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Total 60

Calculations

to concrete for most purposes including

pavements.

Concrete mixes should meet;

Workability

(slump/Vebe)

Total 60

Compressive

strength

Chapter 5 Concrete Mix Design

Calculations

Durability

(w/c ratio)

8.1.1 Measurement of workability

suitable for placing and compacting under the

site conditions.

Slump and Vebe time tests will be used (see

Table 3).

Total 60

Calculations

volume of concrete.

It is the major factor influencing the workability

of concrete.

Uncrushed aggregates require a lower water

content than crushed aggregates to make

concrete of equal workability.

The smaller the maximum size of the aggregate

the higher the water content needed.

Total 60

Calculations

content for use in the mix design at four different

levels of slump or Vebe time, with different types

and maximum sizes of aggregate.

Figure 6 shows how the fines content of the mix

should be reduced as the sand becomes finer, ie

as the percentage passing the 600 m test sieve

increases.

Total 60

Calculations

have different water requirements to produce

pastes of standard consistence.

Total 60

Calculations

8.2.1 Age at test and curing conditions

The strength development depends on the temperature and

humidity conditions during curing.

Higher temperatures increase the speed of the chemical

reaction and thus the rate of strength development.

In order to achieve higher strengths at later ages loss of water

from the concrete must be prevented (CURING).

Concrete test specimens are stored in water at a constant

temperature as specified in standards.

Total 60

Calculations

faster rate than in class 42.5 Portland cements; the

effect of this on typical concretes having a freewater/cement ratio of 0.5 is shown in Table 2.

Information available related to local materials can

be used instead of the values given in Table 2.

Total 60

Calculations

from different works and to normal variations in

production from any one works over a period of

time.

Standard deviation (s) of the strength of concrete

cubes at 28 days made with Portland cement class

42.5 from different works is about 5 N/mm2.

The standard deviation due to the variability of the

cement from a single work is about 3 N/mm2.

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Calculations

The type and source of the aggregate has a considerable influence on the

compressive strength of concrete.

Uncrushed coarse aggregate makes a concrete with a lower strength than

one with crushed coarse aggregate.

Factors such as

the type of fine aggregate,

the maximum size of aggregate,

the overall grading, and

particle shape and surface texture,

have little direct effect on the compressive strength.

Typical strength values when uncrushed or crushed coarse aggregates are

used are given in Table 2.

Total 60

Calculations

10

Figure 4 shows the the relationship between the compressive strength and

the free-water/ cement ratio.

Table 2 gives typical data for a concrete having a free water/ cement ratio

of 0.5 to give a datum point on Figure 4 appropriate to the age of test and

materials to be used.

The strength development shown in Table 2 applies to a concrete with a

cement content of about 300 kg/m3 cured in water at 20C. Such a mix

made with Portland cement class 42.5 has a 7-day strength about 70% of

that attained at 28 days.

Richer mixes initially gain strength more rapidly so that 7-day strength may

well exceed 75% of the 28-day strength.

Total 60

Calculations

11

of workability for efficient operation.

Hand-mixing is likely to produce a lower

strength concrete than machine-mixed

concrete of similar proportions.

Total 60

Calculations

12

8.3.1 Factors contributing to the overall variation

of concrete that is obtained during a job can

be considered to be made up of three

component sources which are:

- Variation in the quality of the materials used

- Variation in the mix proportions due to the

batching process

- Variation due to sampling and testing

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Calculations

13

Variation in concrete strengths follows the normal distribution such as that shown in Figure l.

The proportion of results less than some specified value is represented by the area beneath the

curve to the left-hand side of a vertical line drawn through the specified value.

This normal distribution curve is symmetrical about its mean, has a precise mathematical

equation and is completely specified by two parameters, its mean m and its standard

deviation s.

