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Background Materials
Angelita Gregorio-Medel
Department of Social Welfare and Development, Philippines
October 2014

Paper presented during the NUM Leadership Conference, National University of Mongolia,
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, on 14 October 2014.

Context: Mongolia Growing and Transforming


Mongolia has been blessed with an abundance of mineral resources. One will
note that over the past 20 years, Mongolia has transformed itself from a lowincome, underdeveloped country to a vibrant middle income one with a
booming economy. The country is undergoing major transformation driven by
increased commodity revenues from the exploitation of its vast mineral
resources accompanied by high foreign investor entry and the consequent
jump in the share of mining in GDP that approximately stands at 20 percent,
twice the ratio of a decade ago. The economy grew double digit in
consecutive years - by 11.7% in 2013, 12.3% in 2012, and 17.5 in 2011,
compared to 6.4 percent GDP growth in 2010. Although GDP is expected to
remain in double-digits over the course of the next years, the first half of 2014
showed a more modest 5.3% due to several global financial factors.
Economic forecasts peg the Mongolian GDP at around 12% for year-end.


This economic growth has translated into benefits for the people of Mongolia.
In the mid 2000 high mineral prices combined with the discovery of world
class copper, gold and coal deposits in the Gobi region set off an exploration
boom and brought in large government revenues, with unprecedented
opportunities to increase public sector spending. The new opportunities
offered the chance for Mongolia to build on the significant achievements
made since the countrys dual transition to democracy and a market economy
in 1990. These include strong macroeconomic performance, high literacy and
education levels, advanced public financial management, and a decline in
poverty incidence. The Government is widely manifesting its commitment to
reform, (e.g., on policy reforms in fiscal, social welfare, banking and mining
policy; public financial management; mining licensing; and the Extractive
Industries Transparency Initiative EITI), among many others.


EITI implementation plays a key role in strengthening resource revenue

management and transparency. The accelerated mining sector development
has consequently resulted in an acute demand for elaborating relevant legal
instruments and regulation of the fiscal, economic, social welfare,
environment, and political sectors. To illustrate, with mining development, the
environmental effects like increased chemical use and other related concerns
make the crafting, passage, and implementation of new legal frameworks and
policies imperative.


Background Materials
Angelita Gregorio-Medel
Department of Social Welfare and Development, Philippines
October 2014


But in common with many natural resource-rich developing countries,

Mongolia is struggling to convert its newfound opportunities into sustainable
development results. As revenues expanded and public expenditures rapidly
increase, Mongolian government initiated broad reforms both on the policy
and service delivery front. Revenue windfalls were quickly converted into
across-the-board increases in social transfers, civil service salaries, and
public investments. This of course spurned rising expectations as the public
looked forward to improved quality of life for themselves and Mongolian
society as a whole.


However, these rapid increases stretched the economys absorptive capacity,

contributing to inflation that averaged 12.57% from 2007 to the present. With
its newfound mining wealth and associated challenges, Mongolia is now at a


Specifically, because mining1 a main resource now fueling growth and

development in Mongolia, governance across the mining value chain from
mining policies on licensing to extraction to revenue collection to
development investments and development results are key that will greatly
chart the course for Mongolias path towards overcome the natural resource
paradox and convert its mineral resources into a natural resource blessing.


Given the complexity and challenges posed by a goal of achieving

sustainable and inclusive growth, Mongolia is faced with the need to
strengthen institutional and societal capacity to


Efficiently manage not only public revenues and limit the negative
effects what is infamously called the curse of resource rich countries
like the Dutch Disease;
Allocate its resources effectively among spending, investing, and
saving through sound public finance management;
Further reduce poverty (27.4 as of 2012) and improve the wellbeing of
the people; and
Offer equal opportunities to all its citizens in both urban and rural

It needs strive towards these development objectives in a manner, which

protects the environment and intergenerational equity. Some of the more
specific are other challenges and problems facing such as: pollution, urban-

Although Mongolia has been blessed with an abundance of mineral resources, recent years have highlighted the opportunities
and risks that come with Mongolias vast mineral endowment also known as the natural resource paradox. Mining is a major
industrial activity in Mongolia today, making up 30% of all Mongolian industry. Mongolia's mining sector is a major contributor
to the national economy: in 2012 it represented 18% of GDP and 67% of GIP. Major exports include copper, gold, molybdemum,
coal and fluorspar concentrates. The Oyu Tolgoi copper and gold project is expected to account for one third of GDP by 2020.


