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Lumad peoples

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Lumad (disambiguation).


A woman in traditional Manobo dress

Total population


Regions with significant populations

Davao Region
Northern Mindanao
Zamboanga Peninsula


Manobo languages, Chabacano (in Zamboanga

Region), Cebuano, Hiligaynon,Filipino, English


Christianity (Roman Catholic, Protestant) andAnimist

Related ethnic groups

Bajau people, Moro, Visayans, Filipinos, otherAustronesian peoples

Demographics of
the Philippines

Philippine Statistics Authority



Ethnic groups

Country of citizenship





Immigrants or Expatriates















Middle Easterners




A map shows the regions with significant populations of Lumads in the Philippines.

The Lumad is a term being used to denote a group ofindigenous people in the
southern Philippines. It is aCebuano term meaning "native" or "indigenous". The term is short
for Katawhang Lumad (Literally: "indigenous people"), the autonym officially adopted by the
delegates of the Lumad Mindanao Peoples Federation (LMPF) founding assembly on 26 June
1986 at the Guadalupe Formation Center, Balindog,Kidapawan, Cotabato, Philippines. It is the
self-ascription and collective identity of the indigenous peoples of Mindanao.
















3Musical heritage

4Social issues

4.1Lumad killings

5See also


7External links

See also: Prehistory of the Philippines
The name Lumad grew out of the political awakening among tribes during the martial law regime
ofPresident [Marcos]]. It was advocated and propagated by the members and affiliates of LumadMindanao, a coalition of all-Lumad local and regional organizations which formalized themselves
as such in June 1986 but started in 1983 as a multi-sectoral organization. Lumad-Mindanaos
main objective was to achieve self-determination for their member-tribes or, put more concretely,
self-governance within their ancestral domain in accordance with their culture and customary
laws. No other Lumad organization had had the express goal in the past.
Representatives from 15 tribes agreed in June 1986 to adopt the name; there were no delegates
from the three major groups of the T'boli, the Teduray. The choice of a Cebuano word was a bit
ironic but they deemed it appropriate as the Lumad tribes do not have any other common
language except Cebuano. This marked the first time that these tribes had agreed to a common
name for themselves, distinct from that of the Moros and different from the migrant majority and
their descendants.

There are 18 Lumad ethnolinguistic groups: Atta, Bagobo, Banwaon, Blaan, Bukidnon,
Dibabawon, Higaonon, Mamanwa, Mandaya, Manguwangan, Manobo, Mansaka, Subanen,
Tagakaolo, Tasaday,Tboli, Teduray, and Ubo.
According to the Lumad Development Center Inc., there are about 18 Lumad groups in 19
provinces across the country. Considered as "vulnerable groups", they live in hinterlands, forests,
lowlands and coastal areas.[1]
Katawhang Lumad are the un-Islamized and un-Christianized Austronesian peoples of
Mindanao, namely Erumanen ne Menuvu`, Matidsalug Manobo, Agusanon Manobo, Dulangan
Manobo, Dabaw Manobo,Ata Manobo, B'laan, Kaulo, Banwaon, Teduray, Lambangian,
Higaunon, Dibabawon, Mangguwangan, Mansaka, Mandaya, K'lagan, T'boli, Mamanuwa,
Talaandig, Tagabawa, and Ubu`, Tinenanen, Kuwemanen, K'lata and Diyangan. There are about
20 general hilltribes of Mindanao, all of which are Austronesian.
The term lumad excludes the Butuanons and Surigaonons, even though these two groups are
also native to Mindanao. This is due to their Visayan ethnicity and lack of close affinity with the
Lumad. This can be confusing, since the word lumad literally means "native" in the Visayan
The Lumad are one of the few surviving human populations that have a genetic relationship with

The B'laan is an indigenous group that is concentrated in Davao del Sur and South Cotabato.
They practice indigenous rituals while adapting to the way of life of modern Filipinos. [2]


The colorful Kaamulan Festivalcelebrated annually in Malaybalay City

The Bukidnon are one of the seven tribes in the Bukidnonplateau of Mindanao. Bukidnon means
'that of the mountains' (i.e., 'people of the mountains'), despite the fact that most Bukidnon tribes

settle in the lowlands. The name Bukidnon is itself used to describe the entire province in a
different context (it means 'mountainous lands' in this case).[3]
The Bukidnon people believe in one god, Magbabaya (Ruler of All), though there are several
minor gods and goddesses that they worship as well. Religious rites are presided by
a baylan whose ordination is voluntary and may come from both sexes. The Bukidnons have rich
musical and oral traditions[4] which are celebrated annually in Malaybalay city'sKaamulan
Festival, with other tribes in Bukidnon (the Manobo tribes, the Higaonon, Matigsalug, Talaandig,
Umayamnom, and the Tigwahanon).[5]

