You are on page 1of 54

SPECIFICATION

FOR
EARTHWORKS

APPROVED BY :

____________________________
SINAR FIRUS SDN BHD

SECTION 1

GENERAL CLAUSES

SECTION 2

DEMOLITIONS AND
ALTERATIONS

SECTION 3

EARTHWORKS

SECTION 4

TURFING

SECTION 5

STORMWATER DRAINAGE AND


CULVERTS

SECTION 6

CONCRETE WORKS

SPECIFICATIONS
1.0

GENERAL CLAUSES

1.1

DEFINITIONS AND MEANINGS


The following descriptions shall apply to the whole of the works regardless of the
trade headings under which they occur and shall be read in conjunction with these
Specifications and Contract Documents.
Throughout this Specification, all instructions are directed to the Contractor.
Throughout this Specification and Bills of Quantities the following abbreviations
have been used :BS

A.A.S.H.T.O. A.S.T.M.
I.S.O.
M.S.
A.S.
S.W.G.
B.G.
C.B.R.

The latest standard for a particular building material or


component issued by the British Standards Institution,
2 Park Street, London. W.1.C.P. (BS)
The latest British Code of Practice issued by the
Council for Codes of Practice, British Standards
Institution, ditto.C.P. (CE)
The latest Civil Engineering Code of Practice issued
by the Institution of Civil Engineering, 1 Great George
Street, London S.W.1.
The American Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials.
The American Society for Testing and Materials.
International Standards Organisation.
Malaysian Standard issued by S.I.R.I.M.
Australian Standards
Imperial Standard Wire Gauge
Birmingham Gauge
California Bearing Ratio

The term Engineer where used in this Specification shall mean H S Liao Sdn.
Bhd., No. 1(1st Floor), Jalan U1/26, Seksyen U1, Hicom Glenmarie Industrial
Park, 40150 Shah Alam and his successors in office and also such person or
persons as may be deputed by him to act on his behalf for the purpose of this
Contract.
The terms approved and directed are to mean the approval and directions of
the aforenamed Engineer or his authorised representatives.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 1

1.2

MANUFACTURERS PRODUCTS AND CATALOGUE REFERENCES


Manufacturers products and catalogue references quoted in the Specifications
are indicative of type and quality only. Other manufacturers products may be
accepted provided they are equal in all respects to those specified and are
approved by the Engineer.

1.3

MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP GENERALLY


All materials and workmanship shall be of the respective kind described under
these Specifications and in accordance to the Engineers instructions. All
materials and goods to be supplied and workmanship performed shall be subject
from time to time to such tests as the Engineer may direct at the place of
manufacture or fabrication, or on the site or at such place or places as may be
required in these Specifications.

1.4

STATUTORY REGULATIONS
Unless otherwise specifically described in these Specifications, all equipment and
materials to be supplied under this Contract shall be in accordance with the
regulations made under the Machinery Ordinance 1953, the Electrical ordinance
1949 and any latest LLN Bye-Laws and amendments affecting such work, in
force and effect at the time of this Contract. The Works shall also comply with
any other relevant Statutory Regulations, Bye-Laws or Orders currently in force
in the country. Where not covered by such regulations, they must be in
accordance with such authoritative standards in the country of manufacture.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 2

2.0

DEMOLITIONS AND ALTERATIONS

2.1

GENERAL
The Contractor should examine the Drawings, existing buildings and site so as to
satisfy himself as to the true nature and extent of the work to be pulled down,
altered etc. He must allow for any shoring, scaffolding, plant, tarpaulins, dust
sheets, etc. necessary for carrying out the work in an efficient manner, even if not
specifically referred to hereafter.

2.2

DAMAGE
The Contractor must take all responsibility for the stability and upholding of the
existing and adjoining structures during the work. He must make good any
damage of any description or extent whatsoever, caused by insufficient shoring,
protection, vibrations etc., at his own expense.

2.3

PRICES TO INCLUDE
The prices for demolition and pulling down, etc. unless otherwise described, are
to include the removal of everything connected with the structure referred to,
carefully cutting away where detachments are made from work which is to
remain, and all necessary reinstatement of adjacent works.

2.4

REMOVAL OF BUILDINGS, STRUCTURES, ETC.


The Contractor shall demolish, break up and remove buildings, structures and
superficial obstructions on the site in the way of or otherwise affected by the
works. He shall clear each part of the site at times and to the extent required or
approved by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall physically check all existing structures, substructures,
buildings, culverts, etc. within the site of works. No extra payment shall be made
for the removal of any existing structures within the site of works, instructed by
the engineer, but not shown on the drawings or described in the Bill of
Quantities.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 3

2.5

MATERIALS TO BE SALVAGED
Any portion or part of any structure, buildings, etc. which is deemed fit and
salvageable, shall be marked and carefully removed. Extreme care shall be
exercised in the removal of materials to be salvaged and the materials involved
kept intact without damage. The Contractor shall be held responsible for the
satisfactory removal of salvaged materials in a usable and good condition.
An inventory shall be kept for all materials identified as salvageable and shall be
verified and signed by the engineer. The salvaged materials shall be carefully
stored until handed over to the Employer.

2.6

REMOVAL AND CREDIT FOR OLD MATERIALS ARISING FROM


THE PULLING DOWN
All materials arising from the works, except items described to be salvaged or
stored, will become the property of the Contractor and must be removed from the
site by the Contractor outside the Employers property and credited.
The Contractor must price each item separately and show separately the amount
he is prepared to allow as credit for the old materials, from the cost of the work.
The Engineer reserves the right to require that any of the old materials described
to be cleared away shall be left on the site or re-used in the work. In this case, the
amount shown in the credit column against the particular item will be deleted and
the Contractor will allowed an agreed amount for cleaning and preparation. The
amount of new material saved will be deducted on final settlement, at the cost
shown on the basic list or at current rates.

2.7

DIMENSIONS, SIZES, ETC.


All dimensions, sizes, etc., given in the description of demolishing, pulling down,
etc., are approximate and are given for guidance only. The true nature and extent
of the work to be demolished or pulled down must be ascertained by the
Contractor on site visits.
No consideration will be given to claims for extra payment due to site items
being different from those entered in the Bill of Quantities.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 4

3.0

EARTHWORKS

3.1

SITE CLEARING

3.1.1 General
This work shall consist of clearing, grubbing, removing and disposing of all
vegetation and clearing of superficial obstructions for a distance of 3 m beyond
the construction limit or as directed by the Engineer.
The material to be cleared shall include, but not necessarily limited to, trees,
stumps, logs, brush, undergrowth, grass crops, loose vegetable matter and all
structures (other than those structures where removal or clearance is separately
specified and measured under the Bills of Quantities).
3.1.2 Top Soil
Stripping top soil shall consists of removal of op soil to an average depth of at
least 100 mm below ground level and its stockpiling for use or its disposal as
directed by the Engineer.
The top soil to be stock piled for the works shall be sufficiently fertile to promote
and support the growth of vegetation. Before stockpiling, the top soil shall be
separated from the objectionable materials, all to the satisfaction of the Engineer.
The Contractor shall arrange for stockpile site either within or outside the site at
his own expense and all to the satisfaction of Engineer.
3.1.3 Existing Trees, Shrubs and Bushes
Where shown on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer, all areas of trees shall
be uprooted or cut down as near to ground level as possible. All felled timber
shall be the property of the Contractor and shall be removed from the site by the
Contractor as may be directed by the Engineer. Shrubs and bushes shall be
cleared by cutting or dozing and removed from the site as directed by the
Engineer.
3.1.4 Removal of Stumps and Roots, etc.
Stumps and tree roots shall, unless otherwise directed by the Engineer, be
grubbed up, blasted, burnt or removed and disposed off in approved dumps to be
provided by the Contractor. Except in cuttings the work of grubbing up shall be
kept at least 450 m in advance of the earthworks. Where directed by the
Engineer, the holes resulting from grubbing up shall be filled with approved
materials, which shall be deposited and compacted in layers not exceeding 230
mm loose depth, to the same dry density as that of the adjoining soil.
Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd
Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 5

3.1.5 Disposal of Materials and Rubbish


All materials arising from site clearance which are surplus to or unsuitable for use
in the Works shall become the property of the Contractor and shall be disposed
off by him either off the site to his tip or if agreed by the Engineer on the Site in
an approved manner.
All fences, buildings, structures and encumbrances of any character, except those
that are earmarked for removal by others, upon or within the limits of the site,
shall be removed by the Contractor and disposed of as directed by the Engineer.
Materials so removed including any existing drains, culvert pipes, etc. which the
Engineer may instruct as to be salvaged, shall be carefully removed, cleaned and
shall be the property of the Employer.
3.2

EXCAVATION AND FILLING GENERALLY


All earthworks shall be carried out by machine and in a workmanlike manner to
the depths required. Unless otherwise specified herein, earthworks shall be
carried out in accordance to the requirements of B.S. 6031: Code of Practice for
Earthworks.
The Contractor shall visit the site of the Works and acquaint himself with the
nature of the site and types of materials to be excavated. All earthworks shall be
carried out by machine and carried out in a workmanlike manner to the levels
required.
All excavations and fillings are measured nett and the Contractor shall allow in
his prices for increases in bulk after excavation.
The Contractors tendered rate for excavation shall be deemed to include for
excavating through all classes of materials, except solid rock as later defined
under this section.
The Contractor shall report to the Engineer when the excavations are ready to
receive concrete and no concrete shall be laid until after the excavations have
been inspected and approved by the Engineer or his authorised representatives.
Any excavations dug too deep shall be made up in concrete grade 20 or as
required all at the Contractors own expense.
All roots, buried tree trunks, disused concrete or brick foundations, manholes,
chambers, drain pipes, etc. and other suchlike obstructions shall be hacked and
removed from site to the Contractors own dump.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 6

3.3

SITE VERIFICATION AND INVESTIGATION


The Contractor is to make his own assessment of the ground conditions to be
encountered and his tendered rates shall be deemed to include for excavating
through all classes of materials actually encountered.
Prior to tendering, the Contractor shall be deemed to have visited the site to
ascertain for himself the nature and condition of the site and generally obtain all
information pertaining to risks, contingencies at all other factors liable to affect
his tender price.
The Contractor is to carry out his own soil investigation and tests by whatever
means he deems fit in addition to any information that may be given and all costs
in connection therewith are deemed to be included in the Tender sum.

3.4

FORMATION LEVEL
Formation level on house platform, embankments and in cuttings shall be the
surface level of the ground obtained after completion of the earthworks, i.e. the
underside of the sub-base, or where no sub-base is specified, the underside of the
roadbase. Any excess depth unnecessarily excavated below formation level shall
be backfilled with material acceptable for construction and compacted as directed
by the Engineer and no payment shall be made for the excess excavation or for
the filling and compacting. All surfaces shall be finished fair, free or potholes,
gullies and depressions where water may accumulate. Tolerances not exceeding
75 mm on the linear dimensions of the top and base widths of embankments and
platforms shall be allowed.