Background Materials
Angelita Gregorio-Medel
Department of Social Welfare and Development, Philippines
October 2014

rural disparities, in-migration to UB, water and sanitation, health, housing,

decline in agricultural production, etc.



The resource paradox amplifies the reality that resource endowment has both
a yin-yang dimension. At the same time that resources from mining allow for
increased revenue it is also accompanied by many problems and challenges.

Gaps and Needs

Gains and Potential for Mongolia


Mongolia has achieved much and more could be gained from its resource
endowments and accomplishments but gaps and needs must be carefully
identified, options generated, risks assessed, priorities set, and well designed
interventions made to balance long-term goals with short-term achievements.
However, balancing these two is a serious concern of public management,
leadership, and good governance.


Part of the major decisions and strategies will involve investing in human capital
and strengthening institutions, directing the growing commodity revenues into
infrastructure, and diversifying the economy by strengthening the key economic
sectors of agriculture, manufacturing, and service sectors. Embedded in these
are the necessary political strategies to address the wicked problems that beset
all public authorities. These types of problems are especially manifested in
Mongolian society today as it addresses the challenges of resource extraction
and management of the mining industry.

What are Wicked problems

Wicked problems are those pesky, irresolvable issues, and highly contested matters
resistant to change that go to the heart of staunchly held beliefs, embedded practices, and
long standing structures that need unbundling in the change processes towards achieving
the goals of inclusive growth and Sustainable Development in Mongolia.

Wicked problems often crop up when facing constant change or unprecedented

challenges. They occur in a social context; the greater the disagreement
among stakeholders, the more wicked the problem. In fact, it is the social
complexity of wicked problems as much as their technical difficulties that make
them tough to manage.


The descriptor wicked is used, not in the sense of evil, but rather as an issue
highly resistant to full and permanent resolution. Successfully solving or at least
managing wicked policy problems requires a reassessment of some of the
traditional ways of working and solving problems and even the configuration
and basis of relationships among key stakeholders.


Background Materials
Angelita Gregorio-Medel
Department of Social Welfare and Development, Philippines
October 2014


Many policy issues facing Mongolia today as exemplified in the mining industry
are at a level of complexity that they can be called wicked problems. For the
resource extraction sector and affected communities there are an array of
challenges embedded in the industrys production and profit paradigm, the
remoteness of mineral reserves and affected communities expectations of
economic benefit and a positive legacy. The mining industry as a whole is
dominated by economic, political, legislative and market structures that
influence and constrain interactions between mine operations and local
communities. For communities in MOngolia, as well as those in some parts of
Africa and Australia are beset with intractable problems including the
uncertainty of, yet increasing dependence on, a mining economy. Questionable
outcomes for local communities include the limited realization of local
employment and business development benefits, and low overall outcomes or
low multiplier effects.


Wicked problems are best addressed via collaboration. In some parts of North
America for example, with mining and infrastructure construction underway,
alliances have formed between mining companies, the major port and rail
infrastructure project and regional and local governance stakeholders. The
major impetus for these affiliations is to expedite planning and associated
infrastructure development taking into account the lessons from other mineralled regions. What has resulted is an array of innovative approaches to stubborn
problems including planning well in advance of full-scale mining; regionally
coordinated procurement; mine ready local businesses; and strategic
investments in social infrastructure; including community trust funds paid in
advance of project delivery.


Another wicked problem could be seen in how rapid urbanization and old
industrial growth policies in the past caused Mongolia's deteriorating
environmental conditions. The burning of soft coal coupled with thousands of
factories in Ulaanbaatar and a sharp increase in individual motorization has
resulted in severe air pollution. Deforestation, overgrazed pastures, and, less
recently, efforts to increase grain and hay production by plowing up more virgin
land have increased soil erosion from wind and rain.


Questions begging to be addressed


Mongolia is on a cusp of a transformation and has the unique opportunity

to overcome many of the development challenges it has faced in the past.
The wicked problems can be stated through the following questions:

How could it manage public revenues efficiently and ensure that urgent
and important policies and services are rendered while balancing sectoral
and community concerns?


