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CAESAR II

Applications
Guide

CAESAR II, VERSION 4.20


(LAST REVISED 1/2000)

Contents

Contents
Introduction A1-1
Overview A1-2
Program Support / User Assistance A1-2
COADE Technical Support Contact Information A1-2

Bends A2-1
Bend Definition A2-2
Single and Double Flanged Bends or Stiffened Bends A2-4
180 Degree Return (Fitting-To-Fitting 90 Deg. Bends) A2-6
Mitered Bends A2-7
Closely Spaced Mitered Bend A2-8
Widely Spaced Mitered Bend A2-10
Elbows - Different Wall Thickness A2-13

Restraints A3-1
Anchors A3-2
Anchors with Displacements A3-3
Flexible Anchors A3-5
Flexible Anchors with Predefined Displacements
Flexible Nozzle (WRC Bulletin 297) A3-8

A3-6

Flexible Nozzle with Predefined Displacements A3-11


Flexible Nozzle with Complete Vessel Model A3-12

Double-Acting Restraints

A3-17

Double-Acting Restraints (Translational) A3-17


Double-Acting Restraint (Rotational) A3-18

Single-Directional Restraints A3-19


Guides A3-20
Limit Stops A3-22
Windows A3-24
Rotational Directional Restraints with Gaps A3-25
Single-Directional Restraint with Predefined Displacement A3-26

CAESAR II Applications Guide

Contents

Single-Directional Restraint and Guide A3-27


Restraint Settlement A3-28
Skewed Double-Acting Restraint A3-29
Skewed Single-Directional Restraint A3-31
TRestraint Between Two Pipes (Use of CNodes) A3-32
Restraint Between Vessel and Pipe Models A3-33
Restraints on a Bend at 45 Degrees A3-34
Restraints on a Bend at 30 and 60 Degrees

Vertical Dummy Leg on Bends

A3-35

A3-36

Near/Far Point Method A3-36


On Curvature Method A3-36
Offset Element Method A3-36
A3-38

Vertical Leg Attachment Angle A3-39


Horizontal Dummy Leg on Bends A3-40
A3-41

Large Rotation Rods (Basic Model) A3-42


Large Rotation Rods (Chain Supports) A3-44
Large Rotation Rods (Spring Hangers) A3-45
Large Rotation Rods (Constant Effort Hangers) A3-46
Large Rotation Rods (Struts) A3-47
Bilinear Restraints A3-47
"Static" Snubbers A3-51
Plastic Hinges

A3-52

Sway Brace Assemblies A3-53

Hangers A4-1
General Information A4-2
Simple Hanger Design A4-3
Single Can Design A4-4
Constant Effort Support Design A4-5
Inputting Constant Effort Supports (No Design)
Entering Existing Springs (No Design) A4-7
Multiple Can Design A4-8

ii

CAESAR II Applications Guide

A4-6

Contents

Old Spring Redesign A4-9


Pipe and Hanger Supported From Vessel A4-10
Hanger Design with Support Thermal Movement A4-11
Hanger Between Two Pipes A4-12
Hanger Design with Anchors in the Vicinity A4-13
Hanger Design with User-Specified Operating Load A4-14
Spring Can Models with Bottom-Out and Lift-Off Capability A4-15
Spring Hanger Model With Rods, Bottom-Out, and Lift-Off A4-19
Simple "Bottomed-Out" Spring A4-23
Modeling Spring Cans with Friction A4-24

Expansion Joints A5-1


Simple Bellows with Pressure Thrust A5-2
Tied Bellows (Simple vs. Complex Model) A5-4
Tied Bellows Expansion Joint (Simple Model) A5-6
Tied Bellows Expansion Joint (Complex Model) A5-8
Universal Expansion Joints (Simple Models) A5-10
Universal Joint (Comprehensive Tie Rod) A5-16
Universal Joint with Lateral Control Stops (Comprehensive Tie Rod Model)
17
Hinged Joint A5-18
Slotted Hinge Joint (Simple) A5-20
Slotted Hinge Joint (Comprehensive) A5-21
Slip Joint A5-23
Gimbal Joint A5-24
Dual Gimbal A5-28
Pressure-Balanced Tees and Elbows A5-30

A5-

Miscellaneous Models A6-1


Reducers A6-2
Ball Joints A6-5
Jacketed Pipe A6-6
Cold Spring A6-8

CAESAR II Applications Guide

iii

Contents

Examples A7-1
Example 1: Harmonic Analysis (TABLE)

A7-2

Harmonic Analysis of this System A7-4

Example 2: Relief Valve Loads (RELIEF)

A7-7

CAESAR II Gas Thrust Load Calculations A7-9


Relief Valve Example Problem Setup A7-10
Relief Valve Loading - Output Discussion A7-14

Example 3: Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads (HAMMER)

A7-20

Notes for Analyzing Water Hammer Loads A7-28


Water Hammer Loading - Output Discussion A7-30
Mass Participation Report A7-30
Displacement Report A7-30
Restraint/Force/Stress Reports A7-30
Combination Cases A7-30
Problem Solution A7-31

Example 4:Dynamic Analysis of Independent Support Earthquake Excitation


(CRYISM) A7-36
Cryogenic Piping Dynamics Example
Discussion of Results A7-45

A7-36

Example 5: Structural Analysis (FRAME) A7-47


Example 6: Dynamic Analysis (NUREG9) A7-58
NRC Example NUREG9 A7-58

Example 7: Omega Loop Modeling (OMEGA) A7-66


Example 8: Jacketed Piping (JACKET) A7-72
Step 1 - Modeling Plan A7-73
Step 2 - Layout of Nodes A7-73
Segment A A7-74
Segment B A7-74
Segment C A7-74
Segment D A7-75
Segment E A7-75
Segment F A7-75
Segment G A7-75
Segment H A7-75
Segment I A7-75
Step 3 - Input of Core Piping A7-75
Step 4 - Input of Jacket, 1st Half A7-76
Step 5 - Input of Jacket, 2nd Half A7-80

