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1905

Partition of Bengal announced to come in force from Oct 15 1906.


The decision on the Partition of Bengal was announced on 19 July 1905 by then Viceroy of India,
Lord Curzon. The partition took effect on 16 October 1905. Due to the high level of political unrest
generated by the partition, the eastern and western parts of Bengal were reunited because of Hindu
pressure
in
1911.
1906 DEC 31
Muslim League founded at Dacca.
Bengal Presidency, in 1906, was a political party in British India that played a decisive role during
1940s in the Indian independence movement and developed into the driving force behind the creation
of Pakistan as a Muslim state on the Indian subcontinent.
After the independence
of India and Pakistan, the League continued as a minor party in India, especially in Kerala, where it
is often in government within a coalition with others.
1908 July 22
Tilak sentenced to six years jail on charges of sedition.
He was arrested on May 25, 1908, convicted by jury trial on July 22, 1908, and sentenced to six years'
imprisonment in the case - popularly known as 'Second Sedition Case'.
1908 August, 11
Khudiram Bose executed.
He joined Jugantar /Yungatar - the party of revolutionary activists.
Khudiram and Prafulla Chaki were sent to Muzaffarpur, Bihar to assassinate Kingsford, the Calcutta
Presidency Magistrate, and later, magistrate of Muzaffarpur, Bihar. Khudiram and Prafulla watched
the usual movements of Kingsford and prepared a plan to kill him. On the evening of April 30, 1908,
the duo waited in front of the gate of the European Club for the carriage of Kingsford to come. When
a vehicle came out of the gate, they threw bombs and blew up the carriage. However, the vehicle was
not carrying Kingsford and instead two British ladies - Mrs and Miss Kennedy (the wife and daughter
of barrister Pringle Kennedy) were killed.Prafulla committed suicide. Khudiram was sentenced to
death

1909 May 21
Minto Morley reforms Of Indian Council Act 1909
Indian Councils Act of 1909, commonly known as the Morley-Minto Reforms, began when John
Morley, the Liberal Secretary of State for India, and the Conservative Governor-General of
India, The Earl of Minto, believed that cracking down on terrorism in Bengalwas necessary but not
sufficient for restoring stability to the British Raj after Lord Curzon's partitioning of Bengal.
The Act of 1909 was important for the following reasons:

It effectively allowed the election of Indians to the various legislative councils in India for the
first time. Previously some Indians had been appointed to legislative councils. The majorities of the
councils remained British government appointments. Moreover the electorate was limited to specific
classes of Indian nationals;

The introduction of the electoral principle laid the groundwork for a parliamentary system even
though this was contrary to the intent of Morley. As stated by Burke and Quraishi -


Muslims had expressed serious concern that a first past the post British type of electoral system
would leave them permanently subject to Hindu majority rule. The Act of 1909 stipulated, as
demanded by the Muslim leadership

that Indian Muslims be allotted reserved seats in the Municipal and District Boards, in the
Provincial Councils and in the Imperial Legislature;

that the number of reserved seats be in excess of their relative population (25 percent of the
Indian population); and,

that only Muslims should vote for candidates for the Muslim seats (' separate electorates').

1911
The coronation or Delhi Durbar held at which the Partition of Bengal was cancelled.
1912
Delhi becomes the new capital of India.
1912 Dec 23
Bomb thrown on Lord Hardinge on his state entry in India.
1913 Nov 1
Ghadar Party formed at San franscisco.
The Ghadar Party was an organization founded by Indians of the United States and Canada in June,
1913 with the aim to liberateIndia from British rule. It was also known as the Hindi Association of the
Pacific Coast.
The first issue of the Ghadar, their paper was published from University of California in Berkeley in
November 1, 1913, in its Har Dayal wrote: "Today there begins in foreign lands, but in our country's
tongue, a war against the British Raj... What is our name? Revolution. What is our work? Revolution.
Where will be the revolution? In India. The time will soon come when rifles and blood will take the
place of pens and ink."
Ghadar Party
Founded :1913
Dissolved :1919
Preceded by :Pacific Coast Hindustan Association
Ideology : Revolutionary Socialism Indian
Nationalism
Official colours :Red, Saffron and Green

1914 June 16
B G Tilak Released from Jail.
Tilak was released on June 8, 1914. After his release, Bal Gangadhar Tilak tried to bring the two
factions of Congress together. But his efforts did not bear much fruit. In 1916, Tilak decided to build a
separate organization called the 'Home Rule League'. Its goal was swaraj. Tilak went from village to

village, and explained the aim of his league to the farmers and won their hearts. He traveled
constantly in order to organize the people. While fighting for peoples cause Bal Gangadhar Tilak
died
on
August
1,
1920.
1914 Aug 4
Out Break of the First World War.
Outbreak of the First World War
World War I broke out by accident. No European government
wanted a general war, but most of the European powers preferred to fight rather than back down in the
face of diplomatic provocation from their rivals.
The spark which provided the excuse to set the armies marching was the assassination of the heir to the
Austrian throne in the summer of 1914. Austria immediately accused Serbia of instigating the murderers
and issued an ultimatum, whereupon Russia declared her support of Serbia. Once the Russians ordered
general mobilization (and they 'had to' because they needed more time to move their forces to the
frontiers then their enemies) Austrian,French, and German mobilization orders followed in quick
succession, each triggered by the other.
Mobilization plans quickly changed into war plans, because to halt part way through the deployment of
military forces would simply create chaos; and chaos invited enemy attack - exactly what mobilization
was supposed to prevent ! Civilian leadership was displaced by military leadership, and rival armies
plunged across European frontiers 'according to plan'
Germany and Austria struck at France and Russia and Serbia; the German armies marching through
Belgium, Britain immediately came into war on the side of Belgium, bringing in Japan, as her ally, and
very soon Turkey followed on the German and Austrian side.
Germany's aim was to encircle Paris and defeat France within the first few weeks of the war, in order to
concentrate later against Russia on the East. There was a tremendous rush of the Germans upon Paris
and an invasion of East Prussia by the Russians. Both attacks were held and turned.
Then the power of the defensive developed; there was a rapid elaboration of trench warfare until the
opposing armies lay entrenched in long lines across Europe, unable to make any advances without
enormous losses. It became apparent that the progress of modern technical science had changed the
nature of warfare, a change that the most carefully advanced war plans did not anticipate. No one had
expected four years of stalemate and the brutal butchering of industrial war.

