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Project of: Carlo Joseph Moskito Mylene Nipales Paolo Nobleza History 1 –G Prof. Armi Evangel N. Peña
History of the
Guerillas: Those who refused to place themselves under the authority of the Japanese Military Administration
Table 1. Officers and Soldiers who organized guerilla units
Leader Walter M. Cushing Col. Guillermo Nakar Col. Parker Calvert
Headed the: 121st Infantry 14th Infantry 43rd Infantry
Table 2. Northern Luzon Guerillas after Cushing’s death
Areas Ilocos Norte Apayao and Cagayan Benguet Along Mountain trail, in and about Baguio
Table 3. Central Luzon Guerillas
Guerilla Leader Governor Roque Ablan Captain Praeger Lt. Rufino Baldwin Bado Dangwa
Hunter’s ROTC guerillas Marking’s Guerillas HUKBALAHAP Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon Anderson’s guerilla PQOG Pres. Quezon’s Own Guerillas Miguel Ver Marcos Agustin, assisted by Yay Panlilio Luis Taruc
Manila (and provinces around) Manila (and provinces around) Tarlac, Pampanga, Bulakan and Nueva Ecija Around Manila Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Bicol Region and Quezon
Wenceslao Q. Vinzons
Table 4. Guerillas in the Visayas and Mindanao
Areas Samar and Leyte Panay Mindanao
Guerilla Leader Col. Ruperto Kangleon Col. Macario Peralta of Tarlac (with Gov. Tomas Confesor as civilian leader) Tomas Cabili, Wendell Fertig and Salipada Pendatun
Three Important Functions of the Guerilla Groups • To ambush or otherwise kill enemy soldiers and civilians; • To relay important intelligence reports to MacArthur in Australia; and • To liquidate spies and Japanese sympathizers
Table 5. Guerilla Newspapers
Guerilla Newspapers Matang Lawin (Hawk’s Eye)
The Liberator, 1944 The Flash, 1943 In Tagalog, Spanish and English Ing Masala, Oct. 1942 (The Light) Thunderclap, 1943 Changed name to “Liberty” in Feb. 2, 1945 Kalibo War Bulletin Ang Tigbatas (The Common People) Bilingual (HiligaynonEnglish) Coordinator Harbinger Chronicle Unknown Soldiers The Commentator The Saber ROTC Guerillas The Bugle Kalayaan Palasŏ
Col. Guillermo Nakar Leon O. Ty of the Philippine Free Press Pedro de la Llana HUKBALAHAP Hunters ROTC
Areas Sierra Madre near Nueva Vizcaya
Cavite, Manila, Rizal and Bulakan
Pampanga and Central Luzon
Panay Tomas Confesor, Governor of Free Panay Panay Panay Panay Panay Panay Sorsogon Bicol and Laguna Leyte Bulakan Manila
Juan Frivaldo Wenceslao Q. Vinzons
GOVERNMENT OF COMMONWEALTH: Washington-in-exile
Washington Cabinet: 1. Gen. Basilio Valdes, Secretary of National Defense 2. Manuel Nieto, Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce 3. Jaime Hernandez, Secretary of Finance 4. Joaquin Elizalde, Resident Commissioner
Although in Washingtion, Pres. Manuel L. Quezon participated in the Pacific War Council and agreement providing for the organization of the United Nations.
Senator Millard Tydings (co-author of the Tydings McDuffie Independence Act) pointed out that Quezon’s term would expire on Nov. 15, 1943 and Osmeña would succeed him.
A resolution asking for his (Osmeña) succession to be waived was passed by Senate on Nov. 9, 1943 and the House of Representatives the next day to give way for Quezon.
However, Pres. Quezon died on August 1, 1944 at Saranac Lake, New York.
