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SURVEYING LAB MANUAL

LABORATORIUM SURVEY DAN PEMETAAN


CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTEMENT
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
2015

DISUSUN OLEH:

Ir. Alan Marino, M.Sc.


Ir. R. Jachrizal Sumabrata, M.Sc (Eng)., Ph.D.
Mezky Matthew Yandito

Contents
GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR FIELD EXERCISE ............................................................. 4
CHAINING A LINE BY DIRECT RANGING .................................................................... 5
OBJECTIVE ............................................................................................................. 5
INSTRUMENTS ...................................................................................................... 5
PROCEDURE .......................................................................................................... 5
RESULT .................................................................................................................. 6
CHAINING A LINE BY INDIRECT RANGING................................................................. 7
OBJECTIVE ............................................................................................................. 7
INSTRUMENTS ...................................................................................................... 7
PROCEDURE .......................................................................................................... 7
RESULT .................................................................................................................. 8
MEASUREMENT OF AREA BY CHAIN TRIANGULATION............................................. 9
OBJECTIVE ............................................................................................................. 9
INSTRUMENTS ...................................................................................................... 9
PROCEDURE .......................................................................................................... 9
RESULT ................................................................................................................ 10
TAKING OUT LEVELS OF VARIOUS POINTS AND BOOKING IN A LEVEL FIELD BOOK
................................................................................................................................ 11
OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................... 11
INSTRUMENTS .................................................................................................... 11
PROCEDURE ........................................................................................................ 11
RESULT ................................................................................................................ 11
DIFFERENTIAL OR FLY LEVELLING REDUCE LEVELS BY H.I. METHOD AND RISE
AND FALL METHOD ................................................................................................. 12
OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................... 12
INSTRUMENTS .................................................................................................... 12
PROCEDURE ........................................................................................................ 12
RESULT ................................................................................................................ 13
DIFFERENTIAL LEVELLING INVOLVING INVERT LEVELS REDUCTION....................... 14
OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................... 14
INSTRUMENTS .................................................................................................... 14
PROCEDURE ........................................................................................................ 14
RESULT ................................................................................................................ 14

MEASUREMENT OF HORIZONTAL ANGLE BY REPETITION METHOD ...................... 15


OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................... 15
INSTRUMENTS ..................................................................................................... 15
PROCEDURE......................................................................................................... 15
RESULT................................................................................................................. 16
MEASUREMENT OF HORIZONTAL ANGLE BY REITERATION METHOD .................... 17
OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................... 17
INSTRUMENTS ..................................................................................................... 17
PROCEDURE......................................................................................................... 17
RESULT................................................................................................................. 17
DETERMINING DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO INACCESSIBLE PONTS BY MEASURING
HORIZONTAL ANGLE ............................................................................................... 19
OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................... 19
INSTRUMENTS ..................................................................................................... 19
PROCEDURE......................................................................................................... 19
RESULT................................................................................................................. 20
DETERMINING AN HEIGHT OF OBJECT BY MEASURING VERTICAL ANGLE ............. 21
OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................... 21
INSTRUMENTS ..................................................................................................... 21
PROCEDURE......................................................................................................... 21
RESULT................................................................................................................. 22
STAKING OUT .......................................................................................................... 23
OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................... 23
INSTRUMENTS ..................................................................................................... 23
PROCEDURE......................................................................................................... 23
RESULT................................................................................................................. 24
TRAVERSING ............................................................................................................ 25
OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................... 25
INSTRUMENTS ..................................................................................................... 25
PROCEDURE......................................................................................................... 25
RESULT................................................................................................................. 26
TOPOGRAPHIC MAP ................................................................................................ 27
OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................... 27
INSTRUMENTS ..................................................................................................... 27
PROCEDURE......................................................................................................... 27

RESULT ................................................................................................................ 28
MAPPING ................................................................................................................ 29
OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................................... 29
INSTRUMENTS .................................................................................................... 29
PROCEDURE ........................................................................................................ 29
RESULT ................................................................................................................ 30
TEST......................................................................................................................... 31
SETOUT SIMPLE CURVE....................................................................................... 31

GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR FIELD EXERCISE


Students must attend all field exercises.
This project will be carried out at FTUI Campus Depok.
Work in full parties consisting of 3-4 peoples.
Each student must bring this book when attending field exercise.
Do not:
a. Come late from the scheduled time and date.
b. Litter in the area of field practice.
c. Do anything unnecessary while in field exercise, for example
loitering.
d. Leave the area of area of field exercise without permission from
one of the field assistants.
Write all data collected on each field exercise in A4 paper (handwritten)
and submit the data on the appendix of the field report.
Field report is to be submitted in five (5) work days after the field exercise.
Contents of Field Report:
a. Cover
b. Title + Information Table (as shown in this book)
c. Objective
d. Instruments
e. Procedure
f. Data Processing
g. Analysis
h. Result
i. Applications
j. Appendix
A minimum of two times assistance with the field assistants are required
before submitting the field report. Without assistance, the maximum score
of a report is 70, and will be scored 0 if mistakes are found in the report.
Plagiarism is not tolerated, including but not limited to copying materials
without citing the source.

EXPERIMENT NO. 01

CHAINING A LINE BY DIRECT RANGING


OBJECTIVE
To measure the distance between two points on a level ground by
ranging.
INSTRUMENTS
Name

Quantity

Measuring Tape

Ranging Rods

Pegs

PROCEDURE
RANGING RODS

Figure 1. Illustration for Chaining a Line

1. Fix the ranging rods at the two given stations, where pegs are already
driven on the ground.
2. The follower stands behind station A and directs the leader, with
ranging rod to come in line with AB by signals of ranging. When the
ranging rod comes in the line of AB the follower directs the leader to
fix the ranging rod in position.
3. Let the intermediate point be C which should be less than 20-30m
from point A.

4. Now the leader takes another ranging rod and stands between A and
B about 2/3 distance from A.
5. The follower directs the leader to come in line of AB by using signals
of ranging.
6. As and when the point is located in the line of AB, the follower
instructs to fix the ranging rod in position.
7. Let the other intermediate position be D which is less than 20-30m
from B
8. Now A, B, C and D are in one line.
9. Measure the distance of AB by measuring along A, C, D, B.
RESULT

Length of AC = ____ meter.


Length of CD = ____ meter.
Length of DB = ____ meter.

The distance of AB = __________ meter.

EXPERIMENT NO. 02

CHAINING A LINE BY INDIRECT RANGING


OBJECTIVE
Chaining a line when a hill or high ground intervenes preventing
visibility of ends of line.
INSTRUMENTS
Name

Quantity

Measuring Tape

Ranging Rods

Pegs

PROCEDURE

D
C
B
A
A

C
C2

D3
D2

C1

D1

Figure 2. Illustration on Indirect Ranging

1. Fix the two ranging rods at the given stations A and B which are
indivisible due to raising ground.
2. Select two intermediate points C1 and D1 such that from each point
both A and B are visible.
3. The person at C1 directs the person at D1 to move to a new position
D2 in line with C1B.
4. The person at D2 then directs the person at C1 to move to a new
position C2 in line with D2A.

5. The person at C2 directs the person at D2 to a new position D3 in line


with C2B.
6. The process is repeated until the points C and D are located in a way
that C finds the person at D in line with AB and the person at D finds
the person at C in line with AB.
7. After fixing the points C and D, other points are also fixed by direct
ranging and the length of the line is measured.
RESULT

Length of AC = ____ meter.


Length of CD = ____ meter.
Length of DB = ____ meter.
Distance of AB = distance AC + distance CD + distance DB = ____
meter.

EXPERIMENT NO. 03

MEASUREMENT OF AREA BY CHAIN


TRIANGULATION
OBJECTIVE
To measure the area of the given field by chain triangulation.
INSTRUMENTS
Name

Quantity

Measuring Tape

Pegs

PROCEDURE

D
C
E

Figure 3. Illustration of Dividing the Area into Three Triangles

1. Let ABCDE be the given field whose area is to be measured, fix the
pegs at A, B, C, D & E.
2. Divide ABCDE into three triangles consisting of ADE, ABD and
BCD by joining AD and BD.
3. Measure the lengths AB, BC, CD, DE, EA, AD and BD.
4. Calculate the area of the triangles.
5. The sum of the areas of the three triangles is the area of the given field.

RESULT
The area of the given field

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= _______ square meter.

