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Anomalous verbs

I'd like to know if I am right, please: the verb CAN can be used in the Past (COULD), in the Present (CAN) and in the
Conditional (Could). Since the verb CAN can't be used in the Future, we substitute it by WILL BE ABLE TO or MAY,
being careful not to change the meaning. MUST can be used in the Present. In the past we use HAD TO, in the
Future we use WILL HAVE TO and in the Conditional, we use WOULD HAVE TO. We use SHOULD in the Past,
SHALL in the Present, SHOULD in the Conditional, but what do we use in the Future? And what about MAY and
Might? And OUGHT TO? Is there a chart showing the anomalous verbs, the tenses they can be used and the
substitutions we can make in the tenses they can't be used? Thank you very much!

In your example, you are using words that are more commonly called modal verbs or modal
auxiliaries. As most English students do, you are trying to narrow these words to a single
meaning or function. Most of these words have several functions: ability, obligation, need,
possibility, probability, request, condition, offer, advice, opinion, and permission. Depending on
their function, they can all be substituted for other words or phrases. I'm assuming certain
functions, based on how you've grouped the words.
Your first sentence seems to be referring specifically to ability and makes correct assumptions
of the modals in that context.
Your second sentence seems to be referring to obligation and need. The different forms of
HAVE TO that you are using only work in the affirmative and interrogative. To talk about
obligation in the negative, except in the present, you would use MAKE, LET, ALLOW or COULDN'T.
Your third sentence seems to be referring to advice and offers. We use SHOULD HAVE in the
past, SHOULD (advice) or SHALL (offer, but only used with I and WE in all cases) in the present
and future. OUGHT TO is usually included here to refer to advice and can substitute SHOULD.
MAY and MIGHT usually refer to probability and (un)certainty. They can be used alone for the
Present and Future and with HAVE in the past.
Although I don't know of a chart, the book "First Certificate Language Practice" Does an excellent
job of explaining these differences and giving exercises to practice them. I hope this helps you.