Background Materials
Angelita Gregorio-Medel
Department of Social Welfare and Development, Philippines
October 2014

How could it allocate its resources effectively and equitably among

spending, investing (infrastructure and human development; short-tem
and long-term goals), and saving?
How could it reduce poverty and offer equal opportunities to all its citizens
be it in urban or rural areas providing all the chance to improve their
well-being while supporting business interests to flourish?
How could the external interests including foreign relations agenda of
investors be addressed while ensuring national-domestic and community
How could the available natural resources be exploited and provide for
necessary capital for growth and development in a way that will conserve
and preserve the environment and provide for measures of sustainable
How could it institute good governance practices as it navigates the
chaotic road of transforming traditional culture and political patronage
while staying sensitive to the particular cultural values of Mongolian
How could it best engage and capacitate CSO and citizens to be partners
in national development and provide for much needed community
livelihood, at the same time, addressing wicked problems?
How could it focus on presenting broader and deeper policy perspectives
regarding political and economic concerns rather than only sectoral and
access to specific social services.
How could it hit the balance of open government and attending
immediately to political exigencies brought about by the constant power
dynamics in governance that requires security and public safety


Such decisions (and their implementation) will require not only a higher level of
institutional capacity in line with other middle-income countries but more so the
social capital and political astuteness. These will be greatly influenced by the
depth and speed by which the polity and the state could work in tandem to hurdle
the complex and wicked challenges of achieving inclusive growth and genuine
quality of life for Mongolian citizens.


Such a task described above will require a quality of governance as well

citizenship from Mongolians. Effective citizen engagement with the government
and engagement in civic activities play a crucial role in promoting the quality of
governance. Public participation and citizen engagement are essential for
governance towards sustainable development and inclusive growth, as, it
strengthens the relationship between citizens and local government and provides
the space for their partnership.

Public Participation and Citizen Engagement


Background Materials
Angelita Gregorio-Medel
Department of Social Welfare and Development, Philippines
October 2014



The legal definition of the word citizen goes - Person who is entitled to all the
legal rights and privileges granted by a state, and is obligated to obey its laws
and to fulfill his or duties as called upon. Hence, members or citizens of nationstates have certain roles and responsibilities to society and the environment.
Although rights are often written down as part of law, responsibilities are not as
well defined, and there may be disagreements among the citizens as to what the
responsibilities are. For example, voting may be listed as a responsibility, yet it is
not compulsory.
The UN regards citizen engagement in public administration to be implying the

involvement of citizens in decision-making process of the State through

measures and/or institutional arrangements - so as to increase their influence on
public policies and programmes ensuring a more positive impact on their social
and economic lives (Source: United Nations Public Administration Country Studies
(UNPACS) - Citizen Engagement Research and Content Development Methodology)


The kind of engagement that transforms a person is more than mere

participation. It is risk-taking, spontaneous, socially supported, heart-pounding
co-creation. It involves contestation and consensus building and thus continuing
and open communication is imperative.


Engagement requires trust and trust building which is essentially built on shared
data and information, reasoned negotiation, collaborative problem solving and
grievance resolution. Trust is never constant it shifts and like a bank account it
could gain from deposits of good faith and positive experiences and gets debited
during times of stressful disagreements marked by perceived failure to abide by

Citizen Engagement: What It Is vs. What Its Not

Involves citizens (individuals, not
representatives) in policy or program
o Agenda-setting and planning to
decision-making, implementation
and review
Requires two way communication
regarding policy or program change
(interactive and iterative); also called
double-loop communication
o between government and
o among citizens; and
o among citizens and civil
society groups


Engages exclusively the leaders in
authority of stakeholder groups or
representatives thereof.

Involves participants only in last

phase of policy development or when
basic decisions have already been


Background Materials
Angelita Gregorio-Medel
Department of Social Welfare and Development, Philippines
October 2014

Aims to share decision-making power

and responsibility for those decisions

Includes forums and processes

through which citizens come to an
opinion which is informed and
Generates innovative ideas and active

Seeks approval for a pre-determined

choice of alternatives

Contributes to collective problem

solving and prioritization (deliberation)

Constitutes participation in a program

where no decision-making power is
granted regarding the shape or
course of the policy or program

Requires that information and process

be transparent and concrete policies
government data to the public are in
Builds mutual respect between all
participants and trust in government
and its representatives

Laws on transparency land freedom of

information are put in place but not
actively applied and resourced

Citizens and counterpart government

representatives forms connections

Intends to fulfill public consultation

obligations without a genuine interest
in infusing the decision with the
opinions sought
Includes public opinion polls and
many focus group exercises


Rather than seeking a unified definition of citizenship that covers all dimensions
of human action, entitlement and belonging, we are interested in the everyday,
and often highly contingent and improvisational, negotiations and performances
through which people define and pursue their desires and aspirations.