3.5

DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION OF EXCAVATED MATERIALS

3.5.1 Solid Rock


Rock shall mean those geological strata of hard material which cannot be
removed except by blasting or special mechanical tools on confined working
areas for loosening it. Rock boulders found in general excavation shall constitute
rock if such boulders are of size exceeding 0.50m3 or if found in trenches and
foundation pits such boulders shall be classified as rock if the sizes exceed
0.17m3.
Any material in the excavation which the Contractor considers may be classified
as solid rock as defined above shall be reported to the Engineer before excavation
is begun. The Engineer shall examine the rock in its original location and decide
whether such material is classified as solid rock, in accordance to the
classification stipulated herein. The Engineers decision shall be final. The
Contractor shall be required to prepare contour drawings defining the extent of
rock likely to be met with and this shall be submitted to the Engineer for
Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd
Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 7

approval. The volume of rock to be excavated shall be measured in-situ and such
quantities confirmed and agreed by the Engineer prior to the Contractor
commencing on the rock excavation. Only such proportion of material so
notified, recorded and signed shall qualify for classification as rock excavation
and paid for accordingly.
Rock excavated shall be used per specifications as suitable fill as directed by the
Engineer or removed to the Contractors own dumping ground.
3.5.2 Soft and Decomposed Rock
Notwithstanding the above, solid rock shall not include material which in the
judgment of the S.O. can be loosened with a dozer mounted drawn ripper of the
following description.
Dozer Units

The Dozer is to be a minimum weight and horse power


equivalent to caterpillar D8 Model. The tractor unit is to
be in good condition and operated by experienced
personnel skilled in the operation of ripping equipment.

Ripper Unit

The ripper to be attached to the dozer shall be the most


efficient parallelogram or ripper manufactured. The ripper
shall have single shank in good condition with sharpened
cutting point.

The above material shall be considered as soft and decomposed rock. This shall
include rock, boulders, slag, chalk, slate, hard mica schist, laterite and all other
materials which in the opinion of the Engineer do not require blasting and could
be removed with the above equipment. The mere fact that the Contractor resorts
to blasting for reasons of his own, shall not qualify for classification under solid
rock.
3.5.3 Common Excavation
Common excavation shall mean excavation through all classes of materials other
than solid rock as defined above.
3.5.4 Unsuitable Material
Unsuitable material shall mean other than suitable material and shall include:(i)

Running silt, peat, logs, stumps, perishable material, slurry or mud, or

(ii)

Any material :a)

consisting of highly organic clay or silt;

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 8

b)

which is clay having a liquid limit exceeding 100 % and/or a


plasticity index exceeding 55% and less than 10%;

c)

which has a loss of weight greater than 25% (between 10% and
55%) on ignition when excavated or thereafter;

d)

(iii)

which is susceptible to spontaneous combustion.

Materials that are soft or unsuitable merely because they are too wet or
too dry for effective compaction are not to be classified as unsuitable
material unless otherwise classified by Engineer.

All suitable material shall be excavated and removed to the Contractors own
dumping ground.
3.5.5 Suitable Material
Suitable material shall comprise all that which is acceptable in accordance for use
in the Works and which is capable of being compacted in the manner specified in
sub-section 3.11 of this Specification, whether obtained from within or outside
the site. The suitable materials as fill shall be of the earth obtained from the
excavation in cuttings as directed by the Engineer and shall have a liquid limit
not exceeding 100% and plasticity index not exceeding 55% and not less than
10% (between 10% to 55%). Any reference in this and other sub-sections of this
Specification to suitable material and unsuitable material shall have meanings
defined above.
3.5.6 Plastic or Non-Plastic Materials
For the purpose of selection for use in earthworks, all common excavation shall
be classified as either plastic or non-plastic. Non-plastic materials shall be
defined as those on which it is impossible to carry out a plasticity index test and
shall include coarse grained, non-cohesive materials included in Table 1 of
British Standards Code of Practice CP 2001: Site Investigations; and such shales,
silts and other materials which in the opinion of the Engineer are readily self
draining. Plastic materials shall be defined as all other materials included in the
above mentioned Table as fine grained, cohesive materials and putty chalk as
defined in CP 2001.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 9

3.6

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING

3.6.1 Storage and Handling


The Contractor shall provide proper buildings or magazines, with separate
compartments for detonators, in suitable positions for the storage of explosives in
manner and quantities to be approved. The Contractor shall be responsible for
the prevention of any unauthorised issue or improper use of any explosive
brought on the Works and shall employ only experienced and responsible men to
handle explosives for the purpose of the Works.
3.6.2 Security
The Contractor shall comply with the relevant security regulations dealing with
the storage, handling and transport of explosives.
3.6.3 Armed Guards
The Contractor shall employ adequate and approved armed guards to carry out
round the clock watching of these buildings. Armed guards shall also be
provided during the transportation of explosive to and from the site of blasting
and during the whole of all blasting operations.
3.6.4 Blasting
Explosives shall be used in the quantities and manner recommended by the
manufacturers. Blasting shall be restricted to such periods as the Engineer may
prescribe. If, in the opinion of the Engineer, blasting would be dangerous to
persons or property or to any finished work or is being carried on in a reckless
manner, he may prohibit it, and order the rock to be excavated by other means.
The use if explosives by the Contractor in large blasts (exceeding 9 kg (20 lbs).
Of explosives) as in seam, drifts, shafts, pits, or large holes, is prohibited unless
authorised in writing by the Engineer. Such authorisation shall not in any way
relieve the Contractor of his liabilities under the Contract. In the event of wasting
of rock through any such blasting the Contractor shall, if required by the
Engineer, furnish an equivalent amount of approved materials for embankments,
1 cu. m of rock in-situ being taken to equal 1.5 cu. m of material in embankment.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 10

3.6.5 Safety Measures


When blasting is carried out the Contractor shall ensure by adherence to proper
safety distances and by the use of heavy blasting mats where necessary to prevent
the dispersal of material, that no damage is caused to persons or property on or
off site. Special care shall be taken in wet ground to ensure that individual
explosions are reduced to such to size as to preclude damage to any buildings or
structures. Plaster shooting will not be permitted within 365 m of any building or
structure.
3.7

CUTTINGS

3.7.1 General
The Contractor shall carry out the excavation in areas of cut in accordance with
the slopes, levels, depths and heights shown on the Drawings or as directed by
the Engineer. The Contractor shall programme his excavation works such that
excavated material can be transported directly to the areas of fill. Stockpiling of
suitable filling material shall be kept to a minimum. However, no excavated
approved material shall be transported to the areas of filling unless and until
sufficient compacting plant is on hand to carry out compaction.
3.7.2 Sloping Sides
The sloping sides of all cuttings shall be cleared of all rock fragments which
move when prised with a crowbar and are therefore liable to cause injury or
damage through falling. Where in the sloping sides of cuttings layers of solid
rock and softer material alternate, or where the Engineer considers that the
materials after dressing and exposure will not permanently withstand the effect of
weather, such insecure material shall be excavated to an approved depth and the
resulting voids or spaces sealed up with Class C grade 20 concrete so as to
ensure a solid face.
Should the slopes of cuttings be excavated beyond the widths shown on the
Drawings or directly by the Engineer, the Contractor shall make good the
affected area in a manner satisfactory to the Engineer.
3.7.3 Benches
Sloping sides of deep cuttings shall be benched as shown on the Drawings or in
such manner as directed by the Engineer.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 11

3.7.4 Excavated Materials


Where excavation reveals a combination of suitable and unsuitable materials, the
Contractor shall, wherever the Engineer considers it practicable, carry out the
excavation in such a manner that the suitable materials are excavated separately
for use in the Works without contamination by the unsuitable materials.
No excavated material shall be dumped or run to spoil except on the direction or
with the permission of the Engineer. Material used for haul roads shall not be reused in embankments or elsewhere without the permission of the Engineer.

3.8

OVER EXCAVATION
Any excess depth excavated below the formation level tolerance specified
hereinafter shall be made good by backfilling with suitable material of similar
characteristics to that removed and compacted in accordance with sub-section
3.11.

3.9

EMBANKMENTS

3.9.1 General
The Contractor shall carry out the forming of embankments in accordance with
the Drawings and shall adhere to the slopes, levels depths and heights shown
thereon.
The earth for forming a fill embankment shall not be placed by pushing the earth
over the top edge of a slope. The Contractor shall form an access ramp down into
the valley, for the travel of lorries or dumpers for transportation of fill materials
into the fill area.
3.9.2 Fill Material
Unless otherwise directed or permitted by the Engineer, all suitable excavated
materials shall be used to form embankments. The Contractor shall plan the
works so as to enable the excavated materials to be transported directly from
cuttings to embankments without any stockpiling. Any such excavated material
which is surplus to this requirement shall be disposed of in tips to be provided by
the Contractor. Any material which according to the Specification requirements
is unsuitable for forming embankments shall be disposed of in tips to be provided
by the Contractor.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 12

3.9.3 Compaction
All filling material other than rock in embankments or below formation level in
cuttings be deposited in layers not exceeding 230mm loose depth unless as a
result of compaction trials the Engineer approves spreading to a greater depth up
to a maximum of 375 mm loose depth. Each layer shall extend over the full
width of the embankment and shall be compacted in accordance with the
requirements hereinafter specified. Embankments shall be maintained at all times
with a sufficient camber and a surface sufficiently even to enable surface water to
drain readily from them.
3.9.4 Stockpile of Fill Material
Fill material shall not be stockpile on embankments, unless this is permitted by
the Engineer.
3.9.5 Different Fill Materials
Where material of different characteristics are readily available those of relatively
high bearing capacity shall be placed in the topmost 1m below formation level.
3.9.6 Rock-Fill Embankments
Rock used in rock-fill embankments shall be of such size that it can be deposited
in horizontal layers each not exceeding 450mm loose depth and extending over
the full width of the embankment except for any specified external cover to
slopes or new formation level. The materials shall be spread and levelled by a
crawler tractor weighing not less than 15 tonnes. Each layer shall consist of
reasonably well graded rock and all large voids shall be filled with broken
fragments before the next layer is placed. The top surface and side slopes of
embankments so formed shall be thoroughly blinded with approved fine graded
material to seal the surface. Such material may be top soil on site slopes.
3.9.7 Boulders
Isolated boulders each within the range 150mm in particle size blended with
suitable earthfill materials in a proportion not exceeding 1 rock to 1 earth and
used as common fill in embankments not of rock-fill at the discretion of the
Engineer, provided that the specified compaction requirements are met. No stone
should be placed 1m. below formation level of carriageway and verges.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 13

3.9.8 Unsuitable Material below Embankment


Before forming the embankment any unsuitable material occurring on the site
shall be removed to such depths and cover such area as may be directed by the
Engineer and shall be run to spoil. The resultant excavation shall be backfilled
with suitable material deposited and compacted as specified for the forming of
embankments. Nevertheless where in these circumstances such backfilled has to
be deposited below standing water, compaction may be omitted provided that the
material used is clean gravel or other completely free draining material.
If instructed by the Engineer as an alternative method of construction, approved
rock-fill material shall be placed directly on the naturally occurring unsuitable
material to such total depth that on completion of compaction negligible
deflecting of the surface occurs due to the passage of vehicles hauling in the rock.
The rock-fill material shall be deposited in accordance with the requirements of
this sub-section and compacted so as to comply with the requirements of subsection 3.12 for the compaction of rock.
3.9.9 Benching
Where embankment is to be placed on appreciably sloping ground, the surface of
the ground shall be benched in steps as shown on the Drawing, or trenched as
directed by the Engineer including, if necessary, any under-drainage of the site.
3.9.10 Filling Over Soft Ground
i)

Foundation Treatment

Prior to forming embankment over soft ground, the soil over which fill material
shall be placed shall be given strength improvement treatment as specified and to
the details as shown on the drawings or as directed by the Engineer.
The first layer or layers of fill materials shall be deposited over the full width of
the embankment and berms in thickness and compacted as approved by the
Engineer. The Contractor shall provide compaction plant suitable for working
over soft ground.
ii)

