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Functional English

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Functional English
How to hone your language

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The history of the English language started with the arrival of three Germanic tribes who
invaded Britain during the 5th century AD. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes,
crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and northern Germany. At that time, the
inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language. But most of the Celtic speakers were pushed
west and north by the invaders - mainly into what is now Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The
Angles came from Englaland and their language was called Englisc - from which the words
England and English are derived.
English is currently one of the most widely spoken and written languages worldwide, with its
wide usage, it becomes critical for us to have a working knowledge of this language. This book is
a guide to deal with over 500 points which regularly cause difficulty to second language
speakers of English. It will enhance and develop your sentence structures, grammatical range
and accuracy. The exercises & the content in this book ensures accuracy through understanding
of grammatical concepts and clarifies general questions (eg; formality, slang, dialects and
idioms of the language)
This book is intended for the intermediate and advance level speakers of English. Being a
reference book, it contains information at various levels, ranging from relatively simple rules to
advanced problems
Approach & Style
We have tried to make the presentation as practical as possible. Each unit contains an
explanation of problems, examples of correct usages, examples of some mistakes and
worksheets to practice and try things out. All four units are supported by some reading
exercise, which will break the monotony of just grammar and help you develop your
perspective of language rather than the rules. A lot of emphasis is given on Reading
comprehension, since reading creates awareness, which in turn converts into knowledge and
later into application
The kind of English described
The explanations deal mainly with standard modern every day English, spoken in a business
environment, with focus on MindTrees way of doing things. Stylistic differences (e.g.: formal
vs. informal, or spoken vs. written language) are mentioned where this is appropriate. Some
differences between British and American English are also described.

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How important is correctness?

If someone makes too many mistakes in a foreign language, he or she can be difficult to
comprehend, so a reasonable level of correctness is important. Learners should aim to avoid
serious mistakes, but they should not become obsessed with correctness, or worry every time
they make a mistake.
This entire content is an outcome of Culture & Competence Initiatives learning from Campus
Minds Learning Program, MindTree Certified Senior Engineer (MCSE) & MindTree Certified
Engineer (MCE) programs. Surveys and English assessments of more than 3000 MindTree Minds
have given us significant data on the pain-points that one goes through during an English
assessment as a second language speaker of English.
This is a 20 hour learning module, spread across 5 days and will ensure a high-level language
learning experience and will cover specific learning requirement of a MindTree Mind
The Facilitators & I wish you a very best in this endeavor of Language learning.

Deepak Kulkarni
Culture & Competence Initiative
MindTree Ltd

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Unit 1 - Parts of Speech:
Worksheet & Activities
Reading Comprehension
Unit 2 Verbs:
Subject Verb Agreement
Reading Comprehension
Unit 3 Reported Speech:
Direct and Indirect Speech
Worksheets & Activities
Active and Passive Voice
Worksheets & Activities
Reading Comprehension
Unit 4 Question Forms & Vocabulary:
Question Forms
Idioms and Phrases

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Course Outline - Functional English Workshop




Introduction/Ice Breaker
Parts of Speech-Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Adjective. Presentation of concepts
with examples. Common Errors
Activity-Know your Group
Reading Comprehension


Recap of Concepts learnt

Parts of Speech-Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, Interjection. Articles.
Common Errors
Activity-Giving Directions
Favorite Programs on TV(Recap of parts of Speech)
Crossword, Jumbles

Unit 2

Verb Tenses
Presentation of Concepts through interactive session
Activity-Completing dialogues, Building Stories from Headlines
Reading and paraphrasing


Unit 3

Subject-Verb agreement, Modals

Presentation of concepts through examples. Common Errors
Quiz on concepts learnt

Unit 4


Direct and Indirect Speech, Active and Passive Voice

Question Forms-Concepts through interactive session
Vocabulary Building-Idioms, Phrasal Verbs
Activity-Giving Instructions, Asking questions for information, Reporting,
conversation practice
Reading Comprehension

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Objectives- Unit 1
By the end of this session, you will be able to:
1. Understand the usage of Parts of Speech
2. Understand the use of Articles
3. Identify and avoid common errors in using Parts of Speech
4. Frame meaningful sentences
5. Comprehend written/spoken communication
6. Write and Speak effectively

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Parts of Speech
All the words in the English language are grouped under different classes called the Parts of
Speech. They are considered the building blocks of language. They are classified according to
their function. There are eight Parts of Speech in English.








Names a person (girl, Ms. Adams), place (Italy, city), animal (cow, tiger), thing (pen, box), idea
(love, hate)
Is used in place of a noun (he, she them, him, someone, anything)
The verb is the action word in the sentence. It defines the action.
The verb be and its forms (was, were, are, is, am) do not show action but a state of being or
relationship between the subject and what follows the verb be
The verb may consist of one word, or the main verb may contain one or more helping words.
Some helping words are has, am, were, might, should, must, are, be . . .
Modifies a noun or pronoun (yellow car, cute girl, hard rock, the exam, a vacation)
Modifies a verb (walk quietly), adjective (quite tall), or another adverb (walk very quietly)
Joins together two or more words, phrases, or clauses (and, but, or, because, since)
Word relating a noun or pronoun to another word in the sentence (man on the roof)
Exclamation that is not grammatically part of the sentence (No!, Ouch!)

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Nouns have four genders:
1. Masculine Gender The masculine gender is used for all males. Example: boy, man
2. Feminine Gender The feminine gender is used for all females. Example: girl, woman
3. Common Gender The common gender is used where the noun can be both male and
female. Example: cousin, friend, person, child, student
4. Neuter Gender The neuter gender is used for things which have no life or sex.
Example: table, chair.
Singular and Plural Nouns A noun that shows only one person (e.g. a girl), thing (e.g. pencil),
animal (e.g. tiger) or place (e.g. market) is called a singular noun).
A noun that shows more than one person (e.g. girls), thing (e.g. pencils), animal (e.g. tigers) or
place (e.g. markets) is called a plural noun.
Plural nouns are formed:
By adding s
By adding es to nouns ending in ch, s, sh and x




















By adding es to nouns ending in o



By addings to nouns ending in o



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By replacing y with ies



By addings to nouns ending in y



By replaying f or fe with ves



By adding s to nouns ending in f or fe

By changing vowels

Some nouns have same words for plural and singular








Exceptional plurals


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Kinds of Nouns

Proper nouns

Proper nouns are nouns that refer to a specific person, place, object or period of time.
Mr. Jones, Russell, Fiona, Baltimore, Dr. Watson

Common Nouns

Common Nouns are nouns that can be preceded by the definite article and that represent one
or all of the members of a class. As a general rule, a common noun does not begin with a capital
letter unless it appears at the start of a sentence.
cow, doctor, company, tiger, boy

Collective Nouns

A collective noun is a noun that refers to a group or collection of similar people, animals or
things. Collective nouns are used when you want to refer to a whole group of people or objects
but you dont want to call them all by their separate names.
Army, jury, team, etc

Abstract Nouns

The Abstract Noun is that which exists only in our minds, that which we cannot know through
our senses. It includes qualities, relationships, conditions, ideas, theories, states of being, fields
of inquiry and the like. We cannot know a quality such as consistency directly through our
Happiness, strength, sorrow, beauty, etc.
Count or Noncount
The main difference between count and noncount nouns is whether you can count the things
they refer to or not.
Count nouns refer to things that exist as separate and distinct individual units. They usually
refer to what can be perceived by the senses.

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Noncount nouns refer to things that can't be counted because they are thought of as wholes
that can't be cut into parts. They often refer to abstractions and occasionally have a collective
meaning (for example, furniture).
Using Articles with Countable and Uncountable Nouns
A countable noun always takes either the indefinite (a, an) or definite (the) article when it is
When plural, it takes the definite article if it refers to a definite, specific group and no article if it
is used in a general sense.
The guest of honor arrived late.
You are welcome as a guest in our home.
The guests at your party yesterday made a lot of noise.
Guests are welcome here anytime.
Uncountable nouns never take the indefinite article (a or an), but they do take singular verbs.
The is sometimes used with uncountable nouns in the same way it is used with plural countable
nouns, that is, to refer to a specific object, group, or idea.
Example Sentences:

Information is a precious commodity in our computerized world

The information in your files is correct
Sugar has become more expensive recently
Please pass me the sugar

Certain nouns in English belong to both classes: they have both a noncount and a count
meaning. Normally the noncount meaning is abstract and general and the count meaning
concrete and specific.
Countable nouns refer to things that we can count. Such nouns can take either singular or plural
Concrete nouns may be countable:

There are a dozen flowers in the vase.

He ate an apple for a snack.

Some nouns are countable and uncountable:


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I've had some difficulties finding a job. (refers to a number of specific problems)
The talks will take place in the Pentagon building. (refers to a number of specific
The city was filled with bright lights and harsh sounds. (refers to a number of specific
lights and noises.


She succeeded in school with little difficulty. (refers to the general idea of school being
I dislike idle talk. (refers to talking in general)
Light travels faster than sound. (refers to the way light and sound behave in general)

Abstract nouns are uncountable.

The price of freedom is constant vigilance.

Her writing shows maturity and intelligence.

Pronouns are small words that take the place of a noun. We can use a pronoun instead of a
noun. Pronouns are words like: he, you, ours, themselves, some, each... If we didn't have
pronouns, we would have to repeat a lot of nouns. We would have to say things like:

Do you like the president? I don't like the president. The president is too pompous.

With pronouns, we can say:

Do you like the president? I don't like him. He is too pompous.

Personal Pronouns
I, me, you, he, him, she...
Demonstrative Pronouns
this, that, these, those
Possessive Pronouns
mine, yours, his...
Interrogative Pronouns
who, what, which...
Reflexive Pronouns
myself, yourself, himself...

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Reciprocal Pronouns
each other, one another
Indefinite Pronouns
another, much, nobody, few, such...
Relative Pronouns
who, whom, which...

Pronoun Case
subjective, objective, possessive
Personal Pronouns
Personal pronouns represent specific people or things. We use them depending on:

number: singular (eg: I) or plural (eg: we)

person: 1st person (eg: I), 2nd person (eg: you) or 3rd person (eg: he)
gender: male (eg: he), female (eg: she) or neuter (eg: it)
case: subject (eg: we) or object (eg: us)

We use personal pronouns in place of the person or people that we are talking about. My name
is Josef but when I am talking about myself I almost always use "I" or "me", not "Josef". When I
am talking direct to you, I almost always use "you", not your name. When I am talking about
another person, say John, I may start with "John" but then use "he" or "him". And so on.
Here are the personal pronouns, followed by some example sentences:


person gender

personal pronouns




















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Examples (in each case, the first example shows a subject pronoun, the second an object

I like coffee.
John helped me.

Do you like coffee?

John loves you.

He runs fast.
Did Ram beat him?

She is clever.
Does Mary know her?

It doesn't work.
Can the engineer repair it?

We went home.
Anthony drove us.

Do you need a table for three?

Did John and Mary beat you at doubles?

They played doubles.

John and Mary beat them.

When we are talking about a single thing, we almost always use it. However, there are a few
exceptions. We may sometimes refer to an animal as he/him or she/her, especially if the
animal is domesticated or a pet. Ships (and some other vessels or vehicles) as well as some
countries are often treated as female and referred to as she/her. Here are some examples:

This is our dog Rusty. He's a Doberman.

The Titanic was a great ship but she sank on her first voyage.
My first car was a Mini and I treated her like my wife.
Thailand has now opened her border with Cambodia.


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For a single person, sometimes we don't know whether to use he or she. There are several
solutions to this:

If a teacher needs help, he or she should see the principal.

If a teacher needs help, he should see the principal.

We often use it to introduce a remark:

It is nice to have a holiday sometimes.

It is important to dress well.
It's difficult to find a job.
Is it normal to see them together?
It didn't take long to walk here.

We also often use it to talk about the weather, temperature, time and distance:

It's raining.
It will probably be hot tomorrow.
Is it nine o'clock yet?
Its 50 kilometers from here to Cambridge.

Demonstrative Pronouns
A demonstrative pronoun represents a thing or things:

near in distance or time (this, these)

far in distance or time (that, those)








Here are some examples with demonstrative pronouns, followed by an illustration:

This tastes good.

Have you seen this?
These are bad times.
Do you like these?
That is beautiful.

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Look at that!
Those were the days!
Can you see those?
This is heavier than that.
These are bigger than those.

Normally we use demonstrative pronouns for things only. But we can use them for people
when the person is identified. Look at these examples:

This is Hadley speaking. Is that Rita?

That sounds like Jim.

Possessive Pronouns
We use possessive pronouns to refer to a specific person/people or thing/things (the
"antecedent") belonging to a person/people (and sometimes belonging to an animal/animals or
We use possessive pronouns depending on:

number: singular (eg: mine) or plural (eg: ours)

person: 1st person (eg: mine), 2nd person (eg: yours) or 3rd person (eg: his)
gender: male (his), female (hers)

Below are the possessive pronouns, followed by some example sentences. Notice that each
possessive pronoun can:

be subject or object
refer to a singular or plural antecedent
mine, yours, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs,

Look at these pictures. Mine is the big one. (subject = My picture)

I like your flowers. Do you like mine? (object = my flowers)

I looked everywhere for your key. I found John's key but I couldn't find yours. (object =
your key)
My flowers are dying. Yours are lovely. (subject = Your flowers)

All the essays were good but his was the best. (subject = his essay)
John found his passport but Mary couldn't find hers. (object = her passport)
John found his clothes but Mary couldn't find hers. (object = her clothes)

Here is your car. Ours is over there, where we left it. (subject = Our car)
Your photos are good. Ours are terrible. (subject = Our photos)

Each couple's books are colour-coded. Yours are red. (subject = Your books)

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I don't like this family's garden but I like yours. (subject = your garden)

These aren't Joseph and Ritas children. Theirs have brown hair. (subject = Their
Joseph and Rita don't like your house. Do you like theirs? (object = their car)

Reflexive Pronouns
We use a reflexive pronoun when we want to refer back to the subject of the sentence or
clause. Reflexive pronouns end in "-self" (singular) or "-selves" (plural).
There are eight reflexive pronouns:
reflexive pronoun


himself, herself, itself



the underlined words do not refer to the same object

the underlined words refer to the

same person/thing

John saw me.

I saw myself in the mirror.

Why does he blame you?

Why do you blame yourself?

David sent him a copy.

John sent himself a copy.

My dog hurt the cat.

My dog hurt itself.


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We blame you.

We blame ourselves.

Can you help my children?

Can you help yourselves?

They cannot look after the babies.

They cannot look after themselves.

Intensive pronouns
Notice that all the above reflexive pronouns can also act as intensive pronouns, but the
function and usage are different. An intensive pronoun emphasizes its antecedent. Look at
these examples:

I made it myself. OR I myself made it.

Have you yourself seen it? OR Have you seen it yourself?
The President himself promised to stop the war.
She spoke to me herself. OR She herself spoke to me.
The exam itself wasn't difficult, but exam room was horrible.
Never mind. We'll do it ourselves.
You yourselves asked us to do it.
They recommend this book even though they themselves have never read it. OR They
recommend this book even though they have never read it themselves.

