OF
JUNCTIONS
BUREAU OF ENGINEERING
City of Los Angeles
WALL A. PARDEE
City Engineer
OFFICE STANDARD No. II5
STORM DRAIN DESIGN DIVISION
1968
ANALYSIS
HYDRAULIC
OF
JUNCTIONS
The general formula for the hydraulic analysis of junctions which has been used in this monograph was derived by Donald
Thompson, Chief Engineer of Design, Bureau of Engineering, City
of Los Angeles. The formula is based on the wellknown pressure
plus momentum theory which states that the change in pressure
through a junction is equal to the change in momentum. The application of the formula to actual design problems, the
determination of control points, and the graphical solutions for
conditions where a direct solution was not possible were prepared
by Irving R. Cole, Division Engineer, Storm Drain Design Division.
Valuable assistance and advice have been given by Floyd
J. Doran, Deputy City Engineer. Numerous model tests conducted
over a period of several years at the Experimental Hydraulic
Research Laboratory of the Bureau of Engineering have confirmed
the accuracy of the Thompson formula and the pressure plus momentum theory.
1.
ANALYSIS
HYDRAULIC
OF
JUNCTIONS
INDEX
I
II
III
D.
E.
F.
Subcritical Flow
Supercritical Flow
Derivation of Formula
1.
2.
Rectangular Section
Circular Section
i9
g10
z10
1012
1011
1112
Outline of Examples
1214
1213
13
13
1314
Examples
1427
::
1416
1621
2123
2327
2737
Pressure Flow
A.
B.
c.
5
57
78
810
IV
58
Introduction
A.
B.
c.
Page
1
Rectangular Section
Circular Section
3
2728
2829
29
2933
3335
ANALYSIS
HYDRAULIC
OF
JUNCTIONS
INDEX (Continued)
D.
Example:
1.
2.
Page
3537
Circular Section
36
37
OPEN
CHANNEL
RECTANGULAR
OPEN
SECTION
CHANNEL
CIRCULAR
4
FLOW
SEC
ANALYSIS
HYDRAULIC
II
A.
OF
JUNCTIONS
INTRODUCTION
Notation
(Unit Weight of Water Omitted)
Am
b
5
IIYDHAULIC
u.
Notation
ANALYSIS
OF
JUN
CT1
ONS
(Continued)
Gravitational
second.
AY
pi
Longitudinal
ps
Longitudinal
pw
Longitudinal
pf
Length of junction,
sf
feet.
feet.
acceleration,
feet.
V2 , feet.
z
() >
Angle of divergence of transition,
QV
E'
()
cubic feet.
Velocity head
degrees.
ANALYSIS
HYDRAULIC
B.
OF
JUNCTIONS
Notation (Continued)
H.G.
Hydraulic gradient.
E.G.
Energy gradient.
Transition.
Numerical
Subscript
Subscript
Subscript
Subscript
c.
General Formula
P1tM1tM3Cos0+Pw+PiPf
(1)
(2)
= 1/6(Ait4Am+A2)
= M2MlM3Cose+Pf
Q~V~Q~V~Q~V~COS~J
Q
L(Sl+S2)(Al.+A2)
+2
(3)
HYDRAULIC
C.
OF
ANALYSIS
JUNCTIONS
(4)
Q2 2
= A2g
Q12
Q32Cos0
Alg
A3g
(5)
III
A.
and
&Ggg&..b~
PROFILE
NO
B.
NO
SCALE
SCALE
General Formula
CP
CM
2
%(A,+A,h
Ql
Al@;
Q2
_
= A2g

8 
Q32Cos0
A3g
(5)
ANALYSIS
HYDRAULIC
B.
OF
JUNCTIONS
c.
(6)
Control Points
Flow may be either subcritical or supercritical.
1.
Subcritical Flow
D2
2.
