic sign,
C. S.
Peirces Triadic model of sign- icon, index and symbol. Different levels
of signification- denotation, connotation, myth and ideology. Code and
Message. Words and images: metaphor, metonymy, and irony.
Unit 3 Communication and notion related to langue, parole and text. Text

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Linguistics, textuality; cohesion, coherence, intentionality,

acceptability, informativity, situationality and intertextuality speech
acts and communication acts. Textual analysis and Discourse analysis
(consider examples from news, art and literature).
Unit 4 Review of different models of communication. Saussures Conceptual
model of communication. Shannon and Weavers mathematical model
of communication. Roman Jacobsons Constitutive Factors Model of
Language and cognition: Competence and performance. Linguistic and
communicative competence (Chomsky Vs Hymes)- Psychological and
socio- cultural perspective.
Unit 5 Language of news paper, television, radio, advertisement, film and
Documentary - Semiotic perspective.
Form and content relation in visual art and literature: modes and
problems of representation. Different levels of narration/ meta
narration in art and literature. Language and communication in the
world of cyber space.
Reading List
Language and Communication
Human Communication
Human Communication Theory
The mathematical Theory of


: George Miller(1951)
: Stewart L Tubbs
: Frank E.X Dance(1967)

The English language

: E. Shannon & Warren

: David Crystal

World Communication
Threat or Promise

: Colin Cherry(1971)

Communication studiesthe Essential Introduction

The Language of Advertising
The Language of Newspapers
Semiotics and the Analysis of Film
On Communicative Competence
Encyclopedia of Language and
Language as behavior
Introduction to Text Linguistics

: Andrew Beck, Peter Ennette

and Peter Wall (2002)

Angela Goddard
Danuta Reah
Jean Mitry, 2000.
Roland Barthes
D. H. hymes(1971)

: Berge K. L(1994)
: MAK Halliday
: Beaugrande

22 | P a g e


Unit 1 Language Learning-primary skills-listening and speaking
:secondary skills-reading and writing. Psychology of Language learningdifference between mother tongue learning and second language
learning. Child learning and Adult Learning. Different theories of
learning conditions, motivations and success.
Unit 2 Different methods of teaching (direct, Grammar, translation,
Cognate audio lingusa) merits and demerits of each method Microwave
Unit 3 Preparation of teaching materials, standard language, classical
language, spoken language, newspaper language.
Contrastive Linguistic frequency counts, error analysis, word lists.
Common vocabularies and their use in language pedagogy.
Specification of course material, objective, selection and grading.
Unit 4 Function of repetition, Practice, revision, testing, translation and
their use in Language teaching. Evaluation, the language testing,
objectives of language testing, grammar testing vs the testing of skills.
23 | P a g e

Aids in language learning, use of language laboratory-technical aids.

Programmed learning.
Unit 5 Mass literacy, tribal literacy and preparation of teaching
materials. Notion of inter language. Improvement of Text books in the
school and college level-problem taking-analysis of text-books at the
high school and college level.
Reading list
Halliday, MAK
Robert Lado

The Techniques of Language Teaching, London, 1961

Intoshetal Linguistic Science and Language Teaching
Language Teaching McGraw-Hill, Newyork,
Linguistics Across Cultures, Applied Linguistics for
Teachers . An arbor The University Michigan press

Benett MA
W F Mackey
Robert Lado
Allen HB

Prey Edward
Palmer HE
Rinazo Titene

Aspects of Language and Language Teaching

Language teaching Analysis
Language Teaching
Applied Linguistics, Part V

Teaching mechanic and program instruction

The Principles of Language Study, UOF, 1962
Teaching foreign language-a Historical sketch.
Georgetown University Press
Teaching foreign language skills, University

Vilga Rivers
Chicago Press
VI Subramoniam Purpose on seminar and on Teaching Indian
Languages University of Kerala Tvpm, Dept. of Linguistics Studies in
Teaching, University of Kerala, Trivandrum.
Advance in the Teaching of Modern Languages,
Press, 1964
Bruke, Nelson,
(Newyork, Harcourst, Brace and Co.) 1960
24 | P a g e

Hunger John P
on house)
Kart C Biller

Linguistics and Language Teaching (Newyork, Rank






Teaching, New Bury House publishers

The Context of Foreign language teaching (Newbury
House Publishers) 1947
Jack Richards
Error Analysis, London
Pit Corder
Introducing Applied Linguistics, Pelican
G Sambhasiva Rao(ed/-) Literary Methodology CIIL Mysore, 1977
Icon A Jacobovits
Barbara Gordon


