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You are on page 1of 49

Chapter 1:

1.1 During the presidential election of 1996, the news media regularly presented opinion polls that tracked the

fortunes of the three major candidates. One such poll, taken for TIME/CNN, showed the following results:

If the presidential election were held today, for whom would you voteBill Clinton, Bob

Dole, or Ross Perot?

Clinton53%

Dole35%

Perot7%

The results were based on a sample taken October 1011 of 1387 likely votersthose

most likely to cast ballots in November.

a.

b.

c.

d.

If the pollsters were planning to use these results to predict the outcome of the 1996

election, describe the population of interest to them.

Describe the actual population from which the sample was drawn.

What is the difference between registered voters and likely voters? Why is this

important?

Is the sample selected by the pollsters representative of the population described in part a? Explain.

1.2 The first 24 qualifying times for the inaugural race of the NASCAR Winston Cups California

500 are listed in the table:

Pontiac

181.607

181.493

180.991

Chevrolet

183.015 182.209

182.894 181.915

182.755 181.823

Ford

182.927

182.482

182.163

181.018

180.900

180.814

180.655

182.553

181.653

181.410

181.383

180.795

180.764

180.614

a.

b.

c.

d.

181.283

Draw a graph to compare the times of the top 24 qualifiers for each of the three car makes.

Construct a relative frequency histogram to describe the distribution of the 24 top

qualifying times. How do you describe the shape of the distribution?

Construct three stem and leaf plots to compare the qualifying times for the three makes

of race cars.

Write a paragraph summarizing the results of parts a, b, and c.

1.3 Refer to Exercise 1.2. The Minitab stem and leaf output is shown here for the three sets

of race times. Compare the output with the stem and leaf plots constructed in Exercise

1.2. Explain the similarities and differences in the computer and hand-generated plots.

Minitab output for Exercise 1.3

Character Stem-and-Leaf Displays

StemandleafofPontiacN=4

LeafUnit=0.10

StemandleafofFordN=12

LeafUnit=0.10

11806

21809

2181

2181

21814

11816

518067789

(3)181034

41816

318214

11829

StemandleafofChevroletN=8

LeafUnit=0.10

11812

318189

41822

4182578

11830

1.4 During the presidential election of 2000, the news media regularly presented opinion polls

that tracked the fortunes of the four major candidates. One such poll, taken for CNN/TIME,

showed the following results:

Suppose the election for President were being held today, and you had to choose from Al

Gore and Joseph Lieberman, the Democrats; George W. Bush and Dick Cheney, the

Republicans; Ralph Nader and Winona LaDuke, the Green Party candidates; and Pat

Buchanan, the Reform Party candidate. For whom would you vote Gore, Bush, Buchanan,

or Nader?

Bush

Gore

Nader

Buchanan

47%

45%

4%

1%

The results were based on a sample taken October 4 and 5, 2000, of 1244 adult

Americans, including 636 likely voters those most likely to cast ballots in November.

a. If the pollsters were planning to use these results to predict the outcome of the 2000

election, describe the population of interest to them.

b. Describe the actual population from which the sample was drawn.

c. What is the difference between registered voters and likely voters? Why is this

important?

d. Is the sample selected by the pollsters representative of the population described in

part a? Explain.

1.5 For all the speeches given, the commercials aired, the mud splattered in any election, a

hefty percentage of people decide whom they will vote for only at the last minute.

Suppose that a sample of people were asked, When did you finally decide whom to vote

for in the presidential election? These answers were given:

Answer

Percent

Only in the past 3 days

17%

In the past week

8

In the past 2 weeks (after the debates)

18

In early fall (after the convention)

24

Earlier than that

33

a. Would you use a pie chart or a bar chart to graphically describe the data? Why?

b. Draw the chart you chose in part a.

c. What does the chart tell you about the reliability of election polls taken early in the

election campaign?

1.6 The 1960s generation was never as radical as it was portrayed. According to an opinion

poll in The American Enterprise, when a group of 3040-year-olds were asked to describe

their political views in the 1960s and early 1970s, they gave these responses:

Conservative:

Moderate:

Liberal:

31%

Radical:

6%

28%

35%

b. Is the variable qualitative or quantitative?

c.

d.

e.

f.

Define the sample and the population of interest to the researchers.

Construct a pie chart to describe the data.

What percentage of 3040-year-olds described themselves as either moderate or

conservative during the 1960s and early 1970s?

g. What other types of questions might you want to investigate, based on the results of

part f?

1.7 The American population over the past 50 years has been grouped by nicknames that try

to describe their common traits. According to a recent magazine article, the numbers of

Americans in each of four age categories are as shown in the table:

Generation

Matures (born before 1946) 68.3

Baby boomers (born 1946-1964)

GenXers (born 1965-1976) 44.6

Others (born after 1976)

77.6

72.4

b. Select the method from part a that you think best describes the data.

c. Why are there fewer Americans in the GenX group than in the other three groups?

1.8 The table shows the average ticket prices for

of July 30-August 5, 2001:

Average

Ticket

Show

Price

1. The Producers

$78

2. The Lion King

71

3. Aida

67

4. 42nd Street

68

5. Beauty and the Beast

62

6. The Phantom of the

61

Opera

7. The Music Man

60

8. Riverdance

48

9. The Full Monty

71

50

10. Les Miserables

Show

11. Annie Get Your Gun

12. Chicago

13. Kiss Me Kate

14. Rent

15. Cabaret

16. Contact

17. Proof

18. Fosse

19. Blast!

20. The Tale of the

Allergists Wife

Average

Ticket

Price

$53

53

55

49

64

62

58

53

41

48

a. Draw a stem and leaf plot for the data. Describe the shape of the distribution. Are

there any outliers?

b. Construct a dotplot for the data. Which of the two graphs is more informative?

Explain.

1.9 The average per-site gross weekend revenue (in dollars) for the top 20 movies were

measured for two consecutive weekends in August 2001.

August 3-5,

2001

$21,619

7,800

9,012

3,545

2,670

2,918

2,307

2,200

1,352

3,211

$1,042

1,315

902

1,062

1,196

5,129

758

882

941

14,895

August 10-12,

2001

$14,730

10,621

5,254

8,397

3,911

2,370

2,287

1,640

1,858

1,402

$1,781

941

871

1,130

1,021

974

2,935

3,313

20,202

630

a. Draw a relative frequency histogram to describe the distribution of the average per-site

revenues for these movies. How would you describe the shape of the distribution?

b. Construct two stem and leaf plots to compare the average per-site revenues for the

two weekends.

c. Write a short paragraph summarizing the results of parts a and b.

1.10 Refer to Exercise 1.9 and data set EX0109. The MINITAB stem and leaf output is shown

here for the two weekends. Compare the output with the stem and leaf plots constructed

in Exercise 1.9. Explain the similarities and differences in the computer- and handgenerated plots.

Stem-and-Leaf Display: Aug3-5

Stem-and-leaf of Aug3-5 N

Leaf Unit = 100

4

9

(4)

7

5

5

4

4

3

3

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

= 20

7899

00133

2369

25

1

8

0

HI 148, 216

Stem-and-Leaf Display: Aug10-12

Stem-and-leaf of Aug10-12 N

Leaf Unit = 100

4

10

10

7

5

5

4

4

4

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

= 20

6899

014678

239

39

2

3

1.11 In July 2000, 22.4 million teenagers and young adults worked a substantial number more than in April, when

school is still in session. Many of these young people worked in amusement and theme parks, whose average

number of employees jumps dramatically during the summer months. Here are the most common injuries suffered

on the job by kids under 18:

Most Common Injury

Bruises and contusions

Cuts and lacerations

Fractures

Heat burns

Sprains and strains

a.

b.

c.

d.

Percentage

14%

13%

8%

9%

33%

Are all possible injuries accounted for in the table? Add another category if necessary.

Create a pie chart to describe the data.

Create a bar chart to describe the data.

Rearrange the bars in part c so that the categories are ranked from the largest percentage to the smallest.

1.12 There is an increasing demand among consumers for broadband Internet access, which will increase the speed at

which they can access the Internet. Cable currently leads the broadband market over DSL and up-and-coming

satellite access, and it is predicted that cable will continue to dominate the U.S. residential broadband market over

the next 4 years. 15

Broadband Access in 2005

(U.S. Year end 2005)

Technology

Subscribers

Cable

15.7 Million

DSL

10.5 Million

Satellite

4.5 Million

Fixed Wireless

359,000

Source: The Yankee Group

a. Use a pie chart to describe the predicted broadband market in 2005.

b. Use a bar chart to describe the predicted broadband market in 2005.

c. Which of the two graphical methods is less susceptible to distortion by the presenter?

1.13 Happy in the Air? Of the 6,229 consumer complaints against major U.S. airlines in a recent year, the

distribution by airline is shown in the table.

Airline

Number of Complaints

United

1172

America West

318

Northwest

765

Continental

563

Delta

1231

Source: Time Almanac 2004

a.

b.

c.

Airline

American

U.S. Airways

Alaska

American Eagle

Southwest

Number of Complaints

1212

532

129

71

236

Order the airlines from the smallest to the largest number of complaints. Construct a Pareto chart to describe

the data. Which display is more effective?

Is there another variable that you could measure that might help to explain why some airlines have many

more complaints than others? Explain.

1.14 Top 20 Movies The table below shows the weekend gross ticket sales for the top 20 movies during the week of

January 23-25, 2004:

Movie

1. The Butterfly Effect

2. Along Came Polly

3. Win a Date with Tad Hamilton

4. Big Fish

5. Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King

6. Cheaper by the Dozen

7. Cold Mountain

8. Torque

9. Somethings Gotta Give

10. Mystic River

11. Calendar Girls

12. The Last Samurai

13. Monster

14. My Babys Daddy

15. Disneys Teachers Pet

16. Peter Pan

17. Paycheck

18. The Cooler

19. Mona Lisa Smile

20. 21 Grams

Source: Entertainment Weekly

a.

b.

Weekend

Gross

($ millions)

$ 17.1

16.4

7.3

7.1

6.8

6.4

5.0

4.5

4.0

3.4

2.4

2.2

2.1

2.0

1.4

1.2

1.2

0.9

0.9

0.9

Draw a stem and leaf plot for the data. Describe the shape of the distribution. Are there any outliers?

Construct a dotplot for the data. Which of the two graphs is more informative? Explain.

1.15 Princeton Review An advertising flyer for the Princeton Review, a review course designed for high school

students taking the SAT tests, presents the accompanying bar graph to show the average score improvements for

students using various study methods.

a.

b.

What graphical techniques did the Princeton Review use to make their average improvement figures look as

dramatic as possible?

If you were in charge of promoting a review course at your high school, how would you modify the graph to

make the average improvement for students using a school review course look more impressive?

1.16 Election Results The 2000 election was a close race, in which George W. Bush defeated Al Gore, Ralph Nader,

and Pat Buchanan by the closest of margins. The popular vote (in thousands) for George W. Bush in each of the

50 states is listed below:

AL

AK

AZ

AR

CA

CO

CT

DE

FL

GA

a.

b.

c.

941

167

782

473

4567

884

561

137

2913

1420

HI

ID

IL

IN

IA

KS

KY

LA

ME

MD

138

337

2019

1246

634

622

873

928

287

814

MA

MI

MN

MS

MO

MT

NE

NV

NH

NJ

879

1953

1110

573

1190

240

434

302

274

1284

NM

NY

NC

ND

OH

OK

OR

PA

RI

SC

286

2406

1631

175

2351

744

714

2281

131

787

SD

TN

TX

UT

VT

VA

WA

WV

WI

WY

191

1062

3800

515

120

1437

1109

336

1237

148

By just looking at the table, what shape do you think the data distribution for the popular vote by state will

have?

Draw a relative frequency histogram to describe the distribution of the popular vote for President Bush in the

50 states.

Did the histogram in part b confirm your guess in part a? Are there any outliers? How can you explain

them?

1.17 Election Results, continued Refer to Exercise 1.16. Listed here is the percentage of the popular vote received

by President Bush in each of the 50 states:

AL

AK

AZ

AR

CA

CO

57

60

50

52

42

51

HI

ID

IL

IN

IA

KS

38

70

43

58

48

59

MA

MI

MN

MS

MO

MT

33

47

46

57

51

59

NM

NY

NC

ND

OH

OK

47

36

56

61

50

61

SD

TN

TX

UT

VT

VA

61

51

60

67

41

53

CT

DE

FL

GA

a.

b.

39

42

49

56

KY

LA

ME

MD

57

53

44

40

NE

NV

NH

NJ

63

50

48

41

OR

PA

RI

SC

49

47

32

57

WA

WV

WI

WY

45

52

48

70

By just looking at the table, what shape do you think the data distribution for the percentage of the popular

vote by state will have?

Draw a relative frequency histogram to describe the distribution. Describe the shape of the distribution and

look for outliers. Did the graph confirm your answer to part a?

1.18 Election results, continued Refer to Exercises 1.16 and 1.17. The accompanying stem and leaf plots were

generated using MINITAB for the variables named Popular Vote and Percent Vote.

Stem-and-Leaf Display: Popular Vote, Percent Vote

Stem-and-leaf of

Popular Vote N = 50

Leaf Unit = 100

8

15

20

(6)

24

18

14

11

9

8

7

6

4

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

HI

a.

b.

c.

11111111

2222333

44555

667777

888899

0111

222

44

6

9

0

23

4

Percent Vote N = 50

Leaf Unit = 1.0

2

5

12

22

(10)

18

9

3

2

3 23

3 689

4 0112234

4

5677788899

5

0001112233

5 667777899

6 001113

6 7

7 00

29, 38, 45

Describe the shapes of the two distributions. Are there any outliers?

Do the stem and leaf plots resemble the relative frequency histograms constructed in Exercises 1.16 and

1.17?

Explain why the distribution of the popular vote for President Bush by state is skewed while the percentage

of popular votes by state is mound-shaped.

1.19 Fear of Terrorism One week after the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the

Gallup poll presented a summary of various polls that had asked the question: How worried are you that you or

someone in your family will become a victim of a terrorist attack? The data are shown in the table below:

Date

April 1995

April 1996

July 1996

August 1998

April 2000

September 11, 2001

September 14-15, 2001

a.

b.

c.

d.

Very/Somewhat

Worried (%)

41

35

39

32

24

58

51

Worried (%)

57

65

61

67

75

40

48

Draw a line chart to describe the percentages that are very/somewhat worried. Use time as the horizontal

axis.

Superimpose another line chart on the one drawn in part b to describe the percentages that are not too/not at

all worried.

Use your line chart to summarize the changes in the polls during the period just after the attack on the World

Trade Center.

The following line chart was presented on the www.gallup.com Web page. How does it differ from the graph

that you drew? What characteristic of the Gallup line chart might cause distortion when the graph is

interpreted?