Surcharge and Staged Construction

Where indicated in the Contract or directed by the Engineer, the embankment


shall be built to different heights in stages with or without surcharge with
allowance for consolidation time periods in between stages, all in accordance
with the Contract. Where surcharge is specified, the Contractor shall be
responsible for the provision of surcharge material and the removal and disposal

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 14

of excess material on completion of consolidation or when directed by the


Engineer.
iii)

Settlement Markers (Plates)

Settlement Markers (Plates) shall be provided and installed by the Contractor in


the positions indicated on the drawings for the purpose of measuring settlement
taking place under the embankments after the construction period. The markers
shall be as shown on the drawings and the Contractor shall be responsible for
supplying and installing such markers and for extending the markers as the work
proceeds. Adjustments to the heights of markers shall be made when required by
the Engineer. Each marker shall be identified by painting on it the chainage of its
position and its identification number.
The Contractor shall take all necessary measured to protect markets from damage
by plant and vehicles at all times and shall repair any such damage to the
satisfaction of the Engineer. Readily visible tape shall be installed around each
settlement marker. Compaction methods shall be established to ensure that the
areas adjacent to the settlement markers are compacted to the same standard for
embankments.
iv)

Settlement Records

Joint measurement of settlement shall be taken daily while fill is being placed in
the vicinity of the markers. Thereafter, readings shall be taken weekly for a
period as directed by the Engineer. The readings shall be submitted on an
approved printed form to be supplied by the Contractor.
For the measurement of the volume that has settled below the original level of the
foundation of the embankment, the measured settlement of each marker shall be
used for volume computation following the method shown on the drawings and
as detailed in this Specification.
v)

Fill material

The fill material shall be compacted to 90% of the maximum dry density
determined in the BS 1377 Compaction Test (4.5 kg rammer method).
3.10

SHALLOW FILLING
In areas of shallow filling where after removal of topsoil, the ground level is
within 300mm of formation level, constructional traffic shall not use the surface
unless the Contractor brings up and maintain the surface level at least 300mm
above formation level. Any damage to the subgrade arising from such use shall
be made good by the Contractor at his own expense with material having the
same characteristics as the damaged material.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 15

3.11

COMPACTION - ORDINARY FILL

3.11.1 General
All materials used in embankments and as filling elsewhere shall be compacted
as soon as practicable after deposition. Compaction shall be undertaken to the
requirements of this Section and Table 3.11 by approved plant, except where the
Engineer directs or permits a departure from the requirements of the Table.
3.11.2 Alternative Method
Variation from the methods given in Table 3.11 or the use of plant not included
therein will be permitted only if the Contractor demonstrates at site trials that a
state of compaction is achieved by the alternative method equivalent to that
obtained using the approved methods. The procedure to be adopted for these site
trials shall be agreed with and approved by the Engineer.
3.11.3 Earthmoving Plant not acceptable
Earthmoving plant shall not be accepted as compaction equipment under this
section of works.
3.11.4 Degree of Compaction
Notwithstanding the minimum number of passes specified in the table the degree
of compaction to be achieved shall be related to the maximum dry density of the
soil as determined by the B.S. Compaction Test as described in B.S. 1377 Test
No. 11 (Proctor Test) and shall be as follows :(a)

Top 3m (below proposed formation levels) of all earthfill areas, maximum


dry density of compacted material to be not less than 95% of standard
ASSHTO compaction or equivalent for at least 9 out of every 10
consecutive sample taken of the compacted materials.

(b)

For earthfill depths, other than (a) above, dry density to be not less than
90% of same.

3.11.5 Field Density Tests


In-situ density tests shall be carried out using the sand replacement method as
described in B.S. 1377 Test No. 14A or B as and when directed by the Engineer.
Should the degree of compaction prove to be inadequate by the tests the

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 16

Contractors shall carry out such further work to bring the compaction to
requirements.
In-situ density tests shall be carried out using the sand replacement method as
described in B.S. 1377 Test No. 14A or B, as and when directed by the Engineer.
Should the test proof the degree of compaction to be inadequate, the Contractors
shall carry out such further work to bring the compaction to requirements.
3.12

COMPACTION - ROCK-FILL
Each layer of rock used as rock-fill in embankments shall be systematically
compacted by at least 12 passes of a towed vibrating roller with a static load per
inch width of roll of at least 205 kg. or other approved plant. Where, however, it
is established that rock can be compacted to the requirements for common
excavation, this shall be carried out.

3.13

BRIDGE APPROACHES
Embankments to bridge approaches shall be formed to the profiles, as shown on
the Drawings, as soon as practicable and as directed by the Engineer. The
Contractor shall leave the site in a neat condition before commencing structural
works for the bridge.

3.14

BORROW PITS
Should the quantity of excavation from the works be insufficient to make up the
embankments, the deficiency shall be made good by approved suitable material
from designated borrow cuttings or borrow pits located within the site or at
adjoining sites. The borrow cuttings and pits shall be located and the work
executed in all respects to the instructions of the Engineer. They shall be regular
in width and shape and permit easy and accurate measurement, and shall be
properly graded, drained, finished with neatly trimmed slopes and properly
turfed.

3.15

TEMPORARY SPOIL DUMPS


Materials excavated from trenches which are approved for backfilling shall be
deposited neatly beside the trench ready for backfilling after completion of laying
of the culvert or drain. In soft ground, material shall be deposited sufficiently far
back from the trench so as not to endanger the stability of the sides of the
excavation.
Approved material excavated from slopes shall be deposited at the foot of the
slopes to facilitate backfilling and formation of new slopes as specified and to
avoid imposing unnecessary additional load on the embankment.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 17

All temporary spoil dumps on the site shall be of such size and located in such
positions as the Engineer may approve. However, as far as possible, the
Contractor shall so arrange his work that approved filling material can be
transferred directly from the excavation into its final position, if required, or is
transferred directly to the disposal areas as directed by the Engineer.
3.16

WORKS TO BE CARRIED IN THE DRY


The whole works shall be carried out in the dry and the Contractor shall provide
temporary water courses, ditches, drains, sumps, pumping equipment or other
means of maintaining the works free from water. The Contractor shall carry out
his work of forming cuttings and embankments such that adequate crossfalls
and/or longitudinal gradients are formed to quickly drain away any water and
prevent ponding. Any water that has found its way into excavations for
foundations, pipes or drains shall be similarly dealt with. The Contractor shall
bear sole responsibility for keeping water out of the works, to the satisfaction of
the Engineer.

3.17

LAND SLIPS

3.17.1 General
The removal of materials in slips, slides or subsidence and overbreaks of rock
extending beyond the lines and slopes, or below the levels shown on the
Drawings, or required by the Engineer will not be paid for unless such
occurrences are shown to have been beyond the control of the Contractor, and not
preventable by the exercise of due care and diligence on his part. Any work
necessary to keep the excavation free from water, and the construction of all
temporary water-courses and drains, as may be required to preserve the slopes of
cuttings from injury during the time the remedial works are in progress, shall be
included in the price for excavation.
3.17.2 Classification of Material
The classification of material from slips or slides will be in accordance with its
condition at the time of removal, regardless of prior condition. Measurement of
overbreak in rock excavation shall be that of the space originally occupied by the
material before the slide occurred and regardless of its subsequent classification.
3.18

DISPOSAL OF SURPLUS EXCAVATED MATERIAL

All surplus excavated material shall be finally disposed of in designated dumping areas
and in such a manner as not to cause damage to structures, services or property, either
within or outside the site, and so as to cause no siltation to the drainage of the site or
surrounding area. No surplus material shall be deposited elsewhere than on approved
Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd
Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 18

dumping areas. Spoil tips shall be adequately compacted as specified, trimmed and
regulated to levels and profiles approved by the Engineer. Where ordered by the
Engineer, the surface, including slopes of the tips shall be soiled and turfed.
3.19

EARTHWORKS TO BE KEPT FREE OF WATER


The Contractor shall arrange for the rapid dispersal of water shed on to the
earthworks or completed formation during construction or which enters the
earthworks from any source, and when practicable, the water shall be discharged
into the permanent outfall for the surface water drainage systems. Adequate
means for trapping silt shall be provided on temporary systems discharging into
permanent drainage systems. This arrangement shall be made in respect of all
earthworks including excavation whether for pipe trenches, foundation or
cuttings.
The Contractor shall provide where directed by the Engineer temporary earth
drains, etc. and carry out all necessary pumping or other means of maintaining
and keeping the earthworks free from water. Such provision shall include
forming the cutting as embankments in such a manner that their surface have at
all times a sufficient minimum cross-fall and, where practicable a sufficient
longitudinal gradient to enable them to shed water and prevent ponding.

3.20

WATER COURSES
Excavation carried out in the diversion, deepening or straightening of water
courses shall include all necessary trimming of slopes, grading of beds, disposal
of excavated materials, pumping and timbering works and materials necessary
for dealing with the flow of water.
The beds and sloping sides of water courses shall, where shown on the Drawings,
or directed by the Engineer, be protected against the action of water by rubble
paving to form a flat or curved surface as indicated. The protection shall consist
of slabs. Stones for rubble paving shall be roughly dressed square; no stone shall
be less than 230mm depth nor 0.03m3 in volume and no rounded boulders shall
be used.
Where stone protection is required in the beds of water courses, the stones shall
be set on edge and securely bedded, with the longest dimension at right angles to
the flow of water and fitted closely together so as to leave only a minimum of
voids between the stones which shall be fitted in with suitably shaped and tightly
wedged spalls. The Contractor shall ensure that the paving stones or concrete,
especially at the ends, shall not be undermined or damaged by the action of
water during construction.
Where stone protection is required on the sloping sides of water courses, the
stones of the size and shape as described above shall be set in a similar manner to

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 19

that required for paving in the bed but in addition shall be bedded on a 75mm
layer of gravel.

3.21

FILLING EXISTING WATER COURSES


Where water courses have to be diverted from the sites of embankments or other
works, the original channels shall be cleared of all vegetation and soft deposits
and carefully filled in with suitable materials, deposited in layers and well
compacted.

3.22

CLEARING EXISTING DITCHES


Existing ditches shall, where directed by the Engineer or shown on the
Drawings, be cleared of unwanted vegetations, lallang, shrubs and undesirable
deposits. The sides shall be trimmed throughout and the bottoms uniformly
graded and the ditches kept clean and maintained for the duration of the Contract.
Materials removed from existing ditches shall be disposed of outside the Site in
dumps to be found by the Contractor.

3.23

FILL MATERIAL
The Contractor shall obtain from his own source, materials required for fill and
he shall pay for all royalties, tax, etc. required by the State. He shall quarry for
the material, transport it to the site and place and consolidate the fill material to
the shape and level as shown on the Drawings.

3.24

SLOPE PROTECTION

3.24.1 Description
This work shall consist of the provision and installation of slope protection for
stream banks, embankment slopes, cut slopes, drains, culvert inlets and outlets
and other surfaces composed of erodible materials where detailed on the
Drawings or directed by the Engineer. Generally, protection shall form an
impervious layer constructed in or on designated surfaces and, where indicated
on the Drawings, shall have at its bottom and ends, anti-scour devices such as
cut-off walls, toe walls or sheeting.
The slope protection shall be constructed to shapes and dimensions shown on the
Drawings or specified herein, or as directed by the Engineer.
3.24.2 Stone-filled Wire Cage Mattressed

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 20

This work consist of the provision and installation of stone-filled wire cage
mattresses as scour protection to temporary drains, embankments and river beds
and to the embankments and the beds and bank of streams at the onlets and
outlets. The mattresses shall be of the sizes and thickness shown on the Drawings
and shall be installed at the locations and in the positions shown on the Drawings,
or as directed by the Engineer.
(i)
Material
The wire cages shall be constructed in hexagon shaped steel wire mesh to B.S.
1052 and galvanised in accordance with B.S. 443. The mesh shall be double
twisted and shall be securely tied to selvedged wires to form rectangular sheets of
mesh which can be wired together to form boxes. Diaphragms consisting of a
rectangle of mesh tied to a surrounding selvedge wire shall be fixed at even
spacing within the boxes. Unless otherwise shown on the Drawings the diameter
of the wires shall be as follows :Mesh wire ...............................................
2.7mm (gauge 16)
Selvedge ...............................................

