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OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH

ADMINISTRATION
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

OSHA

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH STANDARDS


)(
Working Safely in Confined Spaces
:


)( Confined Spaces ) (OSHA
22400 7.2
5000 .

.

:
.1
.2
.3
.4

-1

Atmospheric Hazards
Mechanical & Electrical Hazards
Physical Hazards
Engulfment Hazards

:
19.5 % . 23.5 %

:
:

.......

.

.%10

:
:
.
10 :
). (10 ppm
35 :
). (35 ppm

-2

:

:
.....
.

-3

) (






.

-4

.
.
.

:
.1
:





19.5 5



:





.2 :

:
19.5% 23.5%
%10 .
.3 :

.

.4

:
19.5%
%10
.

.


.

.5

:

.

.

.


********************************************************

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH


ADMINISTRATION
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

OSHA

OSHA General Industry Standards


Welding, Cutting and Brazing


from 29 CFR 1910.252 to 29 CFR 1910.255

:

.
:
.
/:
-1
-2
-3

Gas Welding
Arc Welding
Oxygen & Gas Cutting
General Requirements 1910.252

:
- :
-1
35 ) 11( .
-2

.

.
-3
) .(......
-4 ) (Fire Watch
35 ) 11(
.
-5

.
-6
.

Protection of Personnel
- :
-1 )
( .
-2
.
.
-3 .


.
-1
10000 16.
-2


) .(HEPA Filter
20 .
Hot Work Permit
-
) (
.

Gas Welding 1910.253


-1
) (Torch

.




)( )(

).(Torch Tip

15

15
.




400 76
.
20
5
.

-2 ARC Welding and Cutting 1910.254



.

.


.
:
-1 .
-2
.
-3 ) (Fuse ) Circuit
.(Breaker

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH


ADMINISTRATION
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

OSHA


.

.

.

:
-:
-1
-

Nature of Electricity
: )(
) (Conductor .
:
)(Amperes
: )(Volt

) (Resistance )(OHMS

) (OHMs Law : )( )(
)(.
- )( =

)(
------------------------ )(

.
.
.
1

.

.

-2 :
:
Short Circuit
Accidental Grounding
High Voltage
) (430 Low Voltage
) 24 430 ---(
) 24(

.

:
.1
.2
.3
.4

Electrical Shock
Burns
Arc Blast
Fires and Explosions

-1 :
: .
.
.
) (
.
2

.
.
- :


Effects of Electric Current On Human Body
) (
)Current (Milli Ampere
1 )(TLV
8 -1

Effects
) (








200 50
200

15 8
20 15
50 20


:
-1 ) (

.

-2 )( Hot Wire
.

-3 ) (Hot Wire
) (
.

:

. 100
.

.
) (Freezing
.

.

4 3 .


Non-conducting material

) 120(
) 1 (
.
) 800 ( .
:
- :
200000000 200000/
:
100000 2000 /
:
1 1000 /
:
- :
: -

500000 100000
1000
150
600 400
100

= 1000 /1
= )(
)(

120
220
-

240000
240000

) : (

120
220
-

1000
1000


120
220

120
220

-2


0.5
0.92

150
150

: Electrical Burns


800
1467 ) (

-3

: Arc Blast :

.
.

-4




.

.

- Electrical Accidents Prevention


:

) (TAG
.
-1 .
-2
.
-3 Explosion Proof Lamps

(Hazardous
) Locations .
-4

) (Hot Wire

) (Circuit Breaker ) (Fuse

. .
-5 ) (Fuses ) (Circuit Breaker


.
-6 .
-7
.
-8
.
-9


8



.
-10


) (

.
-11
) (
) (.
-12 .

*********************************************************************

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH


ADMINISTRATION
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

OSHA

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH STANDARDS


Excavations
:


1971
). (Cave-ins

:
.
.
.
.
.
.


-1
)
(
.
-2 ) (Competent Person

.
-3
.
-4
-5 125 ) 4( :

25 )6 7(
.

60
.


) 90(.


.
:

-1
A
-2
B
-3
C
-4
:

) . (
: A
1.5 ) .
(Clay
: B
0.5 1.5
) (
: C
0.5 ) (.
:

.
-1

-2
-3


.
Shields

:
-1
)
20 )6( :

A
B
C

/

1:
1:1
1 : 1


90
53
45
34

:
-2

.

:
-3

.
********************************************************

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH


ADMINISTRATION
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

OSHA

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH STANDARDS


Fall Protection
:


200 150
100000 .