D2n
Supercritical Flow
It is necessary to determine if a
hydraulic jump will occur at the junction. The
depth at the downstream end of the junction
(Point 2) is set at critical depth, and the momentums calculated to determine if the incoming
flows can maintain supercritical flow.
a.
M2c<Mln+M2COSQ+%(A1+A2)Ay
Dl
b.
Din
M2c>Mln+M3Cos@+%(Al+A2)AY
Hydraulic jump will occur
D2
D2c
90
ANALYSIS
HYDRAULIC
c.
OF
JUNCTIONS
After determination of the change through the junction, backwater or drawdown calculations will have to be made to
determine the water surface profile.
D.
Derivation of Formula
1.
Rectangular Section
Derivation of Equation (4) by D. Thompson;
Rectangular channel with expansion, friction
ignored.
PLAN
PROFILE
NO SCALE
NO SCALE
Q2V2QIV1QsVsCosO
PI+Pw+PIP2 =
Pl
pW
%(b1D12> = 3/s(blD12)
= '/6(D12+D1D2+D22)(b2bl)
=
%j(b2Dl '+b2D1D2tb2D22blD1D2blD22blD12)
pi
l/&blDl
p2
%(b2D2!) = 3/6(b2D22>
pW
tblD2+b2D1+2b&)Z
CP = 3/6(blD12) t1&J2blDltblD2+b2D1+2b2D2)Z
+ '/c(bzDl 2tb2D1D2tb2D22blD12blDiD2'blD22)
 3/6(b2D22)
10 
ANALYSIS
HYDRAULIC
D.
JUNCTIONS
OF
Derivation of Formula
AY = Z+DlD2
Average Area = 1{6<2blDl+blD2+b2D1+2b2D2)
Ay(Average Area) = '/6(2blDl+blD2+b2D1+2b2D2)Z
+
2blD1D2tb2D12tb2D1D2blD222b2D22)
l/&blDl
CP = P1tPwtPIP2
BY INSPECTION:A~(AVERAGE AREA) = CP = c MOMENTUMS
Q2V2QIV1Q$&CosO
Ay(AVERAGE AREA) =
(4)
I3
2.
Circular Section
Derivation of Equation (4) by D. Thompson.
Circular conduit with expansion, friction ignored.
WATER
SURFACE
PROFILE
NO SCALE
NO SCALE
X
PltPwtPIP2 =
Pl
A&
pW
11 
A,?,
SHADED AREA= Aw
VERTICAL PROJECTION
OF WALLS.
hYDRAUL'IC
Il.
ANALYSIS
OF
JUNCTIONS
Pi = 0
A2?2
Aw = A~+%(T~+T&YA~
5, =
5, =
Al71
 %AY
A&(Tl+T&yA1
A2(~2+Ay)+'/3Ay2(~T1+T2)Al~l
 %AY
Fw =
A&(Tl+T&yA1
Pw = A&
= A2(Y2+Ay)A1Y1+'/3Ay2(~TltT2)
%AY p&(Tl+T&yAl]
Pw = A2~2A1~1+~(A1+A2)Ay(1/126y2)(T2Tl)
1/12Ay2(T2T1) will be small and can be
omitted.
CP = P1tPwPp = Al~l+A2~2Al~l+~(A1+A2)AyA2~2
CP = %(Al+Ap)Ay = Ay(Average Area) = C Momentums
Q~V~Q~V~Q~V~COS~
Ay(AVERAGE AREA) =
E.
Outline of Examples
1.
 12 
(4)
ANALYSIS
HYDRAULIC
E.
OF
JUNCTIONS
Determine D1 when Z = 0
P.vtangular
Section  Supercritical Flow
_
_Case C:
Case D:
M2
M2C
M2
M2n
Case E:
3.
Case G:
4.
Case I:
 13 
HYDRAULIC
E.
ANALYSIS
Case J:
F.
JUNCTIONS
OF
Mln+MaCosO+s(A1+A2)Ay
M2
M2C
M2
M2n
Examples
1.