Indefinite Pronouns
An indefinite pronoun does not refer to any specific person, thing or amount. It is vague and
"not definite". Some typical indefinite pronouns are:

all, another, any, anybody/anyone, anything, each, everybody/everyone, everything,

few, many, nobody, none, one, several, some, somebody/someone

Most indefinite pronouns are either singular or plural. However, some of them can be singular
in one context and plural in another. The most common indefinite pronouns are listed below,
with examples, as singular, plural or singular/plural.
Notice that a singular pronoun takes a singular verb AND that any personal pronoun should also
agree (in number and gender). Look at these examples:

Each of the players has a doctor.

I met two girls. One has given me her phone number.


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Similarly, plural pronouns need plural agreement:

Many have expressed their views.

* Some people say that "none" should always take a singular verb, even when talking about
countable nouns (eg five friends). They argue that "none" means "no one", and "one" is
obviously singular. They say that "I invited five friends but none has come" is correct and "I
invited five friends but none have come" is incorrect. Historically and grammatically there is
little to support this view. "None" has been used for hundreds of years with both a singular and
a plural verb, according to the context and the emphasis required.
Reciprocal Pronouns
We use reciprocal pronouns when each of two or more subjects is acting in the same way
towards the other. For example, A is talking to B, and B is talking to A. So we say:

A and B are talking to each other.

The action is "reciprocated". John talks to Mary and Mary talks to John. I give you a present and
you give me a present. The dog bites the cat and the cat bites the dog.
There are only two reciprocal pronouns, and they are both two words:

each other
one another

When we use these reciprocal pronouns:

there must be two or more people, things or groups involved (so we cannot use
reciprocal pronouns with I, you [singular], he/she/it), and
they must be doing the same thing

Look at these examples:

John and Mary love each other.

Peter and David hate each other.
The ten prisoners were all blaming one another.
Both teams played hard against each other.
We gave each other gifts.
Why don't you believe each other?
They can't see each other.
The gangsters were fighting one another.
The boats were bumping against each other in the storm.


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Relative Pronouns
A relative pronoun is a pronoun that introduces a relative clause. It is called a "relative"
pronoun because it "relates" to the word that it modifies. Here is an example:

The person who phoned me last night is my teacher.

In the above example, "who":

relates to "person", which it modifies

introduces the relative clause "who phoned me last night"

There are five relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, that*
Who (subject) and whom (object) are generally only for people. Whose is for possession.
Which is for things. That can be used for people** and things and as subject and object in
defining relative clauses (clauses that are essential to the sentence and do not simply add extra
Interrogative Pronouns
We use interrogative pronouns to ask questions. The interrogative pronoun represents the
thing that we don't know (what we are asking the question about).
There are four main interrogative pronouns: who, whom, what, which
Notice that the possessive pronoun whose can also be an interrogative pronoun (an
interrogative possessive pronoun).
Look at these example questions. In the sample answers, the noun phrase that the
interrogative pronoun represents is shown in bold.


Who told you?

John told me.


Whom did you tell?

I told Mary.


What's happened?

An accident's happened.


What do you want?

I want coffee.



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The verb is king in English. The shortest sentence contains a verb. You can make a one-word
sentence with a verb, for example: "Stop!" You cannot make a one-word sentence with any
other type of word.
Verbs are sometimes described as "action words". Many verbs give the idea of action, of
"doing" something. For example, words like run, fight, do and work all convey action.
But some verbs do not give the idea of action; they give the idea of existence, of state, of
"being". For example, verbs like be, exist, seem and belong all convey state.
A verb always has a subject. (In the sentence "John speaks English", John is the subject and
speaks is the verb.) In simple terms, therefore, we can say that verbs are words that tell us what
a subject does or is; they describe:

action (Ram plays football.)

state (Anthony seems kind.)

The form of the verb changes with the noun / pronoun:



He/ She / It



To be


The Main Verb

Sometimes there is more than one kind of verb in a sentence. There are auxiliary verbs , modal
verbs, and main verbs (sometimes called full or non-auxiliary verbs).
The main verb expresses the main action or state of being of the subject in the sentence and
changes form according to the subject (singular, plural, 1st person, 2nd person, 3rd person).
Most statements in speech and writing have a main verb.
The main verb changes its form according to the verb form (perfect tense, past tense, simple
tense etc).

Dogs usually chase cats.

But my cat chases my dog.

My cat is chasing my dog.
My dog has sometimes chased my cat.


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But, only because my cat ate my dog's dinner.

My cat has been eating my dog's dinner a lot.

Definition: Auxiliary verbs are used together with a main verb to give grammatical information
and therefore add extra meaning to a sentence, which is not given by the main verb.
Auxiliary Verbs or Helping Verbs

Auxiliary verbs (sometimes known as helping verbs) are verbs that are used to assist the
Auxiliary verbs cannot be used with modal verbs.
Auxiliary verbs are used to make sentences negative.
Auxiliary verbs are used to ask questions.
Auxiliary verbs are used in the sentence structure of the verb sentence
(Helping Verbs) used to make structures

Be form
Do form













Modals: Modal verbs do not change their form. The main verb is always in its base form when
used with a verb. Modal verbs stay in the base form - bare infinitive - the bare infinitive is the
infinitive without "to" before the verb.
The following modal verbs are used to with the present verb tense:

can, will, shall, ought to, must, need, may

The following modal verbs are used in the past tense:

would, should, could, might

Modal verbs are used to answer questions in the short form

Yes, I do.


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An adjective is a word that tells us more about a noun. (By "noun" we include pronouns and
noun phrases.)
An adjective "qualifies" or "modifies" a noun (a big dog).
Adjectives can be used before a noun (I like Chinese food) or after certain verbs (It is hard).
We can often use two or more adjectives together (a beautiful young French lady).
the, a/an, this, some, any
Comparative Adjectives
richer, more exciting
Superlative Adjectives
the richest, the most exciting
Positive Form
Use the positive form of the adjective if the comparison contains one of the following
as as

Example: Jane is as tall as John.

not as as / not so as

Example: John is not as tall as Arnie.

Comparative Form and Superlative Form (-er/-est)

one-syllable adjectives (clean, new, cheap)

two-syllable adjectives ending in -y or -er (easy, happy, pretty, dirty, clever)

positive form comparative form

superlative form


(the) cleanest



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Exceptions in spelling when adding -er / -est

silent e is dropped

final y after a consonant becomes i


Example: late-later-latest

Example: easy-easier-easiest

final consonant after short, stressed vowel is doubled


Example: hot-hotter-hottest

Comparative Form and Superlative Form (more/most)

adjectives of three or more syllables (and two-syllable adjectives not ending in -y/-er)

positive form comparative form

superlative form


most difficult

more difficult

Comparative and superlative adjectives: formation

The comparative is formed with er or more; the superlative is formed with est or most. One
syllable adjectives like big and fast tend to prefer er and est. Larger ones like beautiful and
carefully take more and most.

John is tall.
John is taller than Peter.
John is the tallest man I know.
Susie drives carefully.
Susie drives more carefully than Alice.

Both "some" and "any" can modify countable and uncountable nouns.

"There is some water on the floor."

"There are some Mexicans here."
"Do you have any food?"
"Do you have any apples?"


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"Much" modifies only uncountable nouns.

"They have so much money in the bank."

"The horse drinks so much water."

"Many" modifies only countable nouns.

"Many Americans travel to Europe."

"I collected many sources for my paper."

"Little" modifies only uncountable nouns.

"He had little food in the house."

"When I was in college, there was little money to spare."

"Few" modifies only countable nouns.

"There are a few doctors in town."

"He had few reasons for his opinion."

A lot of/lots of:

"A lot of" and "lots of" are informal substitutes for much and many. They are used with
uncountable nouns when they mean "much" and with countable nouns when they mean

"They have lots of (much) money in the bank."

"A lot of (many) Americans travel to Europe."
"We got lots of (many) mosquitoes last summer."
"We got lots of (much) rain last summer."

A little bit of:

"A little bit of" is informal and always precedes an uncountable noun.

"There is a little bit of pepper in the soup."

"There is a little bit of snow on the ground."


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Plenty of:
"Plenty of" modifies both countable and uncountable nouns.

"They have plenty of money in the bank."

"There are plenty of millionaires in Switzerland."

Enough modifies both countable and uncountable nouns.

"There is enough money to buy a car."

"I have enough books to read."

No modifies both countable and uncountable nouns.

"There is no time to finish now."

"There are no squirrels in the park."

Positive degree: When we speak about only one person or thing, We use the Positive degree.
Example: This house is big.
In this sentence only one noun The house is talked about.
The second one in the Degrees of Comparison is...
Comparative degree.
When we compare two persons or two things with each other, w use both the Positive degree
and Comparative degree.
This house is bigger than that one. (Comparative degree)
This house is not as big as that one. (Positive degree)
The term bigger is comparative version of the term big. Both these sentences convey the
same meaning.


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He is more intelligent than this boy. (Comparative)

He is not as intelligent as this boy. (Positive)

The term more intelligent is comparative version of the term intelligent. Both these
sentences convey the same meaning.

He is taller than Mr. Hulas. (Comparative)

He is not as tall as Mr. Hulas. (Positive)

The term taller is comparative version of the term tall. Both these sentences convey the
same meaning.
Superlative degree:
When we compare more than two persons or things with one another, We use all the three
Positive, Comparative and Superlative degrees.

This is the biggest house in this street. (Superlative)

This house is bigger than any other house in this street. (Comparative)

No other house in this street is as big as this one. (Positive)

The term biggest is the superlative version of the term big. All the three sentences mean
the same.

The principal job of an adverb is to modify (give more information about) verbs, adjectives and
other adverbs. In the following examples, the adverb is in bold and the word that it modifies is
in italics.

Modify a verb:
- John speaks loudly. (How does John speak?)
- Mary lives locally. (Where does Mary live?)
- She never smokes. (When does she smoke?)

Modify an adjective:
- He is really handsome.


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Modify another adverb:

- She drives incredibly slowly.

But adverbs have other functions, too. They can:

Modify a whole sentence:

- Obviously, I can't know everything.

Modify a prepositional phrase:

- It's immediately inside the door.

Many adverbs end in -ly. We form such adverbs by adding -ly to the adjective. Here are some

quickly, softly, strongly, honestly, interestingly

But not all words that end in -ly are adverbs. "Friendly", for example, is an adjective.
Some adverbs have no particular form, for example:

well, fast, very, never, always, often, still

Kinds of Adverbs
Adverbs of Manner
She moved slowly and spoke quietly.
Adverbs of Place
She has lived on the island all her life.
She still lives there now.
Adverbs of Frequency
She takes the boat to the mainland every day.
She often goes by herself.
Adverbs of Time
She tries to get back before dark.
It's starting to get dark now.
She finished her tea first.
She left early.


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Adverbs of Purpose
She drives her boat slowly to avoid hitting the rocks.
She shops in several stores to get the best buys.
Positions of Adverbs
One of the hallmarks of adverbs is their ability to move around in a sentence. Adverbs of
manner are particularly flexible in this regard.

Solemnly the minister addressed her congregation.

The minister solemnly addressed her congregation.
The minister addressed her congregation solemnly.

The following adverbs of frequency appear in various points in these sentences:

Before the main verb: I never get up before nine o'clock.

Between the auxiliary verb and the main verb: I have rarely written to my brother
without a good reason.
Before the verb used to: I always used to see him at his summer home.

Indefinite adverbs of time can appear either before the verb or between the auxiliary and the
main verb:

He finally showed up for batting practice.

She has recently retired.

Adverbs can modify adjectives, but an adjective cannot modify an adverb. Thus we would say
that "the students showed a really wonderful attitude" and that "the students showed a
wonderfully casual attitude" and that "my professor is really tall, but not "He ran real fast."
Like adjectives, adverbs can have comparative and superlative forms to show degree.

Walk faster if you want to keep up with me.

The student who reads fastest will finish first.

We often use more and most, less and least to show degree with adverbs:

With sneakers on, she could move more quickly among the patients.
The flowers were the most beautifully arranged creations I've ever seen.

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The as as construction can be used to create adverbs that express sameness or equality: "He
can't run as fast as his sister."
A handful of adverbs have two forms, one that ends in -ly and one that doesn't. In certain cases,
the two forms have different meanings:

He arrived late.
Lately, he couldn't seem to be on time for anything.

In most cases, however, the form without the -ly ending should be reserved for casual

She certainly drives slow in that old Buick of hers.

He did wrong by her.
He spoke sharp, quick, and to the point.

Adverbs often function as intensifiers, conveying a greater or lesser emphasis to something.

Intensifiers are said to have three different functions: they can emphasize, amplify, or
downtone. Here are some examples:




I really don't believe him.

He literally wrecked his mother's car.
She simply ignored me.
They're going to be late, for sure.
The teacher completely rejected her proposal.
I absolutely refuse to attend any more faculty meetings.
They heartily endorsed the new restaurant.
I so wanted to go with them.
We know this city well.
I kind of like this college.
Joe sort of felt betrayed by his sister.
His mother mildly disapproved his actions.
We can improve on this to some extent.
The boss almost quit after that.
The school was all but ruined by the storm.

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Prepositions usually come before the noun. Prepositions can be used with all forms of nouns
(e.g. collective nouns, pronouns etc).Prepositions can't come after a verb, but can be used
before a gerund or verb in noun form.
The rules above do not change and there are no exceptions to the rules.
The prepositions OFF, TO, and IN are among the ten most frequently used words in the
English language.
The most frequently used prepositions are:
across after
against along behind below beneath
besides Between down during except for
opposite out
outside till
toward under underneath until
The most frequently used compound prepositions are:
according to as of
because of in place of
instead of
next to out of
prior to
Rule: A preposition is followed by a "noun". It is never followed by a verb.
On is used with days:

I will see you on Monday.

The week begins on Sunday.

At is used with noon, night, midnight, and with the time of day:

My plane leaves at noon.

The movie starts at 6 p.m.

In is used with other parts of the day, with months, with years, with seasons:

He likes to read in the afternoon.

The days are long in August.
The book was published in 1999.
The flowers will bloom in spring.


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To express extended time, English uses the following prepositions: since, for, by, fromto,
from-until, during,(with)in

She has been gone since yesterday. (She left yesterday and has not returned.)
I'm going to Paris for two weeks. (I will spend two weeks there.)
The movie showed from August to October. (Beginning in August and ending in
The decorations were up from spring until fall. (Beginning in spring and ending in
I watch TV during the evening. (For some period of time in the evening.)
We must finish the project within a year. (No longer than a year.)

To express notions of place, English uses the following prepositions: to talk about the point
itself: in, to express something contained: inside, to talk about the surface: on, to talk about a
general vicinity, at.

There is a wasp in the room.

Put the present inside the box.
I left your keys on the table.
She was waiting at the corner.

Higher than a point

To express notions of an object being higher than a point, English uses the following
prepositions: over, above.

He threw the ball over the roof.

Hang that picture above the couch.

Lower than a point

To express notions of an object being lower than a point, English uses the following
prepositions: under, underneath, beneath, below.

The rabbit burrowed under the ground.

The child hid underneath the blanket.
We relaxed in the shade beneath the branches.
The valley is below sea-level.

Close to a point
To express notions of an object being close to a point, English uses the following prepositions:
near, by, next to, between, among, opposite.

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She lives near the school.

There is an ice cream shop by the store.
An oak tree grows next to my house
The house is between Elm Street and Maple Street.
I found my pen lying among the books.
The bathroom is opposite that room.