1914 Sep 29
Komagatu ship reaches Budge Budge
Place of birth: Kothluk, Ratnagiri Dist., Maharastra, India
Place of death: Bombay, India
Movement: Indian Independence movement
Major organizations: Indian National Congress, Deccan Education Society
Rivalry between Gokhale and Tilak : T Tilak was an advocate of civil agitation and direct revolution to
overthrow the British Empire, whereas Gokhale was a moderate reformist. As a result, the Congress
Party split into two wings and was largely robbed of its effectiveness for a decade. The two sides would

later patch up in 1916 after Gokhale died. Tilak was an advocate of civil agitation and direct revolution
to overthrow the British Empire, whereas Gokhale was a As a result, the Congress Party split into two
wings and was largely robbed of its effectiveness for a decade. The two sides would later patch up in
1916 after Gokhale died.ilak was an advocate of civil agitation and direct revolution to overthrow the
British Empire, whereas Gokhale was a moderate As a result, the Congress Party split into two wings
and was largely robbed of its effectiveness for a decade. The two sides would later patch up in 1916
after Gokhale died.al Gangadhar Tilak
Rivalry Tilak
On May 23, 1914, 376 British Subjects (12 Hindus, 24 Muslims and 340 Sikhs) of Indian origin arrived
in Vancouver harbor aboard the Komagata Maru, seeking to enter Canada. 352 of the passengers were
denied entry and forced to depart on July 23, 1914.
In 1914 the Komagata Maru was an outright challenge to these exclusionist laws. The Komagata
Maru was a Japanese steamliner chartered by an affluent businessman, Gurdit Singh, to bring Indian
immigrants
to
Canada.
1915 Jan
Gandhi arrives in Delhi.
In 1915 Gandhi returned from south Africa after having won a partial victory against General Smuts
Regime there & set up an ashram at Ahmadabad on the banks of the Sabarmati to teach Indians the
ideals & methods of Satyagraha.
1915 Feb 19
Death of Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
Gokhale continued to be politically active through the last years of his life. This included extensive
travelling abroad: in addition to his 1908 trip to England, he also visited South Africa in 1912, where
his protg Gandhi was working to improve conditions for the Indian minority living there.
Meanwhile, he continued to be involved in the Servants of India Society, the Congress, and the
Legislative Council while constantly advocating the advancement of Indian education. All these
stresses took their toll, however, and Gokhale died in Feb 19 1915 at forty-nine years of age.
1916 April 28
Tilak found the Home Rule League with its HQ at Poona.
The Indian political scene was overshadowed those days by two important persons Bal Gangadhar
Tilak and Annie Besant. They had set up Home Rule Leagues, Tilaks in Maharashtra and Besants in
other parts of the country. Both the leagues had the same president, Dadabhai Naoroji.
Some of the leaders of the Congress like Surendranath Banerji thought that the growth of the Home
Rule Movement would eat into the prospects of the Congress. But the Movement caught on and Annie
Besant was invited to preside over the Congress session inCalcutta in 1916.

1917 April
Gandhi Launches the Champaran Campaign in Bihar to focus attention on the grievances of indigo
planters.
In Champaran, a district in state of Bihar, tens of thousands of landless serfs, indentured laborers and
poor farmers were forcedto grow indigo and other cash crops instead of the food crops necessary for
their survival. These goods were bought from them at a very low price

Building on the confidence of villagers, he began leading the clean-up of villages, building of schools
and hospitals and encouraging the village leadership to undo purdah, untouchability and the
suppression of women. He was joined by many young nationalists from all over India, including
Dr. Sri Krishna Sinha, Ramarshi Deo Trivedi "Rishi Ji", Brajkishore Prasad, Dr. Rajendra Prasad,
Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha and Jawaharlal Nehru.

(Dr. Rajendra Prasad(Sitting left) &


Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha (sitting right)
during 1917 Champaran
Satyagraha movement)
But his main assault came as he was arrested by police on the charge of creating unrest and was
ordered to leave the province. Hundreds of thousands of people protested and rallied outside the jail,
police stations and courts demanding his release, which the court unwillingly did. Gandhi led
organized protests and strike against the landlords, who with the guidance of the British government,
signed an agreement granting more compensation and control over farming for the poor farmers of
the region, and cancellation of revenue hikes and collection until the famine ended. It was during this
agitation, that Gandhi was addressed by the people as Bapu (Father) and Mahatma (Great Soul).

1917 Aug 20
The Secretary of State for India, Montagu, declares that the goal of British Govt in India is the
introduction of Responsible Govt.
In late 1917, Montagu went to India to meet up with Lord Chelmsford, the Viceroy of India, to meet
with leaders of Indian community such as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and Muhammed Ali
Jinnah to discuss the introduction of limited self-government to India and protecting the rights of
minority communities such as Muslims and Sikhs.
The changes at the provincial level were significant, as the provincial legislative councils contained a
considerable majority of elected members. In a system called "dyarchy," the nation-building
departments of government agriculture, education, public works, and the like were placed
under ministers who were individually responsible to the legislature. The departments that made up
the "steel frame" of British rule finance, revenue, and home affairs were retained by executive
councilors who were nominated by the Governor. They were often, but not always, British and who
were
responsible
to
the
governor.
1918
Beginning of Trade Union Movement in India.
1918 April
Rowlatt Committee Submits its Report. Rowlatt Bill introduces in Feb 1919.
The Rowlatt Act was a law passed by the British in colonial India in March 1919, indefinitely
extending "emergency measures" (of the Defence of India Regulations Act) enacted during the First
World War in order to control public unrest and root out conspiracy. Passed on the recommendations
of the Rowlatt commission, named for its chairman, British judge Sir Sidney Rowlatt, this act effectively
authorized the government to imprison, without trial, any person suspected of terrorism living in the Raj.
The Rowlatt Acts gave British imperial authorities power to deal with revolutionary activities.