Case A:
PROFILE
PLAN
NO SCALE
NO SCALE
GIVEN: Q1 = 11,015
cfs
Q2 = 11,450 cfs
Q3 = 435 cfs
bl
~38.67 ft.
b2 = 38.67 ft.
d3 = 93 .in.
Sl
s2
A3
0.0022
0.0020
47 sq.ft.
= 3o"
= 0.014
 14 
ANAL,YSI3
HYDRAULIC
F.
JUNCTIONS
OF
Examples (Continued)
FORMULA AND SOLUTION:
CP = CM
Q32Cos0
Ql 2
Q2 2
s(A1tA2)(Z+D1D2) =  A2g
Alg
A3g
%(545+582)(ztl4.115.0) = g;",+;;
_ (l&:5;;
_ (435)2(.866)
7(32 . 2)
= 6ggo6940.108
563.5(Z0.9)
Z =
0.9
Z = 0.80
AY
&.
ft.
= ZtD1D2
= 0.80+14.115.0
=
Case B;
ft.
0.10
PROFILE
NO SCALE
15 
HYDRAUL.IC
F.
ANALYSIS
OF
JUNCTIONS
Examples (Continued)
GIVEN: Q1 = 11,015 CfS
=
bl
38.67
ft.
0.0022
Din= 14.1 ft.
=
Sl
Q2 = 11,450 cfs
b2 = 38.67 ft.
= 0.0020
s2
D2n= 15.0 ft.
A2n= 582 sq.ft.
Q3 = 435 cfs
d3 = 93 in.
o
47 sq.ft.
= 30'
= 0.014
A3
FORMULA:
CP = CM
Q2
%(A1+A2)(Z+D1D2) = &
Q32Cose
Q12
 Alg A3g
Al
ZP
CM
16.0
16.5
16.75
17.0
620
639
648
657
601
918
1075
1240
790
970
1050
1140
DI
16.5 
 16 
HYDRA.ULIC
F.
ANALYSIS
JUNCTIONS
OF
Examples (Continued)
cannot occur at the junction.
MAXIMUM D2 = D2C.
SET D1 = Din,
PLAN
NSCALE
GIVEN:
NO SCALE
11,015 cfs
bl = 38.67 ft.
Q1
Q3 = 435 cfs
b2 = 38.67
d3 = 93 in.
ft.
47
0.00357
A3
= 30'
= 0.014
Sl
0.00357
Q2 = 11,450 cfs
s2
sq.ft.
Mln+M3Cose+%(A In+A2c)(Z*DlnD2c)
ggg
= ~;;;;w;;+~:
((32
866)
2)
+%(46o+54o)(z+ngo13.98)
7540
2 8210+108+(5OO)(Z2.08)
778 2 (5OO)(Z2.08)
Z 2 0.52 ft.
ALTERNATE SOLUTION:
Am
= 473
M2n
= M1n+M3Cose+~(AAn+A2n)(Z+DlnD2n)
sq.ft.
17
ANALYSIS
HYDRAUL.IC
F.
JUNCTIONS
OF
Examples (Continued)
8620 = 82lo+lo8+466z149
Z =
ft.
0.97
Case D:
NOTE:
CONJ.=CONJUGATE
PROFILE
NO SCALE
M2c
7540
M~ntM~Coso+~(A~ntA2~)(ZtDlD2)
82lotlo8+5oo(2.08) = 7278
M2C is larger (7540~7278)
A HYDRAULIC JUMP WILL FORM UPSTREAM OF THE
JUNCTION.
D2
D2c
13.98
FORMULA:
CP = cM
Q2
k(A1tA2)(Z+D1D2) = ~2e;  k
18 
1 3
Q32CosO
  n3g
HYDRAULIC
F.
ANALYSIS
JUNCTIONS
OF
Examples (Continued)
g(A,t540)(O+D113.98) = 7540  v
 108
SOLUTION:
Dl
Al
16.0
16.5
17.0
619
2;;
CP
ZM
1171
1482
1808
1330
1520
1690
= 16.7 ft.