To introduce objects of verbs

English uses the following prepositions to introduce objects of the following verbs.
At: glance, laugh, look, rejoice, smile, stare

She took a quick glance at her reflection.

(exception with mirror: She took a quick glance in the mirror.)
You didn't laugh at his joke.
I'm looking at the computer monitor.
We rejoiced at his safe rescue.
That pretty girl smiled at you.
Stop staring at me.

I don't approve of his speech.

My contribution to the article consists of many pages.
He came home smelling of alcohol.
I dream of finishing college in four years.
You go buy the tickets and I'll watch for the train.


Subject + preposition


The food is


the table.

She lives



The letter


your blue book.





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at 3

In May

on Sunday


In summer

on Tuesdays

at noon

In the summer

on 6 March


In 1990

on 25 Dec. 2010

at bedtime

In the 1990s

on Christmas Day

at sunrise

In the next century

on Independence Day

at sunset

In the Ice Age

on my birthday

at the

In the past/future

on New Year's Eve

Several common uses of in and on occur with street. In and on are also used with means of
transportation: in is used with a car, on with public or commercial means of transportation:
in the car
on the bus
on the plane
on the train
on the ship


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Some speakers of English make a further distinction for public modes of transportation, using in
when the carrier is stationary and on when it is in motion.
My wife stayed in/on the bus while I got out at the rest stop
The passengers sat in/on the plane awaiting takeoff.
Prepositions of Position
at the back of
at the bottom of
at the top of
in the corner of
in the middle of
next to
to the left of
on the other side of
to the right of
on the side of
on top of
Prepositions of Direction: Here are a number of prepositions that can be used to show
direction and movement around the floor plan:
out of

Walk through the exit of room two and enter into building number three.
Walk across the indoor garden to reach room number five.
Walk past the side entrance to reach the main entrance.

When the goal is not a physical place, for instance, an action, "to" marks a verb; it is attached as
an infinitive and expresses purpose. The preposition may occur alone or in the phrase in order.
The two uses can also occur together in a single sentence:

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We flew from New York to Paris to see our father.

ON + TO = onto: movement toward a surface

IN + TO = into: movement toward the interior of a volume

Rob jumped on(to) the carpet.

Jane fell on(to) the floor.
Helen climbed on(to) the back of the van.
The plane landed on the runway. (not onto the runway)
Gabrielle hung the decoration on the Christmas tree. (not onto the tree)
He placed the package on the table. (not onto the table)
Jill spilled her drink on the rug. (not onto the rug)

AROUND = in a circular direction

I've driven around this neighborhood three times and I still cant find their house.
AT = in the (general) direction of
The little boy threw a stone at the little girl.
AWAY FROM = leaving a place, a person or an object
She ran away from home when she was sixteen.
DOWN = descending motion
Raindrops ran down the windscreen making it difficult to see the road.
DOWN TO = descending motion expressing a final destination
The child fell down to the ground.
FOR = having the view or destination of
The Israelites set out for The Promised Land when they left Egypt.
INTO= a destination within something
The frightened deer disappeared into the forest.
ONTO= a destination on something
He put the plate onto the table and began to eat his dinner.

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OUT OF = a destination outside of something

He ran out of the room as if he were on fire.
TO = in the specific direction of
To the hospital, please. And hurry! This is an emergency.
Could you give this DVD to Jill, please?
TOWARDS = in the general direction of
we were driving towards the city center when we had an accident.

A conjunction is a word that "joins". A conjunction joins two parts of a sentence.
Coordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating Conjunctions

and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so

although, because, since, unless

We can consider conjunctions from three aspects.

Conjunctions have three basic forms:

Single Word
for example: and, but, because, although

Compound (often ending with as or that)

for example: provided that, as long as, in order that

Correlative (surrounding an adverb or adjective)

for example: so...that

Conjunctions have two basic functions or "jobs":

Coordinating conjunctions are used to join two parts of a sentence that are
grammatically equal. The two parts may be single words or clauses, for example:
- Jack and Jill went up the hill.
- The water was warm, but I didn't go swimming.


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Subordinating conjunctions are used to join a subordinate dependent clause to a main

clause, for example:
- I went swimming although it was cold.


Coordinating conjunctions always come between the words or clauses that they join.

Subordinating conjunctions usually come at the beginning of the subordinate clause.

Coordinating Conjunctions
The 7 coordinating conjunctions are short, simple words. They have only two or three letters.
There's an easy way to remember them - their initials spell:

And Nor But




A coordinating conjunction joins parts of a sentence (for example words or independent

clauses) that are grammatically equal or similar. A coordinating conjunction shows that the
elements it joins are similar in importance and structure:
Look at these examples - the two elements that the coordinating conjunction joins are shown in
square brackets [ ]:

I like [tea] and [coffee].

[Ram likes tea], but [Anthony likes coffee].

Coordinating conjunctions always come between the words or clauses that they join.
When a coordinating conjunction joins independent clauses, it is always correct to place a
comma before the conjunction:

I want to work as an interpreter in the future, so I am studying Russian at university.

She is kind so she helps people.

When "and" is used with the last word of a list, a comma is optional:

He drinks beer, whisky, wine, and rum.

He drinks beer, whisky, wine and rum.


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Correlative Conjunctions
Definition: One of a pair of words separated from each other that serve as a conjunction,
connecting two words, phrases or sentences. The most common pairs in English are "either/or"
and "neither/nor" Also Known As: paired conjunction

not only...but also
The second word or words in the previous pairs of conjunctions are coordinating
conjunctions. Correlative conjunctions only appear in pairs with coordinating
Both the dog and the cat like to drink milk. (noun phrases)
Students must either write a report or read another book for the final project. (verb
Not only do I hate chili but I also hate beans.


Since we have lived in Atlanta, we have gone to every exhibit at the High Musuem.


While I was waiting in line for the Exhibition, I ate my sandwich.

An interjection is a word used to express strong, sudden feelings. Emotions such as fear,
surprise, anger, love, and joy can all be expressed with an interjection. Interjections usually
have an exclamation point (!) after it
Examples: "Ah! there he comes" and "Alas! what shall I do?"
The word 'ah' expresses surprise, and the word 'alas' expresses distress.
They have no real grammatical value but we use them quite often, usually more in speaking
than in writing. Nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs become interjections when they are


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uttered as exclamations
Examples of interjections: nonsense! strange! hail! away! etc.

An article is an adjective. Like adjectives, articles modify nouns.
English has two articles: the and a/an.

The is used to refer to specific or particular nouns;

A/an is used to modify non-specific or non-particular nouns.

the = definite article

a/an = indefinite article
For example, "Let's read the book," means a specific book. "Let's read a book," means any
book rather than a specific book.
Here's another way to explain it: The is used to refer to a specific or particular member of a
group. For example, "I just saw the most popular movie of the year." There are many movies,
but only one particular movie is the most popular. Therefore, we use the.
"A/an" is used to refer to a non-specific or non-particular member of the group.
Example, "I would like to go see a movie."
Were not talking about a specific movie. We're talking about any movie. There are many
movies, and I want to see any movie. I don't have a specific one in mind.
Indefinite Articles: a and an
"A" and "an" signal that the noun modified is indefinite, referring to any member of a group.
For example:

"My daughter really wants a dog for Christmas." This refers to any dog. We don't know
which dog because we haven't found the dog yet.
"Somebody call a policeman!" This refers to any policeman. We don't need a specific
policeman; we need any policeman who is available.
"When I was at the zoo, I saw an elephant!" Here, we're talking about a single, nonspecific thing, in this case an elephant. There are probably several elephants at the zoo,
but there's only one we're talking about here.

Remember, using a or an, depends on the sound that begins the next word. So...

a + singular noun beginning with a consonant: a boy; a car; a bike; a zoo; a dog
an + singular noun beginning with a vowel: an elephant; an egg; an apple; an idiot;
an orphan


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a + singular noun beginning with a consonant sound: a user (sounds like 'yoo-zer,' i.e.
begins with a consonant 'y' sound, so 'a' is used); a university; a unicycle
In some cases where "h" is pronounced, such as "historical," use an:

An historical event is worth recording.

If the noun is modified by an adjective, the choice between a and an depends on the initial
sound of the adjective that immediately follows the article:

a broken egg
an unusual problem
a European country (sounds like 'yer-o-pi-an,' i.e. begins with consonant 'y' sound)

Remember, too, that in English, the indefinite articles are used to indicate membership in a

I am a teacher. (I am a member of a large group known as teachers.)

Brian is an Irishman. (Brian is a member of the people known as Irish.)
Seiko is a practicing Buddhist. (Seiko is a member of the group of people known as

Definite Article: the

The definite article is used before singular and plural nouns when the noun is specific or
particular. The signals that the noun is definite, that it refers to a particular member of a group.
For example:
"The dog that bit me ran away." Here, we're talking about a specific dog, the dog that bit me.
"I was happy to see the policeman who saved my cat!" Here, we're talking about a particular
policeman. Even if we don't know the policeman's name, it's still a particular policeman
because it is the one who saved the cat.
"I saw the elephant at the zoo." Here, we're talking about a specific noun. Probably there is
only one elephant at the zoo.
The can be used with noncount nouns, or the article can be omitted entirely.

"I love to sail over the water" (some specific body of water) or "I love to sail over water"
(any water).
"He spilled the milk all over the floor" (some specific milk, perhaps the milk you bought
earlier that day) or "He spilled milk all over the floor" (any milk).

"A/an" can be used only with count nouns.

"I need a bottle of water."

"I need a new glass of milk."


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Most of the time, you can't say, "She wants a water," unless you're implying, say, a bottle of
There are some specific rules for using the with geographical nouns.
Do not use the before:

names of most countries/territories: Italy, Mexico, Bolivia; however, the

Netherlands, the Dominican Republic, the Philippines, the United States
names of cities, towns, or states: Seoul, Manitoba, Miami
names of streets: Washington Blvd., Main St.
names of lakes and bays: Lake Titicaca, Lake Erie except with a group of lakes like the
Great Lakes
names of mountains: Mount Everest, Mount Fuji except with ranges of mountains
like the Andes or the Rockies or unusual names like the Matterhorn
names of continents (Asia, Europe)
names of islands (Easter Island, Maui, Key West) except with island chains like the
Aleutians, the Hebrides, or the Canary Islands

Use the before:

names of rivers, oceans and seas: the Nile, the Pacific

points on the globe: the Equator, the North Pole
geographical areas: the Middle East, the West
deserts, forests, gulfs, and peninsulas: the Sahara, the Persian Gulf, the Black
Forest, the Iberian Peninsula

Omission of Articles
Some common types of nouns that don't take an article are:

Names of languages and nationalities: Chinese, English, Spanish, Russian

Names of sports: volleyball, hockey, baseball
Names of academic subjects: mathematics, biology, history, computer science


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Parts of Speech
Identify the Parts of Speech of the underlined words

Columbus discovered America.

He was a brave man.

The boys jumped happily in the snow.

The swift river flowed calmly.

The Daredevils are always an exciting group of players.

Someone brought delicious apples and pears for the dessert.

During the storm the other day, several windows cracked.

On my desk was a long yellow pencil.

Close the door very quietly.

You can never succeed by crooked methods.

The crowd shouted its approval of his speech.

Hurrah! shouted the boys. We won!

The hammer and saw belonged to the carpenter.

Nonsense! It is not impossible to do that.

Henry and his brother won the contest.

Tick the boxes that contain nouns.





















Use the nouns below to complete the following passage.







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______________ and __________ walked down the rutted
_______________to the ____________.They passed the broken utility
_____________ and jumped the farm __________________. ______________
lay down on her ________________to catch the ________________while
________________slipped off his ________________and ran towards the cool,
inviting __________.
Now use your own nouns to complete this passage.
____________ placed his __________ against the _____________.
He entered the cool ________________and after carefully investigating the
contents of the _________ he finally decided upon an ________________
The ________________was deep blue with brilliant gold __________________.
He stepped out into the ________________and began to eat his smooth, chilled
Identify the Common Nouns in the following

We arrived early at the station.

There are different species of fish.
The man was trying to steal his car.
They have gone to the zoo.
The baby is crying.
My mother is in the kitchen.
He threw some nuts to the monkeys.
The children are playing in the field.
That temple was built before I was born.
He has bought a new car.

Use capital letters for Proper Nouns in the following sentences.

Paris is the capital of France.

William Shakespeare is a famous English author.
war and peace was written by Leo Tolstoy.
The universities of oxford and Cambridge offer degree courses at the highest level.
John's two dogs are named rover and boxer.
David will travel to France to do a degree course on the French revolution.
Suez canal joins the red sea and the Mediterranean Sea.

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Republic of Liberia is on the west coast of Africa.

Mick jigger is the lead singer of rolling stones
Mount Kilimanjaro is the highest mountain in Africa.

Fill in the blanks with abstract nouns from the nouns in brackets.

I had a very happy ______ (child).

I forgot to renew my _____ (member) in the sailing club.
We formed a deep and lasting _____ (friend).
He hopes to take over the _____ (leader) of the party.
There are lots of nice people in the _____ (neighbor).

Collective Nouns
What goes before the following?
litter gang colony







an ___________of soldiers
a ___________of ants
a ___________ of flowers
a ____________of thieves
a ___________ of lions
a _____________ of stars
a __________of ships
a ____________of puppies

Fill in the blanks with suitable collective nouns.

A _____ of birds flew high in the sky.

They saw a _____ of lions at the zoo.
The farmer has a _____ of cattle on his farm.
He ate a _____ of grapes today.
Our friend shows us a _____ of stamps.
We saw a _____ of sheep on our way home.
Police have arrested a _____ of thieves.
She bought a _____ of bananas from the market.
The _____ of pupils are listening attentively to their teacher.
You can put the _____ of tools in that box.


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Use the correct Noun forms of the underlined words

I admire so many things about her; her generousness, intelligentness, and above all her

Weightlifting not only increases your strongness but also improves your general

I dont think you have understood the complexness of the problem.

The humidness in the air is making us sweat.

Swiss trains are well known for their punctualness.

Fill in the blank with the correct word.

1. What kind of _____ do you want to talk about?
a) thing b) things
2. What kind of _____ would you like me to buy?
a) milk b) milks
3. I ate many kinds of _____ yesterday.
a) cheese b) cheeses
4. Do you have some _____ for me?
a) information b) informations
5. I had many horrifying _____ during my travels in Haiti.
a) experience b) experiences
6. Do you know all the _____ of the world?
a) capital b) capitals
7. He had a lot of _____ in him.
a) anger b) angers
8. What did you buy? I bought some _____.
a) orange b) oranges
9. I have to buy some apples and some _____.

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a) rice b) rices
10. I left my _____ at the airport.
a) luggage b) luggages
Complete each sentence by choosing the correct word.

There is so (many, much) smoke coming out of the chimney.

There are (plenty of, a large amount of) fish in the pond.
(A little, A few) minutes is all it takes for him to shave.
The postman put (a great deal of, a lot of) letters into the bag.
He threw (a little, some) nuts to the monkeys.
She uses only (a few, a little) cooking oil in her cooking.
My hens lay (a large amount of, several) eggs very day.
(A great deal of, A large number of) dust has collected on the desk.
We saw (a large amount of, many) cows grazing in the field.
The butcher sells (a large amount of, a large number of) meat.