2.7mm

Binding wire ..........................................

2.0mm

Stone for placing in the wire cages shall be quarried limestone rock or river
gravel of size such that it is retained within the mesh without loss and shall have
a maximum size two-thirds of the least dimension of the cage.
The Engineer may however, permit a percentage of smaller filling material if the
large material is placed on the outside.
(ii)

Assembly

The wire panels shall be opened-out flat on the ground and stretched to remove
bends and kinks. The cages shall then be assembled individually by raising the
sides, ends and diaphragms, ensuring that all creases are in the correct position
and the tops of ends and sides are even.
The four corners of the cage shall be laced first, followed by the lacing of the
diaphragms to the sides. In all cases, lacing shall commerce at the top of the cage
by twisting the binding wire round the selvedge. The wire shall be taken and
passed round the two edges being joined, through each mesh in turn and securely
tied at the bottom. The ends of all lacing wires shall be turned to the inside of the
cage on completion of lacing.
(iii)

Installation

Only assembled cages, or groups of cages, shall be positioned to form the


structure. The side or end from which installation is to proceed shall be secured
Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd
Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 21

by rods or stakes driven into the ground at corners to securely retain the top of the
cage while being stretched.
All cages shall be securely laced to the adjoining cage at all corners and at
diaphragm points.
Cages shall be filled in stages and bracing wires inserted at approximately
300mm spacing in both directions as filling is brought up. The bracing wires
shall be wrapped round two mesh wires and so positioned to ensure a neat face
and line, free of excessive bulges and depressions to the satisfaction of the
Engineer. Tension shall be released only when the cages are sufficiently full to
prevent the mesh from slackening.
The cages shall be over filled by 5 per cent above their tops to allow for
settlement. Lids shall then be secured tightly over the filling with bars and wireddown securely through each mesh along all edges and diaphragms. Mechanical
equipment shall not be used for filling operations.
Where shown on the Drawings or directed by the Engineer, the mesh shall be cut,
folded and wired to form wired joints, angles, curves or slopes. The mesh shall
be clearly cut and the surplus mesh removed or folded back or neatly wired to an
adjacent cage. The cut edges of the mesh shall be securely laced together with
binding wire in the manner specified above.
3.24.3 Stone Pitching
This work consists of the provision and installation of stone pitching as scour
protection to the beds and banks of streams in the approaches to and exits from
culverts. The pitching shall form an impervious layer constructed on designated
surfaces and shall be protected from scour at its bottoms and ends by cut-off
walls or toe walls.
The Contractor shall prepare drawings showing his proposals for stream
diversions at the required locations for which layout Drawings are not provided
and shall submit the Drawings and obtain the approval of the Engineer for his
proposals before commencing construction.
Pitching shall consist of approved quarry stone, dense and resistant to the action
of air and water, and suitable in all respects for the purpose intended.
The stone shall, in general, be of the wide flat type with their larger faces
roughly rectangular and parallel. The stones shall generally be 150mm - 230mm
sized sandstone/granite/basalt aggregate. No rounded boulders shall be used.
Mortar shall be composed of one part of Portland cement to two parts of fine
aggregate by dry volume and sufficient water to produce a mixture that can be
Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd
Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 22

easily handled and trowelled. Re-tempering of mortar that has been mixed for
more that 45 minutes will not be permitted.
Stone pitching for cut-off or toe walls shall be constructed in dewatered trenches
to the depth shown on the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. The trench
shall first be filled with mortar to a depth of not less that 50% of the maximum
dimensions of the stones and immediately thereafter stones shall be pushed into
the unset mortar to make a solid wall. Additional mortar shall then be added and
the process repeated until the trench is filled.
Surfaces which are to receive protection shall be trimmed and filled and tamped
and screeded if necessary to final grade. A 50mm thick layer of sand shall be
spread on the surface immediately prior to laying. The pitching shall then be
built-up from the cut-off or toe walls with the stones and all remaining openings
filled solidly with mortar.
3.25

DRAIN PROTECTION
Where drain protection is shown on the Drawings or ordered by the Engineer,
the drains shall be excavated so as to be true to the lines, levels and grades
shown on the Drawings after the protection has been laid. The excavated drain
shall then be dewatered and the stone laid in close contact from the bottom of the
drain to the top or to such lower level as shown on the Drawings, or directed by
the Engineer.
All openings shall be flushed with mortar and the interstices the filled with small
stones pushed into the mortar. Finally all remaining openings shall be filled
solidly with mortar and the surface brought to a smooth finish by floating or
trowelling.
All materials for drain protection shall comply with the requirements for
materials for stone pitching 230mm thick, as specified in the preceding Clause
3.27.3.

3.26

GABIONS
This work consist of the provision and installation of stone-filled wire cage
gabions to provide protection against erosion or washing away of soil or silt. The
gabions shall be installed at the locations and in the positions shown on the
Drawings, or as directed by the Engineer.
At the discretion of the Engineer, gabions may also be used for the construction
of walling to retain the lower slopes of embankments in steeply sloping areas.
(i)

Materials

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 23

The wire cages shall be constructed from hexagon shaped steel wire mesh
to B.S. 1052 and galvanised in accordance with B.C. 443. The mesh shall
be double twisted and shall be securely tied to selvedged wires to form
rectangular sheets of mesh which can be wired together to form boxes.
Diaphragms consisting of a rectangle of mesh tied to a surrounding
selvedge wire shall be fixed at even spacing within the boxes. Unless
otherwise shown on the Drawings the diameter of the wires shall be as
follows :Mesh wire .............................................................. 3.0mm (gauge 17)
Selvedge

..............................................................3.0mm

Binding wire ........................................................... 2.0mm


Stones for placing in the wire cages shall be quarried rock on river gravel of size
such that it is retained within the mesh without loss and shall have a maximum
size two-thirds of the least dimension of the cage. The Engineer may, however,
permit a percentage of smaller filling material if the large material is placed on
the outside of the cage and the smaller material is placed in the core.
The cage shall generally be 1.0m in width x 1.0m in height. The lengths shall be
in 1.0m, 2.0m or 3.0m as per requirement, and as shown on the Drawings, or of
such sizes as may be required for the works.
(ii)

Assembly
The wire panels shall be opened-out flat on the ground and stretched to
remove bends and kinks. The cages shall then be assembled individually
by raising the sides, ends and diaphragms, ensuring that all creases are in
correct position and the tops of the ends and sides are even.
The four corners of the cage shall be laced first, followed by the lacing of
the diaphragms to the sides. In all cases lacing shall commence at the top
of the cage by twisting the binding wire round the two edges being joined,
through each mesh in turn and securely tied at the bottom. The ends of all
lacing wires shall be turned to the inside of the cage on completion of
lacing.

(iii)

Construction Methods
The cages shall be inserted at the areas required and to the depth shown
on the Drawing. The cages shall be placed in close contact in one or more
rows as shown on the Drawings. In so far as practicable, cages shall be
wired to adjacent cages at all adjoining corners and edges.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 24

The cages shall be slightly over-filled to allow for subsequent settlement


and the lids then secured tightly over the filling with bars and wired down
securely through each mesh along all edges and diaphragms. Mechanical
equipment shall not be used for filling operations unless otherwise
approved by the Engineer.

Gabions used in the construction of retaining structure for silt traps, etc.
shall be installed on horizontal benches cut into the existing ground. If
considered necessary by the Engineer, the base of the wall shall be let
into the ground to provide a sufficient key and drainage provided to
remove water from the base of the wall. The locations and dimensions of
the walling shall be as directed by the Engineer.
3.27

SILT TRAPS
The Contractor is required to construct the temporary silt traps as shown on the
drawings or directed to prevent the erosion of soil may result from the execution
of the works. The item in the bill of quantities for the construction of silt traps are
as follows :

Excavation for constructing the silt traps


Constructing of earth bund for silt traps and emergency spillways as shown
on the drawings.

Consrtuction of riser to a height not exceeding 2 m.


Supply and installation of concrete pipe culverts as shown on the drawings.
The Contractor shall regularly carryout desilting and other maintenance works on
the silt traps including repair of any collapse slopes, etc. to ensure peak
performance of silt trap at all time during the whole of contract period and
defective liability period.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 25

4.0

TURFING

4.1

SURFACE PREPARATION
The areas to be turfed are to be completely cleared of all builders debris, stones
or other obstructions and brought to the lines and grades as required. The ground
shall then be forked or otherwise loosened to a depth of 100mm to 150mm. A
top dressing of Rock Phosphate or similar approved fertilizer shall be spread over
and the fertiliser dressing shall then be well raked in prior to laying of the turf.

4.2

VEGETABLE SOIL
The top soil is to be selected black vegetable soil, free of roots, weeds, clods and
large stones. All soil shall pass a 10mm sieve but a few stones retained therein
but passing a 25mm sieve will be permissible. Top soil shall be spread and
levelled over areas to be turfed to form an even layer of 50mm (consolidated).

4.3

TURF
Turf shall consist mainly of healthy, dense, indigenous cow grass. Samples of
turf shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval before delivery to the site of
alternatively the Engineer will inspect the turf at site of origin before stripping.
Before stripping, the grass shall be cut not to exceed 20mm length. Turf shall be
cut in panels at least 300mm x 300mm square and lifted with proper turf cutting
tools. They shall be flat, of even thickness not less than 450mm and of
rectangular shape with square edges.
Turf shall be free from mimosa, lallang and any other objectionable plants. They
will be inspected for weeds before laying and any weeds discovered shall be
grubbed out complete with roots and be destroyed.
Turf shall be laid within 24 hours of being cut. They shall be stacked on site
roots to roots and grass to grass and shall be kept moist by spraying with water
and covering with wet sacking. Turf which dries out shall be rejected.

4.4

SPOT TURFING
Spot turfing shall comprise of squares of turf not less that 200mm square and laid
at 375mm centres both ways. The turf shall be approved quality cow grass rooted
into at least 50mm of topsoil. The turf shall be firmly rolled or tamped into the
soil until the surface of the turf is level with or slightly below the surrounding
soil.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 26

4.5

CLOSE TURFING
Close turfing to all newly formed banks or exposed earth up to the edges of the
Authorities road-side drains shall be with approved quality cow grass deeply
rooted in 50mm layer of top soil.
Close turfing shall consist of turf laid edge to edge with staggered joints to cover
the whole area without any space between. After laying, the turf shall be rolled
or tamped into the soil to provide an even surface. Tamping or rolling shall be
carried out by methods or equipment approved by the Engineer. On slopes with
gradients 2:1 or steeper, and in channels, the turf shall be pegged after
tamping. The peg shall be driven in flush with the turf bed surface.

