surveying

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surveying

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CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTEMENT

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA

2015

DISUSUN OLEH:

Ir. R. Jachrizal Sumabrata, M.Sc (Eng)., Ph.D.

Mezky Matthew Yandito

Contents

GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR FIELD EXERCISE ............................................................. 4

CHAINING A LINE BY DIRECT RANGING .................................................................... 5

OBJECTIVE ............................................................................................................. 5

INSTRUMENTS ...................................................................................................... 5

PROCEDURE .......................................................................................................... 5

RESULT .................................................................................................................. 6

CHAINING A LINE BY INDIRECT RANGING................................................................. 7

OBJECTIVE ............................................................................................................. 7

INSTRUMENTS ...................................................................................................... 7

PROCEDURE .......................................................................................................... 7

RESULT .................................................................................................................. 8

MEASUREMENT OF AREA BY CHAIN TRIANGULATION............................................. 9

OBJECTIVE ............................................................................................................. 9

INSTRUMENTS ...................................................................................................... 9

PROCEDURE .......................................................................................................... 9

RESULT ................................................................................................................ 10

TAKING OUT LEVELS OF VARIOUS POINTS AND BOOKING IN A LEVEL FIELD BOOK

................................................................................................................................ 11

OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................... 11

INSTRUMENTS .................................................................................................... 11

PROCEDURE ........................................................................................................ 11

RESULT ................................................................................................................ 11

DIFFERENTIAL OR FLY LEVELLING REDUCE LEVELS BY H.I. METHOD AND RISE

AND FALL METHOD ................................................................................................. 12

OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................... 12

INSTRUMENTS .................................................................................................... 12

PROCEDURE ........................................................................................................ 12

RESULT ................................................................................................................ 13

DIFFERENTIAL LEVELLING INVOLVING INVERT LEVELS REDUCTION....................... 14

OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................... 14

INSTRUMENTS .................................................................................................... 14

PROCEDURE ........................................................................................................ 14

RESULT ................................................................................................................ 14

OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................... 15

INSTRUMENTS ..................................................................................................... 15

PROCEDURE......................................................................................................... 15

RESULT................................................................................................................. 16

MEASUREMENT OF HORIZONTAL ANGLE BY REITERATION METHOD .................... 17

OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................... 17

INSTRUMENTS ..................................................................................................... 17

PROCEDURE......................................................................................................... 17

RESULT................................................................................................................. 17

DETERMINING DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO INACCESSIBLE PONTS BY MEASURING

HORIZONTAL ANGLE ............................................................................................... 19

OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................... 19

INSTRUMENTS ..................................................................................................... 19

PROCEDURE......................................................................................................... 19

RESULT................................................................................................................. 20

DETERMINING AN HEIGHT OF OBJECT BY MEASURING VERTICAL ANGLE ............. 21

OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................... 21

INSTRUMENTS ..................................................................................................... 21

PROCEDURE......................................................................................................... 21

RESULT................................................................................................................. 22

STAKING OUT .......................................................................................................... 23

OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................... 23

INSTRUMENTS ..................................................................................................... 23

PROCEDURE......................................................................................................... 23

RESULT................................................................................................................. 24

TRAVERSING ............................................................................................................ 25

OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................... 25

INSTRUMENTS ..................................................................................................... 25

PROCEDURE......................................................................................................... 25

RESULT................................................................................................................. 26

TOPOGRAPHIC MAP ................................................................................................ 27

OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................... 27

INSTRUMENTS ..................................................................................................... 27

PROCEDURE......................................................................................................... 27

RESULT ................................................................................................................ 28

MAPPING ................................................................................................................ 29

OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................... 29

INSTRUMENTS .................................................................................................... 29

PROCEDURE ........................................................................................................ 29

RESULT ................................................................................................................ 30

TEST......................................................................................................................... 31

SETOUT SIMPLE CURVE....................................................................................... 31

Students must attend all field exercises.

This project will be carried out at FTUI Campus Depok.

Work in full parties consisting of 3-4 peoples.

Each student must bring this book when attending field exercise.

Do not:

a. Come late from the scheduled time and date.

b. Litter in the area of field practice.

c. Do anything unnecessary while in field exercise, for example

loitering.

d. Leave the area of area of field exercise without permission from

one of the field assistants.

Write all data collected on each field exercise in A4 paper (handwritten)

and submit the data on the appendix of the field report.

Field report is to be submitted in five (5) work days after the field exercise.

Contents of Field Report:

a. Cover

b. Title + Information Table (as shown in this book)

c. Objective

d. Instruments

e. Procedure

f. Data Processing

g. Analysis

h. Result

i. Applications

j. Appendix

A minimum of two times assistance with the field assistants are required

before submitting the field report. Without assistance, the maximum score

of a report is 70, and will be scored 0 if mistakes are found in the report.