How citizenship is perceived, understood and enacted depends, then, on the kind
of states citizens are in. The mutually constitutive nature of the state-citizen
relationship, and the extent to which different kinds of states make different kinds
of citizenships possible, is something that is curiously muted in prevailing
governance discourses in development.

Different Framing and Perspectives2


Citizen engagement vs. public opinion poll.

Polls represent raw information that does not consider the processing of
complex information that is vital for an informed choice.
Citizen engagement provides forums for citizens to process complex
information so that they can come to a deeper understanding of a situation
and thus become capable of making a well-founded choice.

Lukensmeyer, C.J. & Lars Hasselblad Torres (2006). Public Deliberation: A Managers Guide to Citizen
Engagement. Washington, DC: The IBM Center for the Business of Government.


Background Materials
Angelita Gregorio-Medel
Department of Social Welfare and Development, Philippines
October 2014


Citizen engagement vs. negotiations with stakeholder groups.

Stakeholder representatives often come to the table with firmly entrenched
positions that they are mandated to defend.
Citizen engagement, which can be structured as a complementary process to
stakeholder engagement, aims to include citizens in processes, as individuals
who represent themselves. Public interest groups sit somewhere between
citizens and stakeholders--they take a public interest perspective and may or
may not have pre-determined positions that they bring to policy discussions.


Citizen engagement vs. public involvement.

Public involvement is an umbrella term that generally refers to the

spectrum of methods with which to consult, engage or involve
citizens and stakeholder groups in policy or program development

Citizen engagement is one of many theories, methods or

approaches that fit within the concept of public involvement.

Citizen engagement vs. citizen participation

Citizen participation can and does take many formsincluding
public hearings, citizen advisory councils, public comment periods,
and community boards within four interconnected levels:
communication, consultation, engagement, and collaboration.
However, we need to focus on particular forms of citizen
engagement that emphasize (1) information processing over
information exchange, and (2) empowerment over communication.

Engagement as Relationship and Involvement


CitizenGovernment Relationship
The vibrant relationship between civil society/citizens and the state sets
the basic conditions of governance. This relationship, which is
essentially conflicting, can become symbiotic and critical to achieving
good governance and sustained progress.
There is a fundamental misunderstanding regarding the role of civic
engagement in development.


Engagement is perceived as existing in the absence of a robust state. It is also

often held that the presence of a strong state reduces the space for and scope of
civic engagement. However, the existence of a healthy and active civil society
does not preclude the existence of a robust state, and vice versa.


The changing conditions of the relationship between the government and civil
society is determined by many contextual factors, a fundamental example of
which is the political regime and the type of approach a government adopts


Background Materials
Angelita Gregorio-Medel
Department of Social Welfare and Development, Philippines
October 2014

toward organized interests. James Manor identifies seven possible types of

strategies governments may adopt3:
Laissez-faire approach: A passive approach that refrains from strong
engagement with civil society but may enable the organization of
Combination of conflictive and harmonic relationships: A strategic
approach in which government seeks to create factions among civil
society by establishing alliances with some groups while confronting
Repression of all manifestations of citizens organized interest: An
approach usually adopted by autocratic governments.
Cooptation approach: Governments seek to co-opt some or all
interests in an attempt to control civil society through relationships of
Patronage approach: Similar to the cooptation approach. However,
this approach usually divides citizens interests along clientelistic
Proactive engagement: Governments seek to mobilize all or the
majority of organized interests in order to build political consensus.
This approach may create a climate of strong citizen engagement in
public debate and action, however it can surpass the boundaries of
independent and critical mobilization.

However, citizens also implement their own strategies in defining their

relationship with the state. Four main civic engagement strategies can be
Confrontation strategy: Citizens view government as the main
obstacle for achieving their objectives. This confrontation strategy
usually gives way to social and political unrest and therefore to the
narrowing of civic freedoms.
Parallel track strategy: Citizens decide not to engage with the
government and instead establish a set of parallel services that they
themselves deliver directly to their clients and constituencies. There is
limited or inexistent engagement between citizens/CSOs and public
institutions, and a competition for external resources and local
Selective collaboration: A strategy that combines collaboration on
specific fronts and a critical distance, or even confrontation, on others.
This strategy usually leads to complex tensions within citizens and
between citizens and the government, though it also opens up
dynamic spaces for negotiation and constructive engagement.
Full endorsement: Citizens fully engage and endorse government
objectives and policies.

