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Bernoulli'sPrinciple

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Bernoulli'sPrinciple

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Bernoulli'sPrinciple

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Bernoulli'sEquation

Bernoulli'sPrinciple
Conservationofenergy,whenappliedtofluidsinmotion,leadstoBernoullisPrinciple.BernoullisPrinciple
statesthatfluidsmovingathighervelocitiesleadtolowerpressures,andfluidsmovingatlowervelocitiesresult
inhigherpressures.
Airplanewingshavealargertopsurfacethanabottomsurfacetotakeadvantageofthisfact.Astheairmoves
acrossthelargertopsurface,itmustmovefasterthantheairtravelingashorterdistanceunderthebottom
surface.Thisleadstoalowerpressureontopofthewing,andahigherpressureunderneaththewing,providing
someoftheliftfortheaircraft(notethatthisisnttheonlycauseoflift,asNewtons3rdLawalsoplaysa
criticalroleinunderstandingthedynamicsofflight).

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Bernoulli'sPrinciple

Thisprincipleisalsousedinsailboats,carburetors,gasdeliverysystems,andevenwaterpoweredsumppumps!
ExpressingBernoullisPrinciplequantitatively,youcanrelatethepressure,velocity,andheightofaliquidina
tubeatvariouspoints.

Thepressureatapointinthetubeplushalfthedensityofthefluidmultipliedbythesquareofitsvelocityatthat
point,addedtothegaugepressureofthefluid(gy),mustbeequalatanypointinthetube.

Question:Watersitsinalargeopenjugataheightof0.2mabovethespigot.Withwhatvelocity
willthewaterleavethespigotwhenthespigotisopened?

Answer:Sincethetopofthejugandthespigotarebothopentoatmosphere,thepressuresP1and
P2mustbeequal.Sincethejugismuchlargerthanthespigot,youcanassumethevelocityofthe
wateratthetopofthejugisnearlyzero.ThisallowsyoutosimplifyBernoullisEquation
considerably.

Sincethedensityofthefluidisthesamethroughout,youcandosomealgebraicsimplificationto
solveforv2.

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Bernoulli'sPrinciple

ThisisknownasTorricellisTheorem.Sincethedifferenceinheightis0.2m,youcannoweasily
solveforthevelocityofthewateratthespigot.

Noticethatthisisthesameresultyouwouldobtainifyouhadsolvedforthevelocityofanobject
droppedfromaheightof0.2metersusingthekinematicequations...thisshouldmakesense,as
BernoullisEquationisreallyjustarestatementofconservationofenergy,appliedtofluids!

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