29 CFR 1926.500 - 29 CFR 1926.503

6 ) (1.8 m
.

:
.1

.
.2 6 ) (1.8 m
:
Guardrail Systems

Safety Net Systems

Personal Fall Arrest Systems

:
.1
.2
.3
.4
.5
.6

-1

Guardrail Systems
Personal Fall Arrest Systems
Positioning Device Systems
Safety Monitoring Systems
Safety Net Systems
Warning Lines Systems

: Guardrail Systems


) 6(.

-2

42 ) (1.1 m
21 ). (0.53 cm
200
150.
8 ). (2.5 m

.

Personal Fall Arrest Systems

6 ) (1.8 m
.
3.5 ) (1.07 m
.

1998/1/1
.


.
Dee rings , Snap Hooks and
Anchoring Points 5000.

-3

: Positioning Device Systems

2 ). (60 cm
3000
.
.

-4

: Safety Monitoring Systems



.

:
.1
.
.2
.
.3
.
.4
.

.

.

-5

: Safety Net Systems


30 ). (9.1 m

.

.
36 ) (230 cm
6 ). (15 cm
.
5000.

.

:

8 )(2.4 m
10 )(3 m
13 )(3.9 m


5 )(1.5 m
5 10 )(3 m
10


400 ) (180 kg 30 ) (76 cm
42 ). (1.1 m

.

-6

: Warning Lines Systems

6 ) (1.8 m
.

34 ) (0.9 m 39 (1
). m
16
.
500 .

.
6 ) (1.8 m
.

:
: Protection From Falling Objects



.

6 ) (1.8 m .


.
Toeboards

50 4
) (10 cm 1.

.

:


.
********************************************************

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH


ADMINISTRATION
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

OSHA


Safety Regulations for Forklifts
:


.

:
-1
.
-2 :
)
(.
.
.
.
.
.
1

) (
). (
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.

-3
.

-4 .
-5

.

-6 :
Helmet - Safety Shoes

-7
.
-8
.

-9 .
-10 ) 20 (
.
-11
) (.
-12
.


-13
8 ) 20( 4 ) 10(.

-14
.
-15 .
-16 .

-17

*********************************************************************
*********************************************************************

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH


ADMINISTRATION
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

OSHA


OSH ACT
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH STANDARDS
:
1970
1970
OSH ACT 1971 OSHA
90
.

:
: OSHA
& OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
HEALTH ADMINISTRATION

.
): Code of Federal Regulation (CFR
50
) (OSHA .29
50 ) (Titles
) (Chapters ) (Parts
) (Sections )(OSHA
.29
:
.1 1910 )(General Industry
.2 1926 )(Construction


:
Code of Federal Regulation
Part
Section

CFR
1910
.110

Title

29

:
) (OSH ACT 1970 1971
) (OSHA :


.
.
.
.

.


:
.1 :

.

.
.2:

.

: OSHA STANDARDS

:
.1
) (American National Standards Institute ANSI
). (NFPA

.2

)(Compressed Gas Association
.
.3 .

:
) (Standards )(Horizontal Standards
) (Vertical Standards

) (OSHA General Industry Standards

). (OSHA Construction Standards

:
)(OSH ACT 1970

.

.

:
:
.1
) (Imminent Danger .
.2 .
.3
.
.4 .
.5 .

:
:

:
.1 : Other Than Serious Violations

7000
%5

.
.2 : Serious Violations


7000 .
.3 : Willful Violations


70000
5000
.

250000
500000
.
.4 : Repeated Violations

70000
.
.5 Failure to Abate Prior
: Violation

7000 .

:
-1
-2

10000
.

7000 .

-3


5000 .

:
-1
-2
-3

.
.
.

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH


ADMINISTRATION
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

OSHA


)JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS (JHA
:


.

.
.


.


.

)
( .


.
.

.

.
-1
-2
-3
-4


.
.
.
.

-1

:

:

.
.
.

-2

:

) (.

) (Grinding Machine :

.
.
.

.

)(1

-3

:

) ) (2 :



.



.
.

.

)(2

:
-4

:

Elimination of the Hazard


Substitution
Isolation
Engineering Control
Administration Control
PPE

:
.
.

.

) - (3

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH


ADMINISTRATION
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

OSHA


:

.

:
:
. - .