Plagiarism is not tolerated, including but not limited to copying materials

without citing the source.

EXPERIMENT NO. 01

OBJECTIVE

To measure the distance between two points on a level ground by

ranging.

INSTRUMENTS

Name

Quantity

Measuring Tape

Ranging Rods

Pegs

PROCEDURE

RANGING RODS

1. Fix the ranging rods at the two given stations, where pegs are already

driven on the ground.

2. The follower stands behind station A and directs the leader, with

ranging rod to come in line with AB by signals of ranging. When the

ranging rod comes in the line of AB the follower directs the leader to

fix the ranging rod in position.

3. Let the intermediate point be C which should be less than 20-30m

from point A.

4. Now the leader takes another ranging rod and stands between A and

B about 2/3 distance from A.

5. The follower directs the leader to come in line of AB by using signals

of ranging.

6. As and when the point is located in the line of AB, the follower

instructs to fix the ranging rod in position.

7. Let the other intermediate position be D which is less than 20-30m

from B

8. Now A, B, C and D are in one line.

9. Measure the distance of AB by measuring along A, C, D, B.

RESULT

Length of CD = ____ meter.

Length of DB = ____ meter.

EXPERIMENT NO. 02

OBJECTIVE

Chaining a line when a hill or high ground intervenes preventing

visibility of ends of line.

INSTRUMENTS

Name

Quantity

Measuring Tape

Ranging Rods

Pegs

PROCEDURE

D

C

B

A

A

C

C2

D3

D2

C1

D1

1. Fix the two ranging rods at the given stations A and B which are

indivisible due to raising ground.

2. Select two intermediate points C1 and D1 such that from each point

both A and B are visible.

3. The person at C1 directs the person at D1 to move to a new position

D2 in line with C1B.

4. The person at D2 then directs the person at C1 to move to a new

position C2 in line with D2A.

with C2B.

6. The process is repeated until the points C and D are located in a way

that C finds the person at D in line with AB and the person at D finds

the person at C in line with AB.

7. After fixing the points C and D, other points are also fixed by direct

ranging and the length of the line is measured.

RESULT

Length of CD = ____ meter.

Length of DB = ____ meter.

Distance of AB = distance AC + distance CD + distance DB = ____

meter.

EXPERIMENT NO. 03

TRIANGULATION

OBJECTIVE

To measure the area of the given field by chain triangulation.

INSTRUMENTS

Name

Quantity

Measuring Tape

Pegs

PROCEDURE

D

C

E

1. Let ABCDE be the given field whose area is to be measured, fix the

pegs at A, B, C, D & E.

2. Divide ABCDE into three triangles consisting of ADE, ABD and

BCD by joining AD and BD.

3. Measure the lengths AB, BC, CD, DE, EA, AD and BD.

4. Calculate the area of the triangles.

5. The sum of the areas of the three triangles is the area of the given field.

RESULT

The area of the given field

10

EXPERIMENT NO. 04

BOOKING IN A LEVEL FIELD BOOK

OBJECTIVE

Taking the levels of various points with single setup, booking in a level

field book.

INSTRUMENTS

Name

Quantity

Levelling Staff

Pegs

PROCEDURE

1. Set the level at a convenient point.

2. Perform the temporary adjustments.

3. Hold the staff vertically over the Benchmark, Observe the staff

reading and write in the B.S. (Back Sight) column of the field book.

4. Hold the staff at other points and note the staff reading in the I.S.

(Intermediate Sight) column of the field book.

5. Hold the staff on the last point and enter the staff reading in the F.S.

(Fore Sight) column of the field book.

6. Find R.L. (Reduced Level) of all the points.

7. Apply arithmetical check.

RESULT

Table 1. Example of Field Booking

Point

B.S. (m)

I.S. (m)

F.S. (m)

R.L. (m)

Remark

A

B

C

11

EXPERIMENT NO. 05

LEVELS BY H.I. METHOD AND RISE AND FALL

METHOD

OBJECTIVE

To find the difference in elevation between two points.

INSTRUMENTS

Name

Quantity

Levelling Staff

Pegs

PROCEDURE

FS

BS

FS

B

A

FS

BS

BS

O2

O3

D

O1

Figure 4. Levelling Method

to be found.

2. Set the level at a convenient point O1 carryout temporary adjustments

and take B.S. on A

3. Take F.S. on the Point C

4. Shift the instrument to point O2 and perform temporary adjustments.

5. Take B.S. on C and F.S. on D.

6. Shift the instrument to point O3 and perform temporary adjustments.

7. Take B.S. on D and F.S. on B.

12

8. Take Find the difference in elevation between all points for both

methods.