4.6

HYDROSEEDING
4.6.1

Mix and Quality

The hydroseeding mix per hectare must be composed of the following materials
in the quantities indicated :(a)

Grass Seed
Axonopus compressus subspecies affinis :
(narrow-leaf carpet grass) = 140kg.
All seed must have a purity in excess of 95% and have a germination in
excess of 90% and must be supplied by approved seed merchants. Where
directed by the Engineer on sandy soil, the Contractor shall use other
grass species appropriate to the soil such as Bermuda grass.

(b)

Mulch
Mulch rate = 1000kg
The Mulch must have an organic matter content of not less than 99% and
a pH of not less than 150gms water 100gms mulch.

(c)

Binding Agents
Binding Agent rate = 750kg
The binding agent/trackifier must be capable of consolidating and
stabilising the mulch against erosion until such time as grass
establishment is complete. Details of the type of binding agent to be used
must be submitted to the Engineer for approval.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 27

(d)

Fertiliser
Fertiliser rate = 1000kg
The fertiliser to be used must be of a formulation and solubility suitable
for use within hydroseeder and must provide sufficient nutrients to ensure
grass establishment.

(e)

Soil Conditioner
Soil conditioner rate = 750kg
The soil conditioner must have the properties of a Thicotropic gel.

The tendered rate must include for any necessary remedial work, top dressing
with fertiliser and watering.
The tenderer must provide details of the type of hydroseeder he proposes to use
and make available the machine for inspection by the Engineer.
The treated surface must maintain a 100% cover before the Engineer certifies it
as practically completed.
The Contractor shall arrange to check, together with an authorised representative
of the Engineer, the area of embankment that has been hydroseeded. He is to
note that payment shall be made based only on the area which has been treated
and maintained 100% cover.
4.7

WATERING, TENDING AND CARING


The Contractor shall be responsible for the proper nursing and tending of the
newly laid turf until it is firmly established. This shall include regular watering
as necessary during the dry periods. Any turfed areas which fail to flourish shall
be replaced at the Contractors expense, to the satisfaction of the Engineer.
The maintenance of earth banks includes the repair of any slips, as directed by the
Engineer. Such repair shall include the replacement of turf as required.

4.8

PROTECTION OF TURFED AREAS


The Contractor shall take all necessary measures to protect newly turfed areas to
prevent the destruction of turfing by pedestrians, traffic or grass eating animals.
For this purpose, he shall be required to put up warning signs, temporary
fencing, barricades at vulnerable points or as instructed by the Engineer. The
temporary fence, barricades, etc. shall be maintained by the Contractor and when
the grass is well established, shall be removed and cleared away and the ground

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 28

reinstated. Any damage to grass shall be made good until all turfed areas are
handed over.
4.9

SURFACE FINISH
All turfing shall be finished to give a smooth, compact surface. Where spot
turfing is planted, the turf shall not stand out above the level of the surrounding
soil. When turf has been firmly established to the satisfaction of the Engineer,
the whole of the turfed areas shall be thoroughly rolled with an approved roller,
to give the required surface finish.

4.10

MAINTENANCE
After three months growth, the turf shall be cut once a month for all succeeding
months and this shall be carried on for the duration of the Defects Liability
Period.
The Contractor shall also allow for watering the turf as often as shall be
necessary to ensure knitting.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 29

5.0

STORMWATER DRAINAGE AND CULVERTS

5.1

DRAINAGE GENERALLY
The whole of the drainage works shall be carried out to the details shown on the
Drawings and in accordance with the relevant By-Laws, and tested to the
satisfaction of the Engineer and Local Authority.

5.2

EXCAVATION FOR TRENCHES, ETC.


Excavation for trenches shall be to straight lines and gradients required for the
pipes and beds as specified. The trench shall be of minimum width to allow
adequate working space for the proper construction of joints and compaction of
backfill around the pipe.
Before any excavation commences and throughout the period of construction,
each drainage sump centre shall be set out and marked by a centre peg and three
triangular peg markers situated outside the working area.
The levels are to be set out and inverts referred to protected level pegs near each
drainage sump and change of grade or line. Properly painted black and white
sight rails, 2.4m long, are to be fixed and maintained at the changes of grade or
line and not more than 6.0m apart.
Strongly constructed, clearly painted boning rods shall be provided at each
length where work is in progress. Such boning rods shall be designed to show
the pipeline invert below the sight rails.
When excavation is completed and before any further work commences, wooden
pegs are to be driven into the formation at not more than 3.6m centres, the level
of each peg being adjusted to the proposed pipe invert by the use of the sight rails
and boning rods.
Excavation for drain channels, structures and culverts shall be to the line and
levels in accordance with the Drawings, and all excavated spoil shall be deposited
in approved dumps. Backfilling shall only be carried out after the drains or
structures have been properly constructed and approved by the Engineer.
When the formation consists of both soft and hard materials, the foundation shall
be so prepared as to make it as uniform as possible, without abrupt changes from
hard to soft materials, Hard materials shall either be excavated below grade and
replaced with suitable fill material or the entire foundation excavated at least
300mm below formation and replaced with suitable uniform material or concrete,
as directed.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 30

Where rock is encountered in drains or drainage structures, these shall be


removed by approved means to the required depth and width.
The sides of pits and trenches shall be adequately supported at all times.
Alternatively, except where the Contract expressly requires otherwise, they may
be suitably battened. Trenches and pits shall be kept free of water.
The bottom of all excavations shall be levelled carefully and stepped or benched
horizontally, as shown on the drawings, or as required by the Engineer. Any
pocket of soft material or loose rock in the bottoms of pits and trenches shall be
removed and the resulting cavities and any large fissures filled with concrete
grade 20, sand or other approved fill material. After the placing of any blinding
concrete required by the contract, no trimming of the side faces shall be carried
out for 24 hours.
All excavated materials from such excavations not required for refilling shall be
disposed to dumps to be found by the Contractor or elsewhere, as required.
The Contractor shall at his own expenses make good with concrete as described
above any over-excavation to remove foundation material deposited and
compacted in required layers and by approved plant, as specified.
Timber sheeting, piles and other proceeds except where they are required by the
contract to be left in position but the removal of such supports will not relieve the
Contractor of his responsibilities for the stability of the works.
5.3

SETTING OUT DRAINAGE WORKS


On completion of embankments and platforms, the Contractor shall be
responsible for the proper setting out of all stormwater drainage and culverts, to
the satisfaction of the Engineer.
Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer, the setting out works shall include
the following :(a)

Demarcation of the reserve with boundary pegs at not more than 30m
intervals and at turning points.

(b)

Setting up of permanent bench marks at suitable sites to the requirements


of the Engineer.

(c)

Setting out clearly the lines and levels of the cut including sight rails and
boning rods.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 31

The Contractor shall give the Engineer at least 24 hours prior notice in writing of
his intention to set out or fix levels for any part of the drainage works, to enable
the Engineer to arrange for checking the same. Execution of work shall be
suspended following any marks made by the Engineer. The setting out of the
drainage works shall be completed at least 2 weeks in advance of the
commencement of the relevant portion of the works. This requirement is to be
strictly observed so as to afford sufficient notice for inspection by the Authorities
concerned.
5.4

BAKAU PILES
Where directed by the Engineer, bakau piles or hardwood sheet piles or shoring
shall be driven along the toes and / or slopes of embankments where these are
unable to stand without support. Bakau piles are specified in detail under Section
6 of the Specifications.

5.5

EXISTING DRAINAGE PATHS AND WATER COURSES


The Contractor shall execute the works by such method or in such order to ensure
that existing drainage paths or other water courses shall not be obstructed before
the construction and completion of such permanent or temporary diversion
works, as are provided for in the Drawings and Specifications, or as the Engineer
may order as the works proceed.
The Contractor shall ensure that the natural water course is not obstructed during
execution of the Contract Works and shall be required to provide temporary silt
traps where necessary to prevent loss of earth from exposed cuts or fills during
rainfall. Silt traps shall be built to the lines and levels to suit each site and these
may be required to be raised at the instruction of the Engineer. All temporary
works necessitated by the commissioning of the Contract Works shall be deemed
included in the Contract Sum.

5.6

BACKFILLING AND REMOVAL OF UNSUITABLE MATERIAL


All trenches and excavations shall be backfilled within a reasonable time after the
drain channels, pipe inverts, etc. are installed and approval is given by the
Engineer to backfill, unless other protection of the works is directed.
The backfill material around the pipes shall be either sand obtained from an
approved source or selected material free from large rocks, hard lumps, sods,
cinders, tree stumps or other organic matter.
Where material excavated from the trench is not considered suitable by the
Engineer, selected material from aother source shall be used for backfilling.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 32

5.6

BACKFILLING AND REMOVAL OF UNSUITABLE MATERIAL


The Contractor shall provide an earth cover of at least 1.2m over the crown of the
pipe before heavy equipment is allowed to be driven over it.
Backfilling shall be carried out in layers not exceeding 150mm in thickness with
approved soil and rammed with mechanical rammers uniformly from both sides
and to the satisfaction of the Engineer.
After the backfilling is completed the Contractor shall remove all excess spoil to
spoil tips, as directed by the Engineer.

5.7

CONCRETE
Concrete shall generally comply with the requirements of C.P. 110 - The
Structural Use of Concrete as earlier described under Concretor.

5.8

SAND
Sand for cement mortar shall conform to B.S. 1200 and shall be clean,
freshwater river sand free from clay and other impurities as earlier described
under Concretor.

5.9

CEMENT
Cement shall, unless otherwise described, be Ordinary Setting or Sulphate
Resisting Portland Cement or approved manufacture and shall comply to the
requirements of B.S. 12:1978, as earlier described under Concretor.

5.10

BRICKWORK
Brickwork shall generally be clay bricks to B.S. 3921 set and jointed in cement
and sand (1:3) mortar.

5.11

STORMWATER DRAINS
Stormwater drains shall be constructed of precast concrete half-round inverts or
V-shaped channels to the sizes, thicknesses and depths as shown on the
Drawings.
Plain and reinforced precast units shall be in concrete grade 25 as shown on the
Drawings, unless otherwise elsewhere stipulated. The drain channels shall be
reinforced with fabric reinforcement as required.
Precast units shall be handled at the prescribed points and bedded, or otherwise
fixed in their final positions as instructed.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 33

Drain channels shall be laid, bedded and jointed in cement mortar (1:3) with all
joints grouted to a smooth flush surface.
A layer of sand blinding or concrete grade 20 bed of the thickness where shown
in the Drawings shall be laid, before the unit is placed in position. Any precast
unit deviating more than 4mm from line and level at either end shall be made
good by lifting and relaying at no extra cost.
All joints and voids shall be filled with lean concrete or cement grout.
No immediate loading or backfilling will be permitted around the precast units
until the Engineers approval is obtained.
All precast units shall conform to the shapes and dimensions shown on the
Drawings. All edges shall be clean and sharp and the wearing surfaces shall be
true and free from any winding. On being fractured the interior shall present a
clean and homogeneous appearance.
Precast units shall not be removed from the moulds or erected until sufficiently
matured to ensure that no damage shall be done to the unit. The Engineer may
require the Contractor to mark or stamp the date of casting on the precast units
before delivery to the Site.
Any precast unit found cracked or damaged during, before or after erection shall
be removed from the site and immediately replaced at the Contractors expense.
The stormwater drains shall be raised to the required plot levels on one/both sides
by common brickwork or limestone rubble revetment walls to the thicknesses
shown on the Drawings or described in the Bills of Quantities.
The limestone rubble revetment walls shall be constructed of random sized
limestone aggregate laid jointed and pointed in cement mortar (1:3). A sample
panel shall be constructed for the approval of the Engineer prior to
commencement of work on drain walls.
Weepholes comprising earthenware salt-glazed stoneware pipe sections of
specified diameters, or other approved material, shall be provided to all rubble
or brick revetment walls at 1.5m centers, as shown on the Drawings or as
directed.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 34

5.12

DRAIN COVERS AND GRATINGS


Provide precast reinforced concrete grade 25 drain cover slabs of thicknesses and
dimensions as shown on the Drawings, reinforced with mild steel rod
reinforcements and bedded over drains.
Where heavy duty mild steel gratings are required, these shall be constructed to
the details and dimensions as shown on the Drawings, and painted with two
coats of approved rust resistant paint.