Example 9: WRC 107

iv

A7-82

CAESAR II Applications Guide

Contents

Converting Forces/Moments in CAESAR II Global Coordinates to WRC 107 Local


Axes A7-83

Example 10: NEMA SM23

A7-95

NEMA Example PT69M A7-95


Nozzle Results for PT69M A7-99
Nozzle Load Summation Report A7-100

Tutorial A A8-1
System Overview

A8-2

Preparing the Drawing A8-3


Generating CAESAR II Input A8-5
Input Review A8-20
Ending the Input Session A8-25
Performing the Static Analysis A8-26

Reviewing the Static Results

A8-29

Static Analysis Output Listing A8-34

Conclusions

A8-42

Tutorial B A9-1
Evaluating Pump Discharge Loads A9-2
Creating a More Accurate Model A9-12
WRC 297 Calculations Completed at the End of Error Checking A9-16

Checking Nozzle Loads A9-22


System Redesign A9-25
Conclusion A9-34

CAESAR II Applications Guide

Contents

vi

CAESAR II Applications Guide

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Overview

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Overview
The CAESAR II Application Guide is intended to serve as an example guide, showing the
application of the CAESAR II program. Users should refer to this manual for examples of
specific piping components, as well as complete example jobs.
Chapters 2 through 6 of this manual illustrate the techniques and methods used to model
individual piping components, restraints, and attached equipment. These chapters should
be referenced often when modeling seldom-used components or unusual geometries.
Users should recognize that the numeric data used in these examples is not necessarily
applicable in all cases. In general, the numeric values used in these examples are fictitious
quantities, unless otherwise noted.
Chapter 7 is a chapter of worked examples, illustrating the application of CAESAR II to
various piping problems. These examples illustrate modeling, problem solving, and program operation.
Chapters 8 and 9 contain a tutorial that walks the user through the modeling and analysis
of a complete system.
Users are urged to work through these chapters, especially if a particular analysis has
never been previously attempted. The component modeling examples in Chapters 2
through 6 are especially useful, for both modeling techniques and general program understanding. The examples in Chapter 7 also provide engineering guidelines and indicate
where assumptions must be made in attempting to solve real-world problems.

Program Support / User Assistance


COADEs staff understands that CAESAR II is not only a complex analysis tool but also,
at times, an elaborate process one that may not be obvious to the casual user. While our
documentation is intended to address the questions raised regarding piping analysis, system modeling, and results interpretation, not all the answers can be quickly found in these
volumes.
COADE understands the engineers need to produce efficient, economical, and expeditious designs. To that end, COADE has a staff of helpful professionals ready to address
any CAESAR II and piping issues raised by all users. CAESAR II support is available by
telephone, facsimile, the Internet, bulletin board service, and by mail; literally hundreds of
support calls are answered every week. COADE provides this service at no additional
charge to the user. It is expected, however, that questions focus on the current version of
the program.
Formal training in CAESAR II and pipe stress analysis is also available from COADE.
For many years now, COADE has scheduled regular training classes in Houston and provided in-house and open attendance training around the world. These courses focus on the
expertise available at COADEmodeling, analysis, and design.

COADE Technical Support Contact Information


Phone: 281-890-4566 CompuServe:
Fax:

73073,362

281-890-3301 E-Mail: techsupport@coade.com

WEB: www.coade.com

1-2

Introduction

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Bend Definition

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Bend Definition
Bends are defined by the element entering the bend and the element leaving the bend. The
actual bend curvature is always physically at the To end of the element entering the bend.
The input for the element leaving the bend must follow the element entering the bend. The
bend angle is defined by these two elements.
Bend radius defaults to 1 1/2 times the pipe nominal diameter (long radius), but may be
changed to any other value.
Specifying a bend automatically generates two additional intermediate nodes, at the 0degree location and at the bend mid-point (M).
For stress and displacement output the To node of the element entering the bend is located
geometrically at the far-point on the bend. The far-point is at the weldline of the bend, and
adjacent to the straight element leaving the bend.
The 0-degree point on the bend is at the weldline of the bend, and adjacent to the straight
element entering the bend.
The From point on the element is located at the 0-degree point of the bend (and no 0degree node point will be generated) if the total length of the element as specified in the
DX, DY, and DZ fields is equal to:
R tan ( / 2)
where is the bend angle, and R is the bend radius of curvature to the bend centerline.
Nodes defined in the Angle and Node fields are placed at the given angle on the bend curvature. The angle starts with zero degrees at the near-point on the bend and goes to
degrees at the far-point of the bend.
Angles are always entered in degrees. Entering the letter "M" as the angle designates the
bend midpoints.

2-2

Bends

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Bend Definition

Nodes on the bend curvature cannot be placed closer together than specified by the Minimum Angle to Adjacent Bend parameter in the Configure-SetupGeometry section.
This includes the spacing between the nodes on the bend curvature and the near and farpoints of the bend.
The minimum and maximum total bend angle is specified by the Minimum Bend Angle
and Maximum Bend Angle parameters in the Configure SetupGeometry section.

Bends

2-3

Single and Double Flanged Bends or Stiffened Bends

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Single and Double Flanged Bends or Stiffened Bends


Single and double flanged bend specifications only effect the stress intensification and
flexibility of the bend. There is no automatic rigid element (or change in weight) generated for the end of the bend.
Single- and double-flanged bends are indicated by entering 1 or 2 (respectively) for Type
in the bend auxiliary input. Rigid elements defined before or after the bend will not alter
the bends stiffness or stress intensification factors.
When specifying single flanged bends it doesnt matter which end of the bend the flange is
on.
If the user wishes to include the weight of the rigid flange(s) at the bend ends, then he/she
should put rigid elements (whose total length is the length of a flange pair) at the bend
ends where the flange pairs exist.
As a guideline, British Standard 806 recommends stiffening the bends whenever a component that significantly stiffens the pipe cross section is found within two diameters of
either bend end.