Tagakaulo is one of the tribes in Mindanao. Their traditional territories is in Davao Del Sur and
theSarangani Province particularly in the localities of Malalag, Lais, Talaguton Rivers, Sta. Maria,
and Malita of Davao Occidental, and Malungon of the Sarangani Province.Tagakaulo means
living in mountain. The Tagakaulo tribe originally came from the western shores of the gulf
of Davao and south of Mt. Apo.[6] a long time ago.


A Bagobo (Manobo) woman of theMatigsalug people from Davao

Manobo is the hispanized spelling of Manuvu (is a ethnic group in Mindanao and Luzon and
Visayas Manobo childrenThe Manobo are an Austronesian, indigenous agriculturalist population
who neighbor the Mamanwa group in Surigao del Norte and Surigao del Sur (Garvan, 1931).
They live in barangays like the Mamanwa; however, population size is dramatically larger in the
Manobo settlements in comparison to those of the Mamanwa. [citation needed] The two groups interact
frequently although the amount of interaction varies between settlements and intermarriage is
common between them (Reid, 2009).
The Manobo are probably the most numerous of the ethnic groups of the Philippines in the
relationships and names of the groups that belong to this family of languages. Mention has been
made of the numerous subgroups that comprise the Manobo group. [by whom?] The total Manobo
population is not known, although they occupy core areas from Sarangani island into the
Mindanao mainland in the provinces of Agusan del Sur, Davao provinces, Bukidnon, and North
and South Cotabato. The groups occupy such a wide area of distribution that localized groups
have assumed the character of distinctiveness as a separate ethnic grouping such as the
Bagobo or the Higaonon, and the Atta. Depending on specific linguistic points of view, the
membership of a dialect with a supergroup shifts.[7]

The Manobo are genetically related to the Denisovans, much like the Mamanwa.[8]

Main article: Subanon people
The Subanons are the first settlers of the Zamboanga peninsula. The family is patriarchal while
the village is led by a chief called Timuay. He acts as the village judge and is concerned with all
communal matters.
History has better words to speak for Misamis Occidental. Its principal city was originally
populated by the Subanon, a cultural group that once roamed the seas in great number; the
province was an easy prey to the marauding sea pirates of Lanao whose habit was to stage
lightning forays along the coastal areas in search of slaves. As the Subanon retreated deeper
and deeper into the interior, the coastal areas became home to inhabitants from Bukidnon who
were steadily followed by settlers from nearby Cebu and Bohol.

The Higaonon is located on the provinces of Bukidnon, Agusan del Sur, Misamis
Oriental,Rogongon, Iligan City, and Lanao del Norte. Their name means "people of the
wilderness". Most Higaonons have a rather traditional way of living. Farming is the most
important economic activity.


A 1926 photograph of Bagobo (Manobo) warriors in full war regalia

The Mamanwa is a Negrito tribe often grouped together with the Lumad. They come
from Leyte, Agusan del Norte, andSurigao provinces in Mindanao; primarily
in Kitcharao andSantiago, Agusan del Norte,[9] though they are lesser in number and more
scattered and nomadic than the Manobos and Mandaya tribes who also inhabit the region. Like
all Negritos, the Mamanwas are genetically distinct from the lowlanders and the upland living
Manobos, exhibiting curly hair and much darker skin tones.
These peoples are traditionally hunter-gatherers[10] and consume a wide variety of wild plants,
herbs, insects, and animals from tropical rainforest. The Mamanwa are categorized as having the
"negrito" phenotype with by dark skin, kinky hair, and short stature.[10][11] The origins of this
phenotype (found in the Agta, Ati, and Aeta tribes in the Philippines) are a continued topic of