5.13

CULVERTS
All precast pipes and culverts shall be Humes or other equal and approved spun
reinforced concrete pipes of the grades and diameters shown on the Drawings or
as described in the Bills of Quantities.
Cutting of pipes shall be carried out by an approved wheel cutter except for small
diameter concrete pipes. The Engineer may approve the cutting of pipes with a
hammer and chisel provided a competent operator, capable of making a neat true
cut, is employed.
All pipes and specials shall be sufficiently protected by approved means to
prevent damage occurring during transit or storage.
Loading or unloading, pipes or castings must be handled by approved lifting
tackle. Unloading by rolling down planks or any other form of inclined ramp will
not be allowed. Pipes are to be carefully stacked on site with timber packing
under and between the pipes.
Each batch of pipes supplied shall be accompanied by the manufacturers test
certificates for compliance with tests specific to the relevant British Standards. In
the absence of such certificates, the Contractor will be required to arrange and
carry out at his own expense, all the appropriate tests on samples from each batch
as required, to the satisfaction of the Engineer.
No pipes may be used in the work without the approval of the Engineer based on
either a test certificate or actual tests made. Should the selected pipes fail the
tests, the Contractor shall mark and remove from the site the whole batch of
pipes from which the pipes were selected and replace them with sound pipes at
no extra cost.
All pipes, specials, etc. shall be carefully examined for damage prior to fixing
or laying and prior to concreting or backfilling.
If any pipe, special, etc. is found to be damaged in any way, the Contractor
shall notify the Engineer. The damaged item shall be clearly marked and set

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 35

aside for repair, cutting. Should such damage, in the opinion of the Engineer, be
caused through negligence on the part of the Contractor the expense of repairing,
cutting and or replacement shall be borne by the Contractor. The Contractor shall
be responsible for any delays caused thereby. Only pipes, etc. which on
inspection are found to be sound in every respect, shall be fixed or laid.
5.14

LAYING OF PIPE CULVERTS


The interior of all pipes shall be carefully cleaned with brushes and shall be
tested for soundness before being laid. The pipes shall be laid to true inverts,
straight lines and falls, each pipe being separately boned between sight rails and
bearing evenly upon the concrete for its full length.
The laying of pipe in the finished trench shall be started at the lowest point and
laid upgrade.
Where pipes are laid on earth formation, the trench shall be widened and
deepened sufficiently at the joints to allow the joints to be properly laid so that
the barrel or the pipe bears evenly over its full length on solid ground.
Where pipes are laid on rock formation, the trench shall be excavated 150mm
deeper and made up to required bed level with 150mm of properly consolidated
selected material, or with 150mm of concrete grade 20, as directed by the
Engineer. Care shall be taken that the pipe does not rest on any projecting pieces
of rock.

5.15

CONCRETE BEDS, HAUNCHINGS, ETC.


Concrete for bedding, haunching and surround to pipes shall be grade 20 mix or
as shown on the Drawings. The concrete shall be well rammed or vibrated and
worked under and around the pipes. No concreting shall be carried out until the
pipe joints are formed at every four pipe lengths, or 6.0m, whichever is less,
using 25 mm thick fibreboard shuttering or other approved material trench
excavation. Where the excavation has been carried out to a greater width than the
required section or approved width, the Contractor shall provide the additional
concrete at his own expense.

5.16

SUMPS
Sumps shall be brick or concrete type constructed to the sizes as shown on the
Drawings. All internal surfaces of sumps shall be rendered with high alumina
cement (1:2) and finished smooth.
Sump shall be pumped dry and cleared of all mud and debris upon completion
and prior to handing over of the Works.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 36

Where required, sump cover slabs comprising precast concrete units or mid steel
gratings shall be provided to details as shown on the Drawings.
5.17

TESTING AND APPROVAL OF CULVERTS


Testing of culverts shall be performed in the presence of the Engineer. The
Contractor shall provide all equipment and plant pressure gauges, all pipe
connections, cocks and strong rubber hoses and shall provide all struts, thrust
blocks, etc., which are necessary for effectively testing the pipelings to the
required pressure and he shall keep the said equipment and plant in good order
during the continuance of the tests, all at his own expense.
Any pipe or length of pipes found to be defective shall be immediately removed
and replace at the Contractors expense and leaking joints shall be remade; the
test shall then be repeated as often as necessary until the whole length of pipe
tested is approved.
No work shall be covered up without the prior inspection and approval of the
Local Authorities and the Engineer. The Contractor shall give due notice as
required by the Local Authorities By-Laws to the Local Authorities
representative whenever such works are ready for inspection. The Contractor
shall - afford full opportunity for the Local Authorities representative to carry
out the inspection of works, and shall be deemed to have allowed in his rates for
such inspection, any fees payable, any phasing, any temporary suspension of
works and other costs resulting therefrom.
Should any works be covered without prior inspection and approval, the
Contractor shall uncover any part of the works or make openings in or through
the same, as the Local Authorities representative may direct, for inspection.
The Contractor shall, at his own expense, reinstate and make good such part or
parts to the satisfaction of the Local Authorities and the Engineer.
On completion, the culverts and sumps must be pumped dry and cleared of all
debris, mud, dirt, etc. to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

5.18

CLEANING AND RESTORATION OF SITE


After the backfill is completed, the Contractor shall dispose of all surplus
materials, debris and rubbish from the site. Surplus suitable materials may be
deposited at embankments, shoulders or as ordered by the Engineer. The
Contractor shall restore all areas disturbed by the drain or pipelaying works to the
original condition as may be directed, and to the satisfaction of the Engineer.
The pipe culverts and drains shall be desilted to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 37

6.0

CONCRETE WORKS

6.1

GENERAL
Concrete shall comply with the requirements of CP110 and B.S.8110.

6.2

CEMENT
The cement used shall be ordinary setting or sulphate-resisting Portland Cement
of approved manufacture and shall comply with the requirements of B.S. 12:
1978. The Suppliers certificate is required with each consignment showing the
date and place of manufacture. Manufacturers certificates of tests will in general
be accepted as proof of soundness. However the Engineer may, at his discretion,
require additional tests to be carried out in an approved laboratory on any cement
which appears to him to have deteriorated through age, damage to containers,
improper storage or for any other reason. The Engineer may, without tests being
made, order that any bag of cement, a portion of the contents of which has
hardened, or which appears to be defective in any way, be removed from the site
in covered vehicles adequately protected against water. It shall be stored in a
weather-proof cement store with the floor raised at least 300mm above ground
level to the approval of the order of its delivery to the store.
On no account shall a change in the type or source of supply of the cement be
made during the course of construction and every endeavour shall be made to
ensure that the colour of the cement is constant throughout the Contract.

6.3

CONCRETE ADDITIVES
Water reducing and waterproofing agent, where required, shall be of approved
types to be used strictly in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
No other additive may be used in the making of concrete unless approved by
Engineer.

6.4

AGGREGATES
The fine and coarse aggregates shall be from approved sources and shall comply
with the requirements of B.S. 882 - Specification for Aggregates from Natural
Sources for Concrete. They shall be hard, strong, durable, clean and free
from adherent coatings and shall not contain any harmful material in sufficient
quantity to affect adversely the strength, durability or impermeability of the
concrete or to attack the steel reinforcement. They shall not contain water
soluble-sulphur trioxide (S03) in excess of 0.1 percent and they shall be obtained
from a source approved by the Engineer.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 38

The fine aggregate shall be naturally occurring sand and shall not contain silt or
other fine material exceeding 6 percent by volume when tested, according to the
Standard Method given in B.S. 812 Clause 15. It shall not contain organic
material in sufficient quantity to show a darker colour than the standard depth of
colour No. 3 when tested according o the Method in B.S. 812, Clause 28
Organic Impurities.
The use of neither mining sand nor crushed stone will be permitted.
The coarse aggregate shall be crushed granite or other hard stone and shall not
contain clay lumps exceeding 1 percent by weight. A representative dry sample
shall not show an increase in weight exceeding 8 percent after immersion in
water when tested, as laid down in B.S. 812 Clauses 19-21, Method A or B,
Absorption of Aggregate Coarser than 10mm B.S. Sieve. It shall be well
shaped and not flaky. The nominal size of coarse aggregate shall be as stipulated
below.
6.5

AGGREGATE GRADING

The grading of aggregate shall be analysed as described in B.S. 812, Clause 12 Sieve Analysis and shall be within the limits specified below:____________________________________________________________________
Fine Aggregate (Natural Sand)
____________________________________________________________________
B.S. Sieve
5mm
No. 7
No. 14
No. 25
No. 52
No. 100
____________________________________________________________________
Percent
Passing
95 - 100
70 - 95
45 - 85
25 - 60
5 - 30
0 - 10
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------____________________________________________________________________
Coarse Aggregate (Nominal Size 20mm)
____________________________________________________________________
B.S. Sieve
20mm
10m
5mm
____________________________________________________________________
Percent
Passing
95 - 100
25 - 55
0 - 10
____________________________________________________________________
The grading within the limits specified above shall be to the satisfaction of the
Engineer. When tested, as provided for in these Specifications grading shall
approximate closely the grading of samples approved. If necessary, the fine
aggregate shall be washed and/or screened to comply with the foregoing
standards.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 39

6.6

STORAGE OF AGGREGATES
The fine and coarse aggregate shall be stored separately and in such a manner that
segregation of the various sized particles shall not occur. Aggregate stockpiles
shall be formed on a platform of weak concrete, timber or similar approved
hardstanding. The aggregate shall also be kept clean and free of foreign matter.
Stockpiles of aggregates shall be arranged with proper drainage and protection
from rainfall in order to prevent excessive changes in moisture content taking
place during concreting.
Aggregates shall not be unloaded onto roadways or pathways and the Engineer
may reject any stockpile or part thereof if improper storage has, in his opinion,
caused contamination with foreign matter.

6.7

SAMPLING AND TESTING OF AGGREGATES


Samples of the fine and coarse aggregates approved by the Engineer shall be kept
on site, and shall give a fair indication of the grading and general quality of the
aggregates for comparison with the aggregates delivered during the course of
work. Tests shall be carried out on samples of the latter taken at intervals as
required by the Engineer. The method of sampling and the amount of aggregate
to be provided for the tests shall be in accordance with B.S. 812 Section One
Sampling of Aggregates. The tests shall be those laid down in B.S. 812
Sections Two to Six inclusive. The tests will be carried out by the Contractor or
his representatives. Should a sample fail to comply with any of the tests the
Engineer may, at his discretion, either reject the batch from which the sample was
taken, order it to be washed and/or screened, or permit it to be used with
variations in the proportions of the concrete mixes specified. Any batch of
aggregate rejected by the Engineer shall be removed from the site forthwith.
When aggregates which are satisfactory to the Engineer have been selected, the
Contractor shall secure the entire supply of each material from the same source so
as to maintain the same quality and grading throughout the works.
The Contractor must arrange for ample supplies to be available for completion of
the Works.