Mahatma Gandhi, among other Indian leaders, was extremely critical of the Act and argued that not
everyone should be punished in response to isolated political crimes. The Act led to indignation from
Indian leaders and the public, which caused the government to implement repressive measures.
Gandhi and others found that constitutional opposition to the measure was fruitless, so on April 6, a
"hartal" was organized where Indians would suspend all business and fast as a sign of their hatred
for the legislation. This event is known as the Rowlatt Satyagraha.
1919 April 6
All India Hartal over Rowlatt Bill.
On April 6, a "hartal" was organized where Indians would suspend all business and fast as a sign of
their hatred for the legislation. This event is known as the Rowlatt Satyagraha.
However, the success of the hartal in Delhi, on 30 March, was overshadowed by tensions running
high, which resulted in rioting in the Punjab and other provinces. Deciding that Indians were not ready
to make a stand in consistence with the principle of Ahimsa (non-violence), an integral part of
Satyagraha, Gandhi suspended the resistance.
The Rowlatt Act came into effect in March 1919. In the Punjab the protest movement was very
strong, and on April 10, two outstanding leaders of the congress Dr. Satya Pal and Dr. Saifuddin
Kitchlew, were arrested and taken to an unknown place.
A protest was held in Amritsar, which led to the Massacre of 1919.

1919 April 13
Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy.

On April 13, 1919, thousands of people gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh (garden) near the Golden
Temple in Amritsar, on Baisakhi,
An hour after the meeting began as scheduled at 4:30pm, Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer marched a
group of sixty-five Gurkha and twenty-five Baluchi soldiers into the Bagh, fifty of whom were armed
with rifles. Dyer had also brought two armored cars armed with machine guns, however the vehicles
were stationed outside the main gate as they were unable to enter the Bagh through the narrow
entrance.
The Jallianwala Bagh was bounded on all sides by houses and buildings and had few narrow
entrances, most of which were kept permanently locked. The main entrance was relatively wider, but
was guarded by the troops backed by the armored vehicles. General Dyer ordered troops to open fire
without warning or any order to disperse, and to direct fire towards the densest sections of the crowd.
He continued the firing, approximately 1,650 rounds in all, until ammunition was almost exhausted.
Apart from the many deaths directly from the firing, a number of deaths were caused by stampedes at
the narrow gates as also people who sought shelter from the firing by jumping into the solitary well
inside the compound. A plaque in the monument at the site, set up after independence, says that 120
bodies were plucked out of the well.
Dyer was called to appear before the Hunter Commission, a commission of inquiry into the massacre
that was ordered to convene by Secretary of State for India Edwin Montagu, in late 1919. Dyer

admitted before the commission that he came to know about the meeting at the Jallianwala Bagh at
12:40 hours that day but took no steps to prevent it. He stated that he had gone to the Bagh with the
deliberate intention of opening fire if he found a crowd assembled there.
1919 Dec 5
The House of Commons Passed the Montagu Chelmsford Reform or the Govt of India Act, 1919. The
new reforms under this act came in peration in 1921.
The Government of India Act 1919 (9 & 10 Geo. V c. 101) was an Act of the Parliament of the United
Kingdom. It was passed to expand participation of the natives in the government of India. The Act
embodied the reforms recommended in the report of the Secretary of State for India, Sir Edwin
Montagu, and the Viceroy, Lord Chelmsford. The Act covered ten years, from 1919 to 1929. This
retraction of British imperialism was a result of India's enthusiastic participation in World War I.
The Act provided a dual form of government (a "dyarchy") for the major provinces. In each such
province, control of some areas of government, the "transferred list", were given to
a Government of ministers answerable to the Provincial Council. The 'transferred list' included
Agriculture, Health and Education. The Provincial Councils were enlarged.
At the same time, all other areas of government (the 'reserved list') remained under the control of the
Viceroy. The 'reserved list' included Defence (the military), Foreign Affairs, and Communications.
The Imperial Legislative Council was enlarged and reformed. It became a bicameral legislature for all
India. The lower house was the Legislative Assembly of 144 members, of which 104 were elected and
40 were nominated and tenure of Three years. The upper house was the Council of States consisting of
34 elected and 26 nominated members and tenure of five years. This structure allowed Britain to use
the Princely States (who were directly represented in the Council of States) to offset the growing
power of the native political parties.
The Indian National Congress was unhappy at these reforms and termed them as 'disappointing.' A
special session was held inMumbai under Hasan Imam and the reforms were condemned. However,
leaders such as Surendranath Banerji wereinclined to accept the reforms, so they left the Congress and
formed the Indian Liberal Federation, which played a minor role in subsequent affairs.
1920
First Meeting of the All India Trade Union Congress.(Narain Malhar Joshi)
1920 Dec
The INC adopts the Non Cooperation Resolution (Started in Aug 31 1920)
The first Non cooperation movement
The first Satyagraha movement urged the use of Khadi and Indian material as alternatives to those
shipped from Britain. It also urged people to boycott British educational institutions and law courts;
resign from government employment; refuse to pay taxes; and forsake British titles and honours.
Although this came too late to influence the framing of the new Government of India Act of 1919, the
movement enjoyed widespread popular support, and the resulting unparalleled magnitude of disorder
presented a serious challenge to foreign rule. In 1920, the Congress was reorganized and given a new
constitution, whose goal was Swaraj (independence). Membership in the party was opened to anyone
prepared to pay a token fee, and a hierarchy of committees was established and made responsible for