The Battle of the Philippine Sea started June 19, 1944 and fought up on June 20 is primarily an air combat on Guam with Admiral Marc A. Mitcher’s Task Force 58 carrying brunt of the attack. It led to destruction of 402 enemy airplanes against 17 American airplanes lost and 4 ships damaged. It also prevented the Japanese from reinforcing the Marianas and to subsequent capture of the of the islands by the Americans. Meanwhile, the Japanese put out a “pony” of the Tribune describing alleged destruction of American fleet. The Filipinos described alleged Japanese victories as “Tribune victories”
After the “skip and jump” operations of the American on the Pacific Islands, American carrierbased swooped down Manila undetected while listening to Japanese controlled Radio Station PIAM on September 21. It resulted on heavy damage on Japanese installations in and around Manila, Cavite. Similar air strikes in Visayas by airplanes of the Third Fleet under Admiral William F. “Bull” Halsey. Halsey gave conclusion that strikes must begin at Leyte (contemplated by Mac Arthur) due to weak air resistance in Visayas. He also suggested acceleration of invasion to prevent strengthening weak areas October 20: The date of invasion for Leyte as approved by President Roosevelt
The troop of Gen. Douglas MacArthur, head of the American Forces (Central Philippine Attack Force), which was divided into the Northern Attack Force and Southern Attack Force, consists 650 ships and 4 army divisions
October 9-20softening of the enemy positions on Leyte by carrier strikes; similar raids on Pescadores, Formosa and N. Luzon in order to paralyze Japanese activities Oct. 11: American attack force left New Guinea to Leyte Oct. 18 and 19: Central Luzon took share of the carrier attack
Oct. 20: Leyte beaches were bombarded from the air and sea. THE AMERICANS HAD RETURNED.
BATTLE FOR LEYTE GULF: greatest naval battle fought simultaneously from Oct. 24 – 26 and exceeded all previous naval combat, including the Battle of Jutland during World War I.
Admiral Soemu Toyoda, Chief of Japanese Combined Fleet had “Sho Operation”, which envisaged control of air and the neutralization of the American hazard. It aims counterattack by air and naval ships in order to destroy American fleet and to protect Leyte Beachheads Three Japanese Naval Forces on Leyte 1. Northern Force, Admiral Jisaburo Ozawa 2. Central Force, Admiral Takeo Kurita 3. Southern Force: 1.Group of Vice Admiral Shoji Nishimura 2.Group of Admiral Kiyohide Shima
The Japanese Southern Force, from Singapore, entered Surigao Strait in October 25. Rear Admiral J. B. Oldendorf of the American task force waited and attacked Admiral Nishimura’s force silently.The Japanese did not suspect that the approach was discovered. Their ships were completely trapped which resulted in total annihilation of the Southern Force. The American won with only one destroyer severely damaged.
On October 24, American planes of the Third Fleet attacked the Japanese Central Force under Admiral Kurita. Enemy suffered from severe losses before reaching San Bernardino strait. It was daybreak of Oct 25 when Central Force attacked Admiral CAF Sprague’s weak escort carriers. Sprague retreated to Leyte. After 2 ½ hours of intense firing on both sides, Kurita retired to San Bernardino Strait. Sprague’s escort carrier planes sunk 2 heavy cruisers and one destroyer. Kurita suffered one destroyer sunk and several ships damaged or sunk the next
day. Although the Americans suffered heavy losses, the Leyte Gulf was secured for the Americans.
Happened on October 25; Called the Battle of Bull’s Run
Due to the presence of two powerful fleets in Leyte Gulf, Admiral Halsey suspect another Japanese fleet and sent planes to search around the place and on Oct. 21, they found the Northern Force coming from Japan. Admiral Ozawa’s intention was to draw Admiral Halsey to the vicinity of Leyte Gulf in order to allow the Central and Southern Force to sneak and destroy Admiral Sprague’s weak force. Halsey pursued Ozawa and left San Bernardino Strait unguarded to Cape Engaño in N. Luzon •At the time of murdering Ozawa, Halsey received news that the Central Force had penetrated to San Bernardino Strait. He detached his fleet to Leyte Gulf immediately. His fleet destroyed the Japanese fleet and save Sprague’s cry for help. On Oct 26, Leyte was safe in American’s hand.
FEBRUARY 3, 1945; 5:30 – 6:30pm American forces entered Manila. A tank rushed to University of Santo Tomas and liberated American and allied prisoners. Prisoners sang God Bless America and Star Spangled Banner.
