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HEAT EXCHANGING EQUIPMENT

HEAVY FUEL OIL PREHEATER


Problem Statement:
12,000 kg per hour of heavy fuel oil will be heated from 50C to 125C by the use of
steam from 255C to 200C. Inlet pressure for steam will be 600 psig and 30 psig
for fuel oil and the maximum pressure drop of 5 psi for steam and 35 psi for fuel oil
are permissible. Published fouling factors for oil refinery streams should be used for
this application. Design two different types of heat exchanging equipment and from
ethat choose one that will be better for the service. Provide calculations for thermal
design, fabrication costing and safety and environmental concern.
TYPE OF HEAT EXCHANGING EQUIPMENT
a) SHELL-AND-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
Calculations (Kern method):
Given data:
Steam inlet temperature (T1), C = 255
= 600

Steam pressure inlet, psig

Steam outlet temperature (T2), C = 200


psig = 30

Fuel oil pressure inlet,

Fuel oil inlet temperature (t1), C = 50


C = 125

Fuel oil outlet temperature, (t2),

Fuel oil mass flow rate, kg/h = 12000


Steam fouling factor (Rds), m2/C-W = 0.0025
Fuel oil fouling factor (Rdo), m2/C-W = 0.0025
I. Calculation of Caloric Temperature:
For the calculation of caloric temperature please refer to Fig. 17 (page 827).

r=

tc T 2t 1 20050
=
=
; r=1.36 4
th T 1t 2 255125

API for fuel oil when SG = 0.9345 = 18.47; therefore Kc = 0.72; Fc = 0.48
(The caloric temperature factor, Fc with API as a function Kc is available in
reference to Fig. 17 (page 827 Process Heat Transfer Kern).

Thc=T 2+ Fc(T 1T 2)

Caloric temperature of the hot fluid,


= 200 + 0.48(255-200) C

Thc = 226.4C

Caloric temperature of the cold fluid,

Tcc=t 1+ Fc ( t 2t 1 )

= 50 + 0.48(125-50)

Tcc = 86C

II. Fluid properties at caloric temperature:


Properties
Viscosity, Pa-s
Density, kg/m3
Thermal conductivity,
kW/m-C
Specific heat capacity,
kJ/kg-C
Specific gravity

Steam
000019431
20.54211
0.00003915

Fuel Oil
0.00014612
943.5
0.00015481

2.40387

2.05459

0.02054211

0.9435

III. Energy balance


Assume no heat loss to the surrounding,

Qs=Qo= ( mCp ( t 2t 1 ) ) o= ( mCp ( T 1T 2 ) ) s=513.6475 kW


12,000 x 2.055 x (12550) = ms x 2.404 x (255-200)
ms = 13988.05 kg/h
IV. Calculation of heat transfer area and tube numbers
Iteration #1:
The first iteration is started assuming 1 shell pass and 2 tube pass shell and tube
exchanger with following dimensions and considerations:

Fixed tube plate


1.5 OD tubes (10 BWG) on 15/8 square pitch (Pt)
Outer diameter of tube = 1.5
Tube length (Lt) = 20
Tube ID = 1.232
Fluid arrangement: Steam is placed in tube side because it has the higher
pressure

The log mean temperature correction factor (Ft) for 1-2 shell and tube exchanger:
From Perrys Handbook, Fig.11-4a: Ft, MTD correction factor (page 11-6):
Using

R=

T 1T 2 252200
=
=0.7333 ;
t 2t 1
12550

S=

t 2t 1 12550
=
=0.366
T 1t 1 20050

Ft = 0.98

LMTD=

( T 2T 1 )(t 2t 1) ( 255200 ) (12550)


=
; LMTD=64.48 C
T 2T 1
255200
ln(
)
ln(
)
t 2t 1
12550

Determining the heat transfer area (A):


The value of overall heat transfer coefficient (Uo,assum) of 0.09 kW/m 2-C is
assumed to initiate the design calculation for the steam and fuel oil heat
exchanger. The approximate range of overall heat transfer coefficient
depending on the hot and cold fluid can be found out from page 845(Process
Heat Transfer Kern ).