discipline and control over a hitherto amorphous and diffuse movement. The party was transformed
from an elite organization to one of mass national appeal and participation.
Gandhi was sentenced in 1922 to six years of prison, but was released after serving two. On his release
from prison, he set up theSabarmati Ashram in Ahmadabad, on the banks of river Sabarmati,
established the newspaper Young India, and inaugurated a series of reforms aimed at the socially
disadvantaged within Hindu society the rural poor, and the untouchables.
This era saw the emergence of new generation of Indians from within the Congress Party,
including C. Rajagopalachari, Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel, Subhash Chandra Bose and
others- who would later on come to form the prominent voices of the Indian independence movement,
whether keeping with Gandhian Values, or diverging from it.
The Indian political spectrum was further broadened in the mid-1920s by the emergence of both
moderate and militant parties, such as the Swaraj Party, Hindu Mahasabha, Communist Party of
India and the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. Regional political organizations also continued to
represent the interests of non-Brahmins in Madras, Mahars in Maharashtra, and Sikhs in Punjab.
However, people like Mahakavi Subramanya Bharathi, Vanchinathan and Neelakanda Brahmachari
played a major role from Tamil Nadu in both freedom struggle and fighting for equality for all castes
and communities.
1920-22
The Non cooperation Movement suspended on Feb 11 12, after the violent incidents at Chauri Chaura
on Feb 5 1922.
However, Gandhi called off the movement following the Chauri Chaura incident, which saw the death
of twenty-two policemen at the hands of an angry mob.
1922 Aug
Moplah rebellion on the Malabar Coast.
During the 19th and early 20th centuries, Mappilas were known for active armed attacks against
the British, including the 1921Moplah rebellion where many Mappilas lost their lives, and many were
taken as prisoners mostly to Port Blair. In the same Moplah rebellion, Mappilas murdered, raped,
and forcibly converted thousands of Hindus. Mohommed Haji was proclaimed the Caliph of the
Moplah Khalifat (Caliphate) and flags of Islamic Caliphate were flown. Ernad and Valluvanad were
declared
Khalifat
kingdoms.
1923 Jan 1
Swarajist Party formed by Motilal Nehru and others.
1924
The Communist Party of India starts its activities first at Kanpur.
1925 Aug
Kakori Train Conspiracy
On August 9, 1925, the Number 8 Down Train travelling from Shahjahanpur to Lucknow was
approaching the town of Kakori (now inUttar Pradesh), when one of the revolutionaries pulled the
chain to stop the train and overpowered the guard. It is believed that they looted money-bags
belonging to the British Government Treasury from the guard's van and escaped to Lucknow while
not a single Indian was looted. Following the incident, the police started an intense manhunt and
arrested several of the revolutionaries involved. Bismil was arrested on September 26, 1925 and

Ashfaqullah
was
arrested
ten
months
later.
1927 Nov 8
The British PM announces the appointment of the Simon Commission to suggest future constitutional
reforms in India. Simon Commission arrives in Bombay on Feb 3 1928 and all India Hartal.Lala
Lajpat Rai assaulted by police at Lahore.
The Indian Statutory Commission was a group of seven British Members of Parliament that had been
dispatched to India in 1927 to study constitutional reform in that colony. It was commonly referred to
as the Simon Commission after its chairman, Sir John Simon. One of its members was Clement Attlee,
who subsequently became the British Prime Minister who would oversee the granting of
independence to India and Pakistan in 1947.
Almost immediately with its arrival in Bombay on February 3, 1928, the Simon Commission was
confronted by throngs of protestors. The entire country observed a hartal (strike), and many people
turned out to greet the Commission with black flags. Similar protests occurred in every major Indian
city that the seven British MPs visited. However, one protest against the Simon Commission would
gain infamy above all the others.
On October 30, 1928, the Simon Commission arrived in Lahore where, as with the rest of the country,
its arrival was met with massive amounts of protestors. The Lahore protest was led by Indian
nationalist Lala Lajpat Rai, who had moved a resolution against the Commission in the Legislative
Assembly of Punjab in February 1928. In order to make way for the Commission, the local police
force began beating protestors with their lathis (sticks). The police were particularly brutal towards
Lala Lajpat Rai, who later that day declared, "The blows which fell on me today are the last nails in
the coffin of British imperialism." On November 17, Lajpat Rai died of his injuries on his head.

1928
Nehru Report Recommends principles for the new constitution of India. All Parties Conference
considers the Nehru Report Aug 28
Following the rejection of the recommendations of the Simon Commission by Indians, an all-party
conference was held at Bombay in May 1928. This was meant to instill a sense of resistance among
people. The conference appointed a drafting committee underMotilal Nehru to draw up a constitution
for India. The Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress asked the British government to
accord dominion status to India by December 1929, or a countrywide civil disobedience movement
would be launched. By 1929, however, in the midst of rising political discontent and increasingly
violent regional movements, the call for complete independence from Britain began to find increasing
grounds within the Congress leadership. Under the presidency ofJawaharlal Nehru at its
historic Lahore session in December 1929, The Indian National Congress adopted a resolution calling
for complete independence from the British. It authorised the Working Committee to launch a civil
disobedience movement throughout the country. It was decided that 26 January 1930 should be
observed all over India as the Purna Swaraj (total independence) Day. Many Indian political parties
and Indian revolutionaries of a wide spectrum united to observe the day with honour and pride.
1928 Nov. 17
Death of Lala Lajpat Rai.
On November 17, 1928, he succumbed to the injuries and left for his holy abode by not leaving the
freedom struggle in between but passing over the baton the younger generation. The vengeance of his
death was taken by Bhagat Singh and his associates.

1929
Sarda Act Passed prohibiting marriage of girls below 14 and boys below 18 of age with effect from 1930.
Child Marriage Restraint Act 1929 popularly known as the Sarda Act after its sponsor Rai
Sahib Harbilas Sarda to the British India Legislature in India was passed on 28 September 1929 fixed
the age of marriage for girls at 14 years. It was a result of social reform movement in India. The
legislation was passed by the British Indian Government.