:
- - Lock-Out : Tag-Out



.
- :Energy Isolation Devices
:
-1
.Manually Operated Electrical Circuit Breakers
-2 Blind Flanges
-3
-4 Disconnect Switches
-5 ) Padlocks (
- : Energy Resources
:
Electrical Energy
-1
Mechanical Energy
-2
Hydraulic Energy
-3
Pneumatic Energy
-4
Chemical Energy
-5

Thermal Energy
Gases

-6
-7

- :Affected Employees


)(Lockout / Tag out Procedure
- :Authorized Employee

) (Tags .
- : Safety Padlock


.
- : Disconnects

.
- : Residual Pressure

) (.

-1
.
-2
.Stop Buttons

-3
.
-4

.Off
-5

-6


:
Off .
- .

-7 ) (Tag
) (Off


.

-8 7 6 ) 1
(

.
4

-9

-10
-11
-12
-13

-14



) (Off .

.


) (1 .

.

) (
) (On
/ / ).(Tags

.

*********************************************************************


)(1

:

:
:

:
:
)( 1
)( 2
)( 3
)( 4
)( 5

)
)
)
)
)

)(

(
(
(
(
(

:
-


) (




)(Off


)(Off

/ /



/


(
)
(


) (

Tags / /





) (

:
:

:
:

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH


ADMINISTRATION
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

OSHA


OSHA General Industry Standards

:




)(U.L


)(Nameplates Marking
) (Fuses
) (Circuit Breakers

.

.

600 :
) (Space Work


30 )75 (
600.

.

36 )90 (
)
(.


)
(
36 ) 90(
150 42 )110(
600 151.

36
) 90( 150
48 )120(
600-151.

6
)( 1200

60
.


) (

.

36.


/

/

) 120 (Outlets 20 15

Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter
.
) (UPS


.
:
.1 Head Protection

.
.2
.
.3
.
.4
.

.Double Insulated Equipment


50
:
.1
.

.2
.
.3 8
)5 2( .

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH


ADMINISTRATION
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

OSHA


PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
:


.

:
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6


.

)American National Safety Institute (ANSI

.Properly Fitting

.

.

.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) :


-1 Head Protection :
.

.
.

-2 Face & Eye Protection :



Safety Goggles Safety Glasses
Face Shield

:
Chipping / Grinding
-1 /
Chemicals Handling
-2
Furnaces Operations
-3
Dust Generation
-4
Welding Operations
-5
:

9 8 7


) 10 2 10

2
(
11 9

789 10



10 A8 A7 6 5 4 3 1
10) 2 (6 5 4

-3 Ear Protection :

85

.

.



.
-1 Ear Muffs :

35 15
90 120
.
-2 Ear Plugs :

30 20
115 85.
130

50.
7
.

-4 Foot Protection :

.

:


.

.
.
Antistatic
.

-5 Respiratory Protection :




.
:
:
-1 Air-Supplying Respirators
-2 Air-Purifying Respirators
-1 :
Self Contained Breathing Apparatus
) (SCBA
) (


.

.



.

-2 :
) (5 :
-1 .
-2 .
-3 .
-4
-5 )(.

.
.%19.5



).(IDLH


.


.

:
-1 .
-2 .
-3 .
-4 .

Respirator Selection :
-1
-2
-3
-4

-5


% 19.5 ).(SCBA
%19.5
.

) (TLV .

) (TLV
) (IDLH

.

Half Mask
Full Face-Piece
.Mask

*********************************************

Fit Testing :


) (Seals
) : (
-1 Negative Pressure Testing

)
( ) (Collapsed
10.
) (Collapsed
).(Sealed

-2 Positive Pressure Testing


. . . ) (

-3 Medical Consideration
)
(.
.

:
-



.
Organic Solvents
.

.
.

.Sealable Plastic Bags

-6 Safety Belts and Life Line :



.
Safety Harness
.

10

-7 Hand Protection :
Safety Gloves
:
-1
.

-2 PVC OR LATEX
Gloves
. NEOPRENE

-3 Heat Resistance Gloves



.

11

-8 Body Protection :
.
.

**************************************************

12

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH


ADMINISTRATION
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

OSHA


RADIATION SAFETY

.
.
)
(.
X-Rays
Ionization Smoke
.Detector
)(Particles
)(Waves

360 %80
%20 .

:
) (Nucleus
.

)(Atomic Number
+
)(Atomic Weight


)(Isotope

.

)
(

.


TYPES OF RADIATION
:
-1

) (Ionizing Radiation
.

-2

) (Non-Ionizing Radiation

)(
.

-1

Ionizing Radiation


) (Alpha Particles
) (Beta Particles )(Gamma Rays

Alpha Particles



.

Beta Particles


.