6.8

SAND
Sand for cement mortar shall conform to B.S. 1200 and shall be clean freshwater
river sand free from clay and other impurities. Sand shall, if necessary, be
washed in clean fresh water before being incorporated in the Works.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 40

6.9

WATER
All water used in the concrete work shall be fresh, clean water form public mains
and shall comply with the requirements of B.S. 3148. Water storage tanks shall
be covered and insulated against variations in its temperature, to the satisfaction
of the Engineer.

6.10

REINFORCEMENT
Mild steel rod reinforcement shall be plain round hot rolled mild steel bars
complying with the requirements of B.S. 4449.
High yield deformed steel rod reinforcement shall be high tensile steel bars
complying with the requirements of B.S. 4449, Part I with a minimum yield
stress of 60,000 p.s.i.
Welded wire fabric, twisted square bar fabric or expanded metal shall comply
with the appropriate part of B.S. 4483: 1969 - Steel fabric for the
Reinforcement of Concrete or Malaysian Standard M.S. 7.8: 1973.
The Contractor shall furnish certificates for reinforcement supplied by his
manufacturers, and these shall be submitted for acceptance by the Engineer
before any material is brought onto the site. In addition, the Contractor shall, on
request, furnish the Engineer with a test sheet for any batch of bars, giving the
results of each of the mechanical tests required under the relevant B.S. In the
event of any reinforcement found not to be in accordance with the relevant B.S.
in the course of being worked, it may be rejected by the Engineer
notwithstanding any previous acceptance on the strength of the test certificates.
The Engineer may call for additional tests to be made on samples taken from the
batch of bars from which the faulty reinforcement came, at the Contractors
expense. If the samples do not comply with the relevant B.S. then the Engineer
may reject the whole batch and require its removal from the Works site.

6.11

CLEANING, BENDING AND PLACING REINFORCEMENT


The reinforcement shall be cleaned free of loose mill scale and rust before being
placed in the forms and shall be free from these and from oil, grease, or other
harmful matter at the time when the concrete is placed.
The reinforcement shall be bent cold in an approved bar bending machine. The
bending dimensions and tolerances and the dimensions of anchorages, hooks,
binders, stirrups, links and the like shall be in accordance with B.S. 4466: 1981 Specification for bending dimensions and scheduling of reinforcement for
concrete.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 41

The internal radius at the corner of stirrups and binders shall not be less than the
radius of the longitudinal bars embraced by the stirrups or binders.
Bars incorrectly bent shall be used only if the means used for straightening and
re-bending is such that no injury is caused to the material. No reinforcement
shall be bent when in position in the Works without approval, whether or not it is
partially embedded in hardened concrete.
The reinforcement shall be placed in the forms and held firm against
displacement, by approved types of small precast concrete fixing blocks and wire
ties, in the exact position shown in the Drawings. Fixing blocks may be left
embedded in the concrete in cases where the Engineer approves. Bars intended to
be in contact when passing each other shall be securely held together at
intersection points with tying wires; binders and stirrups shall tightly embrace the
longitudinal reinforcement to which they shall be securely wired or spot welded.
The wire ties shall be No. 16 S.W.G. soft annealed iron wires; the ends shall be
turned in from the face of the formwork and shall not be left projecting beyond
the reinforcement bars. No concrete shall be placed in the forms until the
reinforcement has been inspected and passed by the Engineer or his
representative.
The exact amount of cover over the reinforcement shall be obtained when the
reinforcement is placed and shall be held during concreting.
6.12

WELDING OF REINFORCEMENT
Welding of reinforcement by electric arc may be permitted by the Engineer under
suitable safeguards and only with the prior approval of the Engineer Welding
shall be carried out in accordance with B.S. 5135: 1984 - Specification for
process arc welding of carbon and carbon manganese steel. Butt welds shall be
of the double V type and two butt weld bend tests shall be carried out on a
specimen prepared to represent each form of butt welded joint used in welding
the reinforcement and for each position of welding. The method of making weld
tests shall be that laid down in B.S. 709. The specimen shall pass the tests to the
satisfaction of the Engineer before approval is accorded to use the joint which the
specimen represents. Tack welds between reinforcing bars, used merely to fix
them in position, shall not be subjected to tests.

6.13

CONCRETE MIXES
Reinforced concrete shall comply with the requirements of the British Standard
Code of Practice 110 for normal grade concrete unless specified otherwise.
Concrete for the works shall generally be proportioned as tabulated on the
following pages.
The concrete shall be batched by weight or by volume, and only sufficient water
to obtain a workable mix shall be added. Water shall be measured by volume and

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 42

6.14

shall be controlled to make due allowance for moisture contained in coarse and
fine aggregate. Weight bathing shall be in an approved machine which shall
indicate the weights to the nearest pound within an accuracy of + 2%.
In mixing by volume, the gauge boxes shall be used proportional in size to one
bag of cement (51 kg) so that a full bag of cement or multiple bags shall be used
for each mix loaded on to mixer. For gauging purposes one bag of cement
(51 kg) shall be considered equivalent to 0.04m3. The proportions given in The
Table of Concrete Mixes shall be considered as the minimum requirement for
the various grades of concrete. The aggregate cement ratio and the water cement
ratio shall be adjusted during preparation of trial mixes to obtain the specified
cube test strengths for each grade of concrete. Trial mixes shall be prepared and
tested as hereinafter specified, before any concreting works can commence and at
all times when any changes are made in the source of supply of aggregates.
Concrete which fails to achieve the specified strength will not be accepted and
any part of the structure cast with unacceptable concrete shall be removed and
recast in conformity with this specification at the Contractors own expense.
The weights of the aggregate specified in the above refer to the materials in a dry
state. Tests shall be carried out twice daily, or more frequently if considered
necessary by the Engineer, to ascertain the moisture content of the aggregate.
Allowance shall be made for the water contained in the aggregate when
calculating the quantity of water to be added to the mix.
PRELIMINARY TRIAL MIXES
The Engineer shall if he so desires be present at all preliminary tests. As soon as
possible after commencement of works, the Contractor shall make trial mixes
using samples of aggregates and cement representative of those to be used. If
possible, the concreting plant and the means of transport to be employed in the
Works shall be used to make the trial mixes and to transport them a
representative distance. A clean dry mixer shall be used and the first batch
discarded. Preliminary test cubes shall be taken from the proposed mixes as
follows :-For each grade a set of 9 cubes shall be made from each of 3
consecutive batches. Three from each set of 9 shall be tested at an age of 7 days,
3 at 14 days and 3 at The cubes shall be made, cured, stored, transported and
tested in compression in accordance with the relevant parts of B.S. 1881. The
tests shall be carried out in a laboratory approved by the Engineer.
At each age of test, no cube strength shall fall below the appropriate specified
minimum. Concreting in the works shall not commence until the specified
minimum crushing strength at 28 days has been attained. Before commencing
the Works, the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for his approval, full
details of the trial mixes and the mixes he proposes to use, with their anticipated
average strength, which shall be based on the satisfactory results of these
preliminary tests, and shall obtain such approval before commencing the works.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 43

6.15

TESTING OF CONCRETE WORKS


The sampling and testing of concrete shall be undertaken in the following
manner:
(a)

For Strength
On each day when work on concreting is in progress, samples of each
grade of the concrete as placed, shall be taken and work test cubes made
from each 40 cu. m of concrete or part thereof, while at the same time
consistency test shall be made from the samples and the compacting
factors or slumps recorded. A record of these tests shall be kept on the
Works, identifying them with the part of the work executed. The samples
shall be taken, and the test cubes made and matured, in accordance with
the Standard Methods laid down in accordance with B.S. 1881. The
samples shall be taken and the cubes made weekly and, in addition
whenever the materials or proportions of the mix are changed, or
whenever so directed by the Engineer. Ix test cubes shall be made from
ach sample taken. Three shall be tested after seven days and the
remaining three after twenty eight days, in an approved laboratory.
The number of cubes may be reduced by the Engineer if consistently
satisfactory results are obtained, or increased up to a maximum of twelve
when, in the opinion of the Engineer, additional tests are required in the
early stages of the Works.
The strength requirements for each grade of concrete given in the Table of
Concrete Mixes shall be considered to be obtained if all the cubes
individually satisfy the specified minimum given in the Table. If the test
result at any age indicates that the specified requirements have not been
complied with, the Contractor shall advise the Engineer accordingly and
shall submit his proposals for adjusting the mix design and/or improving
the standard of quality control before proceeding with the concreting. In
addition, when the cubes tested at seven days show a minimum resistance
to crushing less than that stipulated above the Engineer reserves, the right
to order work on concreting to stop until the results of the tests at twenty
eight days are known. If the resistance to crushing of the cubes at twenty
eight days in less than that stipulated above, the Contractor shall, if
ordered by the Engineer :-

(i)

hack out, remove and replace at the Contractors expense all concrete
mixed and placed on the day when the sample was taken, or

(ii)

carry out such other remedial works as the Engineer may consider
necessary at the Contractors expense.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 44

The remedial measures, to be undertaken shall be at the sole discretion of


the Engineer.
The sampling, making, curing and testing of the cubes shall be carried out
by the Contractor or his representatives.
The Engineer or his
representatives may, if they so elect, be present while the cubes are
being made and tested.
(b)

For Consistency (Contd)


While work on concreting is in progress, tests on workability of the mix
shall be carried out thrice daily and, in addition, whenever any materials
or the proportions of the mix are changed, or when directed by the
Engineer. The tests shall, at the discretion of the Engineer, consist of
either the Slump Test or the Compacting Factor Test, as described in B.S.
1881. All necessary apparatus for testing shall be supplied by the
Contractor
The slump shall be as small, and the compacting factor as low as
practicable, consistent with the efficient working and full compaction of
the concrete mix in the formwork using the specified methods of
compaction.
The concrete shall be of such consistency that it can be readily worked
into the corners and angles of the formwork and around reinforcement
without segregation of the materials or bleeding of free water at the
surface.
On striking the formwork, it shall present a face which is uniform, free
from honeycombing, surface crazing or excessive dusting.
In order to satisfy the Engineer that the workability of the proposed mix in
each grade of concrete is adequate for the requirements of the
Specification, the Contractor shall carry out a series of workability tests
on the Preliminary Trial Mixes as described earlier.

6.16

CONSTRUCTION JOINTS
Construction joints shall be located in the positions as shown on Drawings or as
required. Such joints shall be in a plane at a right angle to the axis of the member
concerned or, when forming the upper surface of lifts in certain walls or beams,
shall be horizontal. At joints other than those occurring in a horizontal plane the
concrete shall be prevented from flowing laterally by the use of rigid stopping-off
forms. Wooden fillets 50mmx 25mm slightly chamfered, shall be fixed to
stopping-off forms to produce rebates in the face of the joint; these rebates shall

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 45

be formed centrally in the case of walls and slabs and shall run the full length of
the joints.
The face of the joint already formed shall have all laitance removed, and the
aggregates exposed (by means of high pressure water jetting between 2 and 4
hours after the concrete has been placed in and just before concreting is resumed),
scrubbed clean and thoroughly saturated with water. The face shall then be
rendered with a 25mm thick layer of mortar composed of one part of Portland
Cement and 1-1/2 parts of sand against which is freshly mixed concrete shall be
immediately deposited and thoroughly tamped into the cement mortar.
Concreting of beams shall be continuous throughout the length of the beam and
without transverse construction joints unless express permission to employ a
transverse joints is given by the Engineer. Such joints when permitted, shall be
vertical and at the centre of the span.
Construction joints in slabs shall be place parallel to the principal reinforcement
and the slabs shall be cast in one operation, without transverse joint. When
express permission is given by the Engineer to use transverse joints, such joints
shall be at midspan vertical and parallel to main beams.
Not less than seven days shall elapse between the placing of concrete in any two
adjacent areas of concrete is slabs, beams and shells.
6.17

CONCRETING PLANT
The concreting plant shall be suitable in type, capacity and design for its purpose.
The performance of the plant shall be to the satisfaction of the Engineer. All
batching equipment shall be calibrated against known weights before any
concrete is produced in the Works and at least once a month thereafter unless
there are reasonable grounds to suspect the accuracy, in which case the tests shall
be made at more frequent intervals. All plant used shall at all times be
maintained in good working condition.