1.20 Getting Up to Speed Small businesses continue to rely on the telephone as their primary communication tool,

using the Internet primarily as an information source. A research survey conducted by Covad/Sprint/Equation

Research indicates that most small businesses are only beginning to adopt broadband Internet access.

Small Business Internet Access Methods

Dial-up/modem

31.7%

DSL/ADSL broadband

30.3%

Cable broadband

26.1%

T1 or higher

9.8%

Other

2.1%

Source: www.clickz.com

a.

b.

Use a pie chart to describe the Internet access methods used by small businesses.

1.21 Internet Hotspots The most visited site on the Internet is Yahoo!, which boasted 111,271 thousand unique

visitors in December 2003. The number of unique visitors at the top 25 sites are shown in the table:

a.

b.

c.

Look at the data. Can you guess the approximate shape of the data distribution?

Use the second applet in Building a Histogram to construct a relative frequency histogram for the data.

What is the shape of the distribution?

Are there any outliers in the set? If so, what sites boast an unusually large number of unique visitors?

Site

Yahoo! Sites

Time Warner Network

MSN-Microsoft Sites

EBay

Google Sites

Terra Lycos

Amazon Sites

Unique

Visitors

(Millions)

111.3

110.5

110.0

69.2

61.5

52.1

45.7

Site

Weather Channel

Real.com Network

Verizon Communications

Wal-Mart

Shopping.com Sites

Symantec

AT&T Properties

Unique

Visitors

(Millions)

23.8

22.3

22.1

21.4

21.3

19.9

17.5

About/Primedia

Excite Network

CNET Networks

Walt Disney Internet

Viacom Online

American Greetings

Source: cyberatlas.internet.com

42.6

25.1

25.1

25.1

24.7

24.4

InfoSpace Network

Monster Property

EA Online

SBC Communications

Sony Online

17.3

17.3

16.8

16.5

16.5

Chapter 2:

2.1 The top ten movies and their profits (in millions of dollars) from the weekend of May

2325, 1997, are presented here:

The Lost World: Jurassic Park

Addicted to Love

The Fifth Element

Austin Powers

Breakdown

a.

b.

c.

$90.2

Fathers Day

Liar Liar

Volcano

2.3

Night Falls on Manhattan

5.4

Anaconda

11.4

8.0

5.6

$4.7

3.0

2.1

1.73

Draw a stem and leaf plot for the data. Are the data skewed?

Calculate the mean profit for these ten movies for the May 2325 weekend. Calculate the median profit.

Which of the two measures in part b best describes the center of the data? Explain.

2.2 Does birth order have any effect on a persons personality? A report on a study by an MIT researcher indicates that

later born children are more likely to challenge the establishment, more open to new ideas, and more accepting of

change. In fact, the number of later born children is increasing. During the Depression years of the 1930s, families

averaged 2.5 children (59% later born), whereas the parents of baby boomers averaged 3 to 4 children (68% later

born). What does the author mean by an average of 2.5 children?

2.3 The Internet has captured the attention and interest of many Americans. In fact, the

number of hours spent online has been steadily increasing over the last few years. It is

projected that the average time spent online in the year 1999 will be 14 hours per person

per year. Suppose that the standard deviation of the distribution of x, the number of hours

per person per year spent online, is 20 hours.

a.

b.

c.

Visualize the distribution of hours per year spent online. Why do you suppose the yearly average for the

entire U.S. population is so low?

Do you think the distribution is relatively mound-shaped, skewed right, or skewed left? Explain.

Within what limits would you expect at least 3/4 of the measurements to lie?

2.4 Refer to Exercise 2.3. You can use the Empirical Rule to see why the distribution of hours per person per year

could not be mound-shaped.

a. Find the value of x that is exactly one standard deviation below the mean.

b. If the distribution is in fact mound-shaped, approximately what percentage of the

measurements should be less than the value of x found in part a?

c. Since the variable being measured is hours per year, is it possible to find any

measurements that are more than one standard deviation below the mean? Explain.

d. Use your answers to parts b and c to explain why the data distribution cannot be

mound-shaped.

2.5 In a review of several textbooks for use in high school biology instruction, the number of chapters and the number

of pages in each of seven textbooks were recorded as shown here:

Textbook

Chapters

39

Biology: The Dynamics of Life

Biology Today

54

Biological Science: A Molecular Approach

Biological Science: An Ecological Approach

Health Biology

50

Pages

885

36

779

887

26

24

599

689

849

Modern Biology

53

831

a. Calculate z-scores for the number of chapters in Biology Today and Biological Science:

An Ecological Approach. Does either of the books have an unusually large or small

number of chapters?

b. Construct a box plot for the numbers of chapters in the seven books. Does the box plot

confirm your answer in part a?

c. Use a box plot to describe the distribution of the numbers of pages in the seven books.

2.6 The state of California not only has some of the most polluted metropolitan areas in the country but also has some

of the strictest pollution regulations in the country. As a result of an aggressive campaign by the South Coast Air

Quality Management District (AQMD), the amount of pollution in southern Californias atmosphere is beginning

to decrease. One of its regulations requires employers of 100 or more workers to prepare a ride-sharing plan that

offers incentives for workers to share a ride, telecommute, ride a bike, or take public transportation to work. The

goal is to have 1.5 workers per car during morning rush hours. What does the AQMD mean by this goal

statement?

2.7 American Demographics is a magazine that investigates various aspects of life in the United States using all sorts

of descriptive statistics. These facts were noted in a recent issue:

26% of all U.S. adults between the ages of 18 and 24 own five or more pairs of wearable sneakers.

61% of U.S. households have two or more television sets.

2.8 The top 20 movies and their gross revenues (in millions of dollars) from Labor Day weekend (August 31September 3, 2001) are shown below:

Weeke

nd

Gross

$15.8

11.7

11.0

Movie

Jeepers Creepers

Rush Hour 2

American Pie 2

The Others

a.

b.

c.

9.2

7.6

6.9

6.5

Jurassic Park III

John Carpenters Ghosts of

Mars

The Curse of the Jade

Scorpion

The Deep End

Legally Blonde

Americas Sweethearts

American Outlaws

4.9

3.9

Bubble Boy

Pearl Harbor

10.2

Rat Race

The Princess Diaries

O

Jay and Silent Bob Strike

Back

Summer Catch

Captain Corellis Mandolin

Movie

Weeke

nd

Gross

$3.8

2.3

2.1

2.0

1.8

1.7

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.2

Can you tell by looking at the data whether it is roughly symmetric? Or is it skewed?

Calculate the mean and the median. Use these measures to decide whether or not the data are symmetric or

skewed.

Draw a box plot to describe the data. Explain why the box plot confirms your conclusions in part b.

2.9 The gross revenue (in millions of dollars) for the top 20 movies over the 2001 Labor Day weekend (Exercise 2.41

and data set EX0241) are reproduced below7:

15.8

3.8

a.

b.

c.

11.7

2.3

11.0

2.1

10.2

2.0

9.2

1.8

7.6

1.7

6.9

1.3

6.5

1.3

4.9

1.3

3.9

1.2

Calculate the z-score for the largest and smallest observations ( x 15.8 and x 1.2 ). Should either movie,

Jeepers Creepers or Pearl Harbor, be considered unusual?

Construct a box plot for the data, or refer to the box plot drawn in Exercise 2.41. Does the box plot confirm

your results in part b? [HINT: Since the z-score and the box plots are two unrelated methods for detecting

outliers, and use different types of statistics, they do not necessarily have to (but usually do) produce the

same results.]

2.10 LCD TVs The cost of televisions exhibits huge variation from $100-200 for a standard TV to $8000-10,000 for

a large plasma screen TV. Consumer Reports gives the prices for the top ten LCD standard definition TVs in the

14- to 20-inch category:

Brand

Sharp LC-20E1U

Sony KLV-15SR1

Panasonic TC-20LA1

Panasonic TC-17LA1

Gateway GTW-L18M103

Panasonic TC-14LA1

Gateway GTW-L17M103

Toshiba 14VL43U

Toshiba 20VL43U

Sharp LC-15E1U

a.

b.

c.

Price

$1200

800

1050

750

700

500

600

670

1200

650

What is the median price of these ten LCD televisions?

As a consumer, would you be interested in the average cost of an LCD TV? What other variables would be

important to you?

2.11 Brett Favre The number of passes completed by Bret Favre, quarterback for the Green Bay Packers, was

recorded at each of the 16 regular season and 2 postseason games in the fall of 2003 (ESPN.com):

25

23

22

a.

b.

c.

15

18

23

23

14

22

21

13

12

19

10

26

25

23

15

Calculate the mean and standard deviation for Brett Favres per-game pass completions.

What proportion of the measurements lie within two standard deviations of the mean?

2.12 Comparing NFL Quarterbacks How does Brett Favre, quarterback for the Green Bay Packers, compare to

Donovan McNabb, quarterback for the Philadelphia Eagles? The table below shows the number of completed

passes for each athlete during the 2003 NFL football season (ESPN.com):

Brett Favre

25

23

22

15

18

23

23

14

22

21

13

12

19

10

26

25

23

15

a.

b.

c.

Donovan McNabb

19 17 18

18 21 15

18 15 27

16 24 23

11 16 21

9 18 10

Calculative five-number summaries for the number of passes completed by both Brett Favre and Donovan

McNabb.

Construct box plots for the two sets of data. Are there any outliers? What do the box plots tell you about the

shapes of the two distributions?

Write a short paragraph comparing the number of pass completions for the two quarterbacks.

2.13 Internet Hotspots The most visited site on the Internet is Yahoo!, which boasted 111,271 thousand unique

visitors in December 2003 (Exercise 1.21 and data set EX0121). The number of unique visitors at the top 25 sites

are shown in the table:

Site

Yahoo! Sites

Time Warner Network

MSN-Microsoft Sites

Unique

Visitors

(Millions)

111.3

110.5

110.0

Site

Weather Channel

Real.com Network

Verizon Communications

Unique

Visitors

(Millions)

23.8

22.3

22.1

EBay

Google Sites

Terra Lycos

Amazon Sites

About/Primedia

Excite Network

CNET Networks

Walt Disney Internet

Viacom Online

American Greetings

Source: cyberatlas.internet.com

a.

b.

c.

69.2

61.5

52.1

45.7

42.6

25.1

25.1

25.1

24.7

24.4

Wal-Mart

Shopping.com Sites

Symantec

AT&T Properties

InfoSpace Network

Monster Property

EA Online

SBC Communications

Sony Online

21.4

21.3

19.9

17.5

17.3

17.3

16.8

16.5

16.5

Can you tell by looking at the data whether it is roughly symmetric? Or is it skewed?

Calculate the mean and the median. Use these measures to decide whether or not the data are symmetric or

skewed.

Draw a box plot to describe the data. Explain why the box plot confirms your conclusions in part b.

2.14 Snapshots Here are a few facts reported as snapshots in USA Today.

Fifty-two percent of Americans believe that the ideal family size is 2 or fewer children.

Seventy percent of Americans reheat leftovers in their microwave at least two times a week.

Fifty percent of Americans typically wait 15 minutes or less to have a prescription filled.

Identify the variable x being measured, and any percentiles you can determine from this information.

Chapter 3:

3.1 A Gallup poll surveyed 499 women and 502 men to assess the importance of family life in the United States. The

results shown in the table are responses to the question, How would you rate the importance of having a good

family life?

Very Important

Women

Men

459

432

Somewhat

Important

35

70

Very Unimportant

No Opinion

0

0

5

0

b. Describe the variables that have been measured in this survey. Are the variables

qualitative or quantitative? Are the data univariate or bivariate?

c. What do the entries in the cells represent?

d. Use comparative pie charts to compare the responses for men and women.

e. What other graphical techniques could be used to describe the data? Would any of these techniques be more

informative than the pie charts constructed in part d?

3.2 Does education really make a difference in how much money you will earn? A study summarized in American

Demographics reports the percentage of people classified as marginally rich, comfortably rich, or super rich

according to their educational attainment.

Education

No college

At least an

undergraduate

degree

Postgraduate

study/degree

a.

b.

c.

Marginally Rich

($7099 K)

32.0%

43.3%

Comfortably Rich

($100249 K)

20.5%

59.3%

Super Rich

($250 K or more)

23.4%

60.3%

12.3%

12.9%

16.2%

The percentages in each of the three categories should sum to 100%. What category has been left out? Add

that category to the table.

Create side-by-side pie charts to display the data.

Create a side-by-side comparative bar chart to display the data.

3.3 A study in Psychological Reports explored the relationship of mental health services (as reflected in per-capita

expenditures on psychiatric hospitals, number of beds per 1000 population, and length of stay in days) to the gross

domestic product (GDP) for selected countries. A portion of the results are shown here:

Country

Finland

The

Netherlands

Denmark

USA

Spain

Japan

GDP per

Capita

18,045.00

14,449.80

Expenditur

es per

Capita

83.53

71.38

Beds/1000

Population

2.6

1.7

Length of

Stay

27.2

35.6

19,842.15

17,670.15

7,563.70

19,763.63

64.79

41.21

9.17

54.98

0.9

0.7

0.8

2.8

11.3

12.3

156.8

310.8

b. Draw a scatterplot to examine the relationship between per-capita gross domestic

product and expenditures on psychiatric hospitals for these six countries. Describe the

relationship.

c. Draw a scatterplot to examine the relationship between beds per 1000 population and

length of stay for these six countries. Describe the relationship. Are there any

observations that seem unusual?

d. Comment on the values of r given in the Minitab output in light of parts b and c.

Minitab Output for Exercise 3.3

Correlations (Pearson)

CorrelationofBedsandStay=0.477CorrelationofGDPandExpend=0.708

3.4 Investors are becoming more and more concerned about securities fraud, especially involving initial public

offerings (IPOs). During a 6-year period, the number of federal securities-fraud class action suits has continued

to increase:

Year

Suits

a.

b.

c.

1996

110

1997

178

1998

236

1999

205

2000

211

2001

282

Plot the data using a scatterplot. How would you describe the relationship between year and number of class

action suits?

Find the least squares regression line relating the number of class action suits to the year being measured.

If you were to predict the number of class action suits in the year 2002, what problems might arise with your

predictions?

3.5 Is it harder for single parents to make ends meet than it is for two working parents? The monthly expenses for

families with two children in Riverside, San Bernardino, Orange, and Ventura, California, are displayed in the

side-by-side bar chart.

900

WkgParents

1

2

800

700

Expenses

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

1

g

in

us

Ho

e

ar

dc

hil

C

Tr

a.

b.

c.

d.

n

io

tat

or

p

s

an

od

Fo

e

ar

hc

alt

e

H

isc

M

us

eo

an

ell

1 2

s

xe

a

T

What variables have been measured in this study? Are the variables qualitative or quantitative?

Describe the population of interest. Do these data represent a population or a sample drawn from the

population?

What type of graphical presentation has been used? What other type could have been used?