1929 Mar 9
All Parties Muslim Conference formulates the Forteen points under the leadership Of Jinnah.
The Fourteen Points of Jinnah was proposed by Muhammad Ali Jinnah as a constitutional reform
plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in a self-governing India. The report was given in a
meeting of the council of the All India Muslim League on March 28, 1929.
The Fourteen Points
1.
The form of the future constitution should be federal with the residuary powers vested in
the provinces.
2.
A uniform measure of autonomy shall be granted to all provinces.
3.
All legislatures in the country and other elected bodies shall be constituted on the definite
principle of adequate and effectiverepresentation of minorities in every province without reducing the
majority in any province to a minority or even equality.
4.
In the Central Legislature, Muslim representation shall not be less than one third.
5.
Representation of communal groups shall continue to be by means of separate electorate as at
present, provided it shall be open to any community at any time to abandon its separate electorate in
favor of a joint electorate.
6.
Any territorial distribution that might at any time be necessary shall not in any way affect the
Muslim majority in the Punjab,Bengal and the North West Frontier Province.
7.
Full religious liberty, i.e. liberty of belief, worship and observance, propaganda, association
and education, shall be guaranteed to all communities.
8.
No bill or any resolution or any part thereof shall be passed in any legislature or any other
elected body if three-fourth of the members of any community in that particular body oppose such a
bill resolution or part thereof on the ground that it would be injurious to the interests of that
community or in the alternative, such other method is devised as may be found feasible and
practicable to deal with such cases.
9.
Sindh should be separated from the Bombay Presidency.
10.
Reforms should be introduced in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP)
and Baluchistan on the same footing as in the other provinces.
11.
Provision should be made in the constitution giving Muslims an adequate share, along with the
other Indians, in all the services of the state and in local self-governing bodies having due regard to
the requirements of efficiency.
12.
The constitution should embody adequate safeguards for the protection of Muslim culture and
for the protection and promotion of Muslim education, language, religion, personal laws and Muslim
charitable institution and for their due share in the grants-in-aid given by the state and by local selfgoverning bodies.

13.
No cabinet, either central or provincial, should be formed without there being a proportion of
at least one-third Muslim ministers.
14.
No change shall be made in the constitution by the Central Legislature except with the
concurrence of the State's contribution of the Indian Federation.
1929 April 8
Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt drops bombs on Central Legislative Assembly.
Hindustan Socialist Republican Association was formed under the leadership of Chandrasekhar
Azad. Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb inside the Central Legislative Assembly on
8 April 1929 protesting against the passage of the Public Safety Bill and the Trade Disputes Bill.
Following the trial (Central Assembly Bomb Case), Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were hanged
in 1931. Allama Mashriqi founded Khaksar Tehreek in order to direct particularly the Muslims
towards the independence movement.
1929 Oct 31
Lord Irwin's Announcement that goal of British policy in India was the grant of Dominion status.
GandhiIrwin Pact refers to a political agreement signed by Mahatma Gandhi and the then Viceroy
of India, Lord Irwin on 5th March1931. Before this, the viceroy Lord Irwin announced in October
1929,a vague offer of 'dominion status' for India in an unspecified future and a Round Table
Conference to discuss a future constitution. It was signed after meetings between Gandhi and the
Viceroy that spanned over a three week time period. Many Indian citizens were originally unsatisfied
with the conditions of this truce. The agreement spelled out certain specific action points, to be
initiated by the colonial Government of India as well as the Indian National Congress. Important
action points of the Pact included:

Discontinuation of the civil disobedience movement by the Indian National Congress

Participation by the Indian National Congress in the Round Table Conference

Withdrawal of all ordinances issued by the British Government imposing curbs on the activities
of the Indian National Congress

Withdrawal of all prosecutions relating to several types of offenses except those involving
violence

Release of prisoners arrested for participating in the civil disobedience movement

The removal of the tax on salt, which allowed the Indians to produce, trade, and sell salt legally
and for their own private use.
1929 Dec 31
the Lahore session of INC adopts the goal of complete independece-poorna Swaraj for India.
The flag of India had been hoisted by Congress President Jawaharlal Nehru on December 31, 1929,
on the banks of the Ravi River in Lahore. The Congress asked the people of India to observe January
26 as Independence Day. The flag of India was hoisted publicly across India by Congress volunteers,
nationalists and the public.
The Purna Swaraj declaration or Declaration of the Independence of India was promulgated by the Indian
National Congress on January 26, 1930, resolving the Congress and Indian nationalists to fight
for Purna Swaraj, or complete self-rule independent of the British Empire. (Literally in Sanskrit, purna,
"complete," swa, "self," raj, "rule," thus "complete self-rule")

1930 Feb 14
The working committee of the INC meets at Sabarmati and passes the civil Disobedience resolution.
In April 1930 there were violent police-crowd clashes in Calcutta. Approximately 100,000 people were
imprisoned in the course of the Civil disobedience movement (193031), while in Peshawar unarmed
demonstrators were fired upon in the Qissa Khwani bazaar massacre. The latter event catapulted the
then newly formed Khudai Khidmatgar movement (founder Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, the Frontier
Gandhi) onto the National scene. While Gandhi was in jail, the first Round Table Conference was held
in London in November 1930, without representation from the Indian National Congress. The ban
upon the Congress was removed because of economic hardships caused by the Satyagraha. Gandhi,
along with other members of the Congress Working Committee, was released from prison in January
1931.
1930 March 12
Gandhi Launches the Civil Disobedience movement with his epic Dandi March (March 12 to April 5),
First phase of the C D Movement March 12 1930 to March 5 1931.
Gandhi emerged from his long seclusion by undertaking his most famous campaign, a march of about
400 kilometers from his commune in Ahmadabad to Dandi, on the coast of Gujarat between 12 March
and 6 April 1930. The march is usually known as the Dandi March or the Salt Satyagraha. At Dandi,
in protest against British taxes on salt, he and thousands of followers broke the law by making their
own salt from seawater.
1930 Nov 30
First round table conference begins in London to consider the report of Simon.
The Round Table Conference was opened officially by King George V on November 12, 1930 and
chaired by the British Prime Minister, Ramsay MacDonald. The three British political parties were
represented by sixteen delegates. There were fifty-seven political leaders from British India and
sixteen delegates from the princely states. However, the Indian National Congress, along with Indian
business leaders, kept away from the conference. Many of them were in jail for their participation in
civil disobedience.
Participants