2-4

Bends

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Single and Double Flanged Bends or Stiffened Bends

The flanges in the figures below are modelled only to the extent that they effect the stiffness and the stress intensification for the bends.
Example: Flanged Bends

Bends

2-5

180 Degree Return (Fitting-To-Fitting 90 Deg. Bends)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

180 Degree Return (Fitting-To-Fitting 90 Deg. Bends)


Two 90-degree bends should be separated by twice the bend radius.
The far-point of the first bend is the same as the near-point of the second (following) bend.
The user is recommended to put nodes at the mid point of each bend comprising the 180
degree return. (See the example below.)
Example: 180-degree Bend

2-6

Bends

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Mitered Bends

Mitered Bends
Evenly spaced mitered bends, whether closely or widely spaced, are uniquely defined by
two parameters:

Number of cuts (changes in direction)

Equivalent radius <or> miter spacing.

For closely spaced miters the equivalent radius is equal to the code defined R1 for B31.3
and R for B31.1. The equation relating the equivalent radius to the spacing for evenly
spaced miters is:
Req = S / [ 2 tan() ]
where:
Req -equivalent miter bend radius
S -spacing of the miter cuts along the centerline

-code defined half-angle between adjacent miter cuts:

= / 2N

where:
- total bend angle

N - number of cuts
An additional parameter B (length of miter segment at crotch) is checked for closely
spaced miters when using B31.1. B may be found for evenly spaced miters from:
B = S [ 1 - ro / Req ]
where:
ro - outside radius of pipe cross-section.

Bends

2-7

Closely Spaced Mitered Bend

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Closely Spaced Mitered Bend


Miter bends are closely spaced if:
S < r [ 1 + tan () ]
where:
S - miter spacing
r - average pipe cross section radius: (ri+ro)/2
-one-half the angle between adjacent miter cuts.

B31.1 has the additional requirements that:


B

> 6 tn

22.5 deg.

B- length of the miter segment at the crotch.


tn- nominal wall thickness of pipe.
Closely spaced miters regardless of the number of miter cuts may be entered as a single
bend. CAESAR II will always calculate the spacing from the bend radius. If the user has
the miter spacing and not the bend radius, the radius must be calculated as shown above.
The mitered bend shown below has 4 cuts and a spacing of 15.913 in.
Req =

S / [ 2 tan () ]

/ 2N

90 / [2(4)]

11.25 deg.

Req =
=

2-8

15.913 / [2 tan (11.25 deg.)]


40

Bends

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Closely Spaced Mitered Bend

Example: Closely spaced miter bend.

Bends

2-9

Widely Spaced Mitered Bend

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Widely Spaced Mitered Bend


Mitered bends are widely spaced if:
S r * [1 + tan ()]
S

spacing between miter points along the miter segment centerline.

average cross section radius. (ri+ro)/2

one-half angle between adjacent miter cuts.

B31.1 has the additional requirement that:


22.5 deg.

In CAESAR II, widely spaced miters must be entered as individual, single cut miters,
each having a bend radius equal to:
R = r [1 + cot ()] / 2
R - reduced bend radius for widely spaced miters.
During error checking, CAESAR II will produce a warning message for each mitered
component which does not pass the test for a closely spaced miter. These components
should be re-entered as a group of single cut joints.

2-10

Bends

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Widely Spaced Mitered Bend

Example: Widely Spaced Miter

Pipe O.D.

10.375 in.

Pipe Thk.

0.500 in.

Bend angle

90 deg.

Cuts

Req

45 in.

Assuming closely spaced:


= a / 2N = 90 / (2 * 2) = 22.5 deg.

r = [10.3750 - .5] / 2 = 4.9375

Input widely spaced miters as individual straight pipe elements, with bends specified, having
one miter cut.

Bends

2-11

Widely Spaced Mitered Bend

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example: Widely Spaced Miter ...Continued

Input for element from Node 5 to Node 10.

Input for element from


Node 10 to Node 15.

Input for element from Node


15 to Node 20.

2-12

Bends

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Elbows - Different Wall Thickness

Elbows - Different Wall Thickness


When the fitting thickness in the bend auxiliary field is input, CAESAR II changes the
thickness of the curved portion of the bend element only. The thickness of any preceding
or following straight pipe is unaffected.
The specified fitting thickness applies for the current elbow only and is not carried on to
any subsequent elbows in the job.
Stresses at the elbow are calculated based on the section modulus of the matching pipe as
specified in the B31 codes. However, stress intensification factors and flexibility factors
for the bend are based on the elbow wall thickness.
The elbow at 10 has a thickness larger than the matching pipe wall. The matching pipe has
a thickness of 0.5.

Bends

2-13

Elbows - Different Wall Thickness

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example: Thick Elbow

2-14

Bends

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Anchors

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Anchors
The following are general guidelines and information concerning anchors:

The anchor default stiffness for translational and rotational degrees of freedom is
defined in the Configuration file.
Connecting nodes can be used with anchors to rigidly fix one point in the piping system to any other point in the piping system.
Entries in the Stif field apply to all 6 anchor degrees of freedom.
Displacements should not be specified at an anchor. If the displacements of a particular point are known, they should be input directly without any additional restraints or
anchors.
Accurate input of the piping boundary conditions (i.e. restraints) is probably the single
most important part of system modeling, requiring experience both with piping fabrication and erection, and with CAESAR II.

The first group of examples illustrates a large number of boundary condition applications
and their proper modeling using CAESAR II.
Example: Rigid Anchor at Node 5

Nozzle connection modeled as anchor

Rigid anchor input

3-2

0101-C2A

Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Anchors with Displacements

Anchors with Displacements


Follow these general guidelines to model anchors with displacements:

Enter only displacements for the node.


Do not specify restraints or anchors at the node to be displaced.
For anchors with displacements, make sure all 6 degrees of freedom at the node are
defined.

Note

Degrees of freedom not defined (left blank) in any displacement vector are
assumed to be free in all load cases.

Up to 9 different displacement vectors (i.e., D1...D9) may be defined.


Non-zero displacements are usually part of the thermal expansion effects and, if so, should
normally be added into any analysis case containing the corresponding thermal, i.e.
W+P1+T1+D1. The CAESAR II recommended load cases do this automatically.
The translations and/or rotations for any nodal degree of freedom having displacements
specified in any displacement vector will be zero for load cases not containing that vector
as part of the load case identification, and the specified non-zero value for load cases containing the vector as part of the load case identification. For instance, defined displacements are used if the load case is W+P1+T1+D1 (OPE) and those displacements are held
to zero if the load case is W+P1 (SUS).