Complete the following using a, an, the

There were many dogs in the park. One dog was ___ Dalmatian
Pandas and ___ tigers are both endangered animals.
She is wearing ___ blue dress with red earrings.
Hawaii is ___ island in the Pacific Ocean.
Christmas comes once ___ year.
___ ant is __ insect.
The Nile is ___ river.
I went to the shop to get ___ bread.
He broke ___ glass when he was washing dishes.
You should take ___ umbrella.

Use a/ an/ the/ some where necessary

My brother is ______ artist.

I'm staying with ______ friends.
She's a writer. She writes ______ books
I need to buy ______ new trousers. I'm getting fat!
Sue and Vaughan are ______ good writers.
I like all animals but ______ cats are my favourites.

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I've seen ______ good films recently. "The Insider" was great
______ people would like to talk to you, if you have the time.
I've got ______ idea.
It's the last question. What _____ relief!

For each blank space, choose the proper article (a, an, the, or no article):

Denver is located at the foot of __________ Rocky Mountains.

Toronto is located on __________ Lake Ontario.

a b) the c) no article

I need __________ bottle of water.

a b) the c) no article

Do you speak __________ Chinese?

a b) the c) no article

I spoke with __________ Chinese film director that I told you about.

a b) the c) no article

__________ Sahara is the worlds biggest desert.

a b) the c) no article

__________ Nile is the longest river in the world.

a b) the c) no article

Lets go to __________ Mexico.

a b) the c) no article

San Diego is located near __________ Mexican border.

a b) the c) no article

a b) the c) no article

Spain is one of __________ largest European countries.

a b) the c) no article


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Write a paragraph about yourself. Try to use a variety of verbs and 'a' and 'the' correctly.
Write a paragraph about someone else. You can write about a friend or someone from your
Fill in the blanks with suitable pronouns.

Does _____ (her, she) know that _____ (me, I) was absent?

Please tell _____ (he, him) _____ (I, me) have obtained a degree in Chemistry.

I remember that _____ (they, them) bought the fruits from _____ (we, us).

Please don't tell ______ (she, her) about _____ (I, me).

_____ can swim because _____ has webbed feet.

I met Alice yesterday. _____ invited _____ to her house.

Jane has a cat; _____ likes to play with _____.

When the dog chased John, _____ ran as fast as _____ could.

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My uncle works in a factory. _____ says _____ is a noisy place.

The teacher said to the class, "When _____have finished your work, please pass _____
up to me."

Complete the following with suitable possessive or personal pronouns

Mary has __________ exams next week; so _________ is working hard for _______.

Jim went out to get _________ car from the garage; however, ________ came home
disappointed, as _________ was not yet ready.

The students had to complete ___________projects by Monday.

His house is bigger than _____________.

Here, let me carry __________ bag; _________ looks heavy.

Tom painted ________ house white; but the Jones decided to paint __________ cream!

Dont take that book. It is ___________.

______________ insurance policy doesnt cover that damage.

Correct the errors in the following:

Myself Richard.

Her hair is longer than me.

This book is mines.

The dog wagged its tail.

This book is yours.

Complete the following with its/its, whos/whose, said/told

The product has seen _______ days.

Its very annoying.

The dog wagged ________ tail.

_________ at the door?

The people ________ homes have been burgled have assembled here.

She _______ that it was a brilliant idea.

The officer ________ him to go home.

The company sold all _______ rights to the most competitive bidder.


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Fill in the blanks with which, who', whom' and whose'.

1. The boy, _____ father is a doctor, is my best friend.
2. This is not something _____ we like to do.
3. That man, _____ left leg was amputated, suffers from diabetes.
4. The thief, _____ they caught, was sent to the prison.
5. Our friends, _____ we invited to the party, arrived rather early.
6. The girl, _____ broke the mirror, was scolded by her mother.
7. That is my uncle, _____ car was stolen.
8. That woman, _____ you saw, was my auntie.
9. Kangaroos, _____ use their pouch to carry their babies, are found in Australia.
10. The policeman, ______ caught the thief, is a very brave man.
Underline the Verbs in the sentences. Replace each of these verbs with different verbs
The man went out of the house. He walked across the garden and went through the
gate. He ran down the street and went into the station.
Look at the Verbs below. Create sentences of your own with the verbs
Scream, say, grow, bark, tell
4. _________________________________________________________________________
5. ________________________________________________________________________
Write the Verb form of the Nouns below. Choose the verbs to complete the following
sentences. Use the correct tense form.

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In 1885, Louis Pasteur _____________ a cure for rabies when he treated a young boy
who was bitten by a boy.

Aung San, the man who led Myanmar to independence, was __________ in 1947.

One of the few parts of the world that has not been __________ much is Antarctica.

In World War 1, many soldiers were ____________ against typhoid.

In 1986, millions of Filipinos ________- against the government of Ferdinand Marcos in

the streets of Manila.

Fill in the blanks with is' or are'.

The rose _____ a beautiful flower.

His two sons _____ still small.

My brother _____ doing his degree at that university.

Dogs _____ the most faithful animals.

There _____ a lot of ants on the tree.

Fill in the blanks with do or does

He ________ his work promptly.

They _______ everything possible to help others.

Richard and Harry _______ not want an extension.

The client _________ his best to please his vendors.

The company _______ not insist on regular timings.


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Fill in the blanks with has or have

They _______ a busy schedule.

He ______ completed his work on time.

Gabrielle and Freddy _________ a lovely home.

Julia Roberts ________ a wonderful smile.

The company ________ its own policies.

Complete the following using Prepositions

John made some mistakes ___ work and he got arrested _____ stealing.

My brother is _____ prison.

I think I will stay _____ bed all day.

I saw him getting ____ a taxi.

I have lived in Bangalore _____ 25 years.

I have been waiting ______ 2 O clock.

The ice crackled ____ their feet as they trudged ___ the mountain.

Lets discuss it ____ a cup of coffee.

The car ran ______ the dog.

The helicopter hovered ____ the mountain.

Do you live ______ the 2nd floor?

There is a bank right _______ the training center.

It rained ______ three days without stopping.

I fell asleep ______ the session.

Throw it ______ the waste paper bin.

Use the following Prepositions to complete the sentences







When the kids saw the snake in the grass they started running ________ screaming

The plane flew ______ the Grand Canyon on the way to LA.

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They walked _____ the building twice looking for the entrance.

The cruise passed ________ the Golden gate bridge as it was leaving San Francisco.

They strolled ______ the beach watching the sunset.

His dog is always trying to escape from the backyard. Sometimes he manages to jump
____ the fence, and sometimes he digs a hole and crawls___ it.

Several animals, including emus, ran _____ the road in front of the car as they were
driving _____ the outback of Australia.

We walked ______ the river looking for a way to get _____ it, but there was no bridge.

Use in, into, on, onto in the following sentences

She moved all her clothes _____ a different closet.

Lets move ______ the living room where we can be more comfortable. (simply means

We will move _____ the new house by the end of the month. (bring all belongings and
take possession of the house.)

The cat landed ____ its feet after the fall.

Louis hung his pants ____ the line to dry.

Dick spilled the soup ____ his shirt.

The car is ____ the driveway.

The cat is ____ the garage

They got _____the bus.

Patricia fell ____the ground. (completion of the action of falling)

Write the following in the correct columns

14th June

7 0clock
quarter past two

sat sep 27
the evening
Monday evening


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This is a travelogue of a visitor to South Korea. Prepositions are missing in this travelogue.
Complete it by using the apt prepositions
Landing ____ Incheon Airport, maybe the most surprising impression ____ a Westerner ____his
first trip ___ Asia is the lack ___ surprise. Modern airports are similar all over the industrialized
world and it was perhaps a first indicator of South Korea is remarkable economic success and
rapid modernization that I could immediately feel ____ home ____ Korea is gateway ___ the
world. That is, ____ least ___ first glance; amidst all the recognizable normality, the bookstores
and over-priced souvenir shops one finds ___ every airport was a special counter ____
American soldiers arriving __ Korea.
Indeed, the somewhat anachronistic ghost ___ the Cold War was a rather unpleasant reminder
___things I had perhaps too easily forgotten. Having grown up ___ Northern Norway not far
___ the border with what was then still the Soviet Union, I can remember the military security
and the sense ____ alertness omnipresent in____ my early childhood. Traveling ___ the
bustling modernity ___ Seoul and the tension by the Demilitarized Zone was very much like
traveling 15 years back ___ time and space __ the only border _____ the Soviet Union and a
NATO country. The contrast _____ modern Korea and what I thought ___ as a relic ___ the
past was the most startling experience I had ____ Korea. Fortunately I can also remember the
fall ___ the Soviet Union when Northern Norway was flooded _____ Russians selling everything
_____ babushka dolls ____ red star medals and we again could have some contact ____ our
neighboring people. It all happened suddenly and seemingly without any warning; perhaps
change will happen as suddenly ___ the Korean peninsula.


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Give directions to reach the Food Court from Phase II, 5th Floor

Look at the pictures. Write two things you like/dislike about them.



Shopping Mall



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Find the adjective in the first sentence and fill the gap with the adverb.

Joanne is happy. She smiles ___________.

The boy is loud. He shouts _________________.

Her English is fluent. She speaks English ___________________.

Our mum was angry. She spoke to us ____________.

My neighbour is a careless driver. He drives ___________.

The painter is awful. He paints ___________.

Jim is a wonderful piano player. He plays the piano ___________.

This girl is very quiet. She often sneaks out of the house ___________.

She is a good dancer. She dances really ___________.

This exercise is simple. You ________ have to put one word in each space.

Write the Adjective forms of the following Nouns/Verbs:







Supply 3 suitable Adjectives to add more meaning to the Nouns:

Girl, movie, book, country, river, mountain, job









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Write about a holiday/vacation you have just had. (Use relevant adjectives)

Who is your role model? List at least 5 qualities you admire in that person.

Do you think you are an asset to MindTree? Why?

Choose the most suitable adverb to fill each blank:
angrily, enough, never, outside, yesterday

She left _____ for the university where she is doing a degree course.

We are standing _____ his house waiting for him.

He told us _____ not to walk on the grass.

I am not strong _____ to help him carry that box.

She will _____ be happy in that job.

down, last week, often, quickly, rarely

_____, I saw him walking to the church.


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My father is _____ late for work.

He drove _____ to avoid being late.

I _____ play badminton with my sister.

This is the place where he fell _____.

always, just, nearly, online, unusually

It took _____ two hours to get here.

They were _____ very friendly.

He has _____ strong hands.

She has _____ completed her degree course.

This dictionary went _____ in 2003.

Place the given adverbs or adverb phrases appropriately in the following sentences:
1. There was a huge crowd, which waited for tickets (yesterday, in front of the new cinema,
2. The crowd began to get restless and threw stones (at the windows, after half an hour, as fast
as they could),
3. The owner of the cinema phoned the Collector, and he asked the Superintendent of Police
to disperse the crowd (at once, firmly, but not roughly).
4. The rescue operation, the Superintendent got together about forty policemen (Very quickly,
at his office).
5. When the policemen arrived on the scene, the crowd was ordered to disperse (at once,

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Choose the correct form from each pair of words.
Dear Natasha,
Well, here I am in England. Thank you for your _____ (kind/kindly) letter. You asked me what
its like here. I must say, its pretty _____ (good/well)! The language school is very _____
(efficient/efficiently) organized. On the first morning we had to do a test, which I found rather
_____ (hard/hardly.) However I got a _____ (surprising/surprisingly) good mark, so Im in the
second class. I didnt talk much at first, because I couldnt think of the words _____

enough, but




become much



(fluent/fluently). Im staying with a family who live ______ (near/nearly) the school. They are
quite _____ (pleasant/pleasantly), although I dont see much of them because Im always so
_____ (busy/busily) with my friends from school. I was surprised how _____ (easy/easily) I
made new friends here. They come from _____ (different/differently) parts of the world and
we have some ______ (absolute/absolutely) fascinating discussions. I do hope you will be able
to join me here next term. Im sure wed have _____ (good/well) fun together.
All the best,
Complete the following using Conjunctions

The sessions are between 10 am ______ 6 p.m.

I can do it _____youll help me.

You can have a Pizza _____ a burger.

______ I tried my best, I lost the prize.

They were tired; ______ they rested a while.

Could you keep an eye on her _____ I get back please?

I hope she gets here ______ the train leaves.


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I came ______ though I was unwilling.

The shirt fitted Harry well, _____ the trousers had to be shortened.

He ______ likes tea _____ coffee.

_______ he is fat, he runs fast.

He knew about the test; _____ he didnt prepare for it.

Choose the correct conjunction for each sentence:

1. I will go to the concert, but ________ you go as well.
a) only if b) unless
2. I brought along a sandwich, ________ I get hungry.
a) therefore b) in case
3. ________ she calls me, I feel very happy.
a) So that b) Whenever
4. Take this photo, ________ you can remember me.
a) while b) so that
5. I will not talk to him ________ he apologizes for what he did.
a) until b) because
6. I'll find you, ________ you are.
a) where b) wherever
7. She spoke ________ she knew what she was talking about, but she didn't.
a) although b) as if
8. ________ the police arrived, we had to end the party.
a) Until b) Once
9. I couldn't figure out ________ he said what he said.
a) why b) once
10. I bought you a birthday card ________ I like you.


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a) because b) why
Combine each sentence group into one concise sentence.
1. The cliff dropped to reefs seventy-five feet below. The reefs below the steep cliff were barely
visible through the fog.
2. Their car is gassed up. It is ready for the long drive. The drive will take all night.
3. Sometimes Stan went running with Blanche. She was a good athlete. She was on the track
team at school.
4. Taylor brought some candy back from Europe. It wasn't shaped like American candy. The
candy tasted kind of strange to him.
5. Government leaders like to mention the creation of new jobs. They claim that these new jobs
indicate a strong economy. They don't mention that low-wage jobs without benefits and
security have replaced many good jobs.

How would you feel if you fell off of a cliff or fell off your bike and got hurt?

How about if someone scared you? What is the first thing you would say?

Introduce suitable Interjections in the following sentences

We won the match.

It hurts.
Shes stunningly beautiful.
I missed the train.

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I lost my uncle in an accident.

I won a lottery.

Choose the correct reply to the following.

1. Do you mind holding this for a while?
Not at all
Indeed yes
Oh no!
2. Did you have a good flight?
Not at all
Of course not
3. Would you be interested in this proposal?
Seems interesting
My pleasure
4. Did you remember to lock the door?
Darn! I forgot.
Of course not
My pleasure
5. I think I shall visit you this summer.
Of course not
More Exercises to improve Sentence Structures and Vocabulary
Arrange the words to form meaningful sentences:
1. family/I/really//with/enjoy/time/spending/my.
2. again/see/I/to/you/soon/hope
3. see/lesson/to/my/asked/me/the/after/teacher
4. called/being/detests/Timothy/he


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5. imagine/I/getting/angry/cant/him
6. to/more/to/have/patient/learn/youll/be
Answer these questions about yourself:

How old are you?

What do you look like?
What kind of clothes do you wear? Why?
What kind of job do you do? Do you like it?
What are your favorite hobbies? Why do you like them?
Where do you live?
Do you like living there? Why or why not?

Fill in the gaps in to complete this descriptive paragraph about yourself.