If you wanted to make the increase in the expenses for families with two working parents look as dramatic as

possible, what changes would you make in the graphical presentation?

3.6 LCD TVs, again In Exercise 2.10, Consumer Reports gave the prices for the top ten LCD standard definition

TVs in the 14- to 20-inch category. Does the price of an LCD TV depend on the size of the screen? The table

below shows the ten costs again, along with the screen size in inches.

Brand

Sharp LC-20E1U

Sony KLV-15SR1

Panasonic TC-20LA1

Panasonic TC-17LA1

Gateway GTW-L18M103

Panasonic TC-14LA1

Gateway GTW-L17M103

Toshiba 14VL43U

Toshiba 20VL43U

Sharp LC-15E1U

a.

b.

Price

$1200

800

1050

750

700

500

600

670

1200

650

Size

20

15

20

17

18

14

17

14

20

15

Which of the two variables (price and size) is the independent variable, and which is the dependent variable?

Construct a scatterplot for the data. Does the relationship appear to be linear?

3.7 LCD TVs, continued Refer to Exercise 3.6. Suppose we assume that the relationship between x and y is linear.

a.

b.

c.

d.

Find the correlation coefficient, r. What does this value tell you about the strength and direction of the

relationship between size and price?

What is the equation of the regression line used to predict the price of the TV based on the size of the screen?

The Sony Corporation is introducing a new 18 LCD TV. What would you predict its price to be?

Would it be reasonable to try to predict the price of a 30 LCD TV? Explain.

3.8 Movie Money Does the opening weekend adequately predict the success or failure of a new movie? In a recent

summer, 36 movies were investigated in Entertainment Weekly, and the following variables were recorded.

The movies total gross earnings in the United States (in millions)

a.

b.

c.

d.

How would you describe the relationship between the first weekends gross and the total gross?

Are there any outliers? If so, explain how they do not fit the pattern of the other movies.

Which dot represents the movie with the best opening weekend? Did it also have the highest total gross?

The film Pearl Harbor opened on a 3-day weekend (Memorial Day). Does that help to explain its position in

relation to the other data points?

3.9 Movie Money, continued The data from Exercise 3.8 were entered into a MINITAB worksheet, and the

following output was obtained.

Covariances: 1st Gross, Total Gross

1st Gross

Total Gross

a.

b.

c.

d.

1st Gross

412.528

1232.231

Total Gross

4437.109

Use the MINITAB output or the original data to find the correlation between first weekend and total gross.

Which of the two variables would you classify as the independent variable? The dependent variable?

If the average first weekend gross is 25.66 million dollars and the average total gross is 86.71 million dollars,

find the regression line for predicting total gross as a function of the first weekends gross.

If another film was released and grossed $30 million on the first weekend, what would you predict that its

total gross earnings will be?

3.10 Brett Favre, again The number of passes completed and the total number of passing yards were recorded for

Brett Favre for each of the 16 regular season and 2 postseason games in the fall of 2003:

Week

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

Completions

25

15

23

21

19

25

23

18

14

13

10

23

22

23

22

Total Yards

248

132

245

179

185

272

268

194

109

92

138

296

210

278

399

16

12

17

26

18

15

Source: ESPN.com

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

116

319

180

Draw a scatterplot to describe the relationship between number of completions and total passing yards for

Brett Favre.

Describe the plot in part a. Do you see any outliers? Do the rest of the points seem to form a pattern?

Calculate the correlation coefficient, r, between the number of completions and total passing yards.

What is the regression line for predicting total number of passing yards y based on the total number of

completions x?

If Brett Favre had 20 pass completions in his next game, what would you predict his total number of passing

yards to be?

3.11 Happy in the Air? Of the 6,229 consumer complaints against major U.S. airlines in a recent year, the

distribution by airline is shown in the table, along with the system wide passenger boardings (millions of

passengers).

Airline

United

American West

Northwest

Continental

Delta

American

U.S. Airways

Alaska

American Eagle

Southwest

a.

b.

c.

d.

Number of Complaints

1172

318

765

563

1231

1212

532

129

71

236

Passengers (millions)

68.6

19.5

52.8

40.0

89.9

94.1

47.2

14.2

11.8

72.5

Describe the form, direction, and strength of the pattern in the scatterplot.

Are there any outliers in the scatterplot? If so, which airline does this outlier represent?

Does the outlier from part c indicate that this airline is doing better or worse than the other airlines with respect

to customer satisfaction?

3.12 CD Players The table below shows the prices of eight portable CD players along with their overall score (on a

scale of 0-100) in a consumer rating survey presented by Consumer Reports.

Brand and Model

Sony D-EJ611

Panasonic SL-SX280

Aiwa XP-V713

Aiwa XP-SP911

Panasonic SL-CT470

Phillips AZ9213

GPX C3948B1

RCA RP-2360FM

a.

b.

c.

Price

$80

50

70

80

100

80

60

65

Overall Score

70

66

60

65

59

60

47

42

Calculate the correlation coefficient r between price and overall score. How would you describe the

relationship between price and overall score?

Use the applet called Correlation and the Scatterplot to plot the eight data points. What is the correlation

coefficient shown on the applet? Compare with the value you calculated in part a.

Describe the pattern that you see in the scatterplot. Are there any clusters or outliers? If so, how would you

explain them?

3.13 SAT Scores Is there a correlation between Math and Verbal SAT test scores? That is, do students who do well on

the Math portion typically do well on the Verbal portion of the test? The data below (score 400) show the

average scores on standardized math and verbal tests for seven high schools in Southern California.

School

Centennial

Norco

Verbal

64

74

Math

84

95

Moreno Valley

Valley View

Ramona

San Bernardino

Canyon Springs

North

a.

b.

c.

27

75

20

38

68

85

45

71

50

27

85

98

Calculate the correlation coefficient r between verbal and math scores. How would you describe the

relationship between verbal and math scores?

Use the applet called Correlation and the Scatterplot to plot the eight data points. What is the correlation

coefficient shown on the applet? Compare with the value you calculated in part a.

Describe the pattern that you see in the scatterplot. Are there any clusters or outliers? If so, how would you

explain them?

Chapter 4:

4.1 The inaugural season of the WNBA in 1997 made professional basketball a reality for

women basketball players in the United States. There are two conferences, each with four

teams, as shown in the table:

Western Conference

Eastern Conference

Phoenix Mercury

New York Liberty

Sacramento Monarchs

Houston Comets

Los Angeles Sparks

Charlotte Sting

Utah Starzz

Cleveland Rockers

Two teams, one from each conference, are randomly selected to play an exhibition game.

a. How many pairs of teams can be chosen?

b. What is the probability that the two teams are Los Angeles and New York?

c. What is the probability that the Western Conference team is from California?

4.2 Voter support for political term limits is strong in many parts of the United States. A poll

conducted by the Field Institute in California showed support for term limits by a 21

margin. The results of this poll of n= 347 registered voters are given in the table:

For (F)

Republican (R)

Democrat (D)

Other (O)

Total

Against (A)

.28

.31

.06

.65

.10

.16

.04

.30

No Opinion

(N)

.02

.03

.00

.05

Total

.40

.50

.10

1.00

If one individual is drawn at random from this group of 347 people, calculate the following

probabilities:

a. P(R)

d. P(F|R)

g. P(D|A)

b. P(F)

e. P(F|D)

h. P(R|F)

c. P(R F)

f. P(F|O)

4.3 Refer to Exercise 4.2. From the conditional probabilities found in that exercise (and any

others you need), does it appear that the 21 ratio is relatively constant for the three

different party affiliations? Explain.

4.4 Do you surf the net? The amount of information available on the Internet has

skyrocketed in the last few years, making access available to more and more segments of

the population. Do you think that the use of the Internet is related to a persons

educational level? The table shows the percentage of people who accessed the net in the

last 30 days, recorded during a specified time period in 1996, along with the percentages

of the U.S. population at various educational levels.

Educational Level

Percent of Population

High school graduate

Attended college

College graduate

18%

Accessed Internet

1.4%

34

27

21

3.4

11.9

23.4

a. What is the overall rate of Internet access for the U.S. population?

b. Suppose that a person is randomly selected, and that the person has accessed the

Internet in the last 30 days. What is the probability that the person is a college

graduate?

c. The posterior probabilities for the four groups, such as the one calculated in part b, are determined using the

fact that the person has accessed the Internet in the last 30 days. The prior probabilities for the four

educational groups are given in the second column of the table. How does the information about Internet

access affect the posterior probabilities in comparison to the prior probabilities?

4.5Dell computer owners are very faithful. Despite reporting problems with their current

systems, 91% of Dell owners said they would buy another computer from the company,

based on the service they received. Suppose you randomly select three current Dell

computer users and ask them whether they would buy another Dell computer system.

a. Find the probability distribution for x, the number of Dell users in the sample of three

who would buy another Dell computer.

b. Construct the probability histogram for p(x).

c. What is the probability that exactly one of the three would buy another Dell computer?

d. What is the population mean and standard deviation for the random variable x?

4.6 Americans can be quite suspicious, especially when it comes to government conspiracies.

On the question of whether the U.S. Air Force is withholding proof of the existence of

intelligent life on other planets, the proportions of Americans with varying opinions are

approximately as shown in the table:

Opinion

Very likely

Somewhat likely

Unlikely

Other

Proportion

0.24

0.24

0.40

0.12

Suppose that one person is randomly selected and his or her opinion on this question is

recorded.

a. What are the simple events in the experiment?

b. Are the simple events in part a equally likely? If not, what are the probabilities?

c. What is the probability that the person finds it at least somewhat likely that the Air

Force is withholding information about aliens?

d. What is the probability that the person finds it unlikely that the Air Force is withholding

information?

4.7 The Eyes of the World About a year after the war in Iraq began, Americans worry about how our country is

viewed by people in other nations. When asked In general, how do you think the United States rates in the eyes

of the world? The proportions of Americans with varying opinions are approximately as shown in the following

table:

Opinion

Proportion

Very favorably

.10

Somewhat favorably

.44

Somewhat unfavorably

.34

Very unfavorably

.11

No opinion

.01

Source: Adapted from www.pollingreport.com

Suppose that one person is randomly selected and his or her opinion on this question is recorded.

a.

b.

c.

d.

Are the simple events in part a equally likely? If not, what are the probabilities?

What is the probability that the person feels our country is rated at least somewhat favorably by people in

other nations?

What is the probability that the person feels the United States is rated very unfavorably by people in other

nations?

4.8 Heaven Do you believe in heaven? In a survey conducted for Time magazine, 81% of the adult Americans

surveyed expressed a belief in heaven, where people live forever with God after they die. Suppose you had

conducted your own telephone survey at the same time. You randomly called people and asked them whether they

believe in heaven. Assume that the percentage given in the Time survey can be taken to approximate the

percentage of all adult Americans who believe in heaven.

a.

b.

Find the probability distribution for x, the number of calls until you find the first person who does not believe

in heaven.

What problems might arise as you randomly call people and ask them to take part in your survey? How

would this affect the reliability of the probabilities calculated in part a?

Chapter 5:

5.1 Voter participation is decreasing in all age groups, but most rapidly among 1824-year-olds. Only one-third of the

eligible voters in this age group voted in the last presidential election compared with 42% a generation ago in

1972. Of ten individuals selected from this age group, four indicated that they voted in the last presidential

election. Exactly five of the ten individuals in this group indicated that they plan to vote in the next presidential

election. Let us assume that voting in the next presidential election is not influenced by whether a person voted in

the last presidential election.

a. What is the probability that exactly four of the five voted in the last presidential

election?

b. What is the probability that at least one of the five voted in the last presidential

election?

c. What is the probability that none of the five voted in the last presidential election?

5.2 It has been reported that approximately 60% of U.S. households have two or more

television sets and that at least half of Americans watch television by themselves.

Suppose that n 15 U.S. households are sampled and x is the number of households that

have two or more television sets.

a.

b.

c.

d.

Find P x 8 .

What is the probability that x exceeds eight?

What is the largest value of c for which P x c .10 ?

5.3 California residents love to complain about smog, freeway traffic, crime, and earthquakes,

and although the quality of life in California may not be what it once was, roughly 75% of

Californians think that it is one of the best places to live or nice, but not outstanding.

Suppose that five randomly selected California residents are interviewed.

a. Find the probability that all five residents think that California is a nice or very nice

place to live.

b. What is the probability that at least one resident does not think that California is a nice

or very nice place to live?

c. What is the probability that exactly one resident does not think that California is a nice

or very nice place to live?

5.4 Pet Peeves Across the board, 22% of car leisure travelers rank traffic and other drivers as their pet peeve while

traveling. Of car leisure travelers in the densely populated Northeast, 33% list this as their pet peeve. A random

sample of n = 8 such travelers in the Northeast were asked to state their pet peeve while traveling. The MINITAB

printout shows the cumulative and individual probabilities.

Cumulative Distribution Function

Binomial with n = 8

and p = 0.33

x

P (X x)

0

0.04061

1

0.20061

2

0.47644

3

0.74814

4

0.91543

5

0.98134

6

0.99758

7

0.99986

8

1.00000

a.

b.

c.

Binomial with n = 8

and p = 0.033

x

P (X = x)

0

0.040607

1

0.160003

2

0.275826

3

0.271709

4

0.167283

5

0.065915

6

0.016233

7

0.002284

8

0.000141

Use the binomial formula to find the probability that all eight give traffic and other drivers as their pet

peeve.

Confirm the results of part a using the MINITAB printout.

What is the probability that at most seven give traffic and other drivers as their pet peeve?

5.5 College Costs A USA Today snapshot reports that 52% of households with children under 18 have started to save

for college. Of this number, approximately 50% have saved at least $5,000 toward college expense. Suppose that

we randomly select n = 15 families that have begun saving for college, and let x be the number that have saved

$5,000 or more.

a.

b.

c.

d.

What is P(x 8)?

Find the probability that x exceeds 8?

What is the largest value of c for which P(x c) 0.10?

5.6 Vacation Homes As Americans start the 21st century, the number one status symbol is no longer being a top

executive. Approximately 60% of Americans rank owning a vacation home nestled on a beach or near a

mountain resort number one as a status symbol. A sample of n = 400 Americans is randomly selected.

a.

b.

c.

d.

What is the average number in the sample who would rank owning a vacation home number one?

What is the standard deviation of the number in the sample who would rank owning a vacation home number

one?

Within what range would you expect to find the number in the sample who would rank having a vacation

home as the number one status symbol?

If only 200 in a sample of 400 people ranked owning a vacation home as the top status symbol, would you

consider this unusual? Explain. What conclusions might you draw from this sample information?

5.7 Reality TV Reality TV (Survivor, Fear Factor, etc.) is a new phenomenon in television programming, with

contestants escaping to remote locations, taking dares, breaking world records, or racing across the country. Of

those who watch reality TV, 50% say that their favorite reality show involves escaping to remote locations. If 20

reality-TV fans are randomly selected, find the following probabilities:

a.

b.

c.