Governments will employ a mixture of these approaches, creating or limiting in different ways and
degrees their interaction with organized expressions of the citizenry.


Background Materials
Angelita Gregorio-Medel
Department of Social Welfare and Development, Philippines
October 2014


Given the heterogeneous nature of civil society, these strategies coexist and
establish all types of tensions among citizens and between citizens and the
government. The complex blend of government approaches to citizens frames
the specific formula of the governance equation.


Citizen Engagement as Involvement

Some stated aims of Citizen Engagement focus on the involvement of
citizens with decision-makers (including the government) to deliberate
- discuss and address important public policy issues, in order to
improve quality of life:
o Inform and educate the public about important policy issues.
o Improve government decisions by supplying better information
upward from citizens to decision makers.
o Create opportunities and identify/learn ways for citizens to
deliberate, shape and, in some cases influence public policy
making and be ready to pay the cost of engaging government
and getting involved. The cost may be in the form of time,
opportunity cost, and relational in nature
o Validate and legitimize government decisions by ensuring that the
voices of those directly affected by government policy have been
heard, considered, and addressed.
o Involve citizens in monitoring the outcomes of policy for
o Build/restore/Improve citizens trust of government and thereby
stimulate citizen engagement.
Citizen engagement is not about claim making for personal agenda.
The action resulting from it uplifts common interests. To be engaged
is not only about working at legitimate and valid goals (including selfinterest and matters of moral standards) but also considerate of the
political system and political culture. ``````` A citizen practices
tolerance and embraces diversity even chaotic deliberations and
consensus building activities. Citizens allow and participate in
deliberative argumentations where evidence and reasons count?4


The depth and range of citizen engagement has much to say about a
countrys political system and culture. It does not mean favoring any ideology
but even ideological and even self-interested participation is also citizen
engagement and is essential to the system of promoting basic rights.
Engagement isa democratic exercise, an exercise of citizenship, an
exercise of power.

Levine, Peter (2007). The Future of Democracy: Developing the Next generation of American Citizen.
Medford MA: Tufts University Press.



Background Materials
Angelita Gregorio-Medel
Department of Social Welfare and Development, Philippines
October 2014


Citizen engagement is not the equivalent of public participation. Widespread

approaches and methods to public participation in decision processes reflect a
mechanical, top-down course that does not maximize the advantage of interstakeholder collaboration and meaningful participation of the public.
7.10 The most common techniques for citizen engagement, most of which have
been mandated by law, are public hearings, citizen advisory councils, and
public comment periods. While these are necessary tools for information
exchange, they are unsatisfactory approaches to promote information
processing and citizen empowerment.
7.11 One of the strengths of citizen engagement is that it takes government out of
the middle roleas broker for all information in tactics where people do not
get to hear each others viewpoint. It helps the government to become a
convener and manager of knowledge, fostering higher levels of understanding,
collaboration, and empowerment within the public.
7.12 The most successful citizen participation efforts are those that appreciate
engagement as a series of interconnected, developmental choices that have
more to do with what level of involvement along the policy developmentimplementation continuum than any single technique for one-off activities
that fulfill statutory requirements. It is necessary to think about the role you
want the public to play:
Or empower them to make a decision?
8. Challenges to Citizen Engagement
8.1 Need to ensure an accurate representation of a variety of interests in
There is a need to manage the risk of unfair dialogue when only a
small number of CSOs are deliberately selected because they are
friendly organizations predisposed to government cooperation. This
result to civil societys vulnerability to politicization by government
officials and political party leaders.
Stakeholders sometimes believe that true and objective information
could only be acquired from the government. Media tend go to
government as the only source of true information and preferably from
government officials - the higher the position the greater the truth.5
8.2 Lack of trust in government. Practice of citizen engagement in different
countries shows a low participation due to lack of trust in government. This
barrier might be felt right away or in repeated organization of participative

The Enabling Environment for Social Accountability in Mongolia:



Background Materials
Angelita Gregorio-Medel
Department of Social Welfare and Development, Philippines
October 2014