I am _________ years old, I _________________ (your looks). I wear ________________
because ______________. I am a ______________. I like / don't like my job because
_____________________. I enjoy ______________. I often _____________ (describe how
often you do your hobby). I also like ________________ (write about another hobby) because
________________. I live in ____________. People in ____________ are ________________ . I
enjoy / don't enjoy living in ______________ because ____________.
Write an article about your favourite television programme.
Remember to use all the Parts of Speech!
Write about:

The kind of programme it is, and how often it is on TV

Who the people in the programme are

What the programme is about


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What you specially like in the programme and why

Who you could recommend it to

Use the words below the grid to complete this crossword puzzle.













Style Talented

megastore New


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1. I was going to buy a cheap printer for my computer. However, the salesperson was very
_____________, so I bought a more expensive one.
5. Our local Vietnamese restaurant has a new _________ to encourage people to eat early; two
dinners for the price of one if you arrive before 7:00!
7. Everything is brand _______ and modern in the disco on First Street.
9. No one knows about Club Pacifico, so its always empty. It really needs some really good
_________ in the newspaper.
10. Charlies Coffee Shop was just sold to a new owner. She has some interesting new ideas and
____________ to improve it.
12. The jazz club has a new band. Theyre supposed to be very ________ musicians.
13. My aunt took several _______ risks when she opened the new boutique.
2. Its __________ to run a grocery store right next to the supermarket.
3. The waitress at the Spanish restaurant is very ____________. She goes jogging everyday.
4. For a taxi company to keep a good name, it has to _________ a very reliable service.
6. Theres a __________ near my home. I can get everything I need there, so I never shop
anywhere else.
8. Eva is a great flight attendant because shes really _________. In fact she has more energy
than anyone else I know.
11. Maybe Im old fashioned, but I dont like the latest _________ in clothes.
Arrange the letters to form words.
m m d e o


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h e g




e t

e b

Reading Comprehension - 1
Jane Goodall
Much of the information we have today about chimpanzees comes from the
groundbreaking, long-term research of the great conservationist, Jane Goodall.
Jane Goodall was born in London, England, on April 3, 1934. On h er second birthday,
her father gave her a toy chimpanzee named Jubilee. Jubilee was named after a baby
chimp in the London Zoo, and seemed to foretell the course Janes life would take.
To this day, Jubilee sits in a chair in Janes London home. From an ea rly age, Jane was
fascinated by animals and animal stories. By the age of 10, she was talking about
going to Africa to live among the animals there. At the time, in the early 1940s, this
was a radical idea because women did not go to Africa by themselves.
As a young woman, Jane finished school in London, attended secretarial school, and
then worked for a documentary filmmaker for a while. When a school friend invited
her to visit Kenya, she worked as a waitress until sh e had earned the fare to travel
there by boat. She was 23 years old.
Once in Kenya, she met Dr. Louis Leakey, a famous paleontologist and
anthropologist. He was impressed with her thorough knowledge of Africa and its
wildlife, and hired her to assist him and his wife on a fossil -hunting expedition to
Olduvai Gorge. Dr. Leakey soon realized that Jane was the perfect person to
complete a study he had been planning for some time. She expressed her interest in

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the idea of studying animals by living in the wild with them, rather than studying
dead animals through paleontology.
Dr. Leakey and Jane began planning a study of a group of chimpanzees who were
living on the shores of Lake Tanganyika in Kenya. At first, the British authorities
would not approve their plan. At the time, they thought it was too dangerous for a
woman to live in the wilds of Africa alone. But Janes mother, Vanne, agreed to join
her so that she would not be alone. Finally, the authorities gave Jane the clearance
In July of 1960, Jane and her mother arrived at Gombe National Park in what was
then called Tanganyika and is now called Tanzania. Jane faced many challenges as
she began her work. The chimpanzees did not accept her right away, and it took
months for them to get used to her presence in their territory. But she was very
patient and remained focused on her goal. Little by little, she was able to enter their
At first, she was able to watch the chimpanzees only from a great distance, using
binoculars. As time passed, she was able to move her observation point closer to
them while still using camouflage. Eventually, she was able to sit among them,
touching, patting, and even feeding them. It was an amazing accomplishment for
Jane, and a breakthrough in the study of animals in the wild. Jane named all of the
chimpanzees that she studied, stating in her journal s that she felt they each had a
unique personality.

One of the first significant observations that Jane made during the study was that
chimpanzees make and use tools, much like humans do, to help them get food. It was
previously thought that humans alone used tools. Also thanks to Janes research, we
now know that chimps eat meat as well as plants and fruits. In many ways, she has
helped us to see how chimpanzees and humans are similar. In doing so, she has made
us more sympathetic toward these creatures, while helping us to better understand
The study started by Jane Goodall in 1960 is now the longest field study of any
animal species in their natural habitat. Research continues to this day in Gombe and
is conducted by a team of trained Tanzanians.


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Janes life has included much more than just her study of the chimps in Tanzania. She
pursued a graduate degree while still conducting her study, rece iving her Ph.D. from
Cambridge University in 1965. In 1984, she received the J. Paul Getty Wildlife
Conservation Prize for "helping millions of people understand the importance of
wildlife conservation to life on this planet." She has been married twice: f irst to a
photographer and then to the director of National Parks. She has one son.
Dr. Jane Goodall is now the worlds most renowned authority on chimpanzees, having
studied their behavior for nearly 40 years. She has published many scientific articles,
has written two books, and has won numerous awards for her groundbreaking work.
The Jane Goodall Institute for Wildlife Research, Education, and Conservation was
founded in 1977 in California but moved to the Washington, D.C., area in 1998. Its
goal is to take the actions necessary to improve the environment for all living things.
Discuss the main ideas presented in the article.

What is the relevance of such studies of wild life and Nature?

Discuss some ways of conserving Nature

Read the following passage carefully

Functionalists such as Talcott Parsons and Ronald Fletcher argue that the rise in marital
breakdown stems from the fact that marriage is increasingly valued. People expect and demand
more from marriage and consequently are more likely to end a relationship which may have
been acceptable in the past. Thus Ronald Fletcher argues that relatively high divorce rate may
be indicative not of lower but of higher standards of marriage in society
The high rate of remarriage apparently lends support to Parsons and Fletchers arguments.
Thus paradoxically, the higher value placed on marriage may result in increased breakdown.

Supply a suitable title to the passage.

Prepare notes for a short debate on this topic.
Half the group prepares the case for and half the case against.


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Objectives - Unit 2
By the end of this session, you will be able to:
1. Identify errors in the use of tenses.
2. Create awareness of errors in subject-verb agreement.
3. Enable the use modal auxiliaries.
4. Enhance competence in the contextual use of English.
5. Hone language skills.


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Things can happen now, in the future or in the past. The tenses show the time of a verb's action
or being. The verb ending is changed (conjugated) to show roughly what time it is referring to.
Time can be split into three periods

The Present (what you are doing),

The Past (what you did) and

The Future (what you are going to do).

The tenses we use to show what time we are talking about are split into the Simple, Continuous
and Perfect tenses.

Simple Present

Listed below are uses with examples, and the structure of the present simple tense.
Permanent or long-lasting situations
Where do you work?
The store opens at 9 o'clock.
She lives in New York.
Regular habits and daily routines
I usually get up at 7 o'clock.
She doesn't often go to the cinema.
When do they usually have lunch?
The Earth revolves around the Sun.
What does 'strange' mean?
Water doesn't boil at 20 degrees.


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I love walking around late at night during the summer.
She hates flying!
What do you like? I don't want to live in Texas.
Opinions and states of mind
He doesn't agree with you.
I think he is a wonderful student.
What do you consider your best accomplishment?
Timetables and schedules
The plane leaves at 4 p.m.
When do courses begin this semester?
The train doesn't arrive until 10.35.
Common present time expressions include: usually, always, often, sometimes, on Saturdays, at
weekends (on weekends US English), rarely, on occasion, never, seldom Does -> he, she, it ->
live in this city?
Present Continuous Tense
One use of the present continuous tense is for action that is occurring at the moment of
speaking. Remember that only action verbs can take the continuous form.
This tense is often used with the following time expressions:
... at the moment
... now
... today
... this morning / afternoon / evening
Basic Construction
Subject + be + verb + ing + object(s) + time Expression

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She's watching TV at the moment.

Subject + be + not (isn't, aren't) + verb + ing + object(s) + time Expression
They aren't having fun this morning.
(Question Word) + be + subject + verb + ing + object(s) + time Expression
What are you doing?
Use the present continuous to describe projects and actions that are happening around the
present moment in time. Remember that these projects have begun in the recent past and will
end in the near future. This usage is especially popular for talking about current projects at
work or for specific hobbies.
This tense is often used with the following time expressions:
... at the moment
... now
... this week / month
Basic Construction
Subject + be + verb + ing + object(s) + time Expression
We're working on the Smith account this month.
Subject + be + not (isn't, aren't) + verb + ing + object(s) + time Expression
He isn't studying French this semester.
(Question Word) + be + subject + verb + ing + object(s) + time Expression


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Which account are you working on this week?

Present Perfect
Use the present perfect to express a state or repeated action that began in the past and
continues into the moment of speaking. The present perfect or the present perfect continuous
can often be interchanged. The main difference between these two forms is that the present
perfect continuous is generally used to express the length of the current activity up to the
present moment in time.
This tense is often used with the following time expressions:... for + amount of time
... since + specific point in time
Basic Construction
Subject + have / has + past participle + object(s) + time Expression
I have lived in Portland for four years.
Subject + have / has not (haven't, hasn't) + past participle + object(s) + time Expression
Max hasn't played tennis since 1999.
(Question Word) + have / has + subject + past participle + object(s) + time Expression
Where have you worked since 2002?
The present perfect is also used to express recent events that affect the present moment.
These sentences generally use the time expressions 'just', 'yet', 'already', or 'recently' to express
this connection. Remember that if you give a specific time in the past, the past simple is


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This tense is often used with the following time expressions:

1. Henry has just gone to the bank.
2. Peter hasn't finished his homework yet.
3. Have you spoken to Andy yet?
The present perfect is often used to express events that occurred in the past at an unspecified
moment. This form is often used to express cumulative life experiences up to the present
moment. Remember that if you use a specific past time expression, choose the past simple.
This tense is often used with the following time expressions:
twice, three times, four times, etc.

Peter has visited Europe three times in his life.

I haven't played golf many times.
Have you ever been to France?

Present Perfect Continuous

The present perfect continuous is used to express how long a current activity has been going
on. It is often used in context to provide a reason for a present result. Remember that
continuous forms can only be used with action verbs.
This tense is often used with the following time expressions:
...since + specific point in time
... for + amount of time
Basic Construction

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Subject + has / have + been + verb + ing + object(s) + time Expression

He's been cleaning house for two hours.
Subject + has / have not (hasn't / haven't) + been + verb + ing + object(s) + time Expression
Janice hasn't been studying for too long.
(Question Word) + has / have + subject + been + verb + ing + object(s) + (time Expression)
How long have you been working in the garden?

Simple Past

The past simple is used to express something that happened a past point in time. Remember to
always use a past time expression, or a clear contextual clue when using the past simple. If you
do not indicate when something happened, use the present perfect for unspecified past.
This tense is often used with the following time expressions:
... ago
... in + year / month
...last week / month / year
... when ....
Basic Construction
Subject + Past Tense + object(s) + time Expression
I went to the doctor's yesterday.


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Subject + did + not (didn't) + verb + object(s) + time Expression
They didn't join us for dinner last week.
(Question Word) + did + subject + verb + object(s) + time Expression
When did you buy that pullover?
Past Continuous
The past continuous tense is used to describe what was happening at a specific moment in time
in the past. Do not use this form when referring to longer periods of time in the past such as
'last March', 'two years ago', etc. Use the past continuous with times of the day in the past.
This tense is often used with the following time expressions:
... at 5.20, three o'clock, etc.
Basic Construction
Subject + was / were + verb + ing + object(s) + time Expression
We were meeting with Jane at two o'clock yesterday afternoon.
Subject + was / were + not (wasn't, weren't) + verb + ing + object(s) + time Expression
They weren't playing tennis at five o'clock on Saturday.


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(Question Word) + was / were + subject + verb + ing + object(s) + time Expression
What were you doing at two-thirty yesterday afternoon?
Use the past continuous to express what was happening when something important happened.
This form is almost always used with the time clause '... when xyz happened'. It is also possible
to use this form with '... while something was happening' to express two past actions that were
occurring simultaneously.
This tense is often used with the following time expressions:
... when xyz happened
... while xyz was happening.
Basic Construction
Subject + was / were + verb + ing + object(s) + time Expression
Sharon was watching TV when she received the telephone call.
Subject + was / were + not (wasn't, weren't) + verb + ing + object(s) + time Expression
We weren't doing anything important when you arrived.
(Question Word) + was / were + subject + verb + ing + object(s) + time Expression
What were you doing when Tom gave you the bad news?
Past Perfect
The past perfect is used to express something that happened before another point in time. It is
often used to provide context, or an explanation for a specific action or result.

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This tense is often used with the following time expressions:

once, twice, three times, etc.
by the time
Basic Construction
Subject + had + past participle + object(s) + time Expression
She had already eaten by the time the children came home.
Subject + had not (hadn't) + past participle + object(s) + time Expression
They hadn't finished their homework before the teacher asked them to hand it in.
(Question Word) + had + subject + past participle + object(s) + time Expression
Where had you gone before the class began?
Past Perfect Continuous
The past perfect continuous is used to describe how long an activity had been going on before
something else happened. It is often used to provide context, or a reason for a specific action.
This tense is often used with the following time expressions:
... for X hours, days, months, etc
... since Monday, Tuesday, etc.
Basic Construction

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Subject + had + been + verb + ing + object(s) + time Expression
She had been waiting for two hours when he finally arrived.
Subject + had not (hadn't) + been + verb + ing + object(s) + time Expression
They hadn't been working long when the boss asked them to change their focus.
(Question Word) + had + subject + been + verb + ing + object(s) + time Expression
How long had Tom been working on that project when they decided to give it to Pete?
Future Tense
The future with 'going to' is used to express future plans or scheduled events. It is often used
instead of the present continuous for future scheduled work events. Either form can be used
for this purpose.
This tense is often used with the following time expressions:
... next week / month
... tomorrow
... on Monday, Tuesday, etc.
Basic Construction
Subject + be + going to + verb + object(s) + time Expression
Tom is going to fly to Los Angeles next on Tuesday.


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Subject + be not (isn't, aren't) + going to + verb + object(s) + time Expression
They aren't going to attend the conference next month.
(Question Word) + be + subject + going to + verb + object(s) + time Expression
When are you going to meet Jack?
Simple Future
The future with 'will' is used to make future predictions and promises. Often the precise
moment the action will occur is unknown or not defined.
This tense is often used with the following time expressions:
... next month / year / week


Basic Construction
Subject + will + verb + object(s) + time Expression. The government will increase taxes soon.
Subject + will not (won't) + verb + object(s) + time Expression
She won't help us much with the project.
(Question Word) + will + subject + verb + object(s) + time Expression


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Why will they reduce taxes?