15.55 ft.
Case E:
PROFILE
NO SCALE
19 
HYDRAULIC
F.
ANALYSIS
OF
JUNCTIONS
Examples (Continued)
GIVEN: Q1 = 11,015 cfs
bl = 38.67 ft.
0.00582
Sl
Al
387 sq.ft.
Q2 = 11,450 cfs
Q3 = 435 cfs
b2 = 38.67 ft.
d3 = 93 in.
0.00582
47 sq.ft.
A3
= 30'
A2 = 540 sq.ft.
= 0.014
s2
M2C
Mln+M3CosO+%(AIn+A2c)(Z+DlnD2c) = 977O+lO81840
= 8038
Mzc is the lower value;
Dl
FORMULA:
Q22
%(A1+A2)(Z+D1D2) = _
A2g
(193+$A2)(10.0D2) = ,v
QI 2
Alg
Q32Cos~
A3g
 9880
SOLUTION:
D2
10.5
11.0
11.5
ILCYI
1j3
VI*:f{:;IJ:;
II
CP
A2
406
198
425
445
406
624
I: 1 ;1r1(1 tM :
11.25 ft.
EP
 20 
ti
XM
HYDRAULIC
F.
ANALYSIS
OF
JUNCTIONS
Examples (Continued)
DETERMINE WATER SURFACE PROFILE FROM
Dz(11.25 ft.) to Dzn(10.25 ft.).
3.
t
NO SCALE
PROFILE
NO SCALE
Q2 =
d2 =
S2 =
D2n=
Azn=
250 cfs
6.0 ft.
0.0036
4.83
ft.
24.4
sq.ft.
Q3  50 cfs
= 2.5 ft.
d3
A3 = 4.91
sq.ft.
0 = 3o
n = 0.013
FORMULA:
CP = CM
Q22
Q12
%(Al+A2)(Z+DlD2) = A2g  Alg
Q32Cos0
A3g
%(A,+24.4)(0.5+D14.83) =
_ (5W2(.866>
4.91g
(QA1+12.2)(D14.33) = 79.6  y
 21 
 13.7
ANALYSIS
HYDRAULIC
F.
JUNCTIONS
OF
Examples (Continued)
SOLUTION:
CP
Al
Dl
20.85
21.7
22.2
4.5
4.7
4.9
CM
4.91
3.85
8.53
13.28
CP
ft.
CM
Case G:
Dl
=
dl
D2
d2
0.75
dd12
PROFILE
NO SCALE
Q2 = 250 cfs
Q3
GIVEN: Q1 r 200 cfs
dl = 5,5 ft.
d2 = 6.0 ft.
d3
D2 = 4.50 ft.
A3
D1 = 4.13 ft.
Al = 19.1 sq.ft.A2 = 22.8 sq.ft.0
n
=
=
=
=
=
50 cfs
2.5
4.91 sq.'ft.
3o"
0.013
 22 
HYDRAULIC
F.
ANALYSIS
OF
JUNCTIONS
Examples (Continued)
FORMULA AND SOLUTION:
CP = cM
Q3Cos0
Ql 2
%(A1+A2)(Z+D1D2) = A2g  Alg Q2
A3tT
4(1g.1+22.8)(2+4.134.50) = .w2
 :;""1;'
.
_ (5W2(.866>
4.9lEs
(21.0)(20.37) = 85.265.013.7
Z = 0.68 ft.
Ay
4.
JUMP +I
PROFILE
NO SCALE
23 
250 cfs
Q,
6.0 sq.ft. d3
0.0050
A3
4.33 ft.
0
21.8
sq.ft.n
4.17 ft.
=
=
=
=
50 cfs
2.5 ft.
4.gi sq.ft.
30'
0.013
HYDRAUL.IC
F.