Exactly 16 say that their favorite reality show involves escaping to remote locations.

From 15 to 18 say that their favorite reality show involves escaping to remote locations.

Five or fewer say that their favorite reality show involves escaping to remote locations. Would this be an

unlikely occurrence?

5.8 Eating Out More American families with two working parents are eating out these days. What do Americans

use as criteria in selecting the places where they will eat? According to USA Today, 56% choose a restaurant

because of its great food, while 22% make their choice because of reasonable prices. Suppose that in a random

sample of n = 5 families who eat out, x is the number who choose a restaurant because of its great food.

a.

b.

c.

What is the probability that all five families say they select a restaurant because of its great food?

What is the probability that exactly three of the five families select a restaurant because of its great food?

What is the probability that at least one family selects a restaurant because of its great food?

5.9 After College What will you do once you graduate? Where will you live? A report in American Demographics

indicates that 60% of all college students plan to move back home after graduation. A group of 12 college

students are randomly selected and asked whether or not they plan to move back home after graduation.

a.

b.

c.

What is the probability that more than six of the students plan to move back home?

What is the probability that fewer than five of the students plan to move back home?

What is the probability that exactly ten of the students plan to move back home?

5.10 After Graduation Most of todays college seniors want to start earning money as soon as they graduate from

college. In fact, only 14% of college seniors say that they are likely to take some time off to travel and relax after

graduation. Suppose that 50 college seniors were randomly selected.

a.

b.

c.

What is the average value of x, the number of college seniors in the group who say they will take some time

off after graduation? What is the standard deviation of x?

Would it be unlikely to find 15 or more in the group who say they will take some time off after graduation?

Use the applet to find the probability of this event.

How many standard deviations from the mean is the value x = 15? Does this confirm your answer in part b?

Chapter 6:

6.1 A Nielsen survey, reported in Automotive News, indicated that one out of four people over age 16 have used the

Internet in the last 6 months. Does this hold true for you and your statistics classmates? Assume that it does and

that your class contains 50 students. What are the approximate probabilities for these events?

a.

b.

More than 20 students have used the Internet in the last 6 months.

Fewer than 15 have used the Internet in the last 6 months.

c. Fewer than 10 have not used the Internet in the last 6 months.

6.2 If you call the Internal Revenue Service with an income tax question, will you get the correct answer? According

to an investigation conducted by the General Accounting Office, the IRS is giving incorrect answers to 39% of

the questions posed by people who call for help with their taxes. Assume 65 taxpayers call the IRS with

questions.

a. What is the probability that more than 30 will receive incorrect advice?

b. What is the probability that fewer than 20 will receive incorrect advice?

6.3 Life Savers What is your favorite Life Saver flavor? The data from a USA Today Snapshot claims that 32% of

Americans prefer cherry LifeSavers.

Does this hold true for you and your statistics classmates? Assume that it does and that your class contains 50

students. What are the approximate probabilities for these events?

a.

b.

c.

d.

Fewer than 15 students prefer cherry LifeSavers.

Fewer than 28 students do not prefer cherry LifeSavers.

Are you willing to assume that you and your classmates are a representative sample of all Americans when

it comes to this question? How does your answer affect the probabilities in parts a to c?

6.4 Stress A snapshot in USA Today indicates that forty-nine percent of adult Americans list money issues as the top

causes of stress for them in their daily lives. Suppose that 100 adult Americans are randomly selected.

a.

b.

Use the Calculating Binomial Probabilities applet from Chapter 5 to find the exact probability that 60 or

more adults would give money reasons as the top cause of stress.

Use the Normal Approximation to Binomial Probabilities applet to approximate the probability in part a.

Compare your answers.

Chapter 7:

7.1 In 1996 there was a battle in the courts and in the marketplace between Intel and Digital Equipment Corp. about

the technology behind Intels Pentium microprocessing chip. Digital accused Intel of willful infringement on

Digitals patents. Although Digitals Alpha microprocessor chip was the fastest on the market at the time, its

speed fell victim to Intels marketing clout. That same year, Intel shipped 76% of the microprocessor market.

Suppose that a random sample of n= 1000 personal computer (PC) sales is monitored and the type of

be the proportion of personal computers with a Pentium

microprocessor installed is recorded. Let p

microprocessor in the sample.

a.

b.

c.

d.

?

What is the distribution of p

What is the probability that the sample proportion of PCs with Pentium chips exceeded 80%?

What is the probability that the proportion of the sample PCs with Pentium micro-processors was between

75% and 80%?

Would a sample proportion of PCs with Pentium microprocessors equal to 70% appear to contradict the

reported figure of 76%?

7.2 Market research surveys depend to a large extent on responses to telephone interviews, door-to-door interviews,

computer-generated telephone surveys, and so on. The techniques used by market researchers require

representative random samples; however, cooperation rates are dropping to the point that the people who are

responding to the surveys may no longer represent the rest of the population. Miami and Fort Lauderdale,

Florida, and Los Angeles have the least cooperative residents, and about one-third of all Americans routinely

refuse to be interviewed. Suppose you took a random sample of 50 people and asked them whether they would be

willing to be interviewed for a market research survey.

a.

b.

Describe the sampling distribution of p

interviewed.

If p =1/3, what is the probability that your sample proportion will lie within .07 of the true value of p?

7.3 The following notice in a recent newspaper refers to one of the many telephone call-in opinion polls conducted

by the major television networks: NBC will conduct a phone vote via 900 numbers (50 cents a call) during its

1:00 P.M. EST baseball telecasts Saturday on whether a designated hitter should be used in both leagues. Bill

Macatee will update the results until 4:00 P.M. from the studio. Many television viewers will interpret the

proportion of telephone calls responding yes to NBCs question as an estimate of the proportion of all baseball

fans who favor using a designated hitter in both leagues. Explain why the respondents do not represent a random

sample of the opinions of all baseball fans. Explain the types of distortions that could creep into a call-in opinion

poll.

7.4 MRIs In a study described in the American Journal of Sports Medicine, Peter D. Franklin and colleagues

reported on the accuracy of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate ligament sprains and tears on

35 patients. Consecutive patients with acute or chronic knee pain were selected from the clinical practice of one

of the authors and agreed to participate in the study.

a.

b.

c.

What chance mechanism was used to select this sample of 35 individuals with knee pain?

Can valid inferences be made using the results of this study? Why or why not?

7.5 Tax Savings An important expectation of a federal income tax reduction is that consumers will reap a

substantial portion of the tax savings. Suppose estimates of the portion of total tax saved, based on a random

sampling of 35 economists, have a mean of 26% and a standard deviation of 12%.

a.

b.

What is the approximate probability that a sample mean, based on a random sample of n = 35 economists,

will lie within 1% of the mean of the population of the estimates of all economists?

Is it necessarily true that the mean of the population of estimates of all economists is equal to the percentage

of tax savings that will actually be achieved? Why?

7.6 Stress and Sweets One of the ways most Americans relieve stress is to reward themselves with sweets.

According to one study in Food Technology, 46% admit to overeating sweet foods when stressed. Suppose that

the 46% figure is correct and that a random sample of n = 100 Americans is selected.

a.

b.

c.

d.

Does the distribution of p

foods, have an approximately normal distribution? If so, what are its mean and standard deviation?

, exceeds 0.5?

What is the probability that the sample proportion, p

lies within the interval 0.35 to 0.55?

What is the probability that p

What might you conclude if the sample proportion were as small as 30%?

7.7 Surfing the Net Do you use the Internet to gather information for a project? The Press Enterprise reports that

the percentage of students who used the Internet as their major resource for a school project in a recent year was

66%. Suppose that you take a sample of n = 1000 students, and record the number of students who used the

be the proportion of

Internet as their major resource for their school project during the past year. Let p

students surveyed who used the Internet as a major resource in the past year.

a.

b.

c.

d.

?

What is the exact distribution of p

exceeds 68%?

What is the probability that the sample proportion p

What is the probability that the sample proportion lies between 64% and 68%?

Would a sample proportion of 70% contradict the reported value of 66%?

7.8 Child Abuse A study of nearly 2000 women included questions dealing with child abuse and its effect on the

womens adult life. The study reported on the likelihood that a woman who was abused as a child would suffer

either physical abuse or physical problems arising from depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and drug abuse as

an adult.

a.

b.

What problems might arise because of the sensitive nature of this study? What kinds of biases might occur?

Chapter 8:

8.1 A study of 392 healthy children living in the area of Tours, France, was designed to measure the serum levels of

certain fat-soluble vitaminsnamely, vitamin A, vitamin E, -carotene, and cholesterol. Knowledge of the

reference levels for children living in an industrial country, with normal food availability and feeding habits,

would be important in establishing borderline levels for children living in other, less favorable conditions. Results

of the study are shown in the table.

Retinol (g/dl)

-carotene (g/l)

350

Mean SD (n = 392)

42.5 12.0

572 381

43.0 13.0

588 406

41.8 10.7

553

Vitamin E (mg/l)

9.5 2.5

9.6 2.7

9.5

2.2

Cholesterol (g/l)

1.84 .42

Vitamin E/cholesterol (mg/g)

5.26 1.04

1.84 .47

5.26 1.11

1.83 .38

5.26

.25

a.

b.

Find a point estimate for the mean cholesterol level for the population of boys. Calculate the margin of error.

c.

Find a point estimate for the mean -carotene level for the population of girls. Calculate the margin of error.

d.

e.

Display the results of parts c and d graphically, using the form shown in Figure 8.5 (located in the Classic

Exercises folder on the CD-ROM). Use this display to compare the mean -carotene levels for boys and girls.

f.

Can the data collected by the researchers be used to estimate serum levels for all boys and girls in this age

category? Why or why not?

8.2 A survey concerning the health habits of Americans has been taken for over 10 years by Louis Harris &

Associates. Their latest findings have been labeled terribly disturbing by Dr. Todd Davis, the executive vice

president of the American Medical Association. The surveys sample of 1251 Americans showed that only 53% ate

the recommended amounts of fibrous foods and vegetables, 51% avoided fat, and 46% avoided excess salt.

a.

b.

Based on the survey results, construct a 90% confidence interval for the proportion of all Americans who eat

the recommended amounts of fibrous foods and vegetables.

Construct a 99% confidence interval for the proportion of all Americans who avoid fat in their diet.

8.3 How much time do computer users spend on the information superhighway? An Internet server

conducted a survey of 250 of its customers and found that the average amount of time spent online was

10.5 hours per week with a standard deviation of 5.2 hours.

a.

b.

c.

d.

Do you think that the random variable x, the number of hours spent online, has a mound-shaped distribution?

If not, what shape do you expect?

If the distribution of the original measurements is not normal, you can still use the standard normal

distribution to construct a confidence interval for , the average online time for all users of this Internet

server. Why?

Construct a 95% confidence interval for the average online time for all users of this particular Internet server.

If the Internet server claimed that its users averaged 13 hours of use per week, would you agree or disagree?

Explain.

8.4 Americans have varying opinions about the state of the nation, depending not only on the current events in the

country but also on the state of their own personal affairs. A recent survey of 1017 adult Americans was conducted

by Yankelovich Partners Inc. In response to the question, Is the United States going through a period of good

times or bad times right now? 54% of those surveyed answered good times. Construct a 90% confidence

interval for the proportion of all adult Americans who think that the United States is going through a period of

good times.

8.5 One method for solving the electric power shortage involves constructing floating nuclear power plants a few

miles offshore. Because there is concern about the possibility of ships colliding with a floating (but anchored)

plant, an estimate of the density of ship traffic in the area is needed. The number of ships passing within 10 miles

of the proposed power plant location per day, recorded for n= 60 days during July and August, has sample mean

and variance equal to x = 7.2 and s 2 =8.8, respectively.

c.

d.

e.

Find a 95% confidence interval for the mean number of ships passing within 10 miles of the proposed powerplant location during a 1-day period.

The density of ship traffic was expected to decrease during the winter months. A sample of n= 90 daily

recordings of ship sightings for December, January, and February gave a mean and variance of x = 4.7 and

s 2 =4.9. Find a 90% confidence interval for the difference in mean density of ship traffic between the

summer and winter months.

What is the population associated with your estimate in part b? What could be wrong with the sampling

procedure in parts a and b?

8.6 In assessing students leisure interests and stress ratings, Alice Chang and colleagues tested 559 high school

students using the leisure interest checklist (LIC) inventory. The means and standard deviations for each of the

seven LIC factor scales are given in the following table for both boys ( n1 = 252) and girls ( n 2 307):

Hobbies

Social fun

Sports

Cultural

Trips

Games

Church

Boys

Mean SD

10.0

6.47

6

22.0

5.12

5

13.6

4.82

5

11.4

5.69

8

6.90

3.41

4.95

3.29

2.15

2.10

Girls

Mean SD

13.6

7.46

4

25.9

5.07

6

9.88

4.41

13.2

1

6.49

3.85

3.00

5.31

2.97

2.49

2.26

a. Find a 95% confidence interval for the mean difference between boys and girls for the cultural factor scale

activity. Interpret this interval.

b. Find a 90% confidence interval for the mean difference between boys and girls for the social fun factor scale

activity. Interpret this interval.

c. Do there appear to be significant differences between boys and girls in the two LIC activity scores given in

parts a and b? Explain.

8.7 Refer to Exercise 8.1. The means and standard deviations for the -carotene and serum cholesterol levels (in

micrograms per liter) are given in the table.

-carotene

(g/l)

Cholesterol

(g/l)

Mean SD (n =

392)

Boys (n = 207)

Girls (n = 185)

572 381

588 406

553 350

1.84 .42

1.84 .47

1.83 .38

a. Find a 90% confidence interval for the difference in the mean serum cholesterol levels

of boys versus girls.

b. Find a 95% confidence interval for the difference in the mean -carotene levels of boys versus girls.

c.

d. Do the data indicate a difference between boys and girls in average -carotene or serum cholesterol levels?

Explain.

8.8 Age influences not only what you watch on television but also where you watch television. A study has shown

that older Americans are less likely than younger ones to watch television in bed and more likely to watch

television in the dining area. For the data given in the table, assume that the sample size for each age group was

1000.

Area

25 to 44

Living room/family

Room/den

Bedroom

Kitchen

Dining area

45 to 59

60 and

older

95%

95%

93%

58%

12%

10%

57%

20%

10%

45%

20%

19%

a. Find a 95% confidence interval for the difference in the proportions of Americans aged

45 to 59 and those 60 and older who watch television in the dining area.

b. Estimate the difference between the proportions of Americans in the 25 to 59 age

groups and those 60 years and older who watch television in the living room, family

room, or den using a 99% confidence interval. (HINT: The proportion for the 25 to 59 age

groups will be the simple average of the individual proportions based on a sample size

of 2000.)

c. What conclusions can you draw regarding the groups compared in parts a and b?