RESULT

Table 2. Example for Rise and Fall Method Booking

A

B

C

D

F.S. (cm)

Rise (cm)

Fall (cm)

R.L. (cm)

Remark

A

B

C

D

F.S. (cm)

H.I. (cm)

R.L. (cm)

Remark

13

EXPERIMENT NO. 06

LEVELS REDUCTION

OBJECTIVE

To find the levels of certain points which may lie above the line of

collimation.

INSTRUMENTS

Name

Quantity

Levelling Staff

Pegs

PROCEDURE

1. Setup the instrument at a convenient point and take the B.S on the

benchmark.

2. Place the staff in the inverted position at the required staff stations,

which are lying above the line of collimation.

3. Take the reading on the staff and note it in the field book with a

negative sign.

4. Calculate the R.L of the required staff station.

5. Repeat the process for all invert staff readings.

6. For all other points the procedure to find R.L is similar to that in the

previous exercises.

RESULT

Similar to Experiment No. 5.

14

EXPERIMENT NO. 07

REPETITION METHOD

OBJECTIVE

To measure a horizontal angle by repetition method.

INSTRUMENTS

Name

Quantity

Theodolite + Tripod

Pegs

PROCEDURE

Q

O

Figure 5. Illustration of POQ positioning

1.

2.

3.

4.

Direct the telescope towards the point P.

Set the horizontal angle to 0

Turn the instrument clock-wise towards Q. Note the horizontal angle

to get the values of the angle POQ.

5. Turn the telescope clockwise to sight P again.

6. Turn the telescope clockwise and sight Q. Note the horizontal angle

readings.

7. Repeat the process until the angle is measured three times. The

average angle with face left will be equal to final reading divided by

three.

15

Find the average angle with face right, by dividing the final reading

by three.

9. The average horizontal angle is then obtained by taking the average

of the two angles with face left and face right.

RESULT

Table 4. Example of Repetition Method Booking

No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

16

Face

Left

Left

Left

Right

Right

Right

Angle

Average

EXPERIMENT NO. 08

REITERATION METHOD

OBJECTIVE

To measure horizontal angle by reiteration method.

INSTRUMENTS

Name

Quantity

Theodolite + Tripod

Pegs

PROCEDURE

A

O

C

D

Figure 6. Illustration of OABCD Positioning

2. Bisect point A accurately, reset the horizontal readings to 0.

3. Turn the telescope clockwise to point B. Bisect B and read the

horizontal angle, which is the angle of AOB.

4. Similarly, bisect successively C and D, thus closing the circle. Read

both horizontal angles at each bisection.

5. Finally set back the sight to A. The reading of the horizontal angle

should be the same as the original setting reading (0).

Repeat the steps 2 to 5 with other face; i.e. face left.

RESULT

17

No.

Face

1

2

3

4

Right

Right

Left

Left

Angle of AOB

Angle of BOC

Angle of COD

Angle of DOA

=

=

=

=

Total

Correction

=

=

Corrected Angles:

AOB

BOC

COD

DOA

=

=

=

=

18

Angle Reading

C

D

EXPERIMENT NO. 09

INACCESSIBLE PONTS BY MEASURING HORIZONTAL

ANGLE

OBJECTIVE

Determining distance between two inaccessible points by measuring

horizontal angle.

INSTRUMENTS

Name

Quantity

Theodolite + Tripod

Pegs

PROCEDURE

B

A

D

Figure 7. Illustration of Points ABCD

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Set the theodolite at C and level it accurately.

Measure the horizontal angles DCA and ACB.

Set the theodolite at D and level it accurately.

Measure the horizontal angles ADB and BDC.

Using the angles DCA, ACB, ADB and BDC and combining the data

with the distance CD, the distance AB can be calculated.

19

RESULT

Make a drawing of ABCD using AutoCAD.

AB = meter

20

EXPERIMENT NO. 10

MEASURING VERTICAL ANGLE

OBJECTIVE

Determining a height of object by measuring vertical angle and

horizontal distance between the instrument and the object.

INSTRUMENTS

Name

Quantity

Pegs

PROCEDURE

1.

2.

3.

4.

Perform all temporary adjustments.

Turn the telescope and take staff reading over the given B.M.

Turn the telescope towards the object.

21

5. Release the vertical clamp screw, sight the corner top of the object.

6. Note the vertical angle readings.

7. Release the vertical clamp screw, sight the corner bottom of the

object.

8. Note the vertical angle readings.

9. Measure the horizontal distance (d) between the instrument station

and the object.