ANALYSIS
OF
JUNCTIONS
Examples (Continued)
mo>2
Qz2
M2C
Apcg
,(50)2(.866)
4.919
21.8g
89.0
+~(17.1+21.8)(o.5+3.714.33)
= 84.1
FORMULA:
CP = cM
%(A1+A2)(Z+D,yD2) =
Q2
&
 Q12
k&+lo.9)(Dp3.83)
= 75.3
Alg
Qs2Cose

A3g
1242
 At
SOLUTION:
CP
Al
D1
4.25
4.50
4.75
19.7
20.8
21.8
XM
8.7
14.3
20.0
= 4.65 ft.
d
CP & CM
 24
I
.20
ANALYSIS
HYDRAULIC
F.
OF
JUNCTIONS
Examples (Continued)
Solve for the value of Z so that a hydraulic
jurhpcannot occur. D1 = Din, Maximum D2 = D2c.
Case I:
PROFILE
NO SCALE
Case
Azcg
89.0
<
Q1
Q32C~~0
++.(Aln+A2c)(Z+D1nWD2c)
+
Alng
As@;
2 72.7+13.7+~(17.1+21.8)(2+3.714,331
z 2 0.75 ft.
ALTERNATE SOLUTION:
= 72.7+13.7+1g.oz8.8
= 0.78 ft.
25 
HYDRAULIC
F.
ANALYSIS
JUNCTIONS
OF
Examples (Continued)
Case J:
PROFILE
NO SCALE
NO SCALE
0.0065
Q2 = 250 cfs
d2 = 6.0 ft.
Q3 = 50 cfs
s2 = 0.0050
A3 = 4.91 sq.ft.
d3 = 2.5 ft.
89.0
(200)2
=m+
(5012L866)
4.91g
t~(15.95+;1.8)(0.75+3.504.33)
=
go.2
 26 
= 30'
= 0.013
HYDRAULIC
F.
ANALYSJS
OF
JUNCTIONS
Examples (Continued)
FORMULA:
CP = CM
Q32Cos0
Q2 2
Q12
A3g
ti!A1+AdZ+D1D2) = A2g  Alg 
(8.0+%A2)(4.25D2) = ,,qC 
91.7
SOLUTION:
D2
A2
CP
4.00
20.0
21.4
4.50
0.00
CM
4.50
21.8
1.30
5.3
1.0
2.7
4.25
02
4.00
4.12
AY
IV
A.
ft.
D2
XP 8 XM
PRESSURE FLOW
 27 
ANALYSIS
HYDRAULIC
A.
OF
JUNCTIONS
NO SCALE
NO SCALE
General Conditions
Junction Loss
Ay(AVERAGE AREA) = Q2V2'Q1V+Q3V3CosB
Q2V2'Q1V+Q&'Cose
Ayj =
%g(Al+A2')
+ %Lj(sfl'+sf2')'
hcl = Ay+hvl'hv2'
Transition Loss (Enlargers)
Based on tests by Gibson (Standards of the Hydraulic
Institute).
K(VpV2)2
htr =
K
3.50
2g
(TAN 9/2)"22
28
ANALYSIS
HYDRAULIC
B.
OF
JUNCTIONS
0.211
&
= &2J+
htrl = 0.0032
Z 0.0032
for
$ h 11'30'
(v1v1')2+~(Sfl+Sfl')L1
ignored.
Use all values at dl and d2.
Ay =
hSTRUCT
%(Al+A2)g
+ %(Sf l+Sf2
IL
= AythVlhV2
c.
Derivation of Formula
1.
Rectangular Section
Derivation of Equation (4), by D. Thompson.
Rectangular Box with expansion, friction ignored.
29 
ANALYSIS
HYDRAULIC
c.