8.9 Are American students inferior to students from other countries? Test scores in mathematics and science were

recorded for random samples of 100 American and 100 Canadian students in the fourth grade. The results shown

in the table are the sample means plus or minus the standard deviation.

Mathematic

s

Statistics

a.

b.

c.

United

States

545 130

Canada

565 122

549 133

532 126

Construct a 95% confidence interval for the average mathematics score for the American students.

If the average mathematics score for all fourth-graders in Singapore was 625, can you conclude that the

performance of American fourth-graders is significantly lower than that of the Singapore fourth-graders?

Explain.

Construct a 99% confidence interval for the difference in the average science scores for the American and

Canadian students. Can you conclude that the population mean science scores are different for the two

countries? Explain.

8.10 In a controlled pollination study involving Phlox drummondii, a spring-flowering annual plant common along

roadsides and sand fields in central Texas, researchers found that seed survival rates were not affected by water or

nutrient deprivation. In the experiment, flowers on plants were counted as males when donating pollen and as

females when pollinated by donor pollen in crosses involving plants in the three treatment groups: control, low

water, and low nutrient. The following table, which reflects one aspect of the results of the experiment, records the

number of seeds surviving to maturity for each of the three groups for both male parents and female parents.

Treatment

Control

Low water

Low

585

578

568

Male

Number

Surviving

543

522

510

n

632

510

589

Female

Number

Surviving

560

466

546

nutrient

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

Find the sample estimate of the proportion of surviving seeds and the standard error of the estimate for each

of the six treatmentsex combinations.

Find a 99% confidence interval for the difference in survival proportions for low water versus low nutrients

for the male category.

Find a 99% confidence interval for the difference in survival proportions for low water versus low nutrients

for the female category.

Find a 99% confidence interval for the difference in survival proportions for the male control group

compared to the female control group.

What conclusions can you draw using the confidence intervals in parts b, c, and d?

8.11 Male Teachers Although most school districts do not specifically recruit men to be elementary school teachers,

those men who do choose a career in elementary education are highly valued and find the career very rewarding.

If there were 40 men in a random sample of 250 elementary school teachers, estimate the proportion of male

elementary school teachers in the entire population. Give the margin of error for your estimate.

8.12 Sports Crazy Are you sports crazy? Most Americans love participating in or at least watching a multitude of

sporting events, but many feel that sports have more than just an entertainment value. In a survey of 1000 adults

conducted by KRC Research & Consulting, 78% feel that spectator sports have a positive effect on society.

a.

b.

Find a point estimate for the proportion of American adults who feel that spectator sports have a positive

effect on society. Calculate the margin of error.

The poll reports a margin of error of plus or minus 3.1%. Does this agree with your results in part a? If

not, what value of p produces the margin of error given in the poll?

8.13 Tweens When it comes to advertising, tweens (kids aged 10 to 13) are not ready for the hardline messages

that advertisers often use to reach teenagers. The Geppetto Group study found that 78% of tweens understand

and enjoy ads that are silly in nature. Unlike teenagers, tweens would much rather see dancing (69%) and

boyfriends and girlfriends (63%) than sexy looking people or kissing. Suppose that these results are based

on a sample size n = 1030 tweens.

a.

b.

Construct a 95% confidence interval estimate of the proportion of tweens who understand and enjoy ads that

are silly in nature

Construct a 95% confidence interval for the proportion of tweens who would rather see dancing.

8.14 Movie Ratings Is Americas romance with movies on the wane? In a poll of n = 800 randomly chosen adults,

45% indicated that movies were getting better, while 43% indicated that movies were getting worse. However,

these results vary by age: 69% of the 18-to-29-year-olds say that movies are getting better, 39% of 50-to-64-yearolds and just 15% of those over 60 agree. Construct a 90% confidence interval for the overall proportion of adults

who say that movies are getting better.

8.15 Public Service Jobs Instead of paying to support welfare recipients, many Californians want them to find jobs; if

necessary, they want the state to create public service jobs for those who cannot find jobs in private industry. In a

survey of 500 registered voters reported in The Press-Enterprise 250 Republicans and 250 Democrats 70% of

the Republicans and 86% of the Democrats favored the creation of public service jobs. Use a large-sample

estimation procedure to compare the proportions of Republicans and Democrats in the population of registered

voters in California who favor creating public service jobs. Explain your conclusions.

8.16 Ads in Outer Space? Do you think that we should let Radio Shack film a commercial in outer space? The

commercialism of our space program is a topic of great interest since Dennis Tito paid $20 million to ride along

with the Russians on the space shuttle. In a survey of 500 men and 500 women, 20% of the men and 26% of the

women responded that space should remain commercial-free.

a.

b.

c.

Construct a 98% confidence interval for the difference in the proportions of men and women who think that

space should remain commercial-free.

What does it mean to say that you are 98% confident?

Based on the confidence interval in part a, can you conclude that there is a difference in the proportions of

men and women who think space should remain commercial-free?

8.17 Spectator Sports Exercise 8.12 discussed a research poll conducted for U.S. News & World Report to determine

the publics attitudes concerning the effect of spectator sports on society. Suppose you were designing a poll of

this type.

a.

b.

Explain how you would select your sample. What problems might you encounter in this process?

If you wanted to estimate the percentage of the population who agree with a particular statement in your

survey questionnaire correct to within 1%, with probability 0.95, approximately how many people would

have to be polled?

8.18 Are You Patriotic? In a CNN/USA Today/Gallup poll involving n = 1000 American citizens who were asked

how the term patriotic described them, the following summary was obtained:

Very well

Somewhat well

Not very well

Not well at all

a.

b.

c.

All

53%

31%

10%

6%

18-34

35%

41%

16%

8%

60+

77%

17%

4%

2%

Construct a 95% confidence interval for the proportion of all American citizens who agreed that the term

described them very well.

If the 60+ age group consisted of n = 150 individuals, find a 95% confidence interval for the proportion of

American citizens 60+ years of age who agreed that the term described them somewhat well.

If the 18-34 age group consisted of n = 340 individuals, find a 98% confidence interval for the true difference

in proportions of those aged 60+ and those 18-34 years of age who agreed that the term described them very

well.

8.19 Schools Out! Summer school break adds more than 20 million teenagers to the American workforce, and in fact,

July is the peak time for summer jobs for teenagers. American Demographics reports that amusement and theme

parks average 100 full-time employees, but at peak season average 665 workers per site. A group of n = 40

amusement and theme parks are randomly selected at peak season, and the average number of full-time workers is

found to be 652 with a standard deviation of 32. Find a 99% confidence interval estimate for the true mean

number of full-time workers at amusement and theme parks at peak season. Does this contradict the reported

average of 665 workers per site?

8.20 Case Study How Reliable Is That Poll? In the days and weeks following important or controversial events,

opinion polls saturate the media. In the years 20022004, public attention has been on the war in Iraq and its

consequences to the American public. However, in March 2004 the attention of the nation focused on the fact that

nationwide gas prices were at record highs. A recent CNN/USA Today/Gallup Poll conducted March 2628, 2004

involving n = 1001 adults 18 years or older reported that nearly seven in ten Americans say the cost of gasoline

represents a major crisis/problem for the United States. Do national polls conducted by the Gallup and Harris

organizations, the news media, and so on, really provide accurate estimates of the percentages of people in the

United States who have various opinions? Lets look at some of the results of the poll survey methods that were

used.

Although the level of gas prices is a major concern for the U.S. public, it ranks somewhere below a list of selected

recent events rated as crisis or major problems in Gallup Polls, 20032004 as shown in the next table.

CNN/USA Today/Gallup Poll

Event

Iraqs military capabilities

North Koreas capabilities

Civilian aid for Iraqi civilians

Federal budget deficit

Cost of gasoline

Year

2003

2003

2003

2003

2004

Crisis %

25

23

30

20

13

Major

Problem %

56

58

49

57

56

Crisis/Major

Problem %

81

81

79

77

69

For several questions in the present poll, the sample of 1001 Americans 18 years and older was split into two

groups, one with 510 and the second with 491 adults. The first group answered the following question (1):

Thinking about the cost of gasoline, would you say that the country [rotated: is in a state of crisis, has major

problems, has minor problems, (or) no problems at all]?

Crisis Problem

13%

Major Problem

56%

Minor Problem

26%

No Problem

5%

The second split sample consisting of 491 adults were asked (2) Do you think the current rise in gas prices

represents [rotated: a temporary fluctuation in prices, or a more permanent change in prices]? The latest

survey finds that 55% of Americans believe the recent price increases represent a more permanent change in gas

prices, while 42% say they are only a temporary fluctuation in prices.

Temporary

42%

More Permanent

55%

No Opinion

3%

The following description of the Survey Methods that appears on the Gallup Poll Web site explains how the

results of the poll should be viewed.

The results are based upon telephone interviews with a randomly selected national sample of 1001

adults, aged 18 years or older, conducted March 26-28, 2004. For results based on this sample (the

full sample of 1001 adults 18 years or older), one can say with 95% confidence that the maximum

error attributable to sampling and other random effects is 3 percentage points. In addition to

sampling error, question wording and practical difficulties in conducting surveys can introduce

error or bias into the findings of public opinion polls.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Verify the margin of error of percentage points given by the Gallup Poll for the full sample of 1001 adults.

Find the margin of error for the two split samples of 510 adults answering the first question and of 491 adults

answering the second question.

Do the numbers reported in the tables represent the number of people who fell into those categories? If not,

what do those numbers represent?

When question (1) was asked, the pollster rotated the order of options given to the respondent. Why do you

suppose this technique was used?

Construct 95% confidence intervals for the proportion of Americans who:

a. report that the cost of gasoline in March of 2004 is a major problem.

b. report that it is a crisis problem.

Compare the percentage of people in the first split sample who say that the cost of gasoline is a major

problem with those in the second split sample who say that the prices may be more permanent. Is this a

surprising difference?

If these questions were asked today, would you expect the responses to be similar to those reported here or

would you expect them to differ substantially?

Chapter 9:

9.1 How much time do computer users spend on the information superhighway? An Internet server claimed that its

users averaged 13 hours per week. To determine whether this was an overstatement, a competitor conducted a

survey of 250 customers and found that the average time spent online was 10.5 hours per week with a standard

deviation of 5.2 hours. Does the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate that the average hours of use are less

than that claimed by the first Internet server? Test at the 1% level of significance.

9.2 In comparing high school and college students leisure interests and stress ratings (see Exercise 8.6), Alice Chang

and colleagues tested 559 high school students using the leisure interest checklist (LIC) inventory. The means and

standard deviations for each of the seven LIC factor scales are given in the table for 252 boys and 307 girls.

LIC Factor

Scale Activity

Hobbies

Social Fun

Sports

Cultural

Trips

Games

Church

a.

b.

Mean

10.06

22.05

13.65

11.48

6.90

4.95

2.15

Boys

SD

6.47

5.12

4.82

5.69

3.41

3.29

2.10

Mean

13.64

25.96

9.88

13.21

6.49

3.85

3.00

Girls

SD

7.46

5.07

4.41

5.31

2.97

2.49

2.26

Without looking at the sample data, would you expect that boys would have a greater or lesser interest in

sports as a leisure time activity than girls? Do the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate that the mean

LIC score for sports is greater for boys than the mean for girls? Test using .01.

Do the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate a difference in mean LIC scores for church between boys

and girls? Test using .01.

9.3 In an article entitled A Strategy for Big Bucks, Charles Dickey discusses studies of the habits of white-tailed

deer that indicate that they live and feed within very limited rangesapproximately 150 to 205 acres. To

determine whether there was a difference between the ranges of deer located in two different geographic areas, 40

deer were caught, tagged, and fitted with small radio transmitters. Several months later, the deer were tracked and

identified, and the distance x from the release point was recorded. The mean and standard deviation of the

distances from the release point were as follows:

Sample size

Sample mean

Sample standard deviation

a.

b.

c.

Location 1

40

2980 ft

1140 ft

Location 2

40

3205 ft

963 ft

If you have no preconceived reason for believing one population mean is larger than another, what would you

choose for your alternative hypothesis? Your null hypothesis?

Does your alternative hypothesis in part a imply a one- or a two-tailed test? Explain.

Do the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate that the mean distances differ for the two geographic

locations? Test using .05.

9.4 In a comparison study of homeless and vulnerable meal-program users, Michael Sosin investigated determinants

that account for a transition from having a home (domiciled) but utilizing meal programs to becoming homeless.

The following information provides the study data:

Sample size

Number currently

working

Sample proportion

Homeless Men

112

34

Domiciled Men

260

98

.30

.38

Test for a significant difference in the population proportions who are currently working for homeless versus

domiciled men. Use 0.01.

9.5 Exercise 8.10 presented data from a controlled pollination study involving seed survival rates for plants subjected

to water or nutrient deprivation. The data, representing the number of seeds surviving to maturity, are reproduced

here:

Treatment

Control

Low water

Low

nutrient

585

578

568

a.

b.

c.

Male

Number

Surviving

543

522

510

n

632

510

589

Female

Number

Surviving

560

466

546

Is there a significant difference between the proportions of surviving seeds for low water versus low nutrients

in the male category? Use .01.

Do the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate a difference between survival proportions for low water

versus low nutrients for the female category? Use .01.

Look at the data for the other four treatmentsex combinations. Does it appear that there are any significant

differences due to low levels of water or nutrients? Explain.

9.6 Exercise 8.1 described a study of 392 healthy children who live in the area of Tours, France. The table shows some

results of the study measuring the serum levels of certain fat-soluble vitaminsnamely, vitamin A (retinol) and carotenein both boys and girls.

Retinol ( g/dl)

-carotene (

g/l)

Boys (n = 207)

Girls (n = 185)

x1 43.0

s1 13.0

x1 588

x2 41.8

s 2 10.7

x2 553

s1 406

a.

b.

c.

s2 350

Does the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate a difference between the mean retinol levels for boys

versus girls? Use .01.

Does the data indicate a significant difference between the mean -carotene levels for boys versus girls? Use

.01.

Would the results of parts a and b change if you had used .05?

9.7 Psychology Today reports on a study by environmental psychologist Karen Frank and two colleagues, which was

conducted to determine whether it is more difficult to make friends in a large city than in a small town. Two

groups of graduate students were used for the study: 45 new arrivals at a private university in New York City and

47 at a prestigious university located in a town of 31,000 in an upstate rural area. The number of friends (more

than just acquaintances) made by each student was recorded at the end of 2 months and then again at the end of 7

months. The 7-month sample means are given here:

New York City

Sample Size

Sample Mean (7

months)

Population Mean (7

months)

45

5.1

Upstate Small

Town

47

5.3

a. If your theory is that it is more difficult to make friends in a city than in a small town, state the alternative

hypothesis that you would use for a statistical test. State your null hypothesis.

b. Suppose that 1 2.2 and 2 2.3 for the populations of numbers of friends made by new graduate

students after 7 months at a new location. Do the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate that the mean

numbers of friends acquired after 7 months differ for the two locations? Test using .05.