The standard deviation is a measure of the variability calculated from the equation:

where

x = an individual result

n = the number of results

m= the mean of the n results

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Calculations

14

Example

Fc1=45 MPa

Fc2=48 MPa

Fc3=44 MPa

What is standard (s) deviation and average of

these samples?

s=

Fcav= Average of results

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Calculations

15

Standard deviation increases as the specified

characteristic strength increases up to a

particular level.

This type of relationship is shown in Figure 3,

the standard deviation being independent of

the specified characteristic strength above 20

N/mm2.

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Calculations

16

There is therefore always the probability that a result will be

obtained less than the specified strength.

Specify the quality of concrete not as a minimum strength

but as a characteristic strength below which a specified

proportion of the test results, often called defectives, may

be expected to fall.

Total 60

Calculations

17

strength

where

fm = the target mean strength

fc = the specified characteristic strength

ks = the margin, which is the product of:

fm= fc+ k s

k = a constant

The constant k is derived from the mathematics of the normal distribution and increases as the

proportion of defectives is decreased, thus:

k for 5% defectives = 1.64

k for 2.5% defectives = 1.96

k for 1% defectives = 2.33

Total 60

Calculations

18

8.7.1 Flow chart of procedures

shown in Table 1.

Initial information is divided into two categories:

- specified variables, the values of which are usually

nominated in specifications,

- additional information, which is normally available to

the producer of the concrete.

This initial information is also subdivided into two categories:

- the mix parameters

- the final unit proportions

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Calculations

19

8.7.1 Flow chart of procedures

Stage 1 deals with strength leading to the free-water/cement ratio

Stage 2 deals with workability leading to the free-water Content

Stage 3 combines the results of Stages 1 and 2 to give the cement content

Stage 4 deals with the determination of the total aggregate content

Stage 5 deals with the selection of the fine and coarse aggregate contents

The mix design form shown in Table 1 is sub-divided into the same five

stages and the separate item numbers.

Total 60

Calculations

20

comprises fewer than 20 results, the standard deviation to be adopted

should be that obtained from line A in Figure 3. If previous information is

available consisting of 20 or more results, the standard deviation of such

results may be used provided that this value is not less than the appropriate

value obtained from line B. The margin can then be derived from calculation

C1:

M=kxs

.........C1

Where:

M = the margin

k = a value appropriate to the percentage defectives permitted below the

characteristic strength

s = the standard deviation.

(The margin itself may be specified directly).

Total 60

Calculations

21

(Stage 1)

strength:

fm = fc+ M .........C2

Where:

fm = the target mean strength

fc = the specified characteristic strength

M = the margin

Total 60

Calculations

22

made with a free-water/cement ratio of 0.5 according to the

specified age, the strength class of the cement and the

aggregate to be used.

This strength value is then plotted on Figure 4 and the freewater/cement ratio can then be read from the abscissa.

Compare this value with maximum free-water/cement ratio

that may be specified and the lower of these two values used.

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Calculations

23

Consists of determining the free-water content from Table 3 depending upon the

type and maximum size of the aggregate to give a concrete of the specified slump

or Vebe time.

Cement content = free-water content / free-water/cement ratio C3

The result should be checked against any maximum or minimum value that may be specified.

Total 60

Calculations

24

from Figure 5.

If no information is available assume a value of 2.6 for uncrushed aggregate

and 2.7 for crushed aggregate.

Total aggregate content is determined from calculation C4:

where

D = the wet density of concrete (kg/m3)

C = the cement content (kg/m3)

W = the free-water content (kg/m3)

Total 60

Calculations

C4

25

materials smaller than 5 mm.

Figure 6 shows recommended values for the proportion of fine aggregate

depending on the maximum size of aggregate, the workability level, the

grading of the fine aggregate (defined by its percentage passing a 600 m

sieve) and the free-water/cement ratio.

The final calculation, C5, to determine the fine and coarse aggregate

contents:

Coarse aggregate content = (total aggregate content) (fine aggregate

content)..C5

Total 60

Calculations

26

subdivided if single sized 10, 20 and 40 mm

materials are to be combined.

