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Research Paper

Research paper is the culmination and final product of an involved process

of research, critical thinking, source evaluation, organization and composition.
Two Major types of research paper
Argumentative research paper
Consist of an introduction in which the writer clearly introduces the topic
and informs his audience exactly which stance he intends to take; this stance
is often identified as the thesis statement.
Analytical research paper
Often begins with the student asking question on which he has taken no
stance. Such a paper is often an exercise in exploration and evaluation.
Primary Research
It involves the collection of original primary data by researcher. It is
often under taken after researcher have gained some insight into an issue by
reviewing secondary research or by analyzing previously collected primary
A primary source provides first-hand information on the topic.
Primary sources include:
Original research
Personal works
Government records
Corporate records
Works of literature
Art and artifacts
Original audio and video recordings
Secondary Research (also known as desk research)
Involves the summary, collation and/or synthesis of existing research rather
than primary research.

Secondary sources present an argument, interpretation, conclusion, or summary

based upon information found in primary sources.
Secondary sources include:
Biographies (not autobiographies)
Books (textbooks, literary criticism)
Editorials and commentaries
Journal articles
Thesis (not reporting original research)

Writing Process
Step 1: Choose a Topic
Choose topic which interests and challenge you. Your attitude towards the
topic may well determine the amount of effort and enthusiasm you put into
your research.
Focus on a limited aspect.
Select a subject you can manage
Avoid subjects that are too technical, learned or specialized.
Avoid topics that have only a very narrow range of source materials.
Step 2: Find Information
Surf the Net
Check out other print materials available in the library
Check out online resources, Web based information services, or special
resource material on CDs:
Check out public and university libraries, business, government agencies, as
well as contact knowledgeable people in your community.
Step 3: State your thesis
Do some critical thinking and write your thesis statement down in one
sentence. Your thesis statement is like a declaration of your belief. The main
portion of your essay will consist of arguments to support and defend this

Step 4: Make a tentative Outline

All points must relate to the same major topic that you first mentioned in
your capital Roman numeral.
I.INTRODUCTION-(Brief comment leading into subject matter)
a. Early life
b. Works
a. Analytical summary
b. Thesis reworded
c. Concluding statement
Step 5: Organize your notes
Organize all the information you have gathered according to your outline.
Critically analyze your research data.
Do not include any information that is not relevant to your topic.
Step 6: Write your First Draft
Start with the first topic in your outline. Read all the relevant notes you have
Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in
your essay. Use a technique that suits you.
Step 7: Revise your outline and draft
Read your paper for any content errors. Double check the facts and figures.
Arrange and rearrange ideas to follow your outline.
Reorganize your outline if necessary but always keep the purpose of your
paper and your readers in mind.
Step 8: Type Final Paper
All formal reports or essay should be type written and printed.

Read the research again to be sure that you understand fully what is expected
of you.
Proofread final paper carefully for spelling, punctuation, missing or
duplicated words.


Charity C. Sarsalejo