Restraints

3-3

Anchors with Displacements

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Once a degree of freedom has been fixed in one displacement vector, it cannot be free in
another displacement vector at the same node (leaving a displacement field blank will
default to zero in this case).
Example: Anchor with Predefined Displacements

Predefined displacements on an anchor

Anchor displacement input


0102-C2A

3-4

Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Flexible Anchors

Flexible Anchors
Follow these guidelines to model flexible anchors:

Use six flexible restraints.


Put four restraints on one spreadsheet and the last two restraints on the next element
spreadsheet.
See the following flexible nozzle examples to improve modeling methods for intersections of this type.

Example: Flexible Restraints for Nozzle and Shell

0103-C2A

Restraints

3-5

Flexible Anchors with Predefined Displacements

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Flexible Anchors with Predefined Displacements


To model flexible anchors with predefined displacements, implement the following
requirements:

Use six flexible restraints.


Put four restraints on one spreadsheet and the last two restraints on the next element
spreadsheet.
Define a unique connecting node (CNode), at each of the six restraints. All six
restraints should have the same connecting node.
Specify the displacements at the connecting node.
Example: Flexible Anchor with Predefined Displacements
The connecting node here is 1005. Connecting node numbers may be selected at the
users convenience, but must be unique.

0104-C2A

3-6

Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Restraints

Flexible Anchors with Predefined Displacements

3-7

Flexible Nozzle (WRC Bulletin 297)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Flexible Nozzle (WRC Bulletin 297)


Adhere to these requirements when modeling flexible nozzles:

Frame only one pipe element into the nozzle node.


Do not place restraints at the nozzle node.
Do not place anchors at the nozzle node.
Do not specify displacements for the nozzle node. (See the following example for displacements at flexible nozzles.)

CAESAR II automatically performs the following functions:

calculates nozzle flexibilities for the nozzle/vessel data entered by the user
calculates and inserts restraints to simulate the nozzle flexibilities
calculates flexibilities for the axial translations, circumferential, and longitudinal
bending

The user must perform the error check process to view these calculated values.

CAESAR II uses the following criteria for its calculations:

3-8

Shear and torsional stiffnesses are assumed rigid.


Nozzle configurations outside of the WRC 297 curve limits are considered rigid. It is
not unusual for one stiffness value to be rigid because of curve limits, and the others to
be suitably flexible.
The vessel temperature and material fields on the WRC 297 auxiliary data area may
be used to optionally compute a reduced modulus of elasticity for the local stiffness
calculations.

Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Flexible Nozzle (WRC Bulletin 297)

Example: Schematic of Nozzle and Vessel to be Modeled with WRC 297

0105-C2A

Restraints

3-9

Flexible Nozzle (WRC Bulletin 297)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Figure 1-5bWRC297 input for example

Figure 1-5cWRC297 output for example


0105-C2A

3-10

Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Flexible Nozzle (WRC Bulletin 297)

Flexible Nozzle with Predefined Displacements


Follow these guidelines to model flexible nozzles with predefined displacements (WRC
297):

Define a unique vessel node on the Nozzle spreadsheet.


Apply the predefined displacements to the vessel node.

Note

These displacements can be given on any element spreadsheet (the displacement


node does not need to be on an element that defines it).

The CAESAR II generated nozzle/vessel flexibilities will be inserted in restraints that


act between the nozzle node and the vessel node.

Example: Flexible Nozzle with Predefined Displacements

Displacements defined on vessel node

Restraints

3-11

Flexible Nozzle (WRC Bulletin 297)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Flexible Nozzle with Complete Vessel Model


Follow these guidelines for modeling a flexible nozzle that includes a complete vessel:

Define a unique vessel node on the Nozzle Spreadsheet.


Run a rigid element between the vessel node defined on the Nozzle Spreadsheet and
the centerline of the vessel. The outside diameter of the rigid element should be
approximately equal to the outside diameter of the vessel. The weight of the rigid element should be zero.
Model the actual vessel length using pipe elements. The vessel diameter and wall
thicknesses should be modeled as accurately as possible
Use an anchor to model the vessel anchorage point.

The CAESAR II generated nozzle/vessel flexibilities will be inserted between the nozzle
node and the vessel node.

3-12

Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Flexible Nozzle (WRC Bulletin 297)

Example: Full WRC 297 Model Schematic

0107-C2A

Restraints

3-13

Flexible Nozzle (WRC Bulletin 297)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example: Full WRC 297 and Vessel Model

Pipe entering nozzle

WRC 297 auxiliary input


0107-C2A

3-14

Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Flexible Nozzle (WRC Bulletin 297)

Example (continued): Full WRC 297 and Vessel Model

Rigid weight is blank (0.0)


Rigid element specification
for vessel radius

Vessel skirt element

Vessel element

0107-C2A

Restraints

3-15

Flexible Nozzle (WRC Bulletin 297)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

WRC 297 results found at end of error checking

3-16

Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Double-Acting Restraints

Double-Acting Restraints
Double-acting restraints are those that act in both directions along the line of action. Most
commonly used restraints are double-acting.
CNode is the connecting node. If left blank then the restrained node is connected via the
restraint stiffness to a rigid point in space. If CNode is entered then the restrained node
is connected via the restraint stiffness to the connecting node.
If a gap is specified, it is the amount of free movement along the positive or negative line
of action of the restraint before resistance to movement occurs. A gap is a length, and so is
always positive.

Double-Acting Restraints (Translational)


Restraint acts along both the positive and negative directions.
Friction at double-acting restraints acts orthogonally to the line of action of the restraint.
Example: Double-Acting Restraint at Node 55 in the Z Direction

Schematic

Input

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Double-Acting Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Double-Acting Restraint (Rotational)


Behavior is similar to double-acting translational restraints.
Friction is not defined for rotational restraints.
Example: Hinged-End Rod Free to Rotate about Z-Axis

Four restraints on element spreadsheet containing node 105 and remaining restraint on
next spreadsheet.