OF
JUNCTIONS
P1P2+PIPs+Pw = M2MlM3Cos8
Pl
X+d2 = dl+Z
X = Z+dld2
AY+D~ = D1tZ
AY = ZtDlD2
bldl(Dl%dl)
P2  b2d2(D2%d2)
pi = '/6Z[b1D1+11(%)(bltb2)(%)(DItD2)tb2D2]
ps =
/6x
[bl(
D 1d~W+(%)(b~tb2)(%)(DldltD~d~)
tbz(Dzdz)]
pw
= '/6()i)(b2b1)[%(D1tD~d&t4(%)(dltd2)(%)
~$(2D1d+4(2D2d2$
t%(D2tD2d2)d2]2
CP = Ay(Average Area)
CP = P1P2tPiPstP,
Pl = bldlDl%(bld12) = '/6(6bldlD13bld12)
 30 
HYDRAULIC
c.
ANALYSIS
Derivation
of
p2
pi
?
r
Formula
OF
U N c
(Continued)
b2d2D2%(b2dz2)
l&Z(bl
/gZ(2bl
S =
1,6(6b2d2D23b2c$L)
D+blDl+blD2+bzDl+b2D2+b2D2)
D 1 +blD2+b2D1+2b2D2)
D 1 bldl+blDlbldl+blD2bld3
1/6(Z+dld2)(bl
+b2Dlb2dl+b2Dzb2d2+b2D2b2dz)
=
2b 1 D 1 2bidl+blD2bld2+b2Dlbzdl
1/&+dld2)(
+2b2D22b2d2)
&(2blDl
Z2bldlZ+blD2Zbld2Z+b2DlZbzdlZ
+2b2D2Z2b2d2Zt2bldlDl2b~d~2+b~d~D~bld~d~
tb2dlDlb2d12+2b2dlD22b2dld22bld2D1+2bldldz
b ld2D2+b
=
ldp 2b2Dld2tb2dld22b2d2D2+2b2d22)
/6(2blD1Z2bldlZ+blD2Zb~d2Z+b2D~Zb2dlZ
t2b2D2Z2b2d2Z+2bldlD12bld12+bldlD2+bld&
tb2dlDlb2d12+2b2dlD2b~dld22bld2Dlbld~D~
tbld22b2Dld22b2d2D2+2b2d22)
pVi
1/6(b2bl)(DldlS
d l2 tdlDl%d12+dlD2%dld2
td2Dl%dld2+d2D2%d22tD2d&d22)
=
/6(b2b1)(2dlDld12+dlD2d~d~td2D1+2d~D~d~2
 31 
T I
0 N Y
HYDRAUL.IC
C.
ANALYSIS
OF
JUNCTIONS
CP = %,(6bp.hD13bldl 26b2d2D2+3b2d22+2blD1Z
+blD2Z+b2D1Z+2b2D2Z2blD1Z'blD2Zb2Dli'2b2D2Z
CP = %(2bl d 1D 12bldlD22b2d2D2tb2dlDlb2dlD2
+2b2d2Z)
Ay(AVERAGE AREA) = (ZtL+D#hj[bldl
+4(~)(bltb2)~(dl+d2)t~2d2 I
=
/&A
tbldltbld2tb2dltb2di
tb2d2)(ZtD1D2)
= 1/6(2bldltbld2+b2d1t2b2d2)(Z
+DlD2)

32 
HYDRAULIC
c.
ANALYSIS
JUNCTIONS
OF
b2dlD2+2bldlZ+bld2Z+b2dlZ
+2b2d2Z)
CP = Ay(AVERAGE AREA) = cM = M2MlM3Cos0
2.
Circular Section
Derivation of Equation (4), by D. Thompson.
Circular conduit with expansion, friction ignored.
HYDRAULIC
GRADIENT
PROFILE
NO SCALE
VERTICAL
PROJECTION
OF Al AND A2
NO SCALE
Q2V2QlV1Q3V3COS0
P1+Pw+PIP2 =
Pl
g
Ali% = n/4d12(D1%dl) = n/&2Dld12d13)
p2
A2Y2
n/,+d22(D2%d2)= r/8(2D2dz2dz3)
Pi = 0
AW
33
ANALYSIS
HYDRAUL.IC
c.