1 : 1.5 : 3 for combination of 10, 20 and 40 mm

Total 60

Calculations

27

use the trial mix proportions in the production

mixes

modify the trial mix proportions slightly in the

production mixes

prepare further trial mixes incorporating

major changes to the mix proportions

Total 60

Calculations

28

Typically, a 50 litre (0.05 m3) mix is sufficient to make six cubes of 150 mm

side and to carry out, separately, measurements of slump, Vebe time and

density.

The individual batch quantities (in kg) would then be equal to the

appropriate contents, multiplied by 0.05.

The British Standard allows the use of aggregates in any one of four moisture

conditions, ie

(a) oven-dry,

(b) air-dried,

(c) saturated surface-dry, or

(d) saturated by soaking in water for at least 24 hours.

Total 60

Calculations

29

Slump

Vebe time

Density

Make test cubes

Apply Normal curing on test cubes

Compression testing of cubes

Total 60

Calculations

30

(workability)

Workability

During the mixing of the trial mix an experienced technician is able to adjust the

water content by inspection if the workability of the mix is much outside the

specified range.

It is thus useful, initially, to withhold a small proportion, say 10%, of the mix water

until the technician has assessed visually that its addition is needed to achieve the

required workability.

Furthermore, if at the designed water content the workability of the trial mix appears

below that required, additional water should be added to obtain the required

workability.

Total 60

Calculations

31

measurements a change of water content may still be

needed, either for use in the production mix or for a further

trial mix, and this can be estimated by reference to Table 3.

During the measurement of workability the concrete should

also be assessed subjectively for its other rheological

properties; this may indicate a need to change the relative

aggregate proportions

Total 60

Calculations

32

(density)

Density

After the density of the fresh concrete is measured, the

resultant value is compared with the density value used during

the design.

If there is an appreciable difference, the constituent contents will

differ from those intended in the initial design.

In this case, the initial design values should be corrected by the

ratio of measured density to assumed density in order to

determine the actual masses.

Total 60

Calculations

33

(strength)

When results of the strength tests become available they are compared with the target mean strength. If

necessary an adjustment is made to the water/cement ratio by using the curves of Figure 4. Two examples

of this adjustment are shown in Figure 7, where:

B represents the free-water/cement ratio estimated for the trial mix

B' represents the actual free-water/cement ratio used in the trial mix when different from B.

C represents the strength result of the test specimens made from the trial mix.

D represents the new estimate of the free-water/cement ratio required to give the target mean strength.

Minor adjustments may be made to the mix proportions for use in production mixes without the need to carry

out further trials. Exceptionally, when large adjustments seem to be necessary to the water/cement ratio it

is advisable to make a second trial mix using the revised proportions and recalculated batch quantities

based on the updated value for density of the mix.

Total 60

Calculations

34

Example 1: unrestricted design

Characteristic compressive strength (fc) = 30 N/mm2 at 28 days,

with a 2.5% defective rate (k = 1.96)

Portland cement class 42.5

Slump required = 1030 mm

Maximum aggregate size = 20 mm (uncrushed)

Fine aggregate: 70% passing 600 m sieve (uncrushed)

Maximum free-w/c ratio = 0.55

Minimum cement content = 290 kg/m3

Maximum cement content = not specified.

Total 60

Calculations

35

ratio

CALCULATE MIX PROPORTIONS FOR FOLLOWING CONDITIONS:

Characteristic compressive strength (fc), 25 N/mm2 at 28 days

Portland cement class 42.5

Slump required, 3060 mm

Maximum aggregate size, 40 mm (fine and coarse uncrushed)

Maximum free-water/cement ratio, 0.50

Minimum cement content, 290 kg/m3

There are no previous control data but a margin of 10 N/mm2 is specified and is

used in Item 1.3.