The Temporary Seat of Commonwealth was at Tacloban, Leyte on October 23, 1944 On Nov. 15, 1944, ninth anniversary of the Commonwealth, Pres. Sergio Osmeña said: “The cause of democracy and liberty, the right of every people to govern itself and to be secure against aggression, the great moral issues of justice and righteousness and human dignity are being fought in the Philippines today. I am proud of the way the American soldier is fighting this battle. I am also proud of the way the Filipinos are adding in that fight.” Feb 27,1945 - Gen. MacArthur who had taken over the gov’t as Military Administrator turned the civil gov’t to Pres. Osmeña.** •July 4, 1945 •LIBERATION OF THE PHILIPPINES
On July 26, Pres. Truman and Prime Minister Churchill issued the Postdam Proclamation, calling Japan to surrender unconditionally or face “prompt and utter destruction”. Still JAPAN REFUSED TO SURRENDER.
The US Air Force bombed Hiroshima on August 6 (Tokyo Time) The second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, August 9. It was on August 15 that Japan unconditionally surrendered and signed the terms of surrender on the battleship Missouri at Tokyo Bay on September 2.
After the war, income of the people dipped rapidly and livelihood reduced tremendously. Poverty, from destruction of property is RAMPANT
Total Damage on Diff. Industries: P582,500,000. Reduction on Domestic Assets: P798,767,595. Loss on Rice: P140,291,000 Mining: P121,210,000 Sugar: P94,590,000 Livestock: P81,203,000.
Production is at standstill. The main problem is lack of capital to finance the rehabilitation of destroyed machinery and equipments. Shipping and railway is out of operation that cause very limited production and marketing of consumer goods. TOTAL PICTURE: dismal and discouraging
The Philippine Civil Affairs Unit provides speedy relief for all the people of Manila and the provinces which had been recently liberated from Japanese rule. It was first organized on New Guinea, Sept 28, 1944 and took part in Leyte campaigns. Functions: • Assist various military commanders in the civil administration and relief of areas liberated. • Paid salaries of municipal officials and teachers in the hands of America • Organized food distributing centers in Manila and provinces • Employment to laborers; paid P1.00 daily with food or P1.20 without food. • Provided consumer goods to wholesaler at fixed price
On March 7, 1945, President Sergio Osmeña signed an Executive Order providing restoration the executive departments of the government as they existed before the war. (However, it is dated Feb 27)
NEW FEATURE: Creation of the Department of Information as a part of the Department of Public Instruction.
President Sergio Osmeña
Gen. Mac Arthur made important decisions for Pres. Osmeñabehind Roxas’ drive for presidency, for he considered him the “man of the hour”, the “strong man who could save the Philippines in a critical period. He believed it was “impossible to start things without calling the Philippine Congress to a session Senate Pres. Manuel Roxas, whose ambition was to be President, spoke for the so-called collaborationists by declaring that that all men who were employed during the Japanese occupation were actually loyal to the Commonwealth Govt.(it was his way of winning to his side the powerful members of the Nacionalista Party who worked, willingly or unwillingly, for the enemy. Roxas was offered by Osmeña to go to Washington as Philippine Resident Commissioner but he turned down the offer On May 26, Roxas instructed his men to launch his candidacy. He promised that if elected he would recommend the passage of a Back Pay Law. Pres. Osmeña, unassuming and cool under fire, did not want to convoke Congress on the ground that it might fall into the hands of collaborators (the government suspected of treason). On June 9: he called a special session of Congress because of the policy of the American government to restore constitutional government as soon as law and order had been established. He called the Congress to a regular session on July. The government employees demanded also for back pay and held demonstration at Malacañang to compel Osmeña to promise them back pay but he promised nothing for there was no money with which to pay the government employees.
Pres. Roosevelt on June 29, 1944 stated that those who collaborated
with the enemy should be removed from “authority and influence over the political and economic life of the country”. On August 14, Congress had a special session, two bills were presented providing for the creation of a court to try the so-called collaborators; Osmeña realized it was
unsatisfactory, presented an administration measure. Roxas maneuvered to have the Osmeña bill toned down. It was on Sept. 11- American Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes reminded Osmeña of the late Pres. Roosevelt’s policy regarding collaboration. It was clear that the American Govt. wanted Osmeña to deal with the collaborationists firmly, that is why the Osmeña bill, with some modifications, was passed.