EXPERIMENT NO. 04

TAKING OUT LEVELS OF VARIOUS POINTS AND


BOOKING IN A LEVEL FIELD BOOK
OBJECTIVE
Taking the levels of various points with single setup, booking in a level
field book.
INSTRUMENTS
Name

Quantity

Dumpy Level + Tripod

Levelling Staff

Pegs

PROCEDURE
1. Set the level at a convenient point.
2. Perform the temporary adjustments.
3. Hold the staff vertically over the Benchmark, Observe the staff
reading and write in the B.S. (Back Sight) column of the field book.
4. Hold the staff at other points and note the staff reading in the I.S.
(Intermediate Sight) column of the field book.
5. Hold the staff on the last point and enter the staff reading in the F.S.
(Fore Sight) column of the field book.
6. Find R.L. (Reduced Level) of all the points.
7. Apply arithmetical check.
RESULT
Table 1. Example of Field Booking

Point

B.S. (m)

I.S. (m)

F.S. (m)

R.L. (m)

Remark

A
B
C

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EXPERIMENT NO. 05

DIFFERENTIAL OR FLY LEVELLING REDUCE


LEVELS BY H.I. METHOD AND RISE AND FALL
METHOD
OBJECTIVE
To find the difference in elevation between two points.
INSTRUMENTS
Name

Quantity

Dumpy Level + Tripod

Levelling Staff

Pegs

PROCEDURE

FS

BS

FS
B
A

FS

BS

BS

O2

O3
D

O1
Figure 4. Levelling Method

1. Let A and B be the two given points whose difference is elevation is


to be found.
2. Set the level at a convenient point O1 carryout temporary adjustments
and take B.S. on A
3. Take F.S. on the Point C
4. Shift the instrument to point O2 and perform temporary adjustments.
5. Take B.S. on C and F.S. on D.
6. Shift the instrument to point O3 and perform temporary adjustments.
7. Take B.S. on D and F.S. on B.

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8. Take Find the difference in elevation between all points for both
methods.
RESULT
Table 2. Example for Rise and Fall Method Booking

Point B.S. (cm)


A
B
C
D

F.S. (cm)

Rise (cm)

Fall (cm)

R.L. (cm)

Remark

Table 3. Example for Height of Instrument (H.I.) Method Booking

Point B.S. (cm)


A
B
C
D

F.S. (cm)

H.I. (cm)

R.L. (cm)

Remark

Draw the profile using AutoCAD.

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EXPERIMENT NO. 06

DIFFERENTIAL LEVELLING INVOLVING INVERT


LEVELS REDUCTION
OBJECTIVE
To find the levels of certain points which may lie above the line of
collimation.
INSTRUMENTS
Name

Quantity

Dumpy Level + Tripod

Levelling Staff

Pegs

PROCEDURE
1. Setup the instrument at a convenient point and take the B.S on the
benchmark.
2. Place the staff in the inverted position at the required staff stations,
which are lying above the line of collimation.
3. Take the reading on the staff and note it in the field book with a
negative sign.
4. Calculate the R.L of the required staff station.
5. Repeat the process for all invert staff readings.
6. For all other points the procedure to find R.L is similar to that in the
previous exercises.
RESULT
Similar to Experiment No. 5.

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EXPERIMENT NO. 07

MEASUREMENT OF HORIZONTAL ANGLE BY


REPETITION METHOD
OBJECTIVE
To measure a horizontal angle by repetition method.
INSTRUMENTS
Name

Quantity

Theodolite + Tripod

Ranging Rod / Levelling Staff

Pegs

PROCEDURE

Q
O
Figure 5. Illustration of POQ positioning

1.
2.
3.
4.

Set up the instrument over O and level it accurately.


Direct the telescope towards the point P.
Set the horizontal angle to 0
Turn the instrument clock-wise towards Q. Note the horizontal angle
to get the values of the angle POQ.
5. Turn the telescope clockwise to sight P again.
6. Turn the telescope clockwise and sight Q. Note the horizontal angle
readings.
7. Repeat the process until the angle is measured three times. The
average angle with face left will be equal to final reading divided by
three.

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8. Change face and make three more repetitions as described above.