9.8 According to the National Center for Education Statistics in Washington, DC, approximately

16% of all elementary school teachers are men. A researcher randomly selected 1000

elementary school teachers in California from a statewide computer database and found

that 142 were men. Does this sample provide sufficient evidence that the percentage of

male elementary school teachers in California is different from the national percentage?

9.9 American teenagers are very excited about technology and the impact it will have on their lives. In fact, most

have regular access to computers and the Internet. A survey of 508 teenagers, aged 12-17, was conducted for

Newsweek with the following sample results. Assume that the sample consisted of 272 girls and 236 boys.

Think technology makes a

positive difference in their

lives

a.

b.

c.

Boys

66%

Girls

56%

57%

46%

Is there a difference in the proportions of boys and girls who surf the net? Calculate the test statistic and its

p-value. Use the p-value to evaluate the statistical significance of the results.

Do boys and girls differ in the proportions who think that technology makes a positive difference in their

lives? Use one of the two methods of testing presented in this section, and explain your conclusions.

Are the two tests in parts a and b independent? Explain how this might affect the reliability of your

conclusions.

9.10 Advertising at the Movies Welcome to the new movie pre-show! Before you can see the newly released

movie you have just paid to see, you must sit through a variety of trivia slides, snack bar ads, paid product

advertising, and movie trailers. Although the total barrage of advertising may last up to 20 minutes or more, a

particular theater chain claims that the average length of any one advertisement is no more than 3 minutes. To test

this claim, 50 theater advertisements were randomly selected and found to have an average duration of 3 minutes

15 seconds with a standard deviation of 30 seconds. Do the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate that the

average duration of theater ads is more than that claimed by the theater? Test at the 1% level of significance.

(HINT: Change seconds to fractions of a minute.)

9.11 Princeton Review In Exercise 1.15, we examined an advertising flyer for the Princeton Review, a review course

designed for high school students taking the SAT tests. The flyer claimed that the average score improvements for

students who have taken the Princeton Review course is between 110 and 160 points. Are the claims made by the

Princeton Review advertisers exaggerated? That is, is the average score improvement less than 110, the minimum

claimed in the advertising flyer? A random sample of 100 students who took the Princeton Review course

achieved an average score improvement of 107 points with a standard deviation of 13 points.

a.

b.

c.

Use the p-value approach to test the Princeton Review claim. At which significance levels can you reject H0?

If you were a competitor of the Princeton Review, how would you state your conclusions to put your

company in the best possible light?

If you worked for the Princeton Review, how would you state your conclusions to protect your companys

reputation?

9.12 TV Habits An article in American Demographics reports that approximately 60% of U.S. households have two

or more television sets and that at least half of Americans sometimes watch television alone. Suppose that n = 75

U.S. households are sampled, and of those sampled, 49 had two or more television sets and 35 respondents

sometimes watch television alone.

a.

b.

c.

Two claims can be tested using the sample information. What are the two sets of hypotheses to be tested?

Do the data present sufficient evidence to contradict the claim that at least half of Americans sometimes

watch television alone?

Do the data present sufficient evidence to show that the 60% figure claimed in the magazine article is

incorrect?

9.13 Rocking the Vote What proportion of adults in the United States always votes in the presidential elections? An

article in American Demographics reports this percentage as 67%. To test this claim, a random sample of 300

adults was taken, and 192 of them said that they always vote in presidential elections. Does this sample provide

sufficient evidence to indicate that the percentage of adults who say that they always vote is different from their

reported percentage? Test using = 0.01.

9.14 Clopidogrel A large study was conducted to test the effectiveness of an experimental blood thinner, clopidogrel,

in warding off heart attacks and strokes. The study involved 19,185 patients who had suffered heart attacks,

strokes, or pain from clogged arteries. They were each randomly assigned to take either aspirin or clopidogrel for

a period of 1 to 3 years. Of the patients taking aspirin, 5.3% suffered heart attacks, strokes, or death from

cardiovascular disease; the corresponding percentage in the clopidogrel patients was 5.8%.

a.

b.

The article states that each patient was randomly assigned to one of the two medications. Explain how you

could use the random number table to make these assignments.

Although the article does not give the sample sizes, assume that the randomization in part a results in 9925

aspirin and 9260 clopidogrel assignments. Are the results of the study statistically significant? Use the

appropriate test of hypothesis.

9.15 Commercials in Space The commercialism of our space program was the topic of Exercise 8.16. In a survey of

500 men and 500 women, 20% of the men and 26% of the women responded that space should remain

commercial-free.

a.

b.

Is there a significant difference in the population proportions of men and women who think that space should

remain commercial-free? Use = 0.01.

Can you think of any reason why a statistically significant difference in these population proportions might

be of practical importance to the administrators of the space program? To the advertisers? To the

politicians?

9.16 The Death Penalty A researcher believes that the fraction p1 of Republicans in favor of the death penalty is

greater than the fraction p2 of Democrats in favor of the death penalty. She acquired independent random samples

of 200 Republicans and 200 Democrats and found 136 Republican and 124 Democrats favoring the death penalty.

Do these data support the researchers belief?

a.

b.

If you plan to conduct your test using = 0.05, what will be your test conclusions?

9.17 The Death Penalty, continued Refer to Exercise 9.16. Some thought should have been given to designing a test

for which is tolerably low when p1 exceeds p2 by an important amount. For example, find a common sample size

n for a test with = 0.05 and 0.20, when in fact p1 exceeds p2 by 0.1. [HINT: The maximum value of p (1

p) is 0.25.]

9.18 The Cheeseburger Bill In the spring of 2004, the U.S. Congress considered a bill that would prevent

Americans from suing fast-food giants like McDonalds for making them overweight. Although the fast-food

industry may not be to blame, a study by Childrens Hospital in Boston reports that about two-thirds of adult

Americans and about 15% of children and adolescents are overweight. To test this claim, a random sample 100

children is selected, and 13 of them are found to be overweight. Is there sufficient evidence to indicate that the

percentage reported by Childrens Hospital is incorrect? Test at the 5% level of significance.

9.19 Summer Jobs In Exercise 8.19, it was reported that amusement and theme parks average 100 full-time

employees, but at peak season average 665 workers per site. If n = 40 amusement and theme parks are sampled at

peak season and the average number of full-time workers is found to be 652 with a standard deviation of 32, does

this contradict the reported average of 665 workers per site?

a.

b.

c.

d.

Use the Large-Sample Test of a Population Mean applet to find the observed value of the test statistic.

Use the Large-Sample Test of a Population Mean applet to find the p-value for this test.

Based on your results from part c, what conclusions can you draw about the average of 665 workers reported

in Exercise 8.19?

Chapter 10:

10.1 One family of fish native to tropical Africa can breathe both in air and in water. Thus, the fish can live in water

with relatively low oxygen content by taking a portion of their oxygen from the air. Michael Pettit and Thomas

Beitinger conducted a study to investigate the effects of some variables on oxygen partitioning by reedfishthat

is, the proportions of oxygen taken by reedfish from the surrounding air and from the water in which they lived.

The data in the table represent the oxygen uptake readings from air and water for 11 reedfish in water at 25C. The

first column gives the weights of the fish. The second and third columns give the averages of repeated

measurements of oxygen uptake from air and water, respectively, for each fish. The fourth and fifth columns give

the percentage of total oxygen uptake attributable to air and water, respectively.

Oxygen Uptake (ml

O2/g/h)

Weight

(grams

)

22.1

21.1

13.4

19.5

21.9

19.5

16.5

18.5

18.0

15.4

13.4

Percentage

Air

Water

Air

Water

.043

.034

.026

.048

.009

.028

.032

.045

.061

.028

.024

.045

.066

.084

.045

.056

.072

.081

.051

.041

.060

.133

49

34

24

52

14

28

28

47

60

32

18

51

66

76

48

86

72

72

53

40

68

82

Percentages were calculated by the author based on Pettit and Beitingers data.

Assume that the reedfish included in this experiment represent a random sample of

mature reedfish.

a. Find a 90% confidence interval for the mean weight of mature reedfish. Interpret the interval.

b. Find a 90% confidence interval for the mean oxygen uptake from the air for redfish living in an environment

similar to that used in this experiment. Interpret your interval.

c. Find a 90% confidence interval for the mean percentage of oxygen uptake from air in reedfish living in an

environment similar to that used in this experiment. Interpret your interval.

10.2 Refer to the oxygen partition study in reedfish conducted by Pettit and Beitinger in Exercise10.1. The

accompanying table gives the percentages of oxygen uptake by air (the rest is by water) for reedfish exposed to

two temperature environments: one group of

n2 12 reedfish in water at 33C. Use the Minitab printout to answer the questions.

25C

49

52

28

34

14

47

24

28

60

33C

32

18

28

41

54

55

27

67

45

44

46

51

48

59

Two Sample T-Test and Confidence Interval

Two sample T for 25 Deg C

N

Mean

25 Deg C

11

35.1

33 Deg C

12

47.1

vs 33 Deg C

StDev SE Mean

14.9

4.5

11.6

3.4

T-Test mu 25 Deg C = mu 33 Deg C (vs not =): T = -2.17 P = 0.042 DF = 21

Both use Pooled StDev = 13.3

a. Does the data in the table present sufficient evidence to indicate a difference between the percentages of

oxygen uptake by air for reedfish exposed to water at 25C and those at 33C? Test using .05.

b. What is the p-value for the test?

c. The Minitab analysis uses the pooled estimate of 2 . Is the assumption of equal variances reasonable? Why

or why not?

10.3 Persons submitting computing jobs to a computer center are usually required to estimate the amount of computer

time required to complete the job. This time is measured in CPUs, the amount of time that a job will occupy a

portion of the computers central processing units memory. A computer center decided to compare the estimated

versus actual CPU times for a particular customer. The corresponding times (in minutes) were available for 11

jobs.

Job Number

CPU Time

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Estimated

.50

1.40

.95

.45

.75

1.20

1.60

2.6

1.30

.85

.60

Actual

.46

1.52

.99

.53

.71

1.31

1.49

2.9

1.41

.83

.74

a. Why would you expect these pairs of data to be correlated?

b. Do the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate that, on the average, the customer tends to underestimate

the CPU time required for computing jobs? Test using

= .05.

c. Find the approximate p-value for the test and interpret its value.

d. Find a 90% confidence interval for the difference in mean estimated CPU time versus mean actual CPU time.

10.4 Two computers are often compared by running a collection of different benchmark programs and recording the

difference in CPU times required to complete the same program. Six benchmark programs, run on two computers,

produced the following CPU times (in minutes):

Computer

1

2

1

1.12

1.15

2

1.73

1.72

Benchmark Program

3

4

5

1.04

1.86

1.47

1.10

1.87

1.46

6

2.10

2.15

Does the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate a difference in mean CPU times required for the two

computers to complete a job?

10.5 These data are the occupancy costs in 1996 and 1997 for prime office space in 13 major cities in the United States:

City

1

1997

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

$18.

36

32.8

2

23.5

8

17.5

2

19.1

2

14.8

5

30.5

0

25.0

6

30.8

9

35.7

4

19.3

3

30.9

2

34.3

0

1996

$18.

41

31.3

4

37.3

6

16.5

8

21.3

5

14.5

9

31.0

0

26.2

1

31.5

2

35.2

1

19.5

5

25.7

5

33.9

1

a. Explain why a paired-difference design is appropriate to determine whether there has been a significant

change in the cost of prime office space as measured in the 13 cities.

b. Can you conclude that the average cost of prime office space has changed significantly over this 1-year

period?

10.6 Refer to the comparison of the estimated versus actual CPU times for computer jobs submitted by the customer in

Exercise 10.3.

Job Number

CPU Time

Estimated

1

.50

Actual

.46

2

1.4

0

1.5

2

3

.95

4

.45

5

.75

.99

.53

.71

6

1.2

0

1.3

1

7

1.6

0

1.4

9

8

2.6

2.9

9

1.3

0

1.4

1

10

.85

11

.60

.83

.74

Find a 90% confidence interval for the variance of the differences between the estimated and actual CPU times.

10.7 Refer to Exercise 10.6. Suppose that the computer center expects customers to estimate their CPU time correct to

within .2 minute most of the time (say, 95% of the time).

a. Do the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate that the customers error in

estimating job CPU time exceeds the computer centers expectation? Test using

.10.

b. Find the approximate p-value for the test and interpret its value.

10.8 In Exercise 10.2, you conducted a test to detect a difference between the percentages of oxygen uptake by air in

reedfish exposed to water at 25C versus those at 33C.

a. What assumption had to be made concerning the population variances so that the test

would be valid?

b. Do the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate that the variances violate the assumption in part a? Test

using 05.

10.9 These data are the price per square foot for existing homes in 13 different areas of Southern California:

Area

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

a.

b.

June-Aug

2001

$83.89

88.72

94.94

72.92

81.21

83.69

146.89

84.80

87.81

90.08

92.09

82.80

80.73

June-Aug

2000

$72.47

72.94

88.86

54.65

72.06

71.08

136.20

75.54

73.43

80.06

83.13

72.05

63.67

Explain why a paired-difference design is appropriate to determine whether there has been a significant

change in the average cost per square foot of existing homes.

Can you conclude that the average cost per square foot of existing homes has changed significantly over this

1-year period?

10.10

In behavior analysis, self-control is most often defined as the choice of a large, delayed reinforcer over a

small, immediate reinforcer. In an experiment by Stephen Flora and fellow researchers to determine the effects of

noise on human self-control, subjects pressed two buttons for points that were exchangeable for money. Pressing

one of the buttons produced 2 points over 4 seconds; pressing the other button, the self-control choice, produced

10 points over 4 seconds after a delay of 16 seconds. Seven subjects were asked to make 30 choices in the

presence of aversive noise and in the absence of noise. Another six subjects were asked to make 30 choices, first

in the absence of noise and then in the presence of aversive noise. The number of correct choices for each subject

for both conditions is given here:

Subject

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Means

Noise

17

24

11

16

25

12

17

17.43

Quiet

11

27

13

30

27

17

12

19.57

Subject

8

9

10

11

12

13

Quiet

26

26

10

19

20

26

Noise

30

30

25

24

26

30

21.17

27.5

a.

Test for a significant difference in the mean numbers of self-control choices made by the first seven

subjects and the second six subjects under the quiet condition at the .05 level of significance.

b.

Test for a significant difference in the mean numbers of self-control choices made by the first seven

subjects and the second six subjects under the noise condition at the .05 level of significance.

10.11

When should one use a paired-difference analysis in making inferences concerning the difference between

two means?