10. Move the instrument to another station and repeat steps 2-9.

11. Calculate the height of the top point from horizontal line (h1) and

height of the bottom point from horizontal line (h2) by using formula

h = d tan

RESULT

Make a drawing of the instrument and object positions using AutoCAD.

Height of object = h1 + h2 = meter.

22

EXPERIMENT NO. 11

STAKING OUT

OBJECTIVE

To stake points given on a map/building plan to the field.

INSTRUMENTS

Name

Quantity

Theodolite + Tripod

Levelling Staff

Measuring Tape

Pegs

PROCEDURE

1.

2.

3.

4.

Search for the location of point O in the field. Use benchmarks to help.

Set the theodolite on O and apply temporary adjustments.

Set vertical angle to 90.

Turn the telescope approximately towards point A and reset horizontal

angle to 0.

5. The observer directs the holder of the levelling staff to stand along the

telescope line of sight so that the staff is observable through the

telescope.

6. The observer directs the holder of the levelling staff to go forward or

backward until the readings shows that the measured distance of OA

is exactly as long as the distance in the map/building plan.

Measured Distance Formula (Stadia):

= ( ) 100

d

= Distance

23

UL

BL

ML

= Bottom Diaphragm Line Reading

= Middle Diaphragm Line Reading

7. Stake the point in front of the staff as point A and check the distance

with a measuring tape.

8. Turn the telescope until the horizontal angle reading is exactly the

same as the AOB angle pictured in the map/building plan.

9. Repeat steps 5-7 to stake point B.

10. Repeat Steps 8-9 to stake point C, D, and E.

RESULT

Calculate the area of ABCDE.

Compare the results with Experiment 13.

REFERENCE

C. B. Breed and G. L. Hosmer, The Principles and Practice of Surveying,

11th ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1977). pp. 100-108.

24

EXPERIMENT NO. 12

TRAVERSING

OBJECTIVE

To plot a closed traverse using theodolite.

INSTRUMENTS

Name

Quantity

Theodolite + Tripod

Pegs

PROCEDURE

Use the same ABCDE points as in experiment Staking Out.

C

E

A

Figure 10. ABCDE Traverse

theodolite at the station A and level it accurately.

2. Measure angle EAB and the distance EA and AB.

3. Move the theodolite to each of the successive stations B, C, D, E. and

repeat the process to measure each of the angles ABC, BCD, CDE,

DEA, and the length of lines AB, BC, CD and DE.

25

RESULT

26

Apply angle and distance corrections if ABCDE is not closed.

Draw the corrected version of ABCDE.

Calculate the area of ABCDE.

Compare the results with Experiment 12.

EXPERIMENT NO. 13

TOPOGRAPHIC MAP

OBJECTIVE

To draw a topographic map containing contour lines.

INSTRUMENTS

Name

Quantity

Theodolite + Tripod

Measuring Tape

Pegs

25

PROCEDURE

B

Figure 11. Topographic Map Layout

2. Create a square in the designated place with the help of theodolite and

measuring tape and stake the points ABCD.

3. Divide the square into uniformly sized squares as shown in Figure 11.

4. Stake each intersections.

5. Measure the level of each intersection.

27

RESULT

28

o Write the level of each intersection relative to the level of

point A on the map.

o Interpolate the level on each line and put a mark on every

2/4/5/6/8/10cm (will be assigned by assistants) difference in

level starting from 0cm.

o Connect same-levelled marks to create contour lines.

EXPERIMENT NO. 14

MAPPING

OBJECTIVE

To draw the situation on field and plotting it into a map.

INSTRUMENTS

Name

Quantity

Theodolite + Tripod

Pegs

PROCEDURE

Use the square from Experiment 14 as ABCD

O2

O1

Figure 11. Mapping of ABCD

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Take notes of the angle DO1A, AO1B, and BO1O2.

Measure the distance of O1D, O1A, O1B, and O1O2.

Measure the levels of D, A, B, and O2.

Set the theodolite on O2.

Take notes of the angle CO2B, BO2A, and AO2O1.

29

8. Measure the levels of O1, A, B, and C.

Also take notes of distance and horizontal angles of any landmarks

(ex. trees) or benchmarks from both stations.

RESULT

30

Calculate the area of ABCD.

Compare the measurements of ABCD by using a measuring tape.

TEST

Rules:

1. Students are to do the test in their groups, but several individual tests

are to be given while the test goes on.

2. While on individual tests, the other students are only allowed to do

things as commanded by the tested individual. Any other help is

forbidden.

3. Scoring will be done individually.

10m

60

Name

Quantity

Theodolite + Tripod

Pegs

31

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