JUNCTIONS
OF
d23d13
+ %(Dldl)+%(Dzd2)
Yw =
2(d22d12)
D1+D2dld2
= n/,,(d22d12)
t
2
>
CP = P1tPwP2
=
AY =
d8(2Dldl
2d13td23d13tDld22tD2d22D~d~2D2d~2
(Dld+(D2d2);
 34 
HYDRA
C.
U LI
ANALYSIS

JUNCTIONS
OF
by(AVERAGE AREA) =
(4)
g
Qz2
Q32CosO
Q12
=Ase;Ale
1).
A3e;
Circular Section
Example:
II
nYu+
+kYP=kr I \100.00
ELEV. ,
PLAN
NO SCALE
PROFILE
NO SCALE
Pipe 3
Pipe 1
Pipe
cl,=4.5(54)
d2=5.5(66)
d3=3.5(42)
0=45O
Q2=380 cfs
Q3=157 cfs
n=0.013
~~=23.8 sq.ft.
~3~3.6 sq.ft.
L=8.8 ft.
v,=14.0 fps
v2=1G.o fps
~3~16.4
L1=2.6 ft.
hvl=3.04 ft.
hv2=3.g8 ft.
hv3=4.17 ft.
L3=4.7 ft.
sfl=o.o128
sf2=o.0128
sf3=o.0246
L,2=1.5 ft.
Q1=223
All&9
cfs
sq.ft.
d,=4.8(57.6)
d2=5.3(63.6)
Al
'=18.og sq.ft.
A2'=22.1 sq.ft.
'=12.3 fps
v2
fps
=17.3
hV2'=4.62 ft.
Sfn '=o.0156
35
TPS
HYDRAUL.IC
D.
ANALYSIS
Example:
1.
OF
JUNCTIONS
AYj =
380(17.3)223(12.3)157(16.'+)(.707)
%(18.1+22.1)32.2
"Yj =
tWmog2to.ol56)
*Yj = 3.1584'
hj = *yj+bl
hv2
3.158t2.35~4.62 = 0.888'
htrl = 0.0032(v1v1')2+%(sf1+sfl')L~
= o.oo32(14.012.3)2t%(o.0128+o.oogz)(2.6)
= 0.0378
ntr2 = 0.0032(V21v2)2+%(Sf2+sf2')L2
=
o.oo32(17.316.0)2t%(o.0128+o.olfj6)(1.5)
= 0.0267
Computing Hydraulic and Energy Grade
H.G.
E.G.
Assume H.G. at Pipe 2 = 100.00
100.000
= loo.oot3.g8o
103.980
E.G.
AT d2': E.G. = lo3.g8o+o.o267
H.G. = 104.0074.620
AT dl': H.G. = gg.387t3.158
E.G. = 102.545t2.350
AT
dl : E.G. = lo4.8g5to.0378
H.G. = 104.9333.c40
 36 
104.007
99.387
102.545
104..8g5
104.933
101.893
ANALYSIS
HYDRAULIC
D.
Example:
2.
OF
JUNCTIONS
Ay
Q2V2Q1V1Q3V3Cos0
++dsfl+sf2)L
%Ul+Adg
380(16.0)223(14.0)157(16.4)0.707
%(15.9+23.8)32.2
t%(o.ol28to.ol28)(8.8)
Ay
1138
AT d2
AT dl
+8.8(o.o128) = 1.8930
H.G.
100.000
H.G. = 100.00
E.G. = loo.oot3.g8o
.
H.G. = loo.ootl.8g3
E.G. = lol.893+3.o4o
Difference:
E.G.
103.980
101.893
104.933
104.933104.933 = 0.000'
AT dl':
Lateral H.G. = H.G.(l)+hv,lhv+Sfl'Ll
Lateral H.G. = 1o1.8g3+3.o4o2.3500.024 = 102.559
Difference:
102.559102.545 = 0.014'
 37 