10.12

Repair Costs Car manufacturers try to design the bumpers of their automobiles to prevent costly damage in

parking-lot type accidents. To compare two models of automobiles, the cars were purposely subject to a series of

four front and rear impacts at 5 mph, and the repair costs were recorded.

Impact Type

Front into barrier

Rear into barrier

Front into angle barrier

Rear into pole

Honda Civic

$403

447

404

227

Hyundai Elantra

$247

0

407

185

Do the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate a difference in the average cost of repair for the Honda Civic

and the Hyundai Elantra? Test using = 0.05.

Chapter 11:

11.1 In Good Hands The cost of automobile insurance varies by location, ages of the drivers and type of coverage.

The following are estimates for a 6-month policy for basic liability coverage for a single male who has been

licensed for 6-8 years with no violations or accidents, and who drives between 12,600 and 15,000 miles per year

provided by the California Department of Insurance for the year 2003 on the Web site

(http://www.insurance.ca.gov).

Insurance Company

21st

Firemans

State

Location

Century

Allstate

AAA

Fund

Farm

Riverside

$736

$745

$668

$1065

$1202

San Bernardino

836

725

618

869

1172

Hollywood

1492

1384

1214

1502

1682

Long Beach

996

884

802

1571

1272

a.

b.

c.

d.

Is there sufficient evidence to indicate that insurance premiums for the same type of coverage differ from

company to company?

Is there sufficient evidence to indicate that insurance premiums vary from location to location?

Use Tukeys procedure to determine which insurance companies listed here differ from others in the

premiums they charge for this typical client. Use = 0.05.

11.2 One-stop Shopping Wal-Mart has come to symbolize low costs not only on clothing and household items, but

also for food staples. The Press Enterprise (Riverside, California) surveyed several local food markets to compare

prices on ten different items with those at a Wal-Mart Supercenter in Henderson, Nevada. The results of their

survey are given in the following table

WalStater

Items

Mart

Vons

Ralphs

Bros

Gallon of Milk

2.75

2.89

3.79

3.76

1 lb. Land OLakes butter

3.12

3.99

5.39

3.99

Dozen of AA large eggs

1.65

2.69

2.69

2.39

Cheerios, 15 oz.

2.50

3.99

3.99

3.79

Minute Maid OJ, 12 oz. can

1.34

2.29

2.00

1.50

Oroweat whole-wheat 24 oz. loaf

3.08

3.19

3.19

3.19

Coca-Cola Classic, 2-liter bottle

1.08

1.69

1.39

1.25

Maxwell coffee, 13 oz. can

2.48

3.99

3.19

2.69

Campbells chicken noodle soup, 10.75 oz.

0.50

0.89

0.99

0.79

Hot Dogs, Oscar Mayer, turkey and pork, 1 lb.

2.77

3.69

3.79

3.49

a.

b.

c.

Do the data provide evidence to indicate that there are significant differences in prices from store to store?

Support your answer statistically using the ANOVA printout that follows.

Are there significant differences from block to block? Was blocking effective?

Source

Items

Stores

Error

Total

S = 0.3738

DF

9

3

27

39

SS

41.8092

4.9769

3.7729

50.5590

MS

4.64547

1.65895

0.13974

R-Sq = 92.54%

F

33.24

11.87

P

0.000

0.000

R-Sq(adj) = 89.22%

11.3 One-stop Shopping, continued Refer to Exercise 11.2. The printout that follows provides the average costs of

the selected items for the k = 4 stores.

Stores

Ralphs

Stater Brothers

Vons

3.0410

2.6840

2.9300

Wal-Mart

a.

b.

c.

2.1270

What is the appropriate value of q0.05(k, df) for testing for differences among stores?

What is the value of = q0.05(k, df)[(MSE)/b]?

Use Tukeys pairwide comparison test among stores used to determine which stores differ significantly in

average prices of the selected items.

11.4 Crash Tests Recent information on average crash tests conducted by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety

regarding bumper repair costs for damage sustained in front and rear crashes of vehicles into barriers/pole at 5

mph are given in the following table. These types of crash tests evaluate how well the bumpers prevent costly

damage to vehicles in parking lot-type impacts.

Front

Rear

Front into

Rear

into

into

Angle

into

Autos

Barrier

Barrier

Barrier

Pole

Hyundai Elantra

$ 247

$ 0

$ 407

$ 185

Ford Focus

31

1137

507

939

Honda Civic

403

447

404

227

Dodge Stratus/Chrysler Cirrus

278

174

626

1473

Lexus LS 30

75

395

1526

765

Dodge Grand Caravan

329

822

703

2268

Isuzu Rodeo

1769

924

1932

552

Mitsubishi Montero

1210

2495

2525

2831

Source: From Expensive Bumper Repair: Latest Crash Tests, Consumers Research, April

2001, pp. 20-22. Copyright 2001 Consumers Research. Reprinted by permission.

a.

b.

c.

d.

What is the type of design that was used in these crash tests? If the design used is a randomized block

design, what are the blocks and what are the treatments?

Are there significant differences in the cost of crashes for the vehicles considered here?

Are there significant differences among the four types of crashes?

Use Tukeys pairwise procedure to investigate the differences in average repair costs for the eight vehicles.

Comment on the results found using this procedure. Use = 0.05.

11.5 Professors Salaries In a study of starting salaries of assistant professors, five male assistant professors and five

female assistant professors at each of three types of institutions granting doctoral degrees were polled and their

initial starting salaries were recorded under the condition of anonymity. The results of the survey in $1,000 are

given in the following table.

Gender

Males

Females

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

Public Universities

49.3

49.9

48.5

68.5

54.0

45.4

54.7

67.0

61.2

63.3

Private-Independent

81.8

71.2

62.9

69.0

69.0

55.1

62.1

59.5

54.8

69.7

Church-Related

66.9

57.3

57.7

46.2

52.2

50.4

52.1

49.8

61.9

51.6

Use an analysis of variance to test if there are significant differences in gender, in type of institution, and to

test for a significant interaction of gender type of institution.

Find a 95% confidence interval estimate for the difference in starting salaries for male assistant professors

and female assistant professors. Interpret this interval in terms of a gender difference in starting salaries.

Use Tukeys procedure to investigate differences in assistant professor salaries for the three types of

institutions. Use = 0.01.

Summarize the results of your analysis.

11.6 Professors Salaries II Each year, the American Association of University Professors reports on salaries of

academic professors at universities and colleges in the United States. The following data, adapted from this

report, are based on samples of n = 10 in each of four professorial ranks, for both male and female professors.

Gender

Male

Assistant Professor

$56.9

$57.4

56.9

55.2

57.8

57.2

61.3

57.9

60.5

60.5

Associate Professor

$61.0

$65.4

68.7

68.2

69.1

67.3

67.0

69.8

61.1

64.1

Full Professor

93.4

94.5

95.3

88.4

96.5

90.3

95.6

90.9

102.3

93.9

Female

49.6

52.0

56.4

57.3

95.3

85.9

50.6

51.6

62.9

65.6

82.0

87.8

46.6

54.9

56.9

64.0

76.5

87.0

57.4

55.9

58.9

60.4

88.5

81.7

55.6

52.8

64.6

62.0

80.6

82.8

Source: Based on Average Salary for Men and Women Faculty, by Category,

Affiliation, and Academic Rank 2000-2001, Academe, March-April 2001, p. 39.

Copyright 2001 American Association of University Professors

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

Use the appropriate analysis of variance for these data.

Do the data indicate that the salary at the different ranks vary by gender?

If there is no interaction, determine whether there are differences in salaries by rank, and whether there are

differences by gender. Discuss your results.

Plot the average salaries using an interaction plot. If the main effect of ranks is significant, use Tukeys

method of pairwise comparisons to determine if there are significant differences among the ranks.

Chapter 12:

12.1 Daily readings of air temperatures and soil moisture percentages were collected by William Reiners and

colleagues at four elevations, 670, 825, 1145, and 1379 meters, in the White Mountains of New Hampshire.

Among the analyses of the data are simple linear regressions relating air temperature y (in C) in a given month to

altitude x (in meters). For example, the regression analysis for July produced these statistics: a = 21.4, b = -.0063,

r 2 = .99, and the estimate of the standard error of b is .0007.

a.

b.

c.

Give the least-squares prediction equation relating air temperature y (in C) to altitude x (in meters) for the

month of July.

How many degrees of freedom are associated with SSE and s 2 in this analysis? (Assume that readings were

taken each day during the month of July at all four elevations.)

Do the data present sufficient evidence to indicate that altitude x contributes information for predicting air

temperature y?

12.2 Another simple linear regression analysis presented in the paper by William Reiners and colleagues involved the

relationship between the number y of degree-days (the sum of days times the number of degrees above 0 C for

those days) per year and the altitude x in meters. The analysis is based on the recorded number of degree-days for

two winters at each of the four altitudes. Statistics presented for this analysis are a= 3393.93, b= - 1.319, and r 2

= .99, and the standard error of b is .091.

a.

b.

c.

d.

How many degrees of freedom are associated with SSE and s 2 in this analysis?

Do the data provide sufficient evidence to indicate that altitude x provides information for the prediction of

degree-days y? Test using =.01.

Give the least-squares prediction equation.

Predict the number of degree-days at an altitude of 825 meters. Do the statistics enable you to construct a

prediction interval for your prediction? Explain.

12.3 Shareholders have filed a record number of class actions suits this year, with half of these suits alleging IPO

(initial public offering) foul play. The numbers of federal securities-fraud class action suits, y, filed from 1996

through 2001 are given in the following table. The years are coded as Year 1995.

y

Time

110

1

178

2

236

3

205

4

211

5

282

6

The regression equation is

y = 111 + 26.5 Time

Predictor

Constant

Time

S = 33.0405

Coef

110.87

26.514

SE Coef

30.76

7.898

R-Sq = 73.8%

Analysis of Variance

Source

DF

SS

Regression

1 12303

Residual Error

4

4367

Total

5 16669

T

3.60

3.36

P

0.023

0.028

R-Sq(adj) = 67.3%

MS

12303

1092

F

11.27

P

0.028

New

Obs

Fit SE Fit

95% CI

95% PI

1 296.5

30.8 (211.1, 381.9) (171.1, 421.8)

Values of Predictors for New Observations

New

Obs Time

1 7.00

a.

b.

c.

d.

What is the least-squares line relating the number of class action suits and time?

Is the number of class action suits linearly related to time over the period 1996 to 2001? Using a regression

analysis, test the hypothesis H 0 : 0 , that there is no linear relationship between y and time.

What proportion of the total variation is explained by the regression of y on time?

What is the expected number of fraud actions for 2002? Are there any limitations on your estimate?

12.4 How many weeks can a movie run and still make a reasonable profit? The data that follow show the number of

weeks in release (x) and the average per-site gross (y) for the top 19 movies during the first weekend in September

2001.

Movie

Jeepers Creepers

Rush Hour 2

American Pie 2

The Others

Rat Race

The Princess Diaries

O

Jay and Silent Bob Strike

Back

Summer Catch

Captain Corellis Mandolin

Planet of the Apes

Jurassic Park III

John Carpenters Ghosts of

Mars

The Curse of the Jade

Scorpion

The Deep End

Legally Blonde

Americas Sweethearts

American Outlaws

Bubble Boy

a.

Per-site

Average

$5,378

4,146

3,536

3,742

3,589

2,822

4,823

2,357

Weeks in

Release

1

5

4

4

3

5

1

2

2,104

2,440

2,557

2,030

1,028

2

3

6

7

2

2,191

5,394

1,971

835

1,294

804

4

8

7

3

2

Plot the points in a scatterplot. Does it appear that the relationship between x and y is linear? How would

you describe the direction and strength of the relationship?

b.

c.

d.

Calculate the value of r2. What percentage of the overall variation is explained by using the linear model

rather than y to predict the response variable y?

What is the regression equation? Do the data provide evidence to indicate that x and y are linearly related?

Test using a 5% significance level.

Given the results of parts b and c, is it appropriate to use the regression line for estimation and prediction?

Explain your answer.

12.5 LCD TVs In Exercise 3.6, Consumer Reports gave the price (y) for the top 10 LCD standard definition TVs in

the 14 to 20 inch category along with the screen size (x) in inches:

Brand

Sharp LC-20E1U

Sony KLV-15SR1

Panasonic TC-20LA1

Panasonic TC-17LA1

Gateway GTW-L18M103

Panasonic TC-14LA1

Gateway GTW-L17M103

Toshiba 14VL43U

Toshiba 20VL43U

Sharp LC-15E1U

Price

$1200

800

1050

750

700

500

600

670

1200

650

Size

20

15

20

17

18

14

17

14

20

15

Does the price of an LCD TV depend on the size of the screen? Suppose we assume that the relationship between

x and y is linear, and run a linear regression, resulting in a value r2 = 0.708.

a.

b.

What does the value of r2 tell you about the strength of the relationship between price and screen size?

The residual plot for this data, generated by MINITAB, is shown below. Does this plot suggest that the

relationship between price and screen size might be something other than linear?

c.

Plot the values of x and y using a scatterplot. Does this plot confirm your suspicions in part b? Explain.

12.6 Peyton Manning The number of passes completed and the total number of passing yards recorded for Peyton

Manning, quarterback for the Indianapolis Colts, were recorded for five games randomly selected from the games

played during the 2003 NFL season.

Week

Completions

Total Yards

8

15

2

10

11

a.

b.

c.

22

25

14

28

27

269

290

173

347

401

What is the least-squares line relating the total passing yards to the number of pass completions for Peyton

Manning?

What proportion of the total variation is explained by the regression of total passing yards (y) on the number

of pass completions (x)?

If they are available, examine the diagnostic plots to check the validity of the regression assumptions.

a.

b.

c.

Estimate the average number of passing yards for games in which Peyton throws 21 completed passes using a

95% confidence interval.

Predict the actual number of passing yards for games in which Peyton throws 21 completed passes using a

95% prediction interval.

Would it be advisable to use the least-squares line from Exercise 12.6 to predict Peytons total number of

passing yards for a game in which he threw only five completed passes? Explain.

12.8 Baseball Stats Does a teams batting average depend in any way on the number of home runs hit by the team?

The data in the table show the number of team home runs and the overall team batting average for eight randomly

selected major league baseball teams in the very early stages of the 2004 baseball season.

Team

Total Home Runs

Anaheim

26

Atlanta

21

Baltimore

21

Boston

26

Chicago

38

Houston

25

Philadelphia

26

San Diego

17

Source: espn.com

a.

b.

c.

.279

.271

.282

.257

.276

.290

.245

.271

Plot the points using a scatterplot. Does it appear that there is any relationship between total home runs and

team batting average?

Is there a significant positive correlation between total home runs and team batting average? Test at the 5%

level of significance.

Do you think that the relationship between these two variables would be different if we had looked at an

entire baseball season, rather than just the very early part of the season?