debate, with recent evidence suggesting that the phenotype convergently evolved in several
areas of southeast Asia.[12]
However, recent genomic evidence suggests that the Mamanwa were one of the first populations
to leave Africa along with peoples in New Guinea and Australia, and that they diverged from a
common origin about 36,000 years ago.[13]
Currently, Mamanwa populations live in sedentary settlements ("barangays") that are close to
agricultural peoples and market centers. As a result, a substantial proportion of their diet includes
starch-dense domesticated foods.[14] The extent to which agricultural products are bought or
exchanged varies in each Mamanwa settlement with some individuals continuing to farm and
produce their own domesticated foods while others rely on purchasing food from market centers.
The Mamanwa have been exposed to many of the modernities mainstream agricultural
populations possess and use such as cell phones, televisions, radio, processed foods, etc. [14]
The political system of the Mamanwa is informally democratic and age-structured. Elders are
respected and are expected to maintain peace and order within the tribe. The chieftain, called
aTambayon, usually takes over the duties of counseling tribal members, speaking at gatherings,
and arbitrating disagreements. The chieftain may be a man or a woman, which is characteristic
of other gender-egalitarian hunter-gatherer societies. [15] They believe in a collection of spirits,
which are governed by the supreme deity Magbabaya, although it appears that their contact with
monotheist communities/populations has made a considerable impact on the Mamanwa's
religious practices. They are often taught (by Christian and Catholic rural Pilipinos) that their
animistic beliefs are savage.[citation needed] The tribe produce excellent winnowing baskets, rattan
hammocks, and other household containers.
Mamanwa (also spelled Mamanoa) means 'first forest dwellers', from the words man (first)
andbanwa (forest).[16] They speak the Mamanwa language (or Minamanwa).[17] They are
genetically related to the Denisovans.[8]

"Mandaya" derives from "man" meaning "first," and "daya" meaning "upstream" or "upper portion
of a river," and therefore means "the first people upstream". It refers to a number of groups found
along the mountain ranges of Davao Oriental, as well as to their customs, language, and beliefs.
The Mandaya are also found in Compostela and New Bataan in Compostela Valley (formerly a
part of Davao del Norte Province).

The term "Mansaka" derives from "mang" with literal meaning "to" and "saka" meaning "climb,"
and means "to climb or to ascend mountains/upstream." The term most likely describes the origin
of these people who are found today in Davao del Norte and Davao del Sur. Specifically in the
Batoto River, the Manat Valley, Caragan, Maragusan, the Hijo River Valley, and the seacoasts of
Kingking, Maco, Kwambog, Hijo, Tagum, Libuganon, Tuganay, Ising, and Panabo. [18]

The Sangir or Sangil is located in the islands of Balut, Sarangani, and the coastal areas of South
Cotabato and Davao del Sur. Their name comes from Sangihe, an archipelago located
betweenSulawesi and Mindanao. This was their original home, but they migrated northwards.

Tagabawa is the language used by the Bagobo-Tagabawa. They are the indigenous tribe in
Mindanao. They live in the surrounding areas of Mt. Apo.[19]

Main article: Tasaday
The Tasaday is a group of about two dozen people living within the deep and mountainous
rainforests of Mindanao, who attracted wide media attention in 1971 when they were first
"discovered" by western scientists who reported that they were living at a "stone age" level of

technology and had been completely isolated from the rest of Philippine society. They later
attracted attention in the 1980s when it was reported that their discovery had in fact been an
elaborate hoax, and doubt was raised both about their status as isolated from other societies and
even about the reality of their existence as a separate ethnic group. The question of whether
Tasaday studies published in the seventies are accurate is still being discussed. [20][21]

Main article: Tboli
The Tbolis are one of the indigenous peoples of South Mindanao. From the body of ethnographic
and linguistic literature on Mindanao, they are variously known as Toboli, T'boli, Tbli, Tiboli,
Tibole, Tagabili, Tagabeli, and Tagabulu. They term themselves Tboli or T'boli. Their whereabouts
and identity are to some extent confused in the literature; some publications present the Toboli
and the Tagabili as distinct peoples; some locate the Tbolis to the vicinity of the Buluan Lake in
the Cotabato Basin or in Agusan del Norte. The Tbolis, then, reside on the mountain slopes on
either side of the upper Alah Valley and the coastal area of Maitum, Maasim and Kiamba. In
former times, the Tbolis also inhabited the upper Alah Valley floor.