The following information is known concerning the aggregates to be used and the

data are entered under the relevant items on the mix design form, as shown in Table

5:

Aggregate relative density = 2.5 Item 4.1

Fine aggregate, 90% passing a 600m sieve

Total 60

Calculations

36

Characteristic compressive strength (fc), 50 N/mm2 at 7 days,

defective rate 1% (k = 2.33)

Portland cement class 52.5 Item 1.5

Slump required, 3060 mm Item 2.1

Maximum aggregate size, 10 mm Item 2.2

Maximum cement content, 550 kg/m3 Item 3.2

Previous control data indicated an expected standard deviation

of 5 N/mm2 and this is used in Item 1.2.

Total 60

Calculations

37

k for 5% defectives = 1.64

k for 2.5% defectives = 1.96

k for 1% defectives = 2.33

Total 60

Calculations

38

Total 60

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39

Total 60

Calculations

40

Total 60

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41

Table 2

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Calculations

42

Table 3

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Calculations

43

Total 60

Calculations

44

to percentage passing 600 m sieve (Dmax 10 mm).

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45

to percentage passing 600 m sieve (Dmax 20 mm).

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Calculations

46

to percentage passing 600 m sieve (Dmax 40 mm).

Total 60

Calculations

47

Table 4

Total 60

Calculations

48

Table 5

Total 60

Calculations

49

Table 6

Total 60

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50

Table 7

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Calculations

51

1. Calculate the quantities of cement, water, fine aggregate and coarse

aggregate per trial mix of 0.05 m3 for the following specifications.

Characteristic compressive strength = 30 MPa at 28 days;

Defective rate = 5%;

Cement = Cement strength class 42.5;

Slump required = 10-30 mm;

Max. Aggregate size = 20 mm;

Coarse aggregate UNCRUSHED (10, 20 mm),

fine aggregate UNCRUSHED (70% pass 600 microns));

Maximum allowable free water/cement ratio = 0.55;

Minimum allowable cement content = 290 kg/m3

Total 60

Calculations

52

aggregate per trial mix of 0.08 m3 for the following specifications.

Characteristic compressive strength = 15 MPa at 28 days;

Defective rate = 5%;

Cement = Cement strength class 42.5;

Slump required = 30-60 mm;

Max. Aggregate size = 40 mm;

Coarse aggregate UNCRUSHED (10, 20 40 mm),

fine aggregate UNCRUSHED (90% pass 600 microns);

Relative density of aggregates = 2.50;

Maximum allowable free water/cement ratio = 0.50;

Minimum allowable cement content = 290 kg/m3

Total 60

Calculations

53

coarse aggregate per trial mix of 0.08 m3 for the following

specifications.

Characteristic compressive strength = 50 MPa at 28 days;

Defective rate = 1%;

Cement strength class 42.5;

Slump required = 30-60 mm;

Max. Aggregate size = 10 mm;

Coarse aggregate CRUSHED (10 mm),

fine aggregate CRUSHED (85% pass 600 microns)

Maximum allowable free water/cement ratio = 0.50;

Maximum allowable cement content = 550 kg/m3

Total 60

Calculations

54

conditions:

4. Calculate the quantities of cement, water, fine aggregate, and coarse

aggregate per trial mix of 0.05 m3 for the following specifications.

Characteristic compressive strength = 30 MPa at 28 days;

Defective rate = 5%;

Cement strength class 42.5;

Slump required = 100 mm;

Max. Aggregate size = 40 mm;

Coarse aggregate UNCRUSHED (10, 20, 40mm),

fine aggregate UNCRUSHED (80% pass 600 microns);

Maximum allowable free water/cement ratio = 0.50;

Minimum allowable cement content = 290 kg/m3

Total 60

Calculations

55

conditions:

5. Calculate the quantities of cement, water, fine aggregate, and coarse aggregate per

trial mix of 1 m3 for the following specifications.

Target mean compressive strength = 30 MPa at 7 days;

Cement strength class 42.5;

Slump required = 100 mm;

Max. Aggregate size = 20 mm;

Specific gravity of aggregates = 2.65;

Coarse aggregate UNCRUSHED (10, 20mm),

fine aggregate CRUSHED (50% pass 600 micros);

Maximum allowable free water/cement ratio = 0.40;

Minimum allowable cement content = 275 kg/m3;

Absorption of fine aggregate = 1.0%;

Absorption of coarse aggregate = 1.0%;

Total Moisture content of coarse aggregate = 3.0%;

Total Moisture content of fine aggregate = 3.0%

Total 60

Calculations

56

conditions:

6. The following requirements are specified for the mix design as follows; Make a trial mix of

0.05 m3 concrete. Show your results on Table 1.

Characteristic compressive strength = 20 MPa at 28 days;

Defective rate = 10%;

Cement strength class 42.5;

Slump required = 65 mm;

Max. Aggregate size = 40 mm;

Coarse aggregate CRUSHED (all in aggregate),

fine aggregate UNCRUSHED (70% pass 600 microns)

Relative density of aggregates = 2.65;

Maximum allowable free water/cement ratio = 0.55;

Minimum allowable cement content = 250 kg/m3 ;

Maximum allowable cement content = 350 kg/m3 ;

Absorption of fine aggregate = 2%; Absorption of coarse aggregate = 1.1%

Total Moisture content of coarse aggregate = 2.2%; Total Moisture content of fine aggregate

= 1.5%

Total 60

Calculations

57

conditions:

7. The following requirements are specified for the mix design as follows;

Characteristic compressive strength = 35 MPa at 28 days;

Defective rate = 2.5%;

Cement strength class 52.5;

Slump required = 100 mm;

Max. Aggregate size = 20 mm;

Coarse aggregate CRUSHED (10, 20mm),

fine aggregate UNCRUSHED (55% pass 600 microns)

Relative density of aggregates = 2.75;

Maximum allowable free water/cement ratio = 0.50;

Minimum allowable cement content = 285 kg/m3 ;

Maximum allowable cement content = 400 kg/m3;

Absorption of fine aggregate = 1.8%; Absorption of coarse aggregate = 1.2%

Total Moisture content of coarse aggregate = 2.3%; Total Moisture content of fine aggregate =

3.4%

Make a trial mix of 0.08 m3 concrete. Show your results on Table 1.

Total 60

Calculations

58

conditions:

8. The following requirements are specified for the mix design as follows;

Characteristic compressive strength = 25 MPa at 28 days;

Defective rate = 5%;

Cement strength class 42.5;

Slump required = 35 mm;

Max. Aggregate size = 20 mm;

Coarse aggregate CRUSHED (all in aggregate),

fine aggregate CRUSHED (90% pass 600 microns)

Relative density of aggregates = 2.75;

Maximum allowable free water/cement ratio = 0.55;

Minimum allowable cement content = 250 kg/m3;

Absorption of fine aggregate = 1.5%;

Absorption of coarse aggregate = 1.0%;

Total Moisture content of coarse aggregate = 3.0%

Total Moisture content of fine aggregate = 2.0%

Make a trial mix of 0.05 m3 concrete. Show your results on Table 1.

Total 60

Calculations

59

conditions:

9. The following requirements are specified for the mix design as follows;

Target, mean compressive strength = 40 MPa at 28 days;

Cement strength class 52.5;

VeBe required = 12 sec;

Max. Aggregate size = 25 mm;

Coarse aggregate CRUSHED (all in aggregate),

fine aggregate CRUSHED (55% pass 600 microns);

Relative density of aggregates = 2.65;

Maximum allowable free water/cement ratio = 0.55;

Minimum allowable cement content = 350 kg/m3;

Maximum allowable cement content = 500 kg/m3;

Absorption of coarse aggregate = 2.0%;

Total Moisture content of coarse aggregate = 1.5%

Surface Moisture content of fine aggregate = 2.5%

Make a trial mix of 0.05 m3 concrete. Show your results on Table 1.

Total 60

Calculations

60

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