Gamma Rays


. .
.

:


.
Alpha Particles

-

.

)
(.
Beta Particles

-
.

.
.

Gamma Ray
-

.
.
X - Rays

-

.

.
.
) (

) (DNA
.

60 ) (
)
(.

Leukemia . .

)
100.000(.
:
:
-1
-2
-3
-1

Time
Distance
Shields
Time :

) (
.
-2

Distance :

)
(
-3

Shields :

.
.
:
-1 ) : (Rad ) (.
-2 ) :Roentgen (R
.
-3 ) :CURIE (Ci = 3,7
1010 .
-4 ) : (REM )( .
-5 ) : SIEVERT (Sv.
= 100
One Seivert = 100 REM
:
-1
.
-2 .

-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9

-10
-11
-12
-13


.
.
.
.
Films
Badges

)(CAUTION RADIO ACTIVE MATERIAL
5
Radiation ) .
(Area

.
:
.

.
.

Exposure Limitations :

Maximum Permissible Poses
ARW = Atomic Radiation Workers

1 Rem = 10 msv
Column III
Any other
person
5
30
75
15

msv per year

Column II
ARW
msv per quarter

50

30

300
750
150

150
380
80

Column I
Organ / Tissue
Whole body ,
bone
Bone, Skin
Hands, feet
Lungs, single
organ or tissues

:
-1 .
-2 Radiation Safety Officer
-3 .
-4 .Fume Hoods
-5 .
-6 Absorbent Materials .
=========================================

-2 Non Ionizing Radiation


.


Microwave Ovens and Their Hazards
:

.
) (.

.

.
2450 ) MHz or
(million cycles per second ).(CW
) (Magnetron Tube
50 Hz 60 Hz
.MHz 2450

4000 3000
Step-up transformer rectifier
120 ) (Ac 4000
) (Dc
) (Oven Cavity )(Wave Guide
.


) 2450.000,000
( .
.


.
.

0.2 mw/cm
.
:


. .


.
:
-1 .
-2

-3 .
-4 .
-5 .
-6
.
:
:
-


)5 MW/ CM over 0 1 Hour (6 min
)1 MW/CM 0 1 Hour (6 min

- :
1.6 MW/CM for 2450 MHz


LASER SAFETY BASICS

Light Amplification by Simulated Emissions of Radiation
1960 /
:
.
1 MW
100.
Eye Safety
.
.
Classification of Lasers
:
)Class I (1
Visible Region

) (1

.
)(2

Class II


1 MW
0.25
.

)) (3( )Class III (A


.

5 MW

)Class III (B
)) (3(

500 MW

.

)(4

Class IV


0.25 seconds
)(3
.

Engineering Controls

Remote Control
Protective Housing
Enclosed Laser beam paths


.
Eye Safety




.
/

.
.

) (

) (Flash lamp .

) (
) (Ruby
.


).(Oxygen Deficiency Area



.

.

) Class IV (4
Flame Retardant
.Materials

) Class II (1 MW
Baseline eye exam
.


.

.


Protective Housing

.
.

***********************************************

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH


ADMINISTRATION
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

OSHA

SCAFFOLDINGS
:

.
.

.
.
:
-1 :
- .
- .
- Handrails
Toe boards
- Blanks or Boards .
- ) (
.Means of Access
-2 :
) (.
-3 :
-
- .
- .
-
.
- .
:
-1 ) ( .Frame Scaffolds

.
1

-2 .Tube and Clamp Scaffolds



.
.

-3 .Modular System Scaffolds

-4 .Rolling Scaffolds


.

:
-1
).(Working Load
-2 .
-3 .
-4 )(
Top Rail 42

.Plat Form
-5 Vertical Posts
8.
-6
200.
-7 Toe-board
.
4.
-8 .Ways of Access
12
3
.
12
30.
-9
.
-10
.
-11 .
-12 30 26 .
-13 Fall Protection
10.
-14
.
-15
.
-16 10 .
-17 6
+.

:
.
9
.

:
Bracing .

: Ties :

30 26 .
% 50
.
:
.1 )Through Ties (+ve
.2 )Reveal Ties (not positive
.3 )Box Ties (+ve
.4 )Anchor Bolt (+ve

-1
-

:
)(
.
.
.

-2
-

:
)(.
.
.

-3
-

:
.
.
.
.

-4
-

:
.
.
.
.

:
2 ) 5( 10 )25
(.
.
4.
.
:
-1 25 .
-2 50 .
-3 75
.
****************************************************