Muslim League: Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Shafi, the Aga Khan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah,
Muhammad Zafrulla Khan, A.K. Fazlul Huq

Hindu Mahasabha: B. S. Moonje and M.R. Jayakar

Liberals: Tej Bahadur Sapru, C. Y. Chintamani and Srinivasa Sastri

Sikh: Sardar Ujjal Singh

Depressed Classes: B. R. Ambedkar

Princely states: Akbar Hydari (Dewan of Hyderabad), Mirza Ismail (Diwan of Mysore), Kailas
Narain Haksar of Gwalior, Maharaja Bhupinder Singh of Patiala, Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad
III of Baroda, Maharaja Hari Singh of Jammu and Kashmir, Maharaja Ganga Singh of Bikaner,
Nawab Hamidullah Khan of Bhopal, K.S. Ranjitsinhji of Nawanagar, Maharaja Jai Singh
Prabhakar of Alwar and the rulers of Indore, Rewa, Dholpur, Koriya, Sangli and Sarila.
The idea of an All-India Federation was moved to the centre of discussion. All the groups attending the
conference supported this concept. The responsibility of the Executive to Legislature was discussed, and
B. R. Ambedkar demanded a separate electorate for the Untouchables.

1931 March 5
Gandhi Irwin Pact signed, Civil Disobedience Movement Suspended.
GandhiIrwin Pact refers to a political agreement signed by Mahatma Gandhi and the then Viceroy
of India, Lord Irwin on 5th March 1931. Before this, the viceroy Lord Irwin announced in October
1929, a vague offer of'dominion status' for India in an unspecified future and a Round Table
Conference to discuss a future constitution. It was signed after meetings between Gandhi and the
Viceroy that spanned over a three week time period. Many Indian citizens were originally unsatisfied
with the conditions of this truce. The agreement spelled out certain specific action points, to be
initiated by the colonial Government of India as well as the Indian National Congress. Important
action points of the Pact included:

Discontinuation of the civil disobedience movement by the Indian National Congress

Participation by the Indian National Congress in the Round Table Conference

Withdrawal of all ordinances issued by the British Government imposing curbs on the activities
of the Indian National Congress

Withdrawal of all prosecutions relating to several types of offenses except those involving
violence

Release of prisoners arrested for participating in the civil disobedience movement

The removal of the tax on salt, which allowed the Indians to produce, trade, and sell salt legally
and for their own private use.
1931 March 23
Bhagat Sing, Sukh Dev and Rajguru Executed.
On 23 March 1931, Bhagat Singh was hanged in Lahore with his fellow comrades Rajguru and
Sukhdev. His supporters, who had been protesting against the hanging, immediately declared him as
a Shaheed or martyr. According to the Superintendent of Police at the time, V.N. Smith, the hanging
was advanced:
Normally execution took place at 8 am, but it was decided to act at once before the public could become
aware of what had happened...At about 7 pm shouts of Inquilab Zindabad were heard from inside the
jail. This was correctly, interpreted as a signal that the final curtain was about to drop.

1931 Sep 7
Second Round Table Conference.
The second session opened on September 7 1931. There were three major differences between the first
and second Round Table Conferences. By the second:

Congress Representation The Gandhi-Irwin Pact opened the way for Congress participation in
this conference. Mahatma Gandhi was invited from India and attended as the sole official Congress
representative accompanied by Sarojini Naidu and also Madan Mohan Malaviya, Ghanshyam Das
Birla, Muhammad Iqbal, S K Dutta and Sir Syed Ali Imam. Gandhi claimed that the Congress alone
represented political India; that the Untouchables were Hindus and should not be treated as a
minority; and that there should be no separate electorates or special safeguards for Muslims or
other minorities. These claims were rejected by the other Indian participants. According to this pact,

Gandhi was asked to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM) and if he did so the prisoners
of the British government would be freed excepting the criminal prisoners, i.e. those who had killed
British officials. He returned to India, disappointed with the results and empty-handed.

National Government two weeks earlier the Labour government in London had
fallen. Ramsay MacDonald now headed a National Government dominated by the Conservative
Party.

Financial Crisis During the conference, Britain went off the Gold Standard further distracting
the National Government.

During the Conference, Gandhi could not reach agreement with the Muslims on Muslim
representation and safeguards. At the end of the conference Ramsay MacDonald undertook to
produce a Communal Award for minority representation, with the provision that any free agreement
between the parties could be substituted for his award.
Gandhi took particular exception to the treatment of untouchables as a minority separate from the
rest of the Hindu community. He clashed with the Untouchable leader, B. R. Ambedkar, over this
issue: the two eventually resolved the situation with the Poona Pactof 1932.
1931 Dec 28
1930 Mar 12 Gandhi Launches the Civil Disobedience movement with his epic Dandi March (March 12
to April 5), First phase of the C D Movement March 12 1930 to March 5 1931.
1932 Jan 4
Gandhiji Arrested and imprisoned without Trial.
In Bombay, at Mani Bhuvan, Gandhi was arrested at three in morning.
1932 Aug 16
British Prime minister Pamsay Macdonald announces his infamous "Communal Awards".
Mr. MacDonald announced the 'Communal Award' on August 16, 1932. According to the Award, the
right of separate electorate was not only given to the Muslims of India but also to all the minority
communities in the country. The Award also declared untouchables as a minority and thus the Hindu
depressed classes were given a number of special seats, to be filled from special depressed class
electorates in the area where their voters were concentrated. Under the Communal Award, the
principle of weightage was also maintained with some modifications in the Muslim minority
provinces. Principle of weightage was also applied for Europeans in Bengal and Assam, Sikhs in the
Punjab and North West Frontier Province, and Hindus in Sindh and North West Frontier Province.
1932 Sep 20
Gandhiji in jail begins the epic fast unto death against teh Communal Awards and the fat on sep 26 after
the Poona Pact.
1932 Nov 17
The IIIrd RTC begins in London.
The third and last session assembled on November 17 1932. Only forty-six delegates attended since
most of the main political figures of India were not present. The Labour Party from Britain and the
Indian National Congress refused to attend.