12.9 Movie Reviews How many weeks can a movie run and still make a reasonable profit? The data that follow show

the number of weeks in release (x) and the average per-site gross (y) for the top 20 movies during the last weekend

in January 2004.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

Movie

The Butterfly Effect

Along Came Polly

Win a Date with Tad Hamilton

Big Fish

Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King

Cheaper by the Dozen

Cold Mountain

Torque

Somethings Gotta Give

Mystic River

Calendar Girls

The Last Samurai

Monster

Per-site

Average

$6551

5460

2700

2916

2653

2269

1786

1824

1875

2538

2470

1953

6219

Weeks

in Release

1

2

1

7

6

5

5

2

7

16

6

8

5

15. Disneys Teachers Pet

16. Peter Pan

17. Paycheck

18. The Cooler

19. Mona Lisa Smile

20. 21 Grams

Source: Entertainment Weekly

a.

b.

c.

d.

1658

704

1090

1062

2238

882

2130

3

2

5

5

9

6

10

Plot the points in a scatterplot. Does it appear that the relationship between x and y is linear? How would

you describe the direction and strength of the relationship?

Calculate the value of r2. What percentage of the overall variation is explained by using the linear model

rather than - to predict the response variable y?

What is the regression equation? Do the data provide evidence to indicate that x and y are linearly related?

Test using a 5% significance level.

Given the results of parts b and c, is it appropriate to use the regression line for estimation and prediction?

Explain your answer.

12.10

Hotel Satisfaction Is your overall satisfaction with a hotel room correlated with the cost of the room?

Satisfaction scores and median room prices were recorded for nine budget hotels with the following results:

Hotel

Median Rate

Score

Sleep Inn

55

80

Microtel

50

75

Super 8 Motel

50

70

Red Roof Inn

50

69

Motel 6

40

68

Days Inn

55

64

Econo Lodge

50

63

Travelodge

55

62

Knights Inn

45

57

Source: Case Study Hotel Room Cost and Satisfaction Copyright 2001 by Consumers Union of U.S., Inc.,

Yonkers, NY 10703-1057, a nonprofit organization. Reprinted with permission from the July 2001 issue of

Consumer Reports for educational purposes only. No commercial use or reproduction permitted.

www.ConsumerReports.org

a.

b.

c.

Calculate the correlation coefficient r between price and overall score. How would you describe the

relationship between price and overall score?

Use the applet called Correlation and the Scatterplot to plot the nine data points. What is the correlation

coefficient shown on the applet? Compare with the value you calculated in part a.

Describe the pattern that you see in the scatterplot. Are there any outliers? If so, how would you explain

them?

Chapter 13:

13.1 LCD TVs In exercises 3.6 and 12.5, Consumer Reports gave the prices (y) for the top ten LCD standard

definition TVs in the 14- to 20-inch category along with the screen size (x) in inches:

Brand

Sharp LC-20E1U

Sony KLV-15SR1

Panasonic TC-20LA1

Panasonic TC-17LA1

Gateway GTW-L18M103

Panasonic TC-14LA1

Gateway GTW-L17M103

Toshiba 14VL43U

Toshiba 20VL43U

Sharp LC-15E1U

Price

$1200

800

1050

750

700

500

600

670

1200

650

Size

20

15

20

17

18

14

17

14

20

15

The diagnostic plots in Exercise 12.5 suggested that a quadratic model might provide a better fit for this data.

The regression equation is

y = 5751 676 x + 22.3 x-sq

Predictor

Constant

x

x-sq

Coef

5751

-676.2

22.270

S = 115.252

Analysis of Variance

Source

Regression

Residual Error

Total

a.

b.

c.

SE Coef

2776

329.4

9.613

R-Sq = 83.5%

DF

2

7

9

SS

469979

92981

562960

T

2.07

-2.05

2.32

P

0.077

0.079

0.054

R-Sq(adj) = 78.8%

MS

234989

13283

F

17.69

P

0.002

Does the quadratic term contribute significant information to the prediction of y, in the presence of the linear

term?

The fitted line plots below were generated by MINITAB. Use the values of R2(adj) to compare the linear and

quadratic models. Which one is a better fit to the data?

13.2 Digital Video Recorders Digital video recorders (DVR) are fairly new to the television-viewing public, but they

allow you to record and view programs at whatever time you request. Programs can be paused while you go to the

kitchen for a snack, and commercials can be eliminated. Once the DVR functions become integrated with satellite

and cable television setups, marketers predict that sales will skyrocket, as projected in the following table.

Year

DVRs (in millions)

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

2000

0.35

2001

0.88

2002

2.50

2003

5.70

2004

11.50

2005

20.20

Plot the predicted number of DVRs (y) as a function of the year (x) using a scatterplot. Describe the nature of

the relationship.

What model would you use to predict y as a function of x? Explain.

Using the model from part b and a computer software package, find the least-squares regression equation for

predicting the DVR market penetration that is, the number of DVRs installed in U.S. homes as a function

of year.

Does the model contribute information for the prediction of y? Test using = 0.01

What is the value of R2? What does this tell you about the fit of the model?

If they are available, examine the residual plots for the analysis. What conclusions can you draw?

Chapter 14:

14.1 One of many polls reported in a local newspaper investigated the opinions of southern Californians about their

quality of life. Residents were asked to rate their quality of life compared to 6 years ago in one of four categories.

The survey involved four groups of 300 people from each of four regions in southern California. The results of the

survey are shown in the table.

Orange County

San Diego

Inland Empire

Better

Worse

No Opinion

63

78

69

78

96

84

93

81

135

132

129

111

6

6

9

30

Use the Minitab printout to determine whether there is a difference in the responses

according to region. Explain the nature of the differences, if any exist.

Chi-Square Test

Chi-Sq = 1.125 + 0.636 + 0.537 + 3.574 +

0.500 + 0.229 + 0.217 + 3.574 +

0.125 + 0.229 + 0.040 + 1.103 +

0.500 + 0.636 + 1.957 + 23.338 = 38.319

DF = 9, P-Value = 0.000

14.2 Voter support for political term limits is strong in many parts of the United States. A poll conducted by the Field

Institute in California showed support for term limits by a 2-to-1 margin. The results of this poll of n= 347

registered voters are given in the table.

Republica

n

Democrat

Other

Total

For

Against

Total

35

No

Opinion

7

97

108

21

226

49

14

98

10

6

23

167

41

347

139

Use the Minitab printout to determine whether there is a difference in the responses

according to political affiliation. Explain the nature of the differences, if any exist.

Minitab output for Exercise 14.2

Chi-Square Test

Chi-Sq = 0.462 + 0.462 + 0.532 +

0.005 + 0.071 + 0.103 +

1.218 + 0.506 + 3.965 = 7.324

DF = 4, P-Value = 0.120

1 cells with expected counts less than 5.0

14.3 Title IX programs mandated that colleges should have equal opportunities for men and women to participate in

college sports programs. The table that follows shows the number of colleges that support womens teams in these

sports.

Years

1986-87

1999-00

Basket

ball

275

317

Track

215

276

Womens Sports

Golf

Soccer

99

192

54

260

Lacross

e

34

75

Rowing

27

71

a. Do these data provide sufficient evidence to conclude that there is a difference in the

distribution of women participating in these sports for the years indicated?

b. If there is a significant difference in part a, describe the nature of these

differences.

14.4 In a telephone poll of n 1,262 New York voters 795 or 63% of voters surveyed said the Port Authority of NY and

NJ should rebuild the World Trade Center in some form. Do these data provide sufficient evidence to indicate that

a majority of New York voters would like to see the New York World Trade Center rebuilt?

a. Use a test of hypotheses based on the z-statistic to answer this question.

b. Use a 2 - test to answer this same question.

c.

14.5 The number of American workers who have Internet access continues to grow as recorded in the following table.

Two independent random samples were taken in two consecutive years.

Last

year

This year

Had

Access

224

Access

276

Sample Size

328

172

500

500

Is there a significant difference in the proportion of workers who have access to the Internet last year compared to

this year? Use .05 .

14.6 The Generation Gap Is there a generation gap? A sample of adult Americans of three different generations were

asked to agree or disagree with this statement: If I had the chance to start over in life, I would do things

differently. The results, adapted from a Time magazine article, are given in the table. Do the data indicate a

generation gap for this particular question? That is, does a persons opinion change depending on the generation

group from which he or she comes? If so, describe the nature of the differences. Use = 0.05.

Agree

Disagree

GenXers

(born 1965-1976)

118

80

Boomers

(born 1946-1964)

213

87

Matures

(born before 1946)

88

61

14.7 Wealth and Education Levels Does education really make a difference in how much money you will earn?

Researchers randomly selected 100 people from each of three income categories marginally rich, comfortably

rich, and super rich and then recorded their educational attainment, as in the table.

Marginally

Rich

($70-99 K)

No college

Some college

At least an undergraduate degree

Postgraduate study/degree

a.

b.

c.

Comfortably

Rich

($100-249 K)

32

13

43

12

20

16

51

13

Super

Rich

($250 K or more)

23

1

60

16

Describe the multinomial experiments whose proportions are being compared in this experiment.

Do these data indicate that the level of wealth is affected by educational attainment? Test at the 1% level of

significance.

Based on the results of part b, describe the practical nature of the relationship between level of wealth and

educational attainment.

14.8 Politics and Religion A survey reported in the Riverside Press-Enterprise was conducted prior to the 2004

presidential election to explore the relationship between a persons religious fervor and their choice of a political

candidate. Voters were asked how often they attended church and which of the two major presidential candidates

(George W. Bush or his democratic opponent) they would favor in the 2004 election. The results of a similar

survey are shown.

Church Attendance

G.W. Bush

More than once a week

89

Once a week

87

Once or twice a month

93

Once or twice a year

114

Seldom/never

22

Source: Adapted from the Press-Enterprise

a.

b.

Democratic Candidate

53

68

85

134

36

Is there a significant difference in the proportion of voters who intend to vote for George W. Bush depending

on the voters religious fervor? Test using = 0.05

If there is a significant difference in part a, describe the nature of these differences.

14.9 Publish or Perish In the academic world, students and their faculty advisors often collaborate on research

papers, producing works in which publication credit can take several forms. In theory, the first authorship of a

students paper should be given to the student unless the input from the faculty advisor was substantial. In an

attempt to see whether this is, in fact, the case, authorship credit was studied for different levels of faculty input

and two objectives (dissertation versus non-degree research). The frequency of author assignment decisions for

published dissertations is shown in the table as assigned by 60 faculty members and 161 students.

Faculty Respondents

Authorship Assignment

Faculty first author, student mandatory second author

Student first author, faculty mandatory second author

Student first author, faculty courtesy second author

Student sole author

High Input

Student Respondents

Authorship Assignment

Faculty first author, student mandatory second author

Student first author, faculty mandatory second author

Student first author, faculty courtesy second author

Student sole author

a.

b.

c.

d.

4

15

2

2

Medium Input

0

12

7

3

Low Input

0

3

7

5

High Input

19

19

3

0

Medium Input

6

41

7

3

Low Input

2

27

31

3

Is there sufficient evidence to indicate dependence between the authorship assignment and the input of the

faculty advisor as judged by faculty members? Test using = 0.01

Is there sufficient evidence to indicate dependence between the authorship assignment and the input of the

faculty advisor as judged by students? Test using = 0.01

If there is a dependence in the two classifications from parts a and b, does it appear from looking at the data

that students are more likely to assign an higher authorship to their faculty advisors than the advisors

themselves?

Have any of the assumptions necessary for the analysis used in parts a and b been violated? What affect

might this have on the validity of your conclusions?

14.10

Car Colors Although white has long been the most popular car color, trends in fashion and home design

have signaled the emergence of green as the color of choice in recent years. The growth in the popularity of green

hues stems partially from an increased interest in the environment and increased feelings of uncertainty.

According to an article in The Press-Enterprise, green symbolizes harmony and counteracts emotional stress.

The article cites the top five colors and the percentage of the market share for four different classes of cars. These

data are for the truck-van category.

Color

Percent

White

29.72

Burgundy

11.00

Green

9.24

Red

9.08

Black

9.01

In an attempt to verify the accuracy of these figures, we take a random sample of 250 trucks and vans and record

their color. Suppose that the number of vehicles that fall into each of the five categories are 82, 22, 27, 21, and 20

respectively.

a.

Is any category missing in the classification? How many cars and trucks fell into that category?

b. Is there sufficient evidence to indicate that our percentages of trucks and vans differ from those given? Find

the approximate p-value for the test.

Chapter 15:

15.1 One explanation for the bright coloration of male birds versus the dull coloration of females and chicks is the

predator-deflection theory, which suggests that males have developed a bright color to attract predators to

themselves and away from their nesting females and young chicks. To test this theory, G. S. Butcher placed a

stuffed and mounted sharp-shinned hawk (Accipiter striatus) a distance of 12 meters from each of 12 northern

orioles nests. For each nest, he recorded the total number of hits and swoops on the hawk by both the male and

female oriole. He also noted which of the pair made the first attack on the hawk and which was more aggressive.

The data are shown in the accompanying table.

Total Number

of Hits and

Swoops

Presentation

Number

More

Aggressive

Sex (M or F)

1

2

3

4

4

11

16

14

18

47

33

0

F

F

F

M

Sex Seen

First

F

F

F

F

5

27

2

M

F

6

71

59

M

M

7

76

5

M

M

8

61

0

M

M

9

0

25

F

F

10

6

21

F

M

11

35

50

F

F

12

3

59

F

F

For each of the 12 trials, the mounted Accipiter was placed within 12 meters of

the nest for a 10-minute period.

M = male and F = female of the pair who fed offspring in the nest closest to the

mounted Accipiter.

Does the data present sufficient evidence to indicate a difference in the distributions of numbers and hits and

swoops for male versus female members of the nests?

a.

b.

Test using Wilcoxons signed-rank test with = 0.05. State your conclusions.

Give the approximate p-value for the test and interpret it.

15.2 Refer to Exercise 15.1. Does the data present sufficient evidence to indicate that the male member of a nest is

more aggressive than the female? Explain.

15.3 The data in the table are the occupancy costs in 1996 and 1997 for prime office space in 13 major cities in the

United States.

City

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

1997

$18.36

1996

$18.41

32.82

23.58

17.52

19.12

14.85

30.50

25.06

30.89

35.74

19.33

30.92

34.30

31.34

37.36

16.58

21.35

14.59

31.00

26.21

31.52

35.21

19.55

25.75

33.91

a. What nonparametric tests presented in this chapter can be used to decide whether

there has been a significant increase in the costs of prime office space from 1996 to

1997 in major U.S. cities? How do you express the null and alternative hypotheses?

b. Use two nonparametric tests to test whether the distribution of costs of prime office

space in 1997 lies to the right of the distribution of costs of prime office space in 1996.

Let = .05.

c. Compare the conclusions using the two tests in part b with those of Exercise 10.5 for

the paired-sample t test.

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