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Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Single-Directional Restraints

Single-Directional Restraints
The following are some important facts pertaining to single-directional restraints:

The sign on the single-directional restraint gives the direction of free movement;
that is, a +Y restraint may move freely in the positive Y direction and will be
restrained against movement in the negative Y direction.
Single-directional restraints may define restraint along positive, negative, or skewed
axes.
Any number of single-directional restraints may act along the same line of action. (If
more than one single directional restraint acts along the same line of action, then there
are usually two in opposite directions and they are used to model unequal leg gaps.)
CNode is the connecting node. If left blank then the restrained node is connected via
the restraint stiffness to a rigid point in space. If CNode is entered then the restrained
node is connected via the restraint stiffness to the connecting node.
Friction and gaps may be specified with single-directional restraints.

Example: Rigid Single-Directional Restraint in Y at Node 20

The sign on the restraint gives the direction of "free" movement. Since the stiffness is omitted, the restraint will be
rigid.

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3-19

Guides

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Guides
The following are some important facts pertaining to Guides in CAESAR II.

Guides are double-acting restraints with or without a specified gap.


Connecting Nodes (CNode) can be used with guides.
Guides may be defined using the global system coordinates or with the restraint type
GUI.
A "guided" pipe in the horizontal or skewed direction will have a single restraint, acting in the horizontal plane, orthogonal to the axis of the pipe.
A guided vertical pipe will have both X and Z direction supports.
Direction cosines for guides are computed by CAESAR II. Guide direction cosines
entered by the user are ignored.
Example: Guide on Horizontal Pipe with Single Directional Restraint

Node 25 is guided in Z with a gap of 2.5


in. A single-directional restraint in the Y
direction also exists. Both restraints are
rigid.
Note: Replacing the Guide restraint type
is the same thing as replacing the Z
restraint type.

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Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Guides

Example: Guided Pipe in Both Horizontal and Vertical Directions

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Restraints

3-21

Limit Stops

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Limit Stops
The following are important facts pertaining to Limit Stops:

Limit Stops are single- or double-acting restraints whose line of action is along the
axis of the pipe.
The sign on the single-directional restraint gives the direction of unlimited free movement.
Limit Stops/Single Directional Restraints can have gaps. The gap is the distance of
permitted free movement along the restraining line of action.
A gap is a length, and is always positive. Orientation of the gap along the line of
action of the restraint is accomplished via the sign on the restraint.
Connecting Nodes (CNode) may be used with any Limit Stop model.
Limit stops may be defined using the restraint type LIM.
Limit Stops provide double or single-acting support parallel to the pipe axis. Limit
Stops may have gaps and friction. The positive line of action of the Limit Stop is
defined by the From and To node on the element.
Direction cosines for orthogonal or skewed limit stops are computed by
CAESAR II. Limit Stop direction cosines entered by the user are ignored.

Example: Directional Limit Stop with a Gap

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Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Limit Stops

Example: Two Limit Stops that Act in Opposite Directions


The stop at 45 permits unlimited free movement in the plus X direction, and 1.0 in. of free movement in the minus X direction before
the Limit Stop becomes active.
The stop at 195 permits
unlimited free movement in the minus X
direction, and 1.0 in. of
free movement in the
plus X direction before
the Limit Stop becomes
active.

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Restraints

3-23

Windows

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Windows
Keep in mind the following facts when modeling Windows in CAESAR II.

Equal leg windows are modeled using two double-acting restraints with gaps orthogonal to the pipe axis.
Unequal leg windows are modeled using four single-acting restraints with gaps
orthogonal to the pipe axis. (See the following example.)
The gap is always positive. The direction of movement before the gap closes is determined by the sign on the restraint. If there is no sign, then the restraint is double-acting
and the gap exists on both sides of the line of action of the restraint. If there is a sign
on the restraint then the gap exists on the restrained line of action of the restraint, i.e.
a +Y restraint is restrained against movement in the -Y direction, and any gap associated with a +Y restraint is the free movement in the -Y direction before the restraint
begins acting.

Example: Window Modeled with Four Single Directional Restraints with Gaps

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Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Rotational Directional Restraints with Gaps

Rotational Directional Restraints with Gaps


These restraints can be considered specialty items and are typically only used in sophisticated expansion joint or hinge models.
Example: Rotational Restraints
Bi-directional rotational restraint with gap

Allowable rotation of 5 degrees in either direction about the z-axis before resistance to rotation is encountered.

Hinge assembly with directional rotational restraint

Hinge assembly at node 50 can rotate relative


to assembly at node 55 only in the positive
direction about the z-axis.

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3-25

Single-Directional Restraint with Predefined Displacement

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Single-Directional Restraint with Predefined Displacement


Define the one-directional restraint as usual, and enter a unique node number in the
CNode field. Specify the predefined displacements for the CNode.
Example: Single-Directional Restraint with Predefined

Piping at node 55 rests on top of the restraint that is


displaced in the y-direction (node 1055).

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Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Single-Directional Restraint and Guide

Single-Directional Restraint and Guide


with Gap and Predefined Displacement
Define the single-directional restraint and guide as usual. Put a unique node number in the
CNode field for the single-directional restraint and the guide. The same unique node number should be entered in both CNode fields. Specify the predefined displacements for the
CNode.
Example: Guide Plus Single-Directional Restraint with Predetermined Displacement

Guided piping at mode 70 rests on a structural member (node 1070). The structure
undergoes a predefined displacement.

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Restraint Settlement

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Restraint Settlement
Keep in mind the following facts when modeling restraint settlements:

Model using a single-directional restraint with predefined displacements. The magnitude of the predefined displacement is the amount of anticipated settlement in the
minus Y direction.
The Displacement Load Case is used to include the effect of the settlement (nonthermal).
The settlement displacements are prescribed for the connecting node at the single
directional restraint. (Refer to single-directional Restraint with Predefined Displacement.)
Example: Settlement of a Restraint
The weight of this pipe at node
95 exerts a sufficient load on
the foundation (node 1095) to
cause a calculated.325-in. settlement.