The future with 'going to' is used for future intent. Remember that you can express a future
intent without expressing the exact future time that something will occur. This use of the future
with 'going to' can be used to discuss future study plans, career plans, and more.
This tense is often used with the following time expressions:
... next week / month
... tomorrow
... on Monday, Tuesday, etc.
Basic Construction
Subject + be + going to + verb + object(s) + time Expression
Anna is going to study medicine at university.
Subject + be not (isn't, aren't) + going to + verb + object(s) + time Expression
They aren't going to develop any new projects for the next few years.
(Question Word) + be + subject + going to + verb + object(s) + time Expression
Why are you going to change your job?
Future Continuous
The future continuous is used to talk about an activity that will be in progress at a specific point
in time in the future. For example, We'll be having lunch on the beach this time next week.
This tense is often used with the following time expressions:

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...this time tomorrow / next week, month, year

...tomorrow / Monday, Tuesday, etc. / at X o'clock
... in two, three, four, etc. / weeks, months, years time
Subject + will + be + verb + ing + object(s) + time Expression
Peter will be doing his homework this time tomorrow.
Subject + will not (won't) + be + verb + ing + object(s) + time Expression
Sharon won't be working in New York in three weeks time.
(Question Word) + will + subject + be + verb + ing + object(s) + time Expression
What will you be doing this time next year?
Future Perfect
Use the future perfect tense to express what will happened by a certain time in the future. The
future perfect tense is often used to express achievements or work done by a future point in
This tense is often used with the following time expressions:
... by Monday, Tuesday, etc.
... by the time ...
... by five o'clock, two-thirty, etc.
Basic Construction


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Subject + will + have + past participle + object(s) + time Expression

They will have finished the report by tomorrow afternoon.
Subject + will not (won't) + have + past participle + object(s) + time Expression
Mary won't have answered all the questions by the end of this hour.
(Question Word) + will + subject + have + past participle + object(s) + time Expression
What will you have done by the end of this month?
Future Perfect Continuous
The future perfect continuous is used to express the duration of an action up to a future point
in time. This tense is not commonly used in English.
This tense is often used with the following time expressions:
... by / ... by the time ...
Subject + will + have + been + verb + ing + object(s) + time Expression
We will have been studying for two hours by the time he arrives.
Subject + will not (won't) + have + been + verb + ing + object(s) + time Expression
He won't have been working long by two o'clock.
How long will you have been working on that project by the time he arrives?

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Subject Verb Agreement

Subject verb agreement is where the subject and the verb in the sentence go well with each
other to where the sentence makes sense. For example: Sally runs on the street.
The subject is Sally and the verb is run. They agree with each other.
1. Basic Principle: Singular subjects need singular verbs; plural subjects need plural verbs.

My brother is a nutritionist.
My sisters are mathematicians.

2. When the subject of a sentence is composed of two or more nouns or pronouns

connected by and, use a plural verb.

She and her friends are at the fair.

3. When two or more singular nouns or pronouns are connected by or or nor, use a
singular verb.
The book or the pen is in the drawer.
4. When a compound subject contains both a singular and a plural noun or pronoun joined
by or or nor, the verb should agree with the part of the subject that is nearer the verb.

The boy or his friends run every day.

His friends or the boy runs every day.

5. The indefinite pronouns anyone, everyone, someone, no one, nobody are always singular
and, therefore, require singular verbs.

Everyone has done his or her homework.

Somebody has left her purse.

6. Some indefinite pronouns such as all, some are singular or plural depending on
what they're referring to. (Is the thing referred to countable or not?) Be careful choosing
a verb to accompany such pronouns.

Some of the beads are missing.

Some of the water is gone.

On the other hand, there is one indefinite pronoun, none, that can be either singular or plural;
it often doesn't matter whether you use a singular or a plural verb unless something else in
the sentence determines its number. (Writers generally think of none as meaning not any and

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will choose a plural verb, as in "None of the engines are working," but when something else
makes us regard none as meaning not one, we want a singular verb, as in "None of the food is

None of you claims responsibility for this incident?

None of you claim responsibility for this incident?

None of the students have done their homework. (In this example, the word their
precludes the use of the singular verb).

7. Some indefinite pronouns are particularly troublesome Everyone and everybody (listed
above, also) certainly feel like more than one person and, therefore, students are
sometimes tempted to use a plural verb with them. They are always singular, though.
Each is often followed by a prepositional phrase ending in a plural word (Each of the
cars), thus confusing the verb choice. Each, too, is always singular and requires a
singular verb.

Everyone has finished his or her homework.

You would always say, "Everybody is here." This means that the word is singular and nothing
will change that.

Each of the students is responsible for doing his or her work in the library.

Don't let the word "students" confuse you; the subject is each and each is always singular
Each is responsible.
8. Phrases such as together with, as well as, and along with are not the same as and. The
phrase introduced by as well as or along with will modify the earlier word (mayor in this
case), but it does not compound the subjects (as the word and would do).

The mayor as well as his brothers is going to prison.

The mayor and his brothers are going to jail.


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9. The pronouns neither and either are singular and require singular verbs even though
they seem to be referring, in a sense, to two things.

Neither of the two traffic lights is working.

Which shirt do you want for Christmas?

Either is fine with me.

In informal writing, neither and either sometimes take a plural verb when these pronouns are
followed by a prepositional phrase beginning with of. This is particularly true of interrogative
constructions: "Have either of you two clowns read the assignment?" "Are either of you taking
this seriously?" Burchfield calls this "a clash between notional and actual agreement."*
10. The conjunction or does not conjoin (as and does): when nor or or is used the subject
closer to the verb determines the number of the verb. Whether the subject comes
before or after the verb doesn't matter; the proximity determines the number.

Either my father or my brothers are going to sell the house.

Neither my brothers nor my father is going to sell the house.

Are either my brothers or my father responsible?

Is either my father or my brothers responsible?

Because a sentence like "Neither my brothers nor my father is going to sell the house" sounds
peculiar, it is probably a good idea to put the plural subject closer to the verb whenever that is
The words there and here are never subjects.

There are two reasons [plural subject] for this.

There is no reason for this.

Here are two apples.

With these constructions (called expletive constructions), the subject follows the verb but still
determines the number of the verb.

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11. Verbs in the present tense for third-person, singular subjects (he, she, it and anything
those words can stand for) have s-endings. Other verbs do not add s-endings.
He loves and she loves and they love_ and . . . .
12. Sometimes modifiers will get between a subject and its verb, but these modifiers must
not confuse the agreement between the subject and its verb.
The mayor, who has been convicted along with his four brothers on four counts of
various crimes but who also seems, like a cat, to have several political lives, is finally
going to jail.
Sometimes nouns take weird forms and can fool us into thinking they're plural when they're
really singular and vice-versa.
13. Words such as glasses, pants, pliers, and scissors are regarded as plural (and require
plural verbs) unless they're preceded the phrase pair of (in which case the word pair
becomes the subject).

My glasses were on the bed.

My pants were torn.

A pair of plaid trousers is in the closet.

14. Some words end in -s and appear to be plural but are really singular and require
singular verbs.

The news from the front is bad.

Measles is a dangerous disease for pregnant women.

On the other hand, some words ending in -s refer to a single thing but are nonetheless plural
and require a plural verb.

My assets were wiped out in the depression.


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The average worker's earnings have gone up dramatically.

Our thanks go to the workers who supported the union.

The names of sports teams that do not end in "s" will take a plural verb: the Miami Heat have
been looking , The Connecticut Sun are hoping that new talent . Fractional expressions
such as half of, a part of, a percentage of, a majority of are sometimes singular and sometimes
plural, depending on the meaning. (The same is true, of course, when all, any, more, most and
some act as subjects.) Sums and products of mathematical processes are expressed as singular
and require singular verbs. The expression "more than one" (oddly enough) takes a singular
verb: "More than one student has tried this."

Some of the voters are still angry.

A large percentage of the older population is voting against her.
Two-fifths of the troops were lost in the battle.
Two-fifths of the vineyard was destroyed by fire.
Forty percent of the students are in favor of changing the policy.
Forty percent of the student body is in favor of changing the policy.
Two and two is four.
Four times four divided by two is eight.

If your sentence compounds a positive and a negative subject and one is plural, the other
singular, the verb should agree with the positive subject.

The department members but not the chair have decided not to teach on
Valentine's Day.
It is not the faculty members but the president who decides this issue.
It was the speaker, not his ideas, that has provoked the students to riot

15. If the headword one is the subject, it takes a singular verb

One of the members in the audience has been raising slogans against the speaker.

One of the directors is going to address the staff this evening.


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What are Modal Verbs?
Modal verbs are special verbs which behave very differently from normal verbs. Here are some
important differences:
1. Modal verbs do not take "-s" in the third person.

He can speak Chinese.

She should be here by 9:00.

2. You use "not" to make modal verbs negative, even in Simple Present and Simple Past.

He should not be late.

They might not come to the party.

3. Many modal verbs cannot be used in the past tenses or the future tenses.
Common Modal Verbs

Ought to

Uses of Modals
Modals are used to convey many different kinds of meaning. Most modals have more than one
Modals are used to show the following meanings.


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requesting assistance
making conclusions
giving instructions

Fill in the Blanks in the following sentences with correct (simple or continuous present tense
forms of the verbs given:

She _____________ (play) tennis every day.

He _____________ (like) her very much.

Just now I _____________ (work) in the laboratory.

We _____________ (know) them well now.

He generally _____________ (speak) in Hindi, but today he ____________ (speak) in


She _____________ (have) a charming younger brother who __________ (Study)

Architecture in Bangalore.

The dog _____________ (bark) whenever there _____________ (be) a stranger in the

I _____________ (Spend) the evening with my sister who _____________ (leave) for
America tomorrow.

Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using the correct present perfect tense forms of
the verbs given in the brackets:

The ship ________ (have) already ________ (go).

He ________ not ________ (finish) his work yet.

She says she ________ (see) the film.

It ________ (rain) heavily this week.

We ________ (live) here since 1975.

He ________ (wait) for two hours.

________ you never ________ (be) to Kashmir?


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What ________ he ________ (bring) home from office?

Fill in the blanks in the following paragraph with the correct (simple, continuous or perfect)
present tense forms of the verbs given in the brackets:
It ________ (rain) all day today. I ________ (not like) rain in particular; it ________ (give) me a
strange pain in the stomach.

My friends ________ (tell) me this ________ (be) just a

superstition of mine; and perhaps they ________ (be) right. Yet ________ (see) how it
________ (be) this time. For the last four days it ________ (be) raining, and the pain ________
(trouble) me all the time. Of course , but for the rain I ________ (enjoy) my stay in Calcutta
thoroughly. Currently, we ________ (have) a big exhibition at the school where I ________
(study) architecture. That ________ (provide) me a good opportunity for meeting many people
who ________ (come) to the school every day in large numbers. They ________ (not know) my
language, but I somehow ________ (converse) with them in theirs. They ________ (be) so nice,
I would enjoy telling you more about them, but I ________ (be) afraid I ________ (get late) for
my bus and I must leave you.

Fill in the blanks in the following passage with the correct tense forms of the verbs given in
the brackets :
Now we ________ (have) a new neighbour, Nafisa, a working girl about twenty years old. She
________ (come) to live in our apartment block only last month. Before that she ________
(stay) in a hotel, which she ________ (say) she ____________ (find) rather expensive; and
naturally so judging by the way the hotel rates ____________ (go) up these days. Though she
____________ (live) in the city for a few months only, Nafisa ____________ (seem) to know a
lot about it. She ____________ (work) as an officer in a city bank. When I first ____________
(hear) about it, I ____________ (be) quite surprised, because she ____________ (look) so
young and inexperienced. But an hours chat with her one afternoon ____________ (convince)
me of her exceptional intelligence. She ____________ (call) to ask if I ____________ (get)
some books she ____________ (need). She ____________ (prepare) for her forthcoming IAS
examination. She ____________ (tell) me. Not a little interested I ____________ (ask) her,
What ____________ you ____________ (do) if you ____________ (get) through the exam?

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If? she ____________ (ask) in reply.

I ____________ (be) determined to pass.

____________ (not fail). And once I ____________, I ____________ (join) the services, of

Fill in the blanks with appropriate action verbs (in the past tense) in the following sentences.
If necessary, select the verb from the list given at the end of the sentences.

He slowly ________________ into the class, ________________ on the last bench

________________ at his neighbour and ________________ at the teacher on the

As the bowler ________________ the ball, Gavaskar ________________ its line,

________down the wicket and to the delight of spectators, _______ six.

Without losing a moment, he dived into the rising waters, ________________ against
the current ________________ the man crying for help and, in a few minutes, struggled
to the shore.

danced delivered







Simple Present & Present Continuous Tense

Underline the correct forms of the verbs to complete the sentences.

We (read /are reading) the newspaper everyday.

Shalini (buys / is buying) tickets for the movie now.

Anna and Ben (studying / are studying) in America.

Sometimes he (cycles / is cycling)

I (wake up / waking up) at 6 a.m.

Fill in the blanks with the verbs below.

Mrs.Raj___________clothes everyday
o She _____________a dress now. (is sewing / sews)
The postman ____________a letter to Aziz.
o He ___________letters as part of his work. (delivers / is delivering)
My father and Uncle Paul __________daily

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They ____________round the park now. (jog / are jogging)

Elephants ____________sugar cane.
o Dumbo the elephant ___________a juicy sugar cane now. (eat / is eating)
Mr. Lee _________children to school in his bus in the morning.
o He ___________20 children in his bus at the moment. (takes / is taking)

Complete the conversation between two colleagues. Use the simple present or present
continuous tense form of the verbs in brackets. In some cases both tenses are possible.
Dave. So, Matt, how are things with you? You _______ (look) very well.
I ___________(hear) you _____________ (do) O.K. for yourself.

I cant complain. I __________ (run) my own consultancy business. Its pretty

hard work, but I __________(enjoy) the challenge.

Dave. So you __________ (not regret) leaving your safe job at the bank then?

Not a bit. I _________ (admit) it was a bit scary to start with, but now I (realise)
Its the best move Ive ever made.


Thats great! I ___________ (just wonder) whether you _______(look) for any senior

staff at the moment?


Well, I could be. But you (not want) to move do you?


To be honest, Matt, I __________ (think) about it Ive been with Evergreen for Nearly

five years. Ive got about as far as I can with them. I ________ (want) a new challenge.

Well, as you know, this is a specialized field of work and I _________ (confess), I

_________ (have) difficulties finding the right caliber of person.


I __________ (consider) applying for a job in Australia-the money is good and it would

provide the challenge I ________ (need), but I __________(not really want) to move to the
other side of the world.

Well, weve worked together before Dave-I _________ (believe)

we could do it again. I __________ (expect) youd have to give

Evergreen a months

notice, wouldnt you?


Yes, probably.
Listen, Dave, Ill give this some thought over the weekend and call you back on


Thats great! Ill look forward to hearing from you.