Musical heritage[edit]
Main articles: Music of the Philippines and Agung
Most of the Mindanao Lumad groups have a musical heritage consisting of various types
of Agung ensembles ensembles composed of large hanging, suspended or held,
bossed/knobbed gongswhich act as drone without any accompanying melodic instrument. [22]

Social issues[edit]

Norma Capuyan, vice chair of Apo Sandawa Lumadnong Panaghiusa sa Cotabato (ASLPC) speaking out
in a press conference to defend the ancestral domains of the Lumad.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the Lumads controlled an area which now covers 17 of
Mindanaos 24 provinces, but by the 1980 census, they constituted less than 6% of the
population of Mindanao and Sulu. Significant migration to Mindanao of Visayans, spurred by
government-sponsored resettlement programmes, turned the Lumads into minorities. The
Bukidnon province population grew from 63,470 in 1948 to 194,368 in 1960 and 414,762 in
1970, with the proportion of indigenous Bukidnons falling from 64% to 33% to 14%.
Lumads have a traditional concept of land ownership based on what their communities consider
their ancestral territories. The historian B. R. Rodil notes that a territory occupied by a
community is a communal private property, and community members have the right of usufruct to
any piece of unoccupied land within the communal territory. Ancestral lands include cultivated
land as well as hunting grounds, rivers, forests, uncultivated land and the mineral resources
below the land.
Unlike the Moros, the Lumad groups never formed a revolutionary group to unite them in armed
struggle against the Philippine government. When the migrants came, many Lumad groups
retreated into the mountains and forests. However, the Moro armed groups and the Communist-

ledNew Peoples Army (NPA) have recruited Lumads to their ranks, and the armed forces have
also recruited them into paramilitary organisations to fight the Moros or the NPA.[citation needed]
For the Lumad, securing their rights to ancestral domain is as urgent as the Moros quest for selfdetermination. However, much of their land has already been registered in the name of
multinational corporations, logging companies and other wealthy Filipinos, many of whom are,
relatively speaking, recent settlers to Mindanao. Mai Tuan, a T'boli leader explains, "Now that
there is a peace agreement for the MNLF, we are happy because we are given food assistance
like rice we also feel sad because we no longer have the pots to cook it with. We no longer
have control over our ancestral lands."[23]

Lumad killings[edit]
The Lumads are people from various ethnic groups in Mindanao island. Residing in their
ancestral lands,[24] they are often evicted and displaced due to the Moro people's claim on the
same territory.[25] The Lumads have lost parts of their ancestral land due to a failure to understand
the modern land tenure system.[26] To counter this, the Lumads established schools in their
communities, supplying essential knowledge for the tribe members that would protect their rights,
property and culture.[27] However, the Lumad communities are located in mountains that are
distant from urban areas. These areas are also the location sites of armed conflict between
the New People's Army (NPA) and the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). Caught in the
conflict, the Lumad people's education, property, and security are endangered because of the
increasing amount of military activity by the armed parties.[26] Increasing military activity have
eventually led to the displacement of the communities to shelter sites. [28] Anxiety continues to
grow among the Lumads with the escalation of armed conflict and detainment of community
leaders (tribe leaders and teachers) labelled as rebels by the military.[29] Alternative schools within
the communities (aided by NGOs and universities) face concerns of closing down or demolition
of their property, with some buildings converted by the military for their use. [30] Lumad leaders and
tribesmen, having experienced political detention due to false suspicions as well as the
displacement of their tribes from their areas, have demanded respect for their human rights. [31]
In response to the killing, detention, and displacement of members of their tribes, the Lumads
have organized groups to gain the public's attention, calling for the halt of militarization in their
communities. Students, religious leaders, and human rights advocates have supported the
Lumads in their movement against the militarization. Activities held to support the Lumad
movements have included concerts, cultural festivals (focusing on ethnic culture), and
commemoration of Lumad leaders killed in the conflict. Activity leaders have included Fr. Fausto
Tentorio, Fr. Tullio Favali, and Fr. Salvatore Carzedda.[32] Groups like the Manilakbayan
2015 supported the movements through recruitment and the handing out of national situationers
to students to spread awareness about the Lumads' dilemma. [33] The Philippines' Commission on
Human Rights (CHR) has been investigating the incidents in regard to the 2015 murder of
Lumad leaders and a school official by aparamilitary group called Magahat/Bagani[34] (in line with
the idea of CAFGU) created by the AFP to hunt for NPA members. The AFP denies the allegation
and attributes the killings to tribal conflict.[35]However, the AFP has admitted that CAFGU has
Lumad recruits within its ranks while asserting that the NPA has also recruited Lumads for the
group.[36][37] There is also delay of a decision on the CHR investigation due to the noncooperation
of the Lumad group after the interruption of the investigation by the spokesman of Kalumaran
Mindanao, Kerlan Fanagel. Fanagel insists that the group need not have another 'false' dialogue
with the CHR since CHR has yet to present the results/findings of the investigations from the
past months when Lumad leaders were killed. Because of the lack of data, CHR decided to
postpone the presentation of their initial report to the second week of December 2015. [38]