Mongolias corruption ranking has managed to drop (120th place out

of 180 countries surveyed by Transparency International).6
Electoral tactics and strategies of gaining votes became a major
concern, and public trust in the institutions of democracy been
compromised. 7
In a survey conducted in June 2012, over 80 percent of respondents
believed that government policies were always or often failing to
solve their concerns, namely unemployment and poverty.8

Limited resources. A proper consultation process requires resources:

expertise, software, logistics, etc., especially if implemented at the local
level. Below are some practical examples on how to address the problem of
Mongolia Internet is far from perfect, but nevertheless Mongolia has
improved its communications capability dramatically in just two years.
The country has an underdeveloped infrastructure.9

9. Participation and Engagement happens best closer to the ground




Public participation and citizen engagement is nourished as it goes closer to

the ground. Decentralized processes are more conducive to participation
and engagement of the most number within the given structures of
governance in any country. It is important to ask how decentralization is
necessary to ensure an efficient administration that is at the same time
adjusted to the needs of citizens and their ability to control it.10
Local representative democracy is expanded by strengthening local public
bodies, since local representation of citizens and financial autonomy of local
authorities vis-a-vis the national government is vital.
Elected local representatives need to be responsible, competent, committed,
and capable of deciding over local development revenue management and
governance especially in the mining sector. Good governance principles of
participation, transparency and accountability will necessitate the open
sharing of data and information about local finance from budget to
disbursement. They need to account for revenues and expenses and link
them to actual outputs.
According to Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum11, a capability is
the actual capacity to perform basic human functionings and
competently deliver the expected results in terms of well being and

Tuya, Nyamosor (April 2013). Democracy and Poverty: A Lesson from Mongolia,


INCOSAD framework.
From the blog of Tufts University philosopher Peter Levine,



Background Materials
Angelita Gregorio-Medel
Department of Social Welfare and Development, Philippines
October 2014

quality of life. As an example he sites: So, if I can afford food, if I am

allowed to eat, if I have time for a meal, and if I am in normal health,
then I have the capability to eat. Whether I choose to eat is basically
my business, but a better society is one that provides more
capabilities. Government and the state have the duty to provide
opportunities to acquire these capabilities.
Note the emphasis on government as the agent. Treating the state or
government as an agent puts it in the position of actively ensuring that
the state/government acts well effectively and efficiently with
integrity. Acting well could be equiated to good governance in terms of
the processes as well as the actual achieved results.
Citizens also have the civic obligation to secure capabilities for fellow
citizens. For example, citizens frame constitutions that will be
interpreted by courts and administrators, and they reflect about social
issues that affect the delivery of capabilities. Whether a government
would secure any particular capability is a worthy question. The state
has the ability to make rights and entitlements official. But they have
known frailties, too: a tendency to corruption and limited ability to limit
the bad behavior of citizens. Leaders must draw the connection and
overlapping links of


But that raises the question of how we are to get good citizens. Good
governments help make good citizens, but it does not make sense to
people who live in imperfect societies, with bad laws and leaders and
short-sighted or even hateful fellow citizens. We need to understand how
rights and citizenship are shaped by differing social, political and cultural


Capacity Development

ADB (2007) describes capacity as the ability of people, organizations, and

society as a whole to manage their affairs successfully. Capacity development is
a change process that is internal to the agent whose capacity is being developed
towards a defined objective. It happens over time and investment in terms of
clear understanding of the present state of capacity as well as desired change



Background Materials
Angelita Gregorio-Medel
Department of Social Welfare and Development, Philippines
October 2014

any given future time. Since is an internally driven process of change, capacity
building involves a range of multiple and overlapping stakeholders and elements.


On the national and local levels, capacity development points to the notion of
groups of citizens working together for their own mutual betterment.
On the community level, such capacity development covers all
aspects of the community: economic, ecological, political and sociocultural. The community tries to find approaches and solutions to
economic or social opportunities and challenges.
Capacity development is a deliberate community-driven process
whether at the local or national levels. It requires a collaboration of a
set of stakeholders and groups acting as a community with shared
needs or goals, It is aimed at change, improving present situations of
citizens and growth focusing on assets or access to resources and
services that support both economic and social foundations. Capacity
building is the engagement of a social process which entails elements
of the entire social agenda.


Capacity development for government (local and national) may also refer to the
responsible joint decision-making processes about various aspects of the
community, e.g. local economic development focused on mining, agricultural
development, eco-tourism, etc. This is where the integrity aside from technical
competency of government representatives and the policies they legislate or
enforce and contracts they forge and manage are equally important.