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Rewrite the paragraph in the past tense, changing verbs and any other necessary words
Justin wants to become an airlines reservation agent. He enjoys working with people and he has
the necessary qualifications. He is a high school graduate, speaks two foreign languages, types
fifty five words a minute, and has worked with computers. He has been a salesperson for the
past two years, which is also helpful. Most importantly, he relates well to people.
Rewrite the following paragraph in the present tense making suitable changes
Alicia was a flight attendant, a job that involved serving others. Her position required patience
and tact since she dealt with potentially irritable passengers. She had to keep passengers calm
as well as serve them food and beverages. She not only catered to their needs, but also
maintained their safety. Because she performed her duties well and was often complimented
by passengers, she has been promoted to Supervisor of Flight Training.
Complete the following sentences

When the plane landed___________________

When the plane had landed_______________
When Id finished the project_____________
When she walked into the room_____________
When the lights went out__________________
When she sat down _____________________


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Interpret the following statements and answer the questions

1. Eileen will take the subway to school today.
Sylvia took the subway to reach school today.
Who is already at school? __________
2. Mrs. Hartman washed her kitchen floor.
Mrs. Oritz has washed her kitchen floor.
Whose floor is more likely to be wet? __________
3. May spends her weekly paycheck on new shoes.
June spent her weekly paycheck on new shoes.
Who has purchased more pairs of shoes? ____________
4. Ann decided she didnt like her new supervisor when she met him.
Rose had decided she didnt like her supervisor when she met him.
Who made up her mind because of what the man was really like? ____
5. Henry will have reached the restaurant when we reach there.
Norma will reach the restaurant when we get there.
Who will reach the restaurant first, Henry or Norman? _________
Subject Verb Agreement
Choose the correct form of the verb that agrees with the subject.

Annie and her brothers (is, are) at school.

Either my mother or my father (is, are) coming to the meeting.

The dog or the cats (is, are) outside.

Either my shoes or your coat (is, are) always on the floor.

George and Tamara (doesn't, don't) want to see that movie.

Benito (doesn't, don't) know the answer.

One of my sisters (is, are) going on a trip to France.

The man with all the birds (live, lives) on my street.

The movie, including all the previews, (take, takes) about two hours to watch.


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The players, as well as the captain, (want, wants) to win.

Either answer (is, are) acceptable.

Every one of those books (is, are) fiction.

Nobody (know, knows) the trouble I've seen.

(Is, Are) the news on at five or six?

Mathematics (is, are) John's favorite subject, while Civics (is, are) Andrea's favorite

Eight dollars (is, are) the price of a movie these days.

(Is, Are) the tweezers in this drawer?

Your pants (is, are) at the cleaner's.

There (was, were) fifteen candies in that bag. Now there (is, are) only one left!

The committee (debates, debate) these questions carefully.

Some of the sentences below are wrong. Identify them and correct them.

A hundred years are too long a period to wait.

10,000 pounds is too big a sum.

One of his friends have already left the place.

Each man and each woman have the right to vote.

None of them is correct.

Billiards is a rich mans game.

Neither of the teams were able to score a goal.

Iron as well as gold is mined in Karnataka.

The public are requested not to walk on the grass.

The cost of these articles have gone up.

Tick the correct verbs in the brackets to complete the sentences.

The people (was cheering/ were cheering) as the runners entered the stadium.

The new equipment (are/ is) going to be used in the childrens play room.

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The cattle (are moving/ is moving) towards the valley.

These pieces of ancient pottery (reveal/reveals) to us the ceramic arts of ancient China.

Silver jewellery (are/ is) popular these days.

The building of highways sometimes (damages/ damage) the natural environment.

Joy on the faces of little children (touch/ touches) the heart.

He (have got/ has got) a lot of work to do.

Negative statements
Underline the sentences that are wrong and rewrite them correctly.
Everyday Laura makes sure she dont oversleep. She arent want to be late for work. In the
office she doesnt waste time. She often works overtime. Lauras colleagues isnt as
hardworking as she is. Most of them doesnt think she is doing the right thing. They feel she
doesnt knows how to enjoy life. Lauras parents also want her to slow down. They think it
arent wise to work such long hours. However, Laura doesnt willing to change her ways.
Complete the questions by using the correct forms of the verb to be or the verb to do.
Police officer:

Good Afternoon, officer. ______ there a bank nearby?

Yes, the Merchant Bank is just down the road.

Thank you. We also want to try some of the local food. __________you (know)
of any good restaurants here?
Police officer:
Yes. __________you interested in Chinese food? Theres a good restaurant
round the corner.

_____________it ___________ (serve) spicy food? We arent used to spicy

Police officer:

Chinese food is quite mild.


_____________it very expensive?


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Police officer:
Police officer:

No, the prices are reasonable. ______________you part of an organized tour

No, my wife and I are on our own.

___________you____________(have) any places of interest in mind?
Not really. ___________bookshops here ________(sell)maps?

Police officer:

Some do. Instead of buying a map, try our Tourist Information Office.


___________it far from here?

Police officer: Its about 20 minutes away. ____________you _____________(want) to go

there? Ill show you the route.

Thats very kind of you.

Use Modals to complete the sentences
1. Teds flight from Amsterdam took more than 11 hours. He _______be exhausted after such a
long flight. He _______ prefer to stay in tonight and get some rest.
2. If you want to get a better feeling for how the city is laid out, you ______ walk downtown
and explore the waterfront.
3. Hiking the trail to the peak ______ be dangerous if you are not well prepared for dramatic
weather changes. You_______ research the route a little more before you attempt the ascent.
4. When you have a small child in the house, you _______leave small objects lying around. Such
objects ______ be swallowed, causing serious injury or even death.
5. Dave: ______ you hold your breath for more than a minute?
Nathan: No, I can't.
6. Jenny's engagement ring is enormous! It _____ have cost a fortune.
7. Please make sure to water my plants while I am gone. If they don't get enough water, they
_______ die.
8. I _______ speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Egypt. But after we moved
back to Canada, I had very little exposure to the language and forgot almost everything I knew
as a child. Now, I_____ just say a few things in the language.

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9. The book is optional. My professor said we _____ read it if we needed extra credit. But we
_________ we don't want to.
10. Leo: Where is the spatula? It _________ be in this drawer but it's not here.
Nancy: I just did a load of dishes last night and they're still in the dish washer. It _______be in
there. That's the only other place it _______ be.
Say what the speaker is doing. After each sentence write one of the phrases from the box.
asking for advice
asking permission
expressing a wish

giving an order
making a request

making a suggestion
offering to help

refusing permission

Will you have a piece of cake?

offering food


May I sit down?

You must report to me everyday.



What jobs should I apply for?



Would you like to spend the day with us?



Shall I do the washing-up?



Shall we sit-outside?



Im sorry. You cant park here.



Could you fill in this form, please?



We really must have a nice big party.


Read this newspaper story and write a suitable headline for it.
A man has escaped serious injury in a house fire in West London. 38-year-old Ali Rashid was
woken up by smoke at three o clock in the morning. Mr.Rashid clambered through his
bathroom window as flames swept through his five-bedroom house in St. Johns Wood.
According to the police, the fire almost certainly started in Mr.Rashids kitchen.


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Write short news stories related to these newspaper headlines.

1. Floods trap families in homes for 6 hours.
2. Computer virus causes business chaos.
You have some exciting news to communicate to your mother/friend/ brother / sister. Create a
dialogue for this context.


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Reading Passage.
The fact is that the energy crisis, which has suddenly been officially announced, has been with
us for a long time now, and will be with us for an even longer time. Whether Arab oil flows
freely or not, it is clear to everyone that world industry cannot be allowed to depend on so
fragile a base. The supply of oil can be shut off at whim at any time, and in any case, the oil
wells will all run dry in thirty years or so at the present rate of use.
New sources of energy must be found, and this will take time, but it is not likely to result in any
situation that will ever restore that sense of cheap and copious energy we have had in the
times past. We will never again dare indulge in indiscriminate growth. For an indefinite period
from now on, mankind is going to advance cautiously, and consider itself lucky that it can
advance at all.
To make the situation worse, there is as yet no sign that any slowing of the world population is
in sight. The food supply will not increase nearly enough to match this, which means that we
are heading into a crisis in the matter of producing and marketing food. So the world food
supply is going to become steadily tighter over the next thirty years.
This means, for one thing, that we can look forward to an end to the natural food trend. It is
not a wave of the future. All the unnatural things we do to food are required to produce more
of food in the first place, and to make it last longer afterward. It is for this reason that we need
and use chemical fertilizers and pesticides while the food is growing, and add preservatives
Then, too, there will be a steady trend toward vegetarianism. A given quantity of ground can
provide plant food for man or it can provide plant food for animals which are later slaughtered
for meat. It is this (far more than food preferences or religious dictates) that forces
overcrowded populations into vegetarianism.
Another point is that it is not only energy that is in short supply. A shortage of oil means a
shortage of plastics, a shortage of electricity means a shortage of aluminium. We are also
experiencing a shortage of paper and most other raw materials.
To be sure, it will not all be retrogression. Even assuming that the Earth is in a desperate battle
of survival through a crisis of still-rising population and dwindling energy reserves, there should
still continue to be technological advances in those directions that dont depend on wasteful
bulk-use of energy. There will be continuing advances in the direction of sophistication, in
other words. Most noticeably, this will mean a continuing computerization and, where possible,
automation of the economy.
[From an article by Isaac Asimov]

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Read the above passage and paraphrase.

Read aloud in small groups.
Use the passage for Note Making.


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Objectives- Unit 3
By the end of this session, you will be able to:

1. Converse by asking appropriate questions

2. Converse in direct & indirect speeches
3. Give a written or oral Report on a task


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Direct and Indirect Speech

There are two forms of speech-direct and indirect. When the actual words of the speaker are
quoted it is called direct speech. When the words of the speaker are changed and if someone
else conveys the speakers idea, it is indirect speech.
Rules for Reported Speech
While changing direct speech into reported or vice versa, the following change.
1. the reporting verb.
2. the pronouns
3. the tenses.
4. the situations.
5. report using present and future tenses.
6. Modal verbs.
7. Word order with who, which, and what.

Changes in reporting verb.

Affirmative Sentences: said, told (object), asserted, replied, assured, informed, responded,
whispered, alleged believed, assumed, thought.
Interrogative Sentences: asked, inquired, wanted to know, enquired,
Imperative Sentences: ordered, begged, pleaded, implored, advised, demanded.

Change of Pronouns:
Direct speech : Surabhi said, I am reading.
Indirect speech: Surabhi said that she was reading.
First person and second person generally change to third person (depending upon object to
reporting verb).


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Change of tenses:

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

Surabhi said, I like to read.;

Surabhi said that she liked to read.

Surabhi said, I am reading.

Surabhi said that she was reading.

Surabhi said, I have read this book.

Surabhi said that she had read that


Surabhi said, I have been reading this Surabhi said that she had been reading
that book.
Surabhi said, I read this book last week.

Surabhi said that she had read that book

the previous week.

Surabhi said, I was reading this book Surabhi said that she had been / was
when Mohan snatched it away.
reading that book when Mohan
snatched it away.
Surabhi said, I had read this book Surabhi said that she had read that book
before I gave it to you.
before she gave it to me.
Surabhi said, I will read this book.

Surabhi said that she would read that


In general, present tense becomes past tense; past tense and perfect become past perfect.

Change of situations:

Examples: Surabhi said, I read this book last week. (direct speech) Surabhi said that she
had read that book the previous week. (indirect speech).



last week


the previous week









that day



the day before/the previous day



the next day/the coming day

last week


the weed before/the previous week

next month


the next month/the coming month


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Universal truths:

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

John said, The sun rises from the east.

John said that the sun rises from the


Surabhi said, I will read this book.

Surabhi said that she would read that


If the speaker talks about a universal truth, the tense is unchanged.

In case of questions and answers:

Surabhi asked, Have you read this book? (direct speech)

Surabhi asked if/whether I had read that book. (indirect speech)

Surabhi asked, Where is the book? (direct speech)

Surabhi asked where the book was. (indirect speech)

(a) Yes / No questions - use if/whether.

(b) Wh-questions - use the wh-word
Word order:
Surabhi asked, What is the matter?
Surabhi asked what the matter was. (what + the matter + was)
Surabhi asked what was the matter. (what + was + the matter)
Can be either:
who/which/what + complement + be
who/which/what + be + complement
Reported speech using present and future tenses:
Examples: Surabhi said, The sun rises in the east. (direct speech)
Surabhi said that the sun rises in the east. (indirect speech)
Surabhi said, I will read this book. (direct speech)
Surabhi said that she will read that book. (indirect speech)


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If the original speakers present and future is still present and future, the tense remains
In case of modal verbs :












would, should, could, might, ought to, and must remain unchanged.
Example: Surabhi said, I can solve this sum. (direct speech)
Surabhi said that she could solve that sum (indirect speech)

Change the following into indirect speech.

Now said the captain, You are not in form, so you will be rested today.

Is your mom at home? the marketing executive said to the child.

What a gorgeous house! she said.

The old lady said to me, Help me.

The doctor asked the child What is your name?

Active and Passive Voice

Look at the flow chart given below and complete the passage.
Given below is a procedure for cooking rice in the rice cooker.
Bring the electric
cooker, its inner
plate and the lid keep it ready.

Rice is ready to be

Wash one cup of

rice in clean

Press the
indicator down
and leave it for 20

Add 2 cups of
water to it. Put it
in the cooker.

Switch on the
electric rice


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The electric cooker is brought and (a) Then one cup of rice (b)
.... . Two cups of water (c) . The rice
is put in the cooker and the cooker (d) The indicator (e)
.. for twenty minutes when the rice is cooked and it is ready to be
Voice refers to the form of verb that indicates whether the doer of the action in a sentence is
the subject or the object.
Change of voice involves three major changes:

It changes the functions of the subject and the object.

It changes the position of the subject and the object.
It changes the form of the verb.

The Active Voice

The active voice is more direct than the passive.
Example :

The girl kicks the ball.

The subject (the girl) + an active verb (kicks) + an object (the ball).

Sentences in the active voice are generally clearer and more direct than those in the passive
The Passive Voice
The passive voice calls attention to the receiver of the action rather than the performer.
o Example: The dog was hit by a stone.

The passive voice points out the receiver of the action when the performer is unknown or
o Example: The signs will be posted.
It avoids calling attention to the performer of the action (known as the institutional passive
o Example: The fines will be collected on Monday.
Active Voice

Passive Voice

He flies a kite.

A kite is flown by him.

He is flying a kite.

A kite is being flown by him.

He has flown a kite.

A kite has been flown by him.


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He flew a kite.

A kite was flown by him.

He was flying a kite

A kite was being flown by him.

He had flown a kite.

A kite had been flown by him.

He will fly a kite.

A kite will be flown by him.

Complete the news stories accompanying the following headlines by filling in the blanks.

8 killed, 50 hurt in Maharashtra train mishap.

... early on Friday when a passenger train derailed in
Maharashtra after its driver applied emergency brakes to escape colliding with a freight
train that was on the same track.

Musharraf threatened me, says Imran Khan


.... before the October elections.

He further
expressed regret at having supported the military establishment earlier.

Water tariff likely to be increased

The . that you use in building your house, shop, or factory
is likely .. according to Delhi Jal Board.

Man kills 3, shoots himself

A 40-year old man business partners in Rohtak on
Wednesday evening before fleeing to Delhi where inside his
parked car in Connaught Place in Central Delhi.