6.18

MIXING
The concrete shall be mixed in a mixer of approved type and adequate capacity.
The quantity of water added to each batch in the mixer shall be as approved by
the Engineer, and reduced by the quantity calculated from the tests of aggregate
water content. This calculated quantity may be varied by not more than + 5% in
order to maintain a constant workability. The mixing shall continue until there is
a uniform distribution of the materials and the mass is uniform in colour and
consistency. In no case shall the time of mixing be less than two minutes or more
than five minutes after all the ingredients have been placed in the mixer. Any
concrete surplus to immediate requirements shall be thrown away. In no
circumstance may the surplus be used later.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 46

The first batch from clean mixer shall be discarded, or used in part of the
Contract where the finish is not important. Adjustments of the mix to
compensate for loss of fine material in the first batch shall not be made.
Hand mixing will only be allowed for small quantities of concrete which are to be
used for a specific purpose. In the event of hand mixing, 10 percent extra cement
shall be added to the mix proportion specified.
6.19

TRANSPORTING
The concrete shall be transported from the mixer to the place of deposit in the
work as rapidly as practicable and by means which will prevent segregation of
the materials and/or loss or contamination of ingredients. It shall be deposited as
near as practicable in its final position to avoid re-handling of flowing. The
concrete shall be conveyed by chutes only with the permission of the Engineer
and arrangements for this shall be to his satisfaction.
Concrete shall not be allowed to fall freely more than 1.5 m.

6.20

PLACING AND COMPACTION OF CONCRETE


The concrete shall be placed in the Works as soon as possible after mixing in
such a manner as to avoid segregation of the concrete and displacement of the
reinforcement, other embedded items, or formwork, and shall be thoroughly and
uniformly compacted by hand tamping, rodding, spading and mechanical
vibration. It shall be thoroughly worked into the corners of formwork by hand
tamping and rodding. After tamping and rodding into place the concrete shall not
be subject to disturbance other than such which are incidental to compaction by
vibration. The concrete shall be placed in the formwork in layers not exceeding
450mm deep and each layer shall be thoroughly compacted before more concrete
is added.
The concrete maintained between two walls of formwork shall be compacted by
vibrators if the internal type. Concrete in slabs with no formwork on its upper
surface shall be compacted either by vibrators of the pan type or by a vibrating
screed. The vibrators shall be of sufficient power and of a kind approved by the
Engineer. They shall be operated by workmen skilled in their use who shall be
additional to the labourers employed for placing and tamping the concrete. The
vibrators shall be used solely for compacting the concrete and not for distributing
it into place. Immersion vibrators shall penetrate the full depth of the layer.
Where the underlying layer is of fresh concrete immersion vibrators shall enter
and re-vibrate that layer to ensure that successive layers are well knitted together.
The internal vibrators shall be inserted and withdrawn slowly and at a uniform
pace of approximately 100mm per second. Compaction shall be deemed to be
completed when cement mortar appears in a circle around vibrators. Internal
vibrators shall be inserted at points judged by the area or mortar showing after

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 47

compacting, with a certain allowance made for over-lapping and they shall not be
allowed to come into contact with the formwork or the reinforcement and shall be
inserted at a distance of 75mm from the former. Pan vibrators shall be place on
the surface of the concrete which shall have previously been tamped and levelled
leaving an allowance in height for compaction, until the cement mortar appears
under the pan. The vibrator shall then be lifted and placed on the adjoining
surface and this operation shall be repeated until the whole surface has been
compacted. Alternatively, a vibrating screed spanning the full width of the
surface may also be used. Concreting shall be carried out continuously between
and up to pre-determined construction joints specified as before in one sequence
of operation. The surface of the concrete shall be maintained reasonably level
during placing. In the event of unavoidable stoppage in positions not predetermined the concreting shall be terminated on horizontal places and against
vertical surface by the use of stopping off boards. Any concrete which has
attained its initial set while being placed shall be discarded. Placing of concrete
shall be suspended during rain. The Engineer will decide whether concreting can
be continued under light drizzles. The Contractor is to execute all concreting in
such sequences so as to minimise the effects on the permanent works of
temporary stoppage of concreting due to rain. The Contractor shall also provide
adequate covers and other precautive measures for the precautionary of the
permanent works from inclement weather.
6.21

RECORDS
Records shall be kept by the Contractor of the positions in the works of all
batches of concrete and their grade. Two copies of these records shall be
supplied to the Engineer.

6.22

HOLES, ETC. IN CONCRETE


All holes, openings, pockets, ducts, chases, recesses and other cavities shall be
formed and all fittings cast in before the concrete is placed. No holes shall be cut
in any concrete without the prior approval of the Engineer.

6.23

CURING AND PROTECTION OF CONCRETE


The concrete shall be protected by approved means during hardening from direct
sunshine, dry wind, rain, traffic or shock. No concrete shall be permitted to dry
for at least ten days, and this shall be ensured by the continuous use of clean,
saturated sacking on other than horizontal surfaces and inundation of all
horizontal surfaces and the Contractor shall make due allowance for any
additional labour and water required in this connection.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 48

6.24

6.25

CONCRETING IN HOT WEATHER


(a)

Mixing - In hot weather, suitable means shall be provided to shield the


aggregate stockpiles from the direct rays of the sun or to cool the
aggregates by spraying with water and to insulate the mixing water tank
and pipelines to ensure that the temperature of the concrete when
deposited shall not exceed 32.2o C.

(b)

Placing - In hot dry weather suitable means shall be provided to avoid


premature stiffening of concrete placed in contact with hot dry surfaces.
Where necessary the surfaces, including reinforcement, against which
concrete is to be placed shall be shielded from the direct rays of the sun
and shall be sprayed with water to prevent excessive absorption by the
surfaces of water from the fresh concrete.

FORMWORK
The formwork shall be constructed of clean sound well-seasoned timber, sheet
metal or other approved materials.
The formwork shall be of such quality and strength as will ensure complete
rigidity throughout the placing, ramming, vibrating and setting of the concrete
and shall be sufficiently tight to prevent loss of liquid from the concrete.
Where formwork is described as wrot, it shall be constructed of tongue and
groove, wrought boarding or lined with sheet plywood, hardboard, metal, etc., so
as to present a smooth finish free from board marks or holes. The Contractor
shall allow for making good all blemishes, defects, etc., with cement mortar (1:1)
trowelled smooth and for any necessary rubbing down, polishing off, etc., to give
this appearance.
Formwork shall be so designed and constructed that the concrete can be properly
placed and thoroughly compacted without loss of water. It shall be adequately
strutted, braced or tied and capable of withstanding the pressure resulting from
the placing of the concrete, whatever method of compaction is employed, without
undue deflection or loss of alignment.
The Contractor shall make allowance in the formwork for any camber specified.
Formwork shall be approved by the Engineer before concreting is started but the
Contractor shall be solely responsible for ensuring that it is sufficiently strong
and rigid for its purpose.

6.26

CLEANING AND TREATMENT OF FORMWORK

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 49

All rubbish, particularly chippings, shaving and sawdust, shall be removed from
the interior of the formwork immediately before concrete is placed. The
formwork face in contact with the concrete shall be cleaned and either thoroughly
wetted, or treated with a suitable mould oil or approved release agent. Release
agents shall be applied uniformly. Care should be taken that oil materials of like
composition are kept out of contact with the reinforcement and do not accumulate
at the bottom of formwork. If the form is not used within 24 hours, a further coat
of mould oil is to be given before fixing in position.
The Contractor shall be responsible for ensuring that the release agent is
chemically and physically compatible with the finishes to be applied on the
concrete face later. Where there is no applied finish, the Conctractor shall be
responsible for ensuring that the release agent will not stain the surface of the
finished concrete.
Formwork may be treated with limewash or oil to facilitate removal, but the
Contractor will not be allowed to line the formwork with paper.
All formwork shall be inspected by the Engineer after preparation and prior to
depositing of concrete. No depositing of concrete shall be commenced until the
formwork has been approved.
6.27

STRIKING OR REMOVAL OF FORMWORK


All formwork shall be removed without shock or vibration to the concrete.
Before formwork is stripped, the concrete surface shall be exposed where
necessary in order to ascertain that the concrete has sufficiently hardened.
Unless otherwise decided by the Engineer, formwork shall not be struck earlier
than set down in the following Table or until the 28 days specified is achieved.
The Contractor shall be solely responsible for any injury to the Works and any
consequential damage caused by or arising out of the striking and removal of
formwork. Any instruction, permission or approval by the Engineer relating to
the striking and removal of formwork shall not relieve the Contractor of his
responsibility.
PART OF STRUCTURE

STRIKING OF FORMWORK
(Min. Time)

Slabs (props left under)


Soffits of beams (props left under)
Removal of props to slabs
Removal of props to beams

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

5 days
7 days
10 days
16 days

EW SPEC / Page 50

All formwork shall be struck and removed in such sections, order and manner as
the Engineer may direct.
6.28

CONCRETE TOLERANCES
Positions of members shall be accurate within 6mm but this tolerance must not be
cumulative.
Size of member shall be accurate to within - 0 + 3mm.
The displacement of shuttering boards at joints shall not be greater than 0.8mm.
The displacement from straightness of members shall be within 1.5mm in 3m. but
this tolerance must not be cumulative.
The twist in members shall not exceed 3mm in 3m. but this tolerance must not be
cumulative.
Columns which are exposed and have a fair-faced finish and those which house
windows and other frames tight to the faces shall be accurate in position, square,
size and straightness to within + 1.5mm.
The Engineer reserves the right to require any concrete which he deems
unsatisfactory in this respect to be entirely demolished and reconstructed at the
Contractors expense.

6.29

PRECAST CONCRETE
The relevant clauses specified earlier under structural concrete shall equally apply
to precast concrete.
All precast concrete is to be vibrated. Precast concrete shall be coated with
mould oil of a non-staining nature.
Concrete shall be well rodded and tamped into mould, no facing up is to be done
where work is to be left exposed, and the faces are to be true, clean and regular
with clean arises.
All exposed faces of precast concrete units shall be finished fair.
The Contractor shall protect precast concrete units from damage during lifting,
handling or storage and, where necessary, provide adequate protection to prevent
the concrete from damage due to rubbing by slings or contact with other units, or
any other cause.

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 51

During assembly, the Contractor shall provide and maintain sufficient and proper
temporary supports for each precast concrete unit until such time, as the Engineer
permits its load to be transferred to the adjacent structure.
Precast units shall be bedded, jointed and where required pointed in cement and
sand mortar (1:3).

Consultant : Sinar Firus Sdn Bhd


Project : Earthwork for PT GAL Palm Oil Mill

EW SPEC / Page 52