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CounterelectromotiveforceWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Counterelectromotiveforce
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Thecounterelectromotiveforce(abbreviatedcounterEMF,orCEMF),[1]alsoknownastheback
electromotiveforce,isthevoltage,orelectromotiveforce,thatpushesagainstthecurrentwhichinducesit.CEMF
isthevoltagedropinanalternatingcurrent(AC)circuitcausedbymagneticinduction(seeFaraday'slawof
induction,electromagneticinduction,Lenz'sLaw).Forexample,thevoltagedropacrossaninductorisduetothe
inducedmagneticfieldinsidethecoil.[1][2]Thevoltage'spolarityisateverymomentthereverseoftheinput
voltage.[1][3]
Thetermbackelectromotiveforce,orjustbackEMF,ismostcommonlyusedtorefertothevoltagethatoccurs
inelectricmotorswherethereisrelativemotionbetweenthearmatureofthemotorandthemagneticfieldfromthe
motor'sfieldmagnets,orwindings.FromFaraday'slaw,thevoltageisproportionaltothemagneticfield,lengthof
wireinthearmature,andthespeedofthemotor.Thiseffectisnotduetothemotor'sinductanceandisa
completelyseparateeffect.
Inamotorusingarotatingarmatureinthepresenceofamagneticflux,theconductorscutthemagneticfieldlines
astheyrotate.Thisproducesavoltageinthecoilthemotorisactinglikeagenerator(Faraday'slawofinduction.)
atthesametimeitisamotor.Thisvoltageopposestheoriginalappliedvoltagetherefore,itiscalled"back
electromotiveforce"(byLenz'slaw).Withaloweroverallvoltageacrossthearmature,thecurrentflowingintothe
motorisreduced.[4]Onepracticalapplicationistousethisphenomenontoindirectlymeasuremotorspeedand
position,sincethebackEMFisproportionaltothearmaturerotationalspeed.[5]
Inmotorcontrolandrobotics,theterm"BackEMF"oftenrefersmostspecificallytoactuallyusingthevoltage
generatedbyaspinningmotortoinferthespeedofthemotor'srotationforuseinbettercontrollingthemotorin
specificways.[6]
ToobservetheeffectofBackEMFofamotor,onecanperformthissimpleexercise.Withanincandescentlight
on,causealargemotorsuchasadrillpress,saw,airconditionercompressor,orvacuumcleanertostart.Thelight
maydimbrieflyasthemotorstarts.Whenthearmatureisnotturning(calledlockedrotor)thereisnoBackEMF
andthemotor'scurrentdrawisquitehigh.Ifthemotor'sstartingcurrentishighenoughitwillpullthelinevoltage
downenoughtonoticethedimmingofthelight.

References
1.Graf,"counterelectromotiveforce",DictionaryofElectronics
2.Griffiths,DavidJeffery.(2012).IntroductiontoElectrodynamics(3rded.).
3.NavalElectricalEngineeringTrainingSeries,Module02IntroductiontoAlternatingCurrentandtransformers",
Inductance,selfinductance(http://www.tpub.com/neets/book2/2a.htm)
4."NuclearPowerFundamentalsTrainingManuals".DCGenerators,CounterElectromotiveForce(http://www.tpub.com/c
ontent/doe/h1011v2/css/h1011v2_79.htm)(CEMF),DCEquipmentTerminology,ElectricalScienceVolume2.
5."BackEMF".Acroname.com.20060807.Retrieved20100207.
6."BackEMFMotionFeedback"BackEMFMotionFeedback(http://www.acroname.com/robotics/info/articles/backemf/b
ackemf.html)

Externallinks
Counterelectromotiveforceinaccesscontrolapplications(http://progeny.co.uk/backemfsuppression/)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Counterelectromotive_force

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