PEOPLES’S COURT: handled all cases of collaboration
THREE YEARS OF ENEMY OCCUPATION - Senator Claro M. Recto’s brilliant book that was published in 1946. This was cause of those who wanted all collaborators jailed was weakened
When Roxas won the presidency in 1946, he solved the collaboration issue by proclaiming amnesty to all political prisoners, for he was also a collaborator, having been active in in Laurel’s Government. Senator Recto refused to be amnestied, believing in the justice of his cause. He fought his legal battles with the People’ Court and won an acquittal.
Pres. Franklin Roosevelt (above) and Sen. Claro Mayo Recto (bottom).
Senator Millard Tydings was sent to the Philippines to make the survey of the actual damage inflicted by the enemy on the Philippines. A misunderstanding with Mac Arthur led him to conclude the recommendation of giving $100,000,000 to the Philippines for rehabilitation and reconstruction. He also recommended that the pre-war trade and relations between Philippines and US be continued for a period of 3-5 years American Congress voted $120,000,000 for rehabilitation of public buildings, road and bridges. A law providing for $75,000,000 for budgetary purposes and another $25,000,000 for the redemption of guerilla notes used as currency during the occupation was also passed. On top of this, the American Army surplus, worth $1B but with a sale value of P100,000,000, was turned over to the Phil. Government. For reconstruction purposes, the US Reconstruction and Finance Corporation granted a loan of $60,000,000 to the Philippines.
Senator Millard Tydings
Bell Trade Relations Act: provided for free trade relations between US and Phils. until 1954. Goods coming from the US and from the Philippines would be taxed 5% tariff increase every year until the full 100% was reached in 1974 . The bad feature of the law was the provision giving “parity” rights to the Americans —this meant that the Filipinos would have to amend the Constitution w/c provides that only corporations of w/c the Filipinos owned at least 60% could dispose, exploit, develop, and utilize the public lands and their mineral resources Tydings Rehabilitation Act: complement to the Bell Trade Relations Act that provided for an outlay of $620,000,000 to be given to those who suffered damage during the war, but with a condition that no amount in excess of $500 would be given unless and until an agreement had been reached by the Presidents of the Phils. and US regarding trade relations between the two countries
RESULTS OF THE 1946 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION President
Manuel A. Roxas
July 4, 1946: proclamation of the Philippine independence and Roxas became the first President of the Republic
1.The rebuilding of the “economy that was broken and destroyed by war” 2.The industrialization of the country 3.The encouragement of the of Filipinos “to participate in all the operations of the new economy at all its levels” 4.Devotion “to the ideals of an indivisible world” 5.Close cooperation with the US 6.Restoration of the “role of law and government as the arbiter of right among the people
President Manuel A. Roxas
The world of 1948 was in turmoil. The Berlin Crisis was coming to a head with the Soviet Union creating trouble spots all over Europe. The US was looking in all directions for allies. So in March 1948,the military authorities of Clark Air Base invited Roxas to make a public statement on the loyalty of the Philippines. He accepted the invitation and delivered a major speech at the Kelly Theater on April15, 1948. His loyalty speech was received with tremendous ovation. He was not feeling well. At 9:30 pm, an American army officer noticed that Roxas made a sudden gasp, and in a few minutes, President Roxas was dead.
Vice-President Elpidio Quirino took his oath of office as President of the Philippines two days after Roxas’ death. He announced that his program would consist in restoring the faith and confidence of the people in the government (due to rampant graft and corruption of the Liberal Party) and in the restoration of peace and order
His program of government were: 1. government reorganization to achieve efficiency at all levels of the bureaucracy 2. immediate increase in production to give employment to thousands of idle laborers 3. vigorous and honest enforcement of tax laws 4. preservation of national integrity 5. continued friendly relations with the countries of the world
President Elpidio Quirino
Agoncillo, Teodoro A. 1990. History of the Filipino People. 8 th ed. Quezon City: Garotech Publishing. p p . 4 1 0 - 4 3 0
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