In this conference, Chaudhary Rahmat Ali, a college student, coined the name "Pakistan" (which means
"land of pureness") as the name for the Muslim part of partitioned India. He took the "P" from Punjab,
the "A" from the Afghan, the "KI" from Kashmir, the "S" from Sindh and the "TAN" from
Balochistan.
1933 May 9
Gandhiji released from prison as he begins the fast for self purification .INC suspends C D Movement
but Authorizes Satyagraha by individuals.
1934
Gandhiji withdraws from active politics and Devote himself to Constructive programmes.
1935 Aug 4
The GOvt India Act Passed.
1937
Elections held in India under the Act of 1935 (Feb 1937).The INC contest election and forms ministries
in 7 provinces.
1938 Feb 19-20
Haripura session of INC Subhas Chandra Bose elected Congress President.
1939 March 10-12
Tripura session of INC.
1939 April
Subhash Chandra Bose resigned as the president of INC.
1939 Sep 3 --Second World War.
1939 Oct 27 --the INC ministries in Province.
1939 Nov 5 -The congress ministries in province resign in protest against the war policy of British
Govt.
1939 Dec 22 The Muslim League observes the resignation of the congress minister as the Deliverance
Day.
1940 March Lahore session of the Muslim League passes the Pakistan Resolution.
1940 Aug 10 Vice roy Linlithgow annouces the August Offer.
1940 Aug 18-22 The congress working committe rejects the August Offer.
1941 Jauary 17 Subhas Chandra bose escapes from India Arrives in Berlin (March 28).
1942 March 11 Churchill annonces the Cripps Mission

1942 Aug 7-8 The INC meets in Bombay Adopts Quit India resolution.8
1942 Aug 9 Gandhiji and other Congress leaders arrested.
1942 Aug 11 Quit India Movement begins the great August Uprising.
1942 Sep 1 Subhas Chandra Bose establish the Indian National army (Azad Hind Fauz)
1943 oct 21 Subhash Chandra bose proclaims the formation of Provisional Government of free India.
1943 Dec Karachi session of the Muslim League adopts the slogan Divide and Quit.
1944 June 25 Wavell calls Simla Conference in a bid to form the Executive Council of Indian Political
leaders.
1946 Feb 18 Mutiny of the Indian Naval Ratings in Bombay.
1946 March 15 British P M Attlee announces Cabinet Mission to propose new solution to the Indian
Deadlock Cabinet Mission Arrives in New Delhi (March 14) issue proposal (May 16)
1946 July 6 Jawaharlal Nehru takes over as Congress President.
1946 Aug 6Wavell invites Nehru to form an Interim Government takes office.(Sep 2).
1946 Dec 9First session of Constituent Assembly starts .Muslim League boycotts it.
1947 Feb 20British PM Atlee Declared that the British Govt would leave India not later
than June 1948.
1947 March 24 Mountbatten the last British Viceroy and Governor General of India sworn in (March
24 1947 to June 21 1948).
1947 June 3Mountbatten Plan for the partition of India and the announcement (June 4) that the
transfer of power will take place on Aug 15.
Year

Indian Freedom Struggle: Important Events

1857

Mutiny against the British

1858

Government Of India Act 1858

1861

Indian Councils Act 1861

1885

Indian National Congress is founded by A.O. Hume

1892

Indian Councils Act 1892

1905

Partition of Bengal announced

1906

Muslim League was founded at Dhaka(Bangladesh) on 31st December

1907

Seditious meeting act 1907

1908

Khudiram Bose was executed on 11th August

1908

Tilak was sentenced to six years on charges of sedition on 22nd July

1909

Minto-Morley Reforms of Indian Councils Act 21st May

1910

Indian press act 1910

1911

Delhi durbar held King George V And Queen Mary

1911

Partition of Bengal is cancelled

1911

New Delhi established as the new capital of India

1912

A Bomb was thrown on Lord Hardinge on his state entry into Delhi on
23rd December

1913

The Ghadar Party was formed at San Francisco on 1st November

1914

Tilak was released from jail on 16th June

1914

Outbreak of the 1st World War 4th August

1914

Komagatamaru ship reaches Budge Budge (Calcutta port) on 29the September.

1915

Mahatma Gandhi arrived in India on 9th Jan

1915

Gopal Krishna Gokhale died on 19th February.

1916

1916

1917

Tilak founded Indian Home Rule League with its headquarters at Poona on 28th
April.
Annie Besant started another Home Rule League on 25th September.
Mahatma Gandhi launches the Champaran campaign in Bihar to focus attention on
the grievances of indigo planters in April

1917

The Secretary of State for India, Montague, declares that the goal of the British
government in India is introduction of Responsible Government on 20th August.

1918

Beginning of trade union movement in India.

1919

Rowlatt Bill introduced on Feb 16, 1919.

1919

The Jallianwala Bagh tragedy took place on 13th April in Amritsar.


The House of Commons passes the Montague Chelmsford Reforms or the

1919

Government of India Act, 1919 on 5th December. The new reforms under this Act
came into operation in 1921.