Unit 1: Introduction: - Language and Linguistics definition purpose
and scope. Linguistics Levels and Branches. Levels of Linguistic
Analysis : Phonology Study of speech sounds speech organs, place
Vs Manner of articulation, classification of sounds vowels and
consonants. Phone phoneme allophone, suprasegmental phonemes.
Morphology Morph, morpheme, allomorph distribution of
morphemes. Bound Vs Free, Root Vs Stem, Roots and affixes. SyntaxMajor types of sentences.
Unit 2: Speech and Language disorders Developmental and acquired
Aphasia, learning disability, dyslexia, semantic pragmatic disorders,
Unit 3: Linguistics and assessment of language disorders
Assessment of speech production, phonology, syntactic assessment,
expressive language, comprehension of syntax, semantics, pragmatics
and prosody. Intervention programmes.
Unit 4: Neurology of speech and language : Neurolinguistics,
application of linguistics in the area of aphasia and learning disability.
Unit 5: Psycholinguistics: Psychological process of language
acquisition and use comprehension, speech production, acquisition
25 | P a g e

Language diversity and language universals. Meta linguistic capacity.

Acquisition of language by children.
Reading list
Kim, Grundy
Linguistics in Clinical Practice 1989
Novick Z Barbara,Fundamentals of Clinical Child Neuropsychology
Arnold M Maureen
Gleason Berko Jean,
Ratner Bernstein Psycholinguistics
Nan 1998
Obler K.Loraine
Gjerlov Kris 1999 Language and Brain
Payne Trevor and
Turner Elizebeth 1999 Dyslexia, A parents and teachers guide
Sankaran C R 1963

Process of speech

Lass, Norman Jed

Speech and Language:Advances in basic

Research and practice VI.2
The theory of speech and language

Gardiner Allen 1963

Goodwin Charles ed.
Scovel, Thomas 1998
Crystal David 1987

Conversation and brain damage

The Cambridge Encyclopedia of language

Whitakes Haiganoosh&
Whitaker A Harry 1977 Studies in Nuerolinguistics 3 volumes

26 | P a g e


LIN 5023


Unit I :
General Characteristics of Malayalam Typological and
Genetic features. Origin, Development and Contact of Malayalam with
Other Languages.
Unit II :
Sound System of Malayalam, Phonetic and Phonological
Description - Phonetic chart - Syllable Structure and Suprasegmentals.
Unit III :
Morphological and Syntactic Description of Malayalam,
Parts of Speech, Word class, Noun - Case, Number, Gender; Verb Tense, Mood, Aspects, Adjective, Adverb, Postpositions, Word Order,
Major Type of Sentences.
Unit IV :
Lexicon - Native and Borrowed - from Sanskrit and Other
languages, Tatbhava and Tatsama.
Unit V :
Malayalam language and Variation, Dialect and Sociolect,
Regional and Social Variations with Specific examples.
Reading list
Asher R.E and TC Kumari. 1997. Grammar Series (Malayalam), New
York and London, Routledge.
Prabodhachandran Nayar, V.R. 1973. Malayalam a Linguistic
Description. Thiruvananthapuram: National Research Publishing
27 | P a g e

Ezhuthachan. K.N. 1998. The History of Grammatical Theories in

Abraham. P.T. 1978. Relative Clause in Malayalam. Annamalinagar:
Annamalai University
Rajasekharan Nair. N. 1990. Auxiliary verb in Malayalam.
Annamalinagar: Annamalai University
Raveendran. P.N. 1975. Nominal Composition in Malayalam.
Annamalinagar: Annamalai University
Prabhakaravariyar K.M. (ed). 1974. Malayala Bhashaapatanangal
(Studies on Malayalam Linguistics). Thiruvananthapuram: State
Institute of Languages.
Radhakrishnan Mallassery. S 1994. Post Positions in a Dravidian
Language: a Transformational analysis of Malayalam, New Delhi:
Mittal publications.
Usha Nambudripad
. 1994. Samuhika Bhaasa vijnanam: Study on
Sreedevi. B. 1991.
Syntactic Patterns of Malayalam and Telugu.
Thiruvananthapuram: Vivek Publication
Padangal.Thiruvananthapuram: State Institute of Languages.


Unit 1

- Tribes: Definition of the term tribe classification of the

Scheduled Tribes in India important tribal areas Distribution of the
tribal groups state wise distribution of the tribal population. Planning
for tribal development.

Unit 2 - Tribes of Kerala: important Tribal areas list of Kerala tribes

problems of classification tribal settlements in Kerala, sociocultural
set up of the tribes of Kerala tribal situation in Kerala. PTGs
(Particularly voulnerable Tribal Groups) in Kerala: Current
Developments of PTGs in Kerala.