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Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Skewed Double-Acting Restraint

Skewed Double-Acting Restraint


The following are some important considerations for modeling skewed restraints:

Direction vectors or direction cosines can be used to define the line of action of the
restraint. If direction vectors are used, CAESAR II will immediately convert them to
direction cosines.
Direction cosines may be quickly checked in the graphics processor.
Any translational axis can be used in the restraint description. The redefinition of
the axis does not affect any other restraint description for the element.
Particular attention should be paid to skewed direction input data. A common mistake
is to specify an axial instead of transverse restraint when modeling a skewed guide.
Plotted section views of the restrained nodes can be an extremely useful check of the
skewed direction specification.
The sense of the direction or cosine unit vector is unimportant. In the definition of
double-acting restraints, the direction vector and cosines are only used to define the
restraint line of action and are not concerned with a direction along that line.
A simple rule can be used for finding perpendicular, skewed, direction vectors. The
restraint is to be perpendicular to the pipe. If the pipe has skewed delta dimensions DX
and DZ, the perpendicular restraint directions vector will be (-DZ, 0, DX).
Example: Skewed Double-Acting Restraint with Gap

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Restraints

3-29

Skewed Double-Acting Restraint

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example (continued): Skewed Double-Acting


Restraint with Gap

Input using unit direction vectors

Input using direction cosines

Input using perpendicular vector

Input using guide restraint type


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Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Skewed Single-Directional Restraint

Skewed Single-Directional Restraint


The following are some important considerations regarding skewed single-directional
restraints:

Skewed restraints may be nonlinear.


Direction vectors or direction cosines may be used to define the line of action of the
restraint. If direction vectors are used CAESAR II will immediately convert them to
direction cosines.
The direction of the cosines or the direction vector is along the positive line of action
of the (+) restraint. (See the figure for clarification.)
Direction cosines may be quickly checked in the graphics processor.
Connecting nodes (CNode) can be used with any skewed single-directional restraint.
Example: Skewed Single-Directional Restraint

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3-31

TRestraint Between Two Pipes (Use of CNodes)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Restraint Between Two Pipes (Use of CNodes)


Note

For these two examples, the directive Connect Geometry Through CNodes
must be turned off to avoid plotting and geometry errors.

Nonlinear or linear restraints can act between two different pipe nodes. The Cnode effectively represents what the "other end of the restraint" is attached to.
Example: Nonlinear Restraint Between Two Pipes

Saddle modeled as a + y restraint

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Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Restraint Between Vessel and Pipe Models

Restraint Between Vessel and Pipe Models


The following are some important facts that pertain to restraints acting between vessel
and pipe:

Use a restraint with connecting node to link the pipe to the rigid element extending
from the vessel shell.
Any number of restraints may be specified between the restrained node and the connecting node.
Restraints may be linear or nonlinear with gaps and/or friction.
Example: Restraint Between Vessel and Piping

The "far point" of the elbow at node 20 is


linked, via the restraint, to the structural
attachment point at 185.

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Restraints

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Restraints on a Bend at 45 Degrees

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Restraints on a Bend at 45 Degrees


Linear and/or non-linear restraints can act at any point on the bend curvature. Points on the
bend curvature are like any other point in the piping system.
The following figure shows a bend supported vertically by a rigid rod. The rod will be
allowed to take tensile loads only and so will be modeled as a single directional restraint
that can move freely in the +Y direction. (See the Chapter on "Bends" if the actual positions of the nodes 19 and 20 are not clear.)
The line of action of the rod is really shifted away from the node 19. Note that a downward
force at node 15 will produce a positive Z moment about 20 in the system as modeled, and
a negative Z moment about the point 20 in real life.
The magnitude of this moment is a function of the load and the moment area (the amount
of the shift). If this is considered significant, then a rigid element with zero weight could
be placed between node 19 and the actual point of rod attachment. The restraint would
then be placed at the actual point of rod attachment.
Example: 90-Degree Bend Restrained at Midpoint

0126-C2A

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Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Restraints on a Bend at 45 Degrees

Restraints on a Bend at 30 and 60 Degrees


Up to three (3) nodes can be defined at any angle on the bend curvature so long as the
points are more than five degrees apart. Restraints may be modeled on any of these nodes.
If necessary one of these points can be at the zero degree point on the bend. The zero
degree point on a bend is the bend near point.
The To node of the bend is placed at the tangent intersection point for geometric construction but is placed at the bend "far" point for analysis purposes. Therefore, specifying a
node at the bend far-weld point will generate an error.
Nodes and angles on the bend curvature can be specified in any order.
Example: Restraints on Intermediate Points Along a Bend

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3-35

Vertical Dummy Leg on Bends

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Vertical Dummy Leg on Bends


Dummy legs on bends can be modeled several ways. The three most common methods
used to model dummy legs are outlined below:

Near/Far Point Method

Easy input
Dummy leg acts along centerline of vertical run
Dummy leg does not act at the proper place on the bend curvature

On Curvature Method

Easy input
Dummy leg acts at the proper place on the bend curvature
Dummy leg does not act along the centerline of the vertical run

Offset Element Method

Difficult input
Dummy leg acts at the proper place on the bend curvature
Dummy leg acts along centerline of vertical run

The element immediately after the bend must define the downstream side of the bend. Do
not define dummy legs on the element spreadsheet immediately following the bend specification spreadsheet.
Dummy legs and/or any other elements attached to the bend curvature should be coded to
the bend tangent intersection point. The length of the dummy leg will be taken directly
from the DX, DY, and DZ fields on the dummy legs pipe spreadsheet. There will be no
automatic alteration of the dummy leg length due to the difference between the bend tangent intersection point and the actual point on the bend curvature where the dummy leg
acts. The true length of the dummy leg should be input in the DX, DY, and DZ fields on
the dummy leg element spreadsheet.
Input and output plots of the dummy leg always show it going to the bend tangent intersection point.

3-36

Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Vertical Dummy Leg on Bends

For each dummy leg/bend model a warning message is generated during error checking.
The user should make sure that the warning message description of the bend is accurate.
Example: Vertical Dummy Leg on Bend

The bend shown is entered from the


top left corner of the control station
(nodes 80 to 85), and exits horizontally to the right (nodes 85 to 90).
The dummy leg is attached at the
45-degree point on the bend, and
the centerline of the dummy leg
should line up with the centerline of
the vertical run of pipe entering the
bend (node 80 to 85).