A=

msCps(T 1T 2)
Q
=
Uassum x LMTD x Ft Uassum x LMTD x Ft

A=

13,986 x 2.404 x (255200)


; A=90.312m2
0.09 x 64.48 x 0.98

Calculating no. of tubes:

x Do x <=

90.312
; nt=123.7 124 tubes
x ( 1.5 x 0.0254 ) x (20 /3.28)
A
nt=

nt = 131 is taken corresponding to the closest standard shell ID of 27 for


fixed tube sheet, 1-shell and 2-tube pass exchanger with 1.5 tube OD and
15/8 triangular pitch. You may refer to standard heat transfer books (Process
Heat Transfer Kern; page 841-842) for the selection of suitable shell ID.
Check for fluid velocity:

np
2
)
4 x ( 13,986 ) x (
)
nt
131
4
=
=
; =124,199.79<10
x Di x x ( 1.232 x 0.0254 ) x 1.943 x 10e-5
4 x ms (

u=

x us 124,200 x 1.943 x 10e-5


=
; u=3.75 m/ s
Di x s 1 .232 x 0.0254 x 20.54

(Design velocity is within the acceptable range)


V. Determination of heat transfer coefficient:
Tube side heat transfer coefficient (hi):

s x Cps
ks

hi x di
jh=

k
jh = 280 for tube side fluid at Re = 124,200

42=

hi x ( 1 .232 x 0.0254 ) 1.943 x 10e-5 x 2.404 1/ 3


x(
) ; hi=0.3303 kw /(mK )
3.915 x 10e-5
3.915 x 10e-5

Shell side heat transfer coefficient (ho):


Assumptions:

25% cut segmental baffles


Baffles spacing, B = 0.75Ds = 20.25

Equivalent diameter for the shell side (for triangular pitch):

1
1
4 ( Pt x 0.86 Pt x x Do 2)
2
2 4
De=
1
x x Do
2
1
1
x 1.875 x 0.86 x 1.875 x x(1.232 x 0.0254)2
2
2 4

Shell side cross flow area,

a=

CBDs
Pt

C = Tube clearance = Pt Do = 1.875 1.232 = 0.375

a s=

( 0.375 ) ( 20.25 ) ( 27 )
x 0.02542=0.0705 m2
( 1.875 )

Mass velocity,

Gs=

mo 12000 /3600
=
; Gs=47.25 kg/ m2s
as
0.0705

De x Gs 1.07 x 0.0254 x 47.25


=
; =8779.1 8
o
1.4612 x 10e-4

Now for the shell side,

o x Cpo
ko

ho x do
jh=

jh = 55 for the shell side fluid at Re = 8800 with 25% cut segmental baffles

1.461 x 10e-4 x 2.055


1.55 x 10e-4

ho x 1.232 x 0.0254
55=

1.55 x 10e-4
Overall heat transfer coefficient (Ucal):
Fouling factor for, Rds = 0.0025 m2-K / kW for both steam and fuel oil.

Uocal=[

1
1
Ao dodi Ao 1 Ao
+ Rdg+
+
+
Rdk]
ho
Ai 2kw
Ai hi Ai

) ( )

Uocal = 0.1165 kW/m-

K
VI. Pressure drop calculation
Tube side pressure drop
at = (no. of tubes)x(flow area per tube)/(no. of passes)

Tube side mass velocity,

ms 13986/3600
=
; > 140.32 kg/ m2s
a
0.027

Frictional Pressure Drop:

20
x2
f x x< x np
3.28
Pt =
=
;
70 x Di x SG 70 x 1.232 x 0.0254 x 0.02054
2

0.00596 x 140.32 x

Pt =31,807.44 Pa4.6 psi


Shell side pressure drop:

No. of baffles , nb=

tubelength
20
=
; nb=11.85 12
baffle spacing 20.25/ 12

2
2
f x Gs x Ds ( nb+1 ) 0.00557 x 47.25 x ( 27 x 0.0254 ) ( 12+1 )
Pt =
=
70 x De x SG
70 x 1.07 x 0.0254 x 0.9435

Ps=61.76 Pa0.00896 psi


b.) PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER

1. Calculate duty, the rate of heat transfer required.


From Shell-and-Tube HE Calculation, Q=513.6475 k W
2. If the specification is incomplete, determine the unknown fluid
temperature or fluid flow-rate from a heat balance.
3. Calculate the log mean temperature difference, TLM.
4. Determine the log mean temperature correction factor, Ft; see
method given below.
5. Calculate the corrected mean temperature difference Tm D Ft
TLM.
6. Estimate the overall heat transfer coefficient; see Table 12.1.
7. Calculate the surface area required; equation 12.1.
8. Determine the number of plates required D total surface area/area
of one plate.
9. Decide the flow arrangement and number of passes.
10. Calculate the film heat transfer coefficients for each stream; see
method given below.

11. Calculate the overall coefficient, allowing for fouling factors.


12. Compare the calculated with the assumed overall coefficient. If
satisfactory, say _0% to C 10% error, proceed. If unsatisfactory return
to step 8 and increase or decrease the number of plates.
13. Check the pressure drop for each stream; see method given below.