HEAT EX

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HEAT EX

© All Rights Reserved

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Problem Statement:

12,000 kg per hour of heavy fuel oil will be heated from 50C to 125C by the use of

steam from 255C to 200C. Inlet pressure for steam will be 600 psig and 30 psig

for fuel oil and the maximum pressure drop of 5 psi for steam and 35 psi for fuel oil

are permissible. Published fouling factors for oil refinery streams should be used for

this application. Design two different types of heat exchanging equipment and from

ethat choose one that will be better for the service. Provide calculations for thermal

design, fabrication costing and safety and environmental concern.

TYPE OF HEAT EXCHANGING EQUIPMENT

a) SHELL-AND-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

Calculations (Kern method):

Given data:

Steam inlet temperature (T1), C = 255

= 600

psig = 30

C = 125

Steam fouling factor (Rds), m2/C-W = 0.0025

Fuel oil fouling factor (Rdo), m2/C-W = 0.0025

I. Calculation of Caloric Temperature:

For the calculation of caloric temperature please refer to Fig. 17 (page 827).

r=

tc T 2t 1 20050

=

=

; r=1.36 4

th T 1t 2 255125

API for fuel oil when SG = 0.9345 = 18.47; therefore Kc = 0.72; Fc = 0.48

(The caloric temperature factor, Fc with API as a function Kc is available in

reference to Fig. 17 (page 827 Process Heat Transfer Kern).

Thc=T 2+ Fc(T 1T 2)

= 200 + 0.48(255-200) C

Thc = 226.4C

Tcc=t 1+ Fc ( t 2t 1 )

= 50 + 0.48(125-50)

Tcc = 86C

Properties

Viscosity, Pa-s

Density, kg/m3

Thermal conductivity,

kW/m-C

Specific heat capacity,

kJ/kg-C

Specific gravity

Steam

000019431

20.54211

0.00003915

Fuel Oil

0.00014612

943.5

0.00015481

2.40387

2.05459

0.02054211

0.9435

Assume no heat loss to the surrounding,

12,000 x 2.055 x (12550) = ms x 2.404 x (255-200)

ms = 13988.05 kg/h

IV. Calculation of heat transfer area and tube numbers

Iteration #1:

The first iteration is started assuming 1 shell pass and 2 tube pass shell and tube

exchanger with following dimensions and considerations:

1.5 OD tubes (10 BWG) on 15/8 square pitch (Pt)

Outer diameter of tube = 1.5

Tube length (Lt) = 20

Tube ID = 1.232

Fluid arrangement: Steam is placed in tube side because it has the higher

pressure

The log mean temperature correction factor (Ft) for 1-2 shell and tube exchanger:

From Perrys Handbook, Fig.11-4a: Ft, MTD correction factor (page 11-6):

Using

R=

T 1T 2 252200

=

=0.7333 ;

t 2t 1

12550

S=

t 2t 1 12550

=

=0.366

T 1t 1 20050

Ft = 0.98

LMTD=

=

; LMTD=64.48 C

T 2T 1

255200

ln(

)

ln(

)

t 2t 1

12550

The value of overall heat transfer coefficient (Uo,assum) of 0.09 kW/m 2-C is

assumed to initiate the design calculation for the steam and fuel oil heat

exchanger. The approximate range of overall heat transfer coefficient

depending on the hot and cold fluid can be found out from page 845(Process

Heat Transfer Kern ).

A=

msCps(T 1T 2)

Q

=

Uassum x LMTD x Ft Uassum x LMTD x Ft

A=

; A=90.312m2

0.09 x 64.48 x 0.98

x Do x <=

90.312

; nt=123.7 124 tubes

x ( 1.5 x 0.0254 ) x (20 /3.28)

A

nt=

fixed tube sheet, 1-shell and 2-tube pass exchanger with 1.5 tube OD and

15/8 triangular pitch. You may refer to standard heat transfer books (Process

Heat Transfer Kern; page 841-842) for the selection of suitable shell ID.

Check for fluid velocity:

np

2

)

4 x ( 13,986 ) x (

)

nt

131

4

=

=

; =124,199.79<10

x Di x x ( 1.232 x 0.0254 ) x 1.943 x 10e-5

4 x ms (

u=

=

; u=3.75 m/ s

Di x s 1 .232 x 0.0254 x 20.54

V. Determination of heat transfer coefficient:

Tube side heat transfer coefficient (hi):

s x Cps

ks

hi x di

jh=

k

jh = 280 for tube side fluid at Re = 124,200

42=

x(

) ; hi=0.3303 kw /(mK )

3.915 x 10e-5

3.915 x 10e-5

Assumptions:

Baffles spacing, B = 0.75Ds = 20.25

1

1

4 ( Pt x 0.86 Pt x x Do 2)

2

2 4

De=

1

x x Do

2

1

1

x 1.875 x 0.86 x 1.875 x x(1.232 x 0.0254)2

2

2 4

a=

CBDs

Pt

a s=

( 0.375 ) ( 20.25 ) ( 27 )

x 0.02542=0.0705 m2

( 1.875 )

Mass velocity,

Gs=

mo 12000 /3600

=

; Gs=47.25 kg/ m2s

as

0.0705

=

; =8779.1 8

o

1.4612 x 10e-4

o x Cpo

ko

ho x do

jh=

jh = 55 for the shell side fluid at Re = 8800 with 25% cut segmental baffles

1.55 x 10e-4

ho x 1.232 x 0.0254

55=

1.55 x 10e-4

Overall heat transfer coefficient (Ucal):

Fouling factor for, Rds = 0.0025 m2-K / kW for both steam and fuel oil.

Uocal=[

1

1

Ao dodi Ao 1 Ao

+ Rdg+

+

+

Rdk]

ho

Ai 2kw

Ai hi Ai

) ( )

K

VI. Pressure drop calculation

Tube side pressure drop

at = (no. of tubes)x(flow area per tube)/(no. of passes)

ms 13986/3600

=

; > 140.32 kg/ m2s

a

0.027

20

x2

f x x< x np

3.28

Pt =

=

;

70 x Di x SG 70 x 1.232 x 0.0254 x 0.02054

2

0.00596 x 140.32 x

Shell side pressure drop:

tubelength

20

=

; nb=11.85 12

baffle spacing 20.25/ 12

2

2

f x Gs x Ds ( nb+1 ) 0.00557 x 47.25 x ( 27 x 0.0254 ) ( 12+1 )

Pt =

=

70 x De x SG

70 x 1.07 x 0.0254 x 0.9435

b.) PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER

From Shell-and-Tube HE Calculation, Q=513.6475 k W

2. If the specification is incomplete, determine the unknown fluid

temperature or fluid flow-rate from a heat balance.

3. Calculate the log mean temperature difference, TLM.

4. Determine the log mean temperature correction factor, Ft; see

method given below.

5. Calculate the corrected mean temperature difference Tm D Ft

TLM.

6. Estimate the overall heat transfer coefficient; see Table 12.1.

7. Calculate the surface area required; equation 12.1.

8. Determine the number of plates required D total surface area/area

of one plate.

9. Decide the flow arrangement and number of passes.

10. Calculate the film heat transfer coefficients for each stream; see

method given below.

12. Compare the calculated with the assumed overall coefficient. If

satisfactory, say _0% to C 10% error, proceed. If unsatisfactory return

to step 8 and increase or decrease the number of plates.

13. Check the pressure drop for each stream; see method given below.

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