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Restraints

3-37

Vertical Dummy Leg on Bends

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example (continued): Dummy Leg on Bend

Near/far point method

On curvature method

Offset element method


0128-C2A

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Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Vertical Leg Attachment Angle

Vertical Leg Attachment Angle


Example: Dummy Leg Attachment Angle Calculation

= 41.4 deg. for long radius

48.18 deg. for short radius

Restraints

0129-C2A

3-39

Horizontal Dummy Leg on Bends

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Horizontal Dummy Leg on Bends


The element leaving the bend must define the downstream side of the bend. Do not define
dummy legs on the element spreadsheet immediately following the bend specification
spreadsheet.
The true length of the dummy leg should be input in the DX, DY, and DZ fields on the
dummy leg pipe spreadsheet.
Input and output plots of the dummy leg always show the dummy leg going to the bend
tangent intersection point.
For each dummy leg/bend model a warning message is generated during error checking.
The user should make sure that the warning message description of the dummy leg is
accurate.
Example: Horizontal Dummy Leg on Midpoint of Bend

Dummy leg is defined as a zeroweight rigid supported on one


end by a spring can.

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Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Horizontal Dummy Leg on Bends

Example: Node Position Definition for Points on the Bend Curvature

0129-C2A

Restraints

3-41

Large Rotation Rods (Basic Model)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Large Rotation Rods (Basic Model)


Large rotation rods are used to model relatively short rods, where large orthogonal movement of the pipe causes shortening of the restraint along the original line of action.
Large rotation rods can be entered in any direction. The user picks the XROD, YROD, or
ZROD from the type list. When CAESAR II detects that a rod is being input, the
restraint field is changed: Gap is changed to Len and Mu is changed to Fi. Len is the length
of large rotation swing. Fi is the initial load on the restraint if used to model a variable support spring hanger. (See some of the later rod examples.) The user can imagine the large
rotation rod as providing a bowl in which the pipe node is free to move.
Large rotation rods should only be entered where needed. Repeated use where not necessary may cause the system to become unstable during the nonlinear iteration. The system
should first be analyzed without the large rotation rods, then large rotation rods added
where horizontal movement at support points is greatest. Usually only one rod should be
added in an area at a time.
The rod angle tolerance is currently set at 1.0 degree.
Large rotation is generally considered to become significant when the angle of swing
becomes greater than 5 degrees.
Connecting nodes may be used for large rotation rods just like for any other support.
Graphically, the connecting nodes and the restraint node do not have to be at the same
point in space. There is no plot connectivity forced between large rotation rod nodes and
connecting nodes.
The signs on the large rotation rod are significant and determine the orientation of the
swing axis. A +YROD is equivalent to a YROD and indicates that the concave side of the
curvature is in the positive Y direction.

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Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Large Rotation Rods (Basic Model)

In the example below, the rod pivots about the structural steel support. There is a very
short swing arm, and so even a small amount of horizontal movement will produce a relatively large swing. In the output report for this restraint, the user will see X and Y direction
loads.
Example: Large Rotation Rod

0129-C2A

Restraints

3-43

Large Rotation Rods (Chain Supports)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Large Rotation Rods (Chain Supports)


See the Large Rotation (Basic Model) example for a discussion of large rotation rod fundamentals.
In the model below, the user wants the large rotation swing only in the plane of the chain
support (the Y-Z plane). The two pipes should move freely relative to each other in the
axial direction (the Y-X plane). Three restraints with connecting nodes are used. The first
is the large rotation rod with its connecting node, which in turn is connected to the second
and third linear restraints that allow only Y-Z interaction between the large rotation rod
connecting node and the top pipe node.
Example: Chain Support

0130-C2A

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Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Large Rotation Rods (Spring Hangers)

Large Rotation Rods (Spring Hangers)


See the Large Rotation (Basic Model) example for a discussion of large rotation rod fundamentals.
The Stif, Len, and Fi fields must be filled in to model large rotation variable springs.
CAESAR II will design a spring at a location where the user suspects that large rotation
will be a factor, but once the spring has been designed, the user must transfer the spring
design data into large rotation restraint data. (The spring design algorithm will not include
large rotation effects in a to-be-designed spring.)
Springs can be particularly susceptible to the large rotation effect because they are often
pulled along horizontally rather than through the large rotation arc. This direct horizontal
movement can cause considerable extension of the spring, changing the spring load and
possibly even causing bottoming out of the spring. CAESAR II properly calculates this
change in the spring load and its direction of application. The user must, however, make
sure that the spring stays within the design limits. (This is not difficult to do. The maximum computed load on the spring is compared to the manufacturers load limits).
Large rotation variable support spring hanger models can be used with or without connecting nodes.
Steam line hangers are particularly susceptible to large rotation because they typically
experience large horizontal movement, and tend to pull the hanger along with the pipe.
In the following example, the pipe movement, if it follows the path from A to B, will
change the line of action of the spring force, but not significantly alter the spring load. If
the pipe pulls the hanger along in the horizontal plane along the path from A to C, both
the line of action of the spring force and the magnitude of the spring load can change. It is
this type of pulling along that is potentially the most dangerous to the spring.
Example: Spring Modeled as Large Rotation Rod

0130-C2A

Restraints

3-45

Large Rotation Rods (Constant Effort Hangers)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Large Rotation Rods (Constant Effort Hangers)


See the Large Rotation (Basic Model) example for a discussion of large rotation rod fundamentals.
To model large rotation constant effort springs, the Stif, Len, and Fi fields must be filled
in. CAESAR II will design constant effort supports at a location where the user suspects
that large rotation will be a factor, but once the spring has been designed, the user must
transfer the hot load data into large rotation restraint data. (The spring design algorithm
will not include large rotation effects in a to-be-designed spring. Remember that constant
effort springs are designed by CAESAR II by specifying a very small maximum allowed
travel limit on the spring hanger design spreadsheet).
Constant effort support large rotation spring models are built just like the variable support
model, except that the spring stiffness is set to some small number. The piping system
must be very stable with respect to these hangers.
Springs can be particularly susceptible to the large rotation effect because they are often
pulled along horizontally rather than through the large rotation arc. This direct horizontal
movement can cause considerable extension of the spring, possibly bottoming it out. The
user must make sure that bottoming out does not occur.
Large rotation constant effort spring hanger models can be used with or without connecting nodes.
Steam line hangers are particularly susceptible to large rotation because they typically
experience large horizontal movement, and tend to pull the hanger along with the pipe.
For English units a spring stiffness of 1 lb./in. is usually a suitably small spring stiffness.
The design load for the constant effort support is 2,334 lb. The spring is at node 105.