Find the average angle with face right, by dividing the final reading
by three.
9. The average horizontal angle is then obtained by taking the average
of the two angles with face left and face right.
RESULT
Table 4. Example of Repetition Method Booking

No.
1
2
3
4
5
6

Average of POQ Angle

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Face
Left
Left
Left
Right
Right
Right

Angle

Average

EXPERIMENT NO. 08

MEASUREMENT OF HORIZONTAL ANGLE BY


REITERATION METHOD
OBJECTIVE
To measure horizontal angle by reiteration method.
INSTRUMENTS
Name

Quantity

Theodolite + Tripod

Ranging Rod / Levelling Staff

Pegs

PROCEDURE

A
O

C
D
Figure 6. Illustration of OABCD Positioning

1. Set the instrument over O and level it accurately.


2. Bisect point A accurately, reset the horizontal readings to 0.
3. Turn the telescope clockwise to point B. Bisect B and read the
horizontal angle, which is the angle of AOB.
4. Similarly, bisect successively C and D, thus closing the circle. Read
both horizontal angles at each bisection.
5. Finally set back the sight to A. The reading of the horizontal angle
should be the same as the original setting reading (0).
Repeat the steps 2 to 5 with other face; i.e. face left.
RESULT

17

Table 5. Example of Reiteration Method Booking

No.

Face

1
2
3
4

Right
Right
Left
Left

Angle of AOB
Angle of BOC
Angle of COD
Angle of DOA

=
=
=
=

Total
Correction

=
=

Corrected Angles:
AOB
BOC
COD
DOA

=
=
=
=

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Angle Reading
C
D

EXPERIMENT NO. 09

DETERMINING DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO


INACCESSIBLE PONTS BY MEASURING HORIZONTAL
ANGLE
OBJECTIVE
Determining distance between two inaccessible points by measuring
horizontal angle.
INSTRUMENTS
Name

Quantity

Theodolite + Tripod

Ranging Rod / Levelling Staff

Pegs

PROCEDURE

B
A

D
Figure 7. Illustration of Points ABCD

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Select a base line CD and measure CD accurately.


Set the theodolite at C and level it accurately.
Measure the horizontal angles DCA and ACB.
Set the theodolite at D and level it accurately.
Measure the horizontal angles ADB and BDC.
Using the angles DCA, ACB, ADB and BDC and combining the data
with the distance CD, the distance AB can be calculated.

19

RESULT
Make a drawing of ABCD using AutoCAD.
AB = meter

20

EXPERIMENT NO. 10

DETERMINING AN HEIGHT OF OBJECT BY


MEASURING VERTICAL ANGLE
OBJECTIVE
Determining a height of object by measuring vertical angle and
horizontal distance between the instrument and the object.
INSTRUMENTS
Name

Quantity

Transit Theodolite + Tripod

Ranging Rod / Levelling Staff

Pegs

PROCEDURE

Figure 8. Illustration of Vertical Angle Measurement

1.
2.
3.
4.

Set the instrument at station P.


Perform all temporary adjustments.
Turn the telescope and take staff reading over the given B.M.
Turn the telescope towards the object.

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5. Release the vertical clamp screw, sight the corner top of the object.
6. Note the vertical angle readings.
7. Release the vertical clamp screw, sight the corner bottom of the
object.
8. Note the vertical angle readings.
9. Measure the horizontal distance (d) between the instrument station
and the object.
10. Move the instrument to another station and repeat steps 2-9.
11. Calculate the height of the top point from horizontal line (h1) and
height of the bottom point from horizontal line (h2) by using formula
h = d tan
RESULT
Make a drawing of the instrument and object positions using AutoCAD.
Height of object = h1 + h2 = meter.

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EXPERIMENT NO. 11

STAKING OUT
OBJECTIVE
To stake points given on a map/building plan to the field.
INSTRUMENTS
Name

Quantity

Theodolite + Tripod

Levelling Staff

Measuring Tape

Pegs

PROCEDURE
1.
2.
3.
4.

Search for the location of point O in the field. Use benchmarks to help.
Set the theodolite on O and apply temporary adjustments.
Set vertical angle to 90.
Turn the telescope approximately towards point A and reset horizontal
angle to 0.

Figure 9. Illustration of Theodolite Diaphragm

5. The observer directs the holder of the levelling staff to stand along the
telescope line of sight so that the staff is observable through the
telescope.
6. The observer directs the holder of the levelling staff to go forward or
backward until the readings shows that the measured distance of OA
is exactly as long as the distance in the map/building plan.
Measured Distance Formula (Stadia):
= ( ) 100
d

= Distance

23

UL
BL
ML

= Upper Diaphragm Line Reading


= Bottom Diaphragm Line Reading
= Middle Diaphragm Line Reading

Make sure that UL ML = ML BL.