It is useful to consider the objectives of capacity development for citizen

engagement within the context of an entire policy cycle: from the (1) review of
existing policies, to the (2) identification, (3) design and (4) implementation of
new and fresh policies, to the monitoring and evaluation of the improved policies.
The design of programs on capacity development should follow the stages of the
policy cycle, rather than only one element or a subset of elements.


The demand for capacity development is being expressed clearly as it deals

about leadership and management of human resources, institutional
arrangements, knowledge access and learning, and state-society accountability
mechanisms that push for and lead to greater human development. While some
would still argue that we must replace management with leadership this is
obviously not so: they serve different, yet essential, functions. We need superb
management. And we need more superb leadership. We need to be able to
make our complex organizations reliable and efficient.


The following are some of the capacity development needs in the area of citizen
engagement in public finance management of Mongolian citizens with regards
extractive industry based on the identified gaps and challenges.
Understanding of social accountability and citizen/CSO engagement



Background Materials
Angelita Gregorio-Medel
Department of Social Welfare and Development, Philippines
October 2014

Experience with some social accountability tools (budget review, PM,

social audit)
Capacity gaps in project management
Sustaining initiatives and activities (including funding support)
Different perspective on issues (e.g., extractive industries)
Building indigenous capacity to examine mineral policy choices
by looking at international studies and the experiences of other
resource-rich countries.
Strengthening demand-side social accountability activities that
strengthen good governance at fundamental points in the mining
value chain.
Building capacity to analyze water resources, which are highly
vulnerable to climate change and are facing serious pollution challenges
from mining and urban management.
Capacity to access information. Although a law on freedom of
information took effect in 2011, much still needs to be done on the side
of both government to put up the mechanisms and implement the law, to
build capability of the government personnel, and deconstruct some
practices and habits that do not help them adapt to the change. 12
Likewise , CSOs, NGOs and citizen groups awareness of the law, of
means and ways to make it work for them are in the nascent stage.

10.7 It is argued that there are 4 key elements that shape the ultimate success of a
capacity development project: 13
The desired outcome or goal of the capacity building activity
The change strategy selected to realize that goal
The champions guiding the effort
The time, energy and money invested in the process Building the
capacity of a society or a country to provide for the welfare of its citizens
and achieve growth as well as development
11. Capacity Development for Citizen Engagement: Civic Education and Citizenship

The Mongolian national development agenda is strongly evidencing the need for an open and
inclusive consultation process engaging people directly in deliberative and consultative
negotiations and contestation in defining such process. Governance norms especially if premised
on principles of good governance must reflect principles of inclusion and participation, and
promote transparent, accountable, capable institutions both at the national and local levels to
make development more dynamic, inclusive, equitable and sustainable. There is no way the
complex and wicked problems could be grappled with as the country continue to learn and lok
for ways to manage the risks and opportunities of the resource paradox facing Mongolia without
Light, P. & Hubbard, E. (2002). The capacity building challenge. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.



Background Materials
Angelita Gregorio-Medel
Department of Social Welfare and Development, Philippines
October 2014

addressing capacity development of both the government as well as its citizens including CSOs
and NGOs.
Capacity development must addresses on one side - the management or technical and on the
other side - leadership or change dimensions in instituting citizen engagement.
Technical dimension refers to the planning, organizing, staffing, and budgeting, to accomplish a
set of objectives. Its focus is establishing policy and directions so that operations and
implementation is often seen as a relatively technical, linear matter - more a question of effective
management. The aim is ensure stability and predictability of the operations.
Leadership dimension focuses on change and transformation. It involves the development of an
infrastructure to support collaboration and innovation, clarification of supportive organisational
values, and the development of competencies, particularly in entering and managing
relationships that is often conflict laden and marked by contestation. It underscores the building
of the stakeholders capability to jointly deliberate, argue and negotiate towards constructive and
productive outcome about difficult issues.
Mongolia will have to attend to both leadership and management development as it builds the
capacity of the Monoglian state/government and the Mongolian citizens to forge the dynamic
working relationship to provide the necessary conditions and support to meaningfully and
responsibly use its rich natural resource across generations.



Background Materials
Angelita Gregorio-Medel
Department of Social Welfare and Development, Philippines
October 2014


ADB. 2007. Integrating Capacity Development into Country Programs and Operations.
Medium-Term Framework and Action Plan. Manila.