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Here is a description of recycling paper. Read it carefully. Many sentences in the passage will
read better if written in the passive voice. Identify those sentences, change them to the
passive form and rewrite the paragraph.
Man produced the first piece of paper from rags in AD 105. They make paper from cellulose
fibre, the source of which can be pulped wood, or a variety of other materials such as rags,
cotton, grasses, sugar cane, straw, waste paper, or even elephant dung! Wood pulp is the most
common source material for the manufacture of virgin paper, i.e., paper which has no recycled
content. They cut down trees to make wood pulp. In the process, forests are fast disappearing.
So, they encourage people to recycle paper. But they cannot recycle paper indefinitely. They
can recycle it 4-6 times as the fibres get shorter and weaker each time. So, they introduce
some virgin pulp into the process to maintain the strength and quality of the fibre


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Objectives Unit 4
By the end of this session, you will be able to:
1. Ask for information
2. Continue a conversation
3. Ask specific questions
4. Make polite enquiries


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QUESTION FORMS are of three kinds:

1. WH questions that use Question words like What, When, Where, Why, Whose, Who and
2. Yes, No Questions or close ended Questions that begin with an auxiliary/helping
verb. Eg: Are you coming with me?
Do you have my book?
Has she done her work?
These questions are asking for information. Sometimes Yes/No questions have other
uses. Eg: Shall we eat out tonight? (Making a suggestion)
Can/Could you help me with my project, please? (Requesting)
Can I carry the boy for you? (Offering help)
Would you like to come to the party? (Extending an invitation)
May I use your phone? (Asking permission)
QUESTION TAG is a short question added on to a statement. When a tag is spoken, the voice
can go down or up.
Eg: a. Its a lovely dress, isnt it? - With a falling intonation, the speaker is interested in
continuing the conversation. The tag is not really a question.
b. You havent read the newspaper, have you? With a rising intonation, the
speaker is less sure of the statement and the tag is more like a real question.
POSITIVE STATEMENTS have negative tags and NEGATIVE STATEMENTS have positive tags.
Eg: The girls can swim, cant they?
Itll be dark soon, wont it?
This dress looks nice, doesnt it?
We turned left, didnt we?
CONVERSATION TECHNIQUES: In order to keep a conversation flowing, it is important to show
interest in what the other person is saying. Notice how the tone of the voice and a follow-up
question encourage the other person to continue.
We went to Australia.
To Australia! How Wonderful! How long did you spend there?
We spent two weeks in Sydney and two weeks in the north.
I bought a car. Im going on a long vacation.

How exciting! When are you leaving?


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Well, Im going to leave at the beginning of August.

My wife and I were in Ooty. We visited our relations there.

Thats nice. What else did you do there?

We went for long walks, we read a little and we watched TV.

While giving instructions, Simple present tense/Active voice is always used.

Go straight and turn left.
Boil milk for ten minutes.
Take a piece of paper and fold it into two.

I Put the words in the right order and ask the question.




is/like/new/office/what /your




II Put in the correct question word or phrase:

Ex: What did you buy? A box of chocolates.
______ is this building? - Its about two hundred years old.
______ does your team play in? Red.
______ bag are you carrying? Ramyas.
______ money do you earn? About 2000 per month.
______ of shop do you work in? A toy shop.
______ do you take a holiday? Once a year.


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III Write the questions to which the underlined words are the answers.
Satish works at the supermarket.
Mary is learning English because she will need it in her job.
The film was really romantic.
Karthik went to the movie with Kiran.
Rahul switched off the computer.
IV Add tags to help start a friendly conversation:
These dosas are delicious, _______? They certainly are.
You havent lived here long, _______? No, only three months.
Its quite a big garden, _________? Yes there is plenty of space.
There arent many people here yet, ________? No, but its still quite early.
These burgers look good, _______? I cant wait to try them.
We can sit on the grass, _______? I think its dry enough.
V What would you say in these situations? Write sentences with a question tag. Use the
word in brackets:
You want to look at a newspaper. Your friend might have one, so ask him. (havent)
Suggest to Vicky that you both listen to some music. (Lets)
Warn Ramesh not to do anything silly. (Dont)
Ask Rekha to pass you the salt. (Pass)
VI Look on the right for the best answers to the questions on the left.
1. Can I help you?
2. Can you help me, please?
3. Wheres the footwear
department, please?
4. Can I try it on, please?
5. What is your size?
6. Which colour?
7. How is it?
8. Have you got a bigger size?
9. How much is this jacket?
10. Is it reduced?
11. How would you like to pay?

A. Well, I dont really like it. Ill leave it, thanks.

B. I need a pair of cotton shorts, please.
C. Ill pay in cash.
D. Its on the ground floor.
E. Yes. Its reduced by 25% this week.
F. Its fourteen.
G. Yes?
H. That one over there? Its Rs.1200.
I. Have you got it in dark blue or in light green?
J. Im sorry. Its the biggest one Ive got.
K. Of course. The changing rooms are over there.


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Choose the correct questions:

1. - __________
We went to Spain, to Marbella.
How wonderful! _________
We stayed for the whole of August.
Lucky you! ____________
We rented a flat.
2. - _____________
I was in London.
How nice. ____________
No. I was on business.
Really? _____________
It was OK. There were some problems, but everything is fine now, hopefully.

Were you on a holiday?

How long did you stay for?
Where were you last week?
Where did you go this summer?
How was it?
Where did you stay?

VII. Speaking skills

Give/Write instructions as to how to start a computer. (Check use of tense)

Give/Write instructions as to how to use a coin booth.(Check use of tense and accuracy)

Give directions to go to the nearest bus stop.

Give simple recipies as to how to make an omelets, tea, coffee etc.,

Give suggestions to a friend on what to do during the vacation.(check use of modals)

Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
I was staying in the country recently when a well-meaning hand, engaged in dusting my
bedroom, swept my glasses off the mantelpiece where I had placed them for safety. The culprit
an elderly man named Potter brought the fragments to the lunch table, holding them at first
behind his back and saying, 'I have a confession to make.' My hostess interrupted him and said

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"Now, Potter, you mustn't let it worry you. It doesn't really matter a bit. Besides it wasn't your
fault. It was Mr Ys fault for leaving his spectacles on the mantelpiece. And it's only the frame
that is broken; the lenses are all right. They will be quite easily mended.
It mattered extremely indeed, since my pair of emergency spectacles, having suffered a similar
disaster, was at the moment in the hands of an optician. It is true that I had an eye-glass, but,
though I find an eye-glass useful for reading the menu in a restaurant, I cannot read books and
newspapers with it easily. My hostess offered to do her best to mend the glasses temporarily
with sticking-plaster, and she did her best-that is the best that can be said for her effort. I tried
to read with the bandaged spectacles, but I had never read long till I was aware of a certain
sagging of the frame on the bridge of the nose and the whole thing came in two again. It is
impossible to read with much pleasure if one is on the look-out all the time, ready to catch the
two halves of one's spectacles on their way from' one's nose to the floor. As a result, I spent a
miserable week-end. Surrounded by books and newspapers that I wished to read, I was almost
as helpless as a blind man. I tried to workout a crossword puzzle with the help of a magnifying
glass, but I had to give it up in despair. It was quite impossible to read the numbers in the
telephone dictionary.
This inability to read with the naked eye is one of the curses attached to long sight. As a boy, I
was rather vain of my long-sightedness, and felt inwardly boastful when I was able to read
lettering at a greater distance than anyone else in the company. Little did I know that if one can
see things at a long distance in childhood one is punished by being unable to see things at a
short distance in Middle Ages?
It is only in the last year or two that I have taken to wearing reading glasses, but I suspect that I
ought to have begun wearing them twenty years ago. Towards the end of the war I was sent to
an oculist. The optician gave me a pair of pince-nez spectacles. They fell off and were shattered
on the pavement. Another pair fell off and were shattered on the study floor. Still another got
shattered on the office floor. Concluding that the bridge of my nose was ill-built for the purpose
of wearing pince-nez, I ordered a pair of glasses, which could be fastened behind the ears with
a sort of wire. I had not worn them for week when I found that they were tearing my ears to
pieces. I put them away in a drawer....... He provided me with a perfect pair of spectacles with
tortoise-shell rims that wounded neither the nose nor the ears. To see through them was like
being born into a new world. The truth is a man without spectacles is only half-alive. (Factual:
Report) Robert Lynd-from Without Glasses'

On the basis of your reading of the passage, complete the following statements as
briefly as possible. Write your answers in the answer sheets against the correct blank
a) Lynd did not say anything to Potter because
b) Potter was the culprit because


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Vocabulary Exercises:
Choose the answer that best explains the meaning of the underlined words:
1. He will give the real explanation if you twist his arm.
Use physical force
Threaten him
Pull his arm
Persuade or force
2. There was a hue and cry in the campus when the results were announced.
Noisy excitement
3. The bone of contention is different in this case.
Write the meanings of the underlined phrases:

They are always at loggerheads on the border dispute.

Though he has blue blood and boasts of his lineage, his conduct hardly proves it.

The outbreak of plague was a bolt from the blue.

Until he got a well-paid job, his family was leading a hand to mouth existence.

The lions share of the profit went to the one who had made the maximum investment.

Choose the correct answer:

Her neice/niece is visiting us today.

Hes the most conceited/concieted man I know.

The blood in my veins/ vains.

Read the passage and answer the questions:

There is more than a modicum of truth in the assertion that a working knowledge of ancient
history is necessary to the intelligent interpretation of current events. But the sage who
uttered these words of wisdom might well have added something on the benefits of studying,
particularly, the famous battles of history for the lessons they contain for those of us who lead
or aspire to leadership. Such a study will reveal certain qualities and attributes which enabled

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the winners to win and certain deficiencies which caused the losers to lose. And the student
will see that the same pattern recurs consistently, again and again, throughout the centuries.
1. The experience more than a modicum of truth means
(a) Nothing but truth.
(b) Some truth.
(c) Much truth.
(d) More than a small amount of truth.
2. In this context, Intelligent interpretation of current events means
(a) Skilful interpretation of events.
(b) Intellectual outlook on events.
(c) Appropriate understanding of events.
(d) Rational explanation of events.
3. According to the writer, a study of the famous battles of history would
(a) Provide food to modern leaders for reflection.
(b) Be beneficial to wise men.
(c) Help us understand the art of human warfare.
(d) Be more useful than a general knowledge of ancient history.
4. A person who aspires to lead could learn from the history of battles
(a) The qualities and deficiencies of commanders of these battles.
(b) What led the previous leaders win a battle.
(c) What made them lose a battle.
(d) The strategies they have evolved in course of these battles.
5. A knowledge of history is necessary to interpret current problems because
(a) They may be repetitions of past events.
(b) Only then they can be put in a proper context.
(c) They have roots in the past.
(d) They can be contrasted with the past events.


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Punctuation marks
Rules for Reference








Quotation Marks



Use an apostrophe...

to take the place of missing letters in contractions

I won't make any mistakes.

to form possessive nouns

The children's dog caught sight of my wife's ring.
The lawyers' cars were all shiny.

Use a colon...

after the greeting in a business letter

Dear Chairperson:

Dear Sir:

Dear Dr. Smith:

between hours and minutes in the time of day

It is already 5:14 P.M.

before lists in sentences


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I will bring the following equipment to class tomorrow: a board, a fishtank, a bucket,
and a light.

to introduce a long direct quotation

At the school assembly, the principal said:

Use a comma...

between words, phrases, or clauses in a series (three or more items).

I get to ride the car, train, and airplane today.

between the day and year in a date

December 23, 2007

between a road, a city, and a state

I live on 57 Broadway Street, San Diego, California.

to set of interruptions
Because I missed the turn at the traffic light, I, therefore, was late of my appointment.

after introductory words

Next, I woke up for a cup of water.

to enclose a title, a name, or initials

Mr. Hillman, M.D., said that she still had trouble with the computer.

before a coordinate conjunction that joins two independent clauses

My brother went to the store to buy the food, and I went to send out the invitations.

after the greeting and closing in a friendly letter

Dear Mom,



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Use parentheses...

to enclose an explanation that is extra information

Go to Chapter 8 (pages 104-121) from more information on atoms.

around the abbreviation or acronym that follows its full name

The Department of Transportation (DOT) is having an official meeting today.

around an added sentence that is in another sentence

Uma (Is she also your friend?) invited me to her party.
Sripad (The one who is Deepaks boss) came to visit yesterday.

Use a period...

at the end of a sentence

I just got a new cell phone.

after initials
George W. Bush, Jr., is the American president.

after most abbreviations

I live on West Brook Rd., which is near the Rocky Mts.

Use quotation marks...

around a speaker's exact words (direct quotations)

around titles of poems
Your poem "The Wave" was certainly very touching.

around titles of songs

My favorite song is "The Yellow Submarine."

around titles of articles

That article "Why You Should Bring Your Own Lunch" was about unhealthy lunches.


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around titles of chapters

The chapter "The Encounter with the Teacher" was quite funny.

use single quotation marks (only one quotation mark) around a quote that is in another
"Ms. Redwood, the article you gave us, 'Save the Environment,' was very interesting to
read," I said.

Use a semicolon...

to join between independent clauses in compound sentences that do not have a

coordinating conjunction
Yesterday we went to the park; I wish we could go there again

to separate items in a series when the items already contain commas.

The clowns at my birthday party were Mike, the amazing magician; Emily, the funny
dancer; and George, the terrific juggler.


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Shylaja: Is a freelancer, expert in Language Skills and is a voice & accent coach. She has
successfully executed training programs in the areas of Accent reduction and Communication
skills for leading BPOs and IT companies like 24/7, ICICI One Source, Mphasis, Transworks,
Infosys, Netsol and Caterpillar. She has worked as a consultant trainer with NIIT Planetworkz for
5 years. She has also worked as a Medical Transcription Trainer and Editor with C.E.I
transcriptions. Her responsibilities were training Medical transcriptionists, preparing content
for training, and editing transcribed files. She is associated with MindTree as a learning partner
in the areas of Business English and Language Skills.
Sundari: Is a Professor of English (Retd.) who was heading the Department of English, M.E.S.
College, and Bangalore. She has 30 years of experience teaching English Literature &
Communication skills at the undergraduate level as Lecturer, Reader & Professor. She is a
certified trainer for 24/7 customer BPO & MPhasis
She specializes in Language Enhancement, Business English, E-mail Etiquette, and Accent
Other Distinctions: Member-Board of Studies in English Bangalore University-2005-2007
Member-Board of Examiners in English
Member -Textbook committee for 'Advanced Course in
Communication Skills' 2nd Semester students
She is associated with MindTree as a learning partner in the areas of Business English and
Language Skills.
Chitra: Has about 18 years of experience as a lecturer at the Under Graduate level. Is currently
serviing as Selection Grade Lecturer at Vijaya College (Jayanagar). Her areas of teaching include
Communicative English, Business English and Literature. She has been part of the Foreign
Students program organized by Bangalore University. Also facilitates Language courses for the
corporate. She is associated with MindTree as a learning partner in the areas of Business
English and Language Skills.
Manjula: Is a senior grade lecturer in English at Vijaya College (Jayanagar with 10 years of
experience in teaching. She has experience in teaching Conversation English. She has been part
of the Foreign Students program organized by Bangalore University. Also facilitates Language
courses for the corporate. She is associated with MindTree as a learning partner in the areas of
Business English and Language Skills.
Deepak Kulkarni: Is an expert faculty member of the Behavioral school proficient in accent and
language skills. He facilitates an extensive range of behavioral learning programs. He holds 7+
years of experience in the areas of Recruitment, Employee Relations and Learning &
Development. He facilitates sessions on Influencing Skills, Transformational Leadership
workshops, Customer Management, Accent, Language & Team learning enterprise.