7. Stake the point in front of the staff as point A and check the distance
with a measuring tape.
8. Turn the telescope until the horizontal angle reading is exactly the
same as the AOB angle pictured in the map/building plan.
9. Repeat steps 5-7 to stake point B.
10. Repeat Steps 8-9 to stake point C, D, and E.
RESULT

Draw OABCDE in AutoCAD.


Calculate the area of ABCDE.
Compare the results with Experiment 13.

REFERENCE
C. B. Breed and G. L. Hosmer, The Principles and Practice of Surveying,
11th ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1977). pp. 100-108.

24

EXPERIMENT NO. 12

TRAVERSING
OBJECTIVE
To plot a closed traverse using theodolite.
INSTRUMENTS
Name

Quantity

Theodolite + Tripod

Ranging Rod / Levelling Staff

Pegs

PROCEDURE
Use the same ABCDE points as in experiment Staking Out.
C

E
A
Figure 10. ABCDE Traverse

1. In running a traverse ABCDE as shown in the figure above, set the


theodolite at the station A and level it accurately.
2. Measure angle EAB and the distance EA and AB.
3. Move the theodolite to each of the successive stations B, C, D, E. and
repeat the process to measure each of the angles ABC, BCD, CDE,
DEA, and the length of lines AB, BC, CD and DE.

25

RESULT

26

Draw ABCDE in AutoCAD.


Apply angle and distance corrections if ABCDE is not closed.
Draw the corrected version of ABCDE.
Calculate the area of ABCDE.
Compare the results with Experiment 12.

EXPERIMENT NO. 13

TOPOGRAPHIC MAP
OBJECTIVE
To draw a topographic map containing contour lines.
INSTRUMENTS
Name

Quantity

Theodolite + Tripod

Ranging Rod / Levelling Staff

Measuring Tape

Pegs

25

PROCEDURE

B
Figure 11. Topographic Map Layout

1. Set the theodolite on A and do temporary adjustments.


2. Create a square in the designated place with the help of theodolite and
measuring tape and stake the points ABCD.
3. Divide the square into uniformly sized squares as shown in Figure 11.
4. Stake each intersections.
5. Measure the level of each intersection.

27

RESULT

28

Draw the topographic map in AutoCAD.


o Write the level of each intersection relative to the level of
point A on the map.
o Interpolate the level on each line and put a mark on every
2/4/5/6/8/10cm (will be assigned by assistants) difference in
level starting from 0cm.
o Connect same-levelled marks to create contour lines.

EXPERIMENT NO. 14

MAPPING
OBJECTIVE
To draw the situation on field and plotting it into a map.
INSTRUMENTS
Name

Quantity

Theodolite + Tripod

Ranging Rod / Levelling Staff

Pegs

PROCEDURE
Use the square from Experiment 14 as ABCD

O2

O1
Figure 11. Mapping of ABCD

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Set the theodolite on station O1.


Take notes of the angle DO1A, AO1B, and BO1O2.
Measure the distance of O1D, O1A, O1B, and O1O2.
Measure the levels of D, A, B, and O2.
Set the theodolite on O2.
Take notes of the angle CO2B, BO2A, and AO2O1.

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7. Measure the distance of O2C, O2B, O2A, and O2O1.


8. Measure the levels of O1, A, B, and C.
Also take notes of distance and horizontal angles of any landmarks
(ex. trees) or benchmarks from both stations.
RESULT

30

Draw ABCD and the landmarks in AutoCAD.


Calculate the area of ABCD.
Compare the measurements of ABCD by using a measuring tape.

TEST
Rules:
1. Students are to do the test in their groups, but several individual tests
are to be given while the test goes on.
2. While on individual tests, the other students are only allowed to do
things as commanded by the tested individual. Any other help is
forbidden.
3. Scoring will be done individually.

SETOUT SIMPLE CURVE

10m
60

Figure 12. 60 Curve with 10m Radius

Name

Quantity

Theodolite + Tripod

Ranging Rod / Levelling Staff

Pegs

31