1920

1920

1920-22

First meeting of the All India Trade Union Congress, (under Narain Malhar Joshi).
The Indian National Congress (INC) adopts the Non-Co-operation Resolution in
December.
Mahatma Gandhi suspends Non-Co-operation Movement on Feb 12 after the
violent incidents at Chauri Chaura.

1922

Moplah rebellion on the Malabar coast in August.

1923

Swaraj Party was formed by Motilal Nehru and others on 1st January.

1924

The Communist Party of India starts its activities at Kanpur.

1925

The Kakori Train Conspiracy case in August

1927

1928

1928

1928

1929

The British Prime Minister appoints Simon Commission to suggest future


constitutional reforms in India.
Simon Commission arrives in Bombay on Feb 3. An all-India hartal is called. Lala
Lajpat Rai assaulted by police at Lahore.
Nehru Report recommends principles for the new Constitution of India. All parties
conference considers the Nehru Report, Aug 28-31, 1928.
Lala Lajpat Rai died on 17th November due to injuries.
Sarda Act passed: prohibs marriage of girls below 14 and boys below 18 years of
age.

1929

1929

1929

All Parties Muslim Conference formulates the Fourteen Points under the
leadership of Jinnah on 9th March.
Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwari Dutt throw a bomb in the Central Legislative Assen
on 8th April.
Lord Irwins announced that the goal of British policy in India was the grant of the
Dominion status on 31st October.
The Lahore session of the INC adopts the goal of complete independence (poorna

1929

swarajya) for India; Jawaharlal Nehru hoists the tricolour on the banks of the Ravi
at Lahore on 31st December.

1930

1930

First Independence Day observed on 26th January.


The Working Committee of the INC meets at Sabarmati and passes the Civil
Disobedience resolution on 14th February.
Mahatma Gandhi launches the Civil Disobedience movement with his epic Dandi

1930

Mar (Mar 12 to Apr 6). First phase of the Civil Disobedience movement: Mar 12,
1930 to Mar 5, 1931.

1930

1931

First Round Table Conference begins in London to consider the report of the Simon
Commission on 30th November.
On 5th March, the Gandhi lrwin pact was signed and the Civil Disobedience
movement was suspended.

1931

Bhagat Singh, Sukh Dev and Rajguru were executed on 23rd March.

1931

Second Round Table Conference took place on 7th September.

1931

1932

1932

Gandhiji returns from London after the deadlock in llnd RTC on 28th December.
Launches Civil Disobedience Movement. The INC declared illegal.
Gandhiji was arrested and imprisoned without trial on 4th January.
British Prime Minister Ramsay Macdonald announced the infamous Communal
Award on 16th August.

Gandhiji in jail, begins his epic fast unto death against the Communal Award on
1932

20th September and ends the fast on 26th of the same month after the Poona
Pact.

1932

1933

1934

1935

1937

1937

1938

The Third Round Table Conference begins in London (Nov 17 to Dec 24)
Gandhiji released from prison as he begins fast for self-purification on 9th May. INC
suspends Civil Disobedience movement but authorizes Satyagraha by individuals.
Gandhiji withdraws from active politics and devotes himself to constructive
programmes (1934-39).
The Government of India Act 1935 was passed on 4th August
Elections held in India under the Act of 1935 (Feb 1937). The INC contests election
and forms ministries in several provinces (Jul 1937)
Wardha scheme of basic education
Haripura session of INC was held on 19th February. Subhash Chandra Boss was
elected Congress president on the 20th of February.

1939

Tripuri session of the INC was conducted from the 10th to the 12th of March.

1939

Subhash Chandra Bose resigns as the president of the INC in April.

1939

1939

1939

Second World War (Sep 1). Great Britain declares war on Germany on 3rd
September; the Viceroy declares that India too is at war.
Between 27th October to 5th November, the Congress ministries in the provinces
resign in protest against the war policy of the British government.
The Muslim League observes the resignation of the Congress ministries as
Deliverance Day on 22nd December.

1940

Lahore session of ihe Muslim League passes the Pakistan Resolution in March

1940

Viceroy Linlithgow announces-August Offer on 10th of August.

1940

Congress Working Committee rejects the August Offer between 18th to the 22nd
of August.

1940

1941

Congress launches Individual Satyagraha movement on 17th October.


Subhash Chandra Bose escapes from India on 17 January; arrives in Berlin (Mar
28).

1942

Churchill announces the Cripps Mission on 11th of March

1942

The INC meets in Bombay; adopts Quit India resolution on 7th & 8th August.

1942

Gandhiji and other Congress leaders were arrested on 9th August

1942

Quit India movement begins on 11th of August; the Great Aug Uprising.

1942

1943

1943

1944

1946

Subhash Chandra Bose established the Indian National Army Azad Hind Fauj on
1st September.
Subhash Chandra Bose proclaims the formation of the Provisonal Government of
Free India on 21st October.
Karachi session of the Muslim League adopts the slogan Divide arc in December.
Wavell calls Simla Conference in a bid to form the Executive Council at Indian
political leaders on 25th January.
Mutiny of the Indian naval ratings in Bombay.
Cabinet Mission arrives in New Delhi (Mar 14);British Prime Minister Attlee

1946

announces Cabinet Mission ro propose new solution to the Indian deadlock on 15th
March; ; issues proposal (May 16).

1946

1946

1946

1947

1947

Jawaharlal Nehru takes over as Congress president on 6th July.


Wavell invites Nehru to form an interim government on 6th August; Interim
Government takes office (Sep 2).
First session of the Constituent Assembly of India starts on 9th December. Muslim
League boycotts it.
On 20th February, British Prime Minister Attlee declares that the British
government would leave India not later than Jun 1948.
Lord Mountbatten, the last British Viceroy and Governor General of India, sworn in

on 24th March
Mountbatten Plan was made on 3rd June for the partition of India and the
1947

announcement was made on June 4th that transfer to power will take place on
August 15th