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3-46

Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Large Rotation Rods (Struts)

Large Rotation Rods (Struts)


See the Large Rotation (Basic Model) example for a discussion of large rotation rod fundamentals.
For the example problem shown on the next page, the amount the rods pulls up on the system as a result of the large rotation effect, is important, because a large axial load can be
produced for a very small vertical movement.
Note

The lengths for Len are always positive. The sign, or orientation of the swing, is
given by the sign in the Type field.

Bilinear Restraints
Bilinear restraints have the digit 2 following the direction in the restraint TYPE field.
When a bilinear spring is entered the restraint fields change as follows: Stif changes to K1,
which is the Initial Stiffness, Gap changes to K2, which is the Yield Stiffness, and Mu
changes to Fy, which is the Yield Load.
Bilinear restraints are used most often to model soil support where some soil ultimate load
bearing capacity can be calculated.
Both the yield stiffness (K2) and the yield load (Fy) are required entries. The initial stiffness (K1) may be left blank, and a rigid initial stiffness assumed. The yield stiffness may
be negative if necessary. Some subsea pipeline resistance tests have shown that load carrying capacity drops after the ultimate load is reached, and displacement continues.
More detailed use of these spring types to model underground piping systems is illustrated
in the Underground Pipe Modeler chapter.

Restraints

3-47

Bilinear Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example: Strut Modeled as Large-Rotation Rod

The cumulative gap that is assumed to


exist between the rod ends and the
clamp, etc., is 1/4 in.

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Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Bilinear Restraints

Example: Characteristics of Bi-Linear Supports

0133-C2A

Restraints

3-49

Bilinear Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example: Pipe in a Trench--Bi-Linear Restraint Modeling

0134-C2A

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Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

"Static" Snubbers

"Static" Snubbers
"Static" snubbers (or static analysis snubbers) have SNB following a translational direction in the restraint Type field.
When a snubber is entered, the restraint fields change as follows: Gap and Mu are disabled.
Static snubbers are translational restraints that provide resistance to displacement in static
analysis of occasional loads only. It is assumed that this occasional loading is dynamic in
nature, such as a static seismic, or static wind loading. THESE SNUBBERS ARE INACTIVE FOR ALL EXPANSION, SUSTAINED, AND OPERATING STATIC CASES,
AND ARE ACTIVE FOR ALL TYPES OF TRUE DYNAMIC ANALYSES, i.e. HARMONIC, MODAL, OR SPECTRAL. These restraints are active in all static load cases
defined as OCCasional in the load case list.
Static snubbers may be directional, i.e. may be preceded by a plus or minus sign.

Restraints

3-51

"Static" Snubbers

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Plastic Hinges
The steps in setting up a plastic hinge are illustrated below. The leg from A to B is overheated, causing bending of the B-D support leg. This example models the plastic deformation at cross-section E-E. The plastic hinge is formed between the nodes 10 and 15. The
expansion joint is used to provide translational and torsional rigidity at the plastic hinge
junction. Two bi-linear supports are used to model rigid resistance to bending until a
breakaway force (yield force) is exceeded at which point bending is essentially free.
Example: Plastic Hinge in Support Leg *

Expansion joint element is zero length

The yield force is determined from


Fy = SyZ(SF)
where:
Sy is the Yield Stress
Z is the section modulus
SF is the safety factor

* The plastic hinge modeled as a zero length expansion joint with rotational bi-linear restraints.

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Restraints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Sway Brace Assemblies

Sway Brace Assemblies


The sway brace is commonly used to allow unrestrained thermal movements while tuning the system dynamically to eliminate vibration. In this respect sway brace resembles a
spring: it may be pre-loaded in the cold (installed) position, so that after thermal pipe
growth it reaches the neutral position and the load on the system in the operating condition
is zero or negligible.
The sway brace is composed of a single compression spring enclosed between two movable plates. The spring is pre-compressed a full inch providing an initial force that instantaneously opposes vibration. Any movement from the sway brace neutral position is
opposed by a load equal to the pre-load plus travel from neutral position times the sway
brace spring constant. Once maximum allowed travel (usually 3-in. in either direction) is
reached the sway brace locks preventing additional movement.
Manufacturers typically recommend a specific size sway brace for a given pipe nominal
diameter.
A more specific sway brace selection is possible when the exact restraining force required
to control the piping vibration is known. The energy necessary to control the piping is proportional to the mass, amplitude of movement, and the force causing the vibration. From
this relation the exact restraining force required to control the piping vibration may be calculated and an appropriate sway brace size selected.
Once selected, the sway brace may be modeled in CAESAR II using a combination of a
bi-linear restraint and a translational restraint:

Restraints

3-53

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Sway Brace Assemblies

Example: Sway Brace Installed in the Cold Position

Sway Brace Installed in neutral position as shipped

Spring rate: 150 lb/in.


Initial loading: 150 lb
Allowed movement: 3 in.

In the event that the sway brace is to be installed in the operating condition (or the neutral
position is to be adjusted in the operating position), the modeling is CAESAR II is a little
more complex. In this case, before modeling the sway brace, you must analyze the piping
system without the sway brace to obtain displacements from the cold to neutral operating
position:
Run analysis on the system without the sway brace to obtain the displacements from cold
to operating condition. For the sake of this example, lets assume the CAESAR II calculated displacement from cold to operating position is 0.5 in.
In the SUS case the displacement D2 (vector 2) represents the pre-load in cold position.
Under shutdown conditions, the pipe returns to its cold position and the brace exerts a
force as previously described.
Sustained case restraint loads on sway brace = Pre-Load + Hