You are on page 1of 6



is a composite material composed of coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid
cement which hardens over time. Concrete is made up of three basic components:
water, aggregate (rock, sand, or gravel) and Portland cement.

The basic constituents of concrete are cement, water and aggregate. Other
constituents such as admixtures, pigments, fibers, polymers and reinforcement, can
be incorporated to modify the properties of the plastic or hardened concrete. The
properties of the plastic and hardened concrete are determined by the combination
of constituents used. Concrete Mix Design is the name for the procedure for
choosing a particular combination of constituents.


Concrete has many uses not only construction but also in art . We used concrete
because it is inexpensive and readily available its material properties are long
lasting, great insulator and hard.

In concrete design and quality control, strength is the property generally specified.
This is because, compared to most other properties, testing strength is relatively
easy.Furthermore, other properties of concrete, such as elastic modulus, water
tightness or impermeability, and resistance to weathering agents including
aggressive waters, are directly related to strength and can therefore be deduced
from the strength data.

Durability is the ability to last a long time without significant deterioration. A
durable material helps the environment by conserving resources and reducing
wastes and the environmental impacts of repair and replacement. The production of

replacement building materials depletes natural resources and can produce air and
water pollution.
Concrete resists weathering action, chemical attack, and abrasion while
maintaining its desired engineering properties. Different concretes require different
degrees of durability depending on the exposure environment and the properties
desired. Concrete ingredients, their proportioning, interactions between them,
placing and curing practices, and the service environment determine the ultimate
durability and life of the concrete.

Water tightness is the ability of concrete to keep water out or in. In other words, the
goal is to make concrete virtually impermeable. Precast concrete is used for many
purposes one of the most common is to hold or convey fluids. For structures to
fulfill this purpose, they must be watertight. At the same time, in order for
damaging chloride ions, sulfate ions and other aggressive chemicals to make it into
concrete, water is required for transport. So while water tightness is important to
keep fluids in, it is also important to keep harmful chemicals and ions out.

In its simplest form, concrete is a mixture of paste and aggregates. The paste,
composed of portland cement and water, coats the surface of the fine and coarse
aggregates. Through a chemical reaction called hydration, the paste hardens and
gains strength to form the rock-like mass known as concrete. Within this process
lies the key to a remarkable trait of concrete: it's plastic and malleable when newly
mixed, strong and durable when hardened. Concretes durability, strength and
relatively low cost make it the backbone of buildings and infrastructure worldwide
houses, schools and hospitals as well as airports, bridges, highways and rail
systems. The most-produced material on Earth will only be more in demand as, for
example, developing nations become increasingly urban, extreme weather events
necessitate more durable building materials and the price of other infrastructure
materials continues to rise. Even construction professionals sometimes incorrectly
use the terms cement and concrete interchangeably. Cement is actually an
ingredient of concrete. It is the fine powder that, when mixed with water, sand, and
gravel or crushed stone (fine and coarse aggregate), forms the rock-like mass
known as concrete.

Sand is a loose, fragmented, naturally-occurring material consisting of very small
particles of decomposed rocks, corals, or shells. Sand is used to provide bulk,
strength, and other properties to construction materials like asphalt and concrete. It
is also used as a decorative material in landscaping. Specific types of sand are used
in the manufacture of glass and as a molding material for metal casting. Other sand
is used as an abrasive in sandblasting and to make sandpaper.The definition of the
size of sand particles varies, but in general sand contains particles measuring about
0.0025-0.08 in (0.063-2.0 mm) in diameter. Particles smaller than this are
classified as silt. Larger particles are either granules or gravel, depending on their
size. In the construction business, all aggregate materials with particles smaller
than 0.25 in (6.4 mm) are classified as fine aggregates. This includes sand.
Materials with particles from 0.25 in (6.4 mm) up to about 6.0 in (15.2 cm) are
classified as coarse aggregates. Sand has a density of 2,600-3,100 lb per cubic yard
(1,538-1,842 kg per cubic meter). The trapped water content between the sand
particles can cause the density to vary substantially.

is composed of unconsolidated rock fragments that have a general particle size
range and include size classes from granule- to boulder-sized fragments. Gravel is
categorized by the Udden-Wentworth scale into granular gravel (2 to 4 mm or
0.079 to 0.157 in) and pebble gravel (4 to 64 mm or 0.2 to 2.5 in). One cubic metre
of gravel typically weighs about 1,800 kg (or a cubic yard weighs about 3,000
pounds).Gravel shall be composed of naturally occurring quartz, free from
deleterious coatings of any kind. The minimum dry-rodded weight AASHTO T 19
shall be 95 lb/ft3 . Crushed gravel shall consist of a minimum of 85%, by weight,
of the material retained on the No. 4 sieve, having at least three fractured.

The word oyster is used as a common name for a number of different families of
saltwater clams, bivalve mollusks that live in marine or brackish habitats. In some
species the valves are highly calcified, and many are somewhat irregular in shape.
Many, but not all, oysters are in the superfamily Ostreoidea.


Three simple ingredients can be blended and proportioned numerous ways to make


In concrete, the single most significant influence on most or all of the properties is
the amount of water used in the mix.
In concrete mix design, the ratio of the amount of water to the amount of cement
used (both by weight) is called the water to cement ratio (w/c). These two
ingredients are responsible for binding everything together.
The water to cement ratio largely determines the strength and durability of the
concrete when it is cured properly. The w/c ratio refers to the ratio of the weights
of water and cement used in the concrete mix. A w/c ratio of 0.4 means that for
every 100 lbs of cement used in the concrete, 40 lbs of water is added.
Typical w/c ratios are as follows:

Normal for ordinary concrete (sidewalks and driveways): 0.6 to 0.7

Specified if a higher quality concrete is desired: 0.4

The practical range of the w/c ratio is from about 0.3 to over 0.8.

A ratio of 0.3 is very stiff (unless superplasticizers are used).

A ratio of 0.8 makes a wet and fairly weak concrete.

Typical compressive strengths when concrete is properly cured are:

0.4 w/c ratio > 5600 psi

0.8 w/c ratio > 2000 psi.

For the characterization of bulk goods of different forms and sizes, the knowledge
of their particle size distributions is essential. The particle size distribution, i.e. the
number of particles of different sizes, is responsible for important physical and
chemical properties such as solubility, flowability and surface reaction. In many
industries such as food, pharmaceutics and chemistry traditional sieve analysis is
the standard for production and quality control of powders and granules.
Advantages of the sieve analysis include easy handling, low investment costs,
precise and reproducible results in a comparably short time and the possibility to
separate the particle size fractions. Therefore, this method is an accepted
alternative to analysis methods using laser light or image processing.
To guarantee a high degree of reproducibility and reliability, sieve shakers and
accessories have to fulfill the requirements of national and international standards.
This means that test sieves, sieve shakers and all other measurement instruments
(e.g. scales) which are used for the characterization of particle distributions have to
be calibrated and subjected to test agent monitoring as part of the quality
management system. Apart from that, it is absolutely necessary to carry out the
sample preparation with great care. Only then is it possible to achieve sieving
results which allow a reliable characterization of a product.


Concrete slump test is to determine the workability or consistency of concrete mix

prepared at the laboratory or the construction site during the progress of the work.
Concrete slump test is carried out from batch to batch to check the uniform quality
of concrete during construction. The slump test is the most simple workability test
for concrete, involves low cost and provides immediate results. Due to this fact, it
has been widely used for workability tests since 1922. The slump is carried out as
per procedures mentioned in ASTM C143 in the United States, IS: 1199 1959 in
India and EN 12350-2 in Europe.Generally concrete slump value is used to find the
workability, which indicates water-cement ratio, but there are various factors

including properties of materials, mixing methods, dosage, admixtures etc. also

affect the concrete slump value


4.1 Care must be exercised in the interpretation of the significance of compressive
strength determinations by this test method since strength is not a fundamental or
intrinsic property of concrete made from given materials. Values obtained will
depend on the size and shape of the specimen, batching, mixing procedures, the
methods of sampling, molding, and fabrication and the age, temperature, and
moisture conditions during curing.
4.2 This test method is used to determine compressive strength of cylindrical
specimens prepared and cured in accordance with
Practices C31/C31M, C192/C192M, C617/C617M, and C1231/C1231M and Test
Methods C42/C42M and C873/C873M.
4.3 The results of this test method are used as a basis for quality control of concrete
proportioning, mixing, and placing operations; determination of compliance with
specifications; control for evaluating effectiveness of admixtures; and similar uses.
4.4 The individual who tests concrete cylinders for acceptance testing shall meet
the concrete laboratory technician requirements of Practice C1077, including an
examination requiring performance demonstration that is evaluated by an
independent examiner.
NOTE 1: Certification equivalent to the minimum guidelines for ACI Concrete
Laboratory Technician, Level I or ACI Concrete Strength Testing Technician will
satisfy this requirement.