Unit 3 General characteristics of the Kerala tribes: population and

settlements appearance hamlet and house house hold articlesdress and ornaments tribal hierarchy agriculture hunting food
and rinks crime and punishment disease and treatments taboos
religious ceremonies folklore myth.
28 | P a g e

Social functions and ceremonies pregnancy and child birth marriage

customs, endogamy or exogamy marriage and by purchase,
exchange service or elopement polygamy, polyandry, Sororate and
levirate marriages- death ceremonies.

Unit 4 Tribal languages of Kerala language and tribal planning

classification of the tribal languages questionnaire for tribal field work
methods and techniques of field work data collection study of the
linguistic features of the language of kannikkar, paniyar adiyans,
Mudugas, mannans,pathinayakas, akttunayakas, kurumpas and
malavedas. Endangerment of Tribal Languages in Kerala, Parameters
used for Endangerment of Tribal Languages.

Unit 5 Literacy programmes among the tribes of Kerala, Tribal

education problems and prospects. A review of the current works in
the field of tribal studies. Education programmes among the tribes of
Kerala: single Teacher education programme, peripatetic Teaching
programme, Model Residencial School System.

Reading List
Ranjit Gupta (Ed)
Dube, S.C
Romesh Thapur (Ed)
Bhattacharya S
Bose, Nirmal kumar
Chakravarthy M and
Chattopadyaya and
Kamala Devi
Ghurye, GS
Iyer, LAK
Iyer, LAK
Loius AAD
Matuhur PRG

Planning for Tribal Development

Tribal heritage of India
Tribe, Caste and Religion in India
Tribal languages of South Kerala
Tribal life in India
Indian Tribes
Tribalism in India
Scheduled Tribes
The Cochin tribes and castes (2 vols)
The Travancore tribes and Castes (2 vols)
Tribes of Kerala
Tribal situation in Kerala
Muduga Language
Tribal education: Problems and possibilities (in
Journal of Kerala studies Vol.5.Nos.III & IV)
29 | P a g e

Somashekaran Nair
-doThurston Edgar
Darwin L
Singh K S
& Darwin.L
Ed. Darwin.L

LIN 5016

Paniyar (Mal)
Paniya Bhasa (Mal)
Castsa and tribes of South India
Irula Language, Alpha Beem
People of India, ASI (Anthropological Survey of
India) 2002
Research Publication series Vol.II, KIRTADS,
Kozhikode, 2011
Dictionary of Tribal Languages Vol.I, KIRTADS,
Kozhikode, 2012


Unit I
30 | P a g e

Linguistics, Language technology, history and today, Computational

Linguistics, Knowledge & information, Computer based Linguistic
analysis (Phonetics, Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics,
Pragmatics, discourse), cybernetics.
Unit II
Basic structure of computer hardware & software, the processing unit,
memory, memory devices, operating system, system software,
Application software, flow chart, algorithm, data, data structure for
language processing, lexicography, lexical database, machine learning
and teaching.
Unit III
Knowledge Base System, Artificial Intelligence, database management,
information retrieval systems, computer networking, web based
programming, object oriented programming, coding, encoding
(grapheme, character designing ISCII, ASCII, Unicode).
Unit IV
Web and local languages, language tools and software, free and open
software, Fundamentals of localization and globalization, E-governance
in Malayalam.
Unit V
Natural language processing analysis and generator, (Speech
synthesis, speech recognition, question answering, text summarization,
OCR, ambiguity resolution) corpora, corpus linguistics, machine
translation process, spell/grammar checker, parsing, tagging,
morphological analyzer and generator, Internet based language
learning and teaching, resources for NLP, Issues related with
Malayalam language technology.

Reading List
1. Asher, R.E. 1994. The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics.
31 | P a g e

2. Asher, R.E. and T.C.Kumari, Malayalam.

3. Bloomfield L.C (1933), Language.
4. Grishman,R, Computational Linguistics : An Introduction, New
5. Nida E.A. (1946), Morphology
6. Pike K.L. (1943), Phonetics
7. Singh, Ram Adhar (1982) An Introduction to Lexicography,
Mysore, Central Institute of Indian Languages.
8. Akshar Bharati, Natural Language Processing A Paninian
Perspective, New Delhi: Prentice Hall India, 1995.
9. Dash, Niladri Sekhar (2005) Corpus Linguistics and Language
Technology, New Delhi: Mittal Publications.








Computational Linguistics, Oxford University Press.


Ralph Grishman, 1986, Computational Linguistics : An








Techniques in Machine Translation, 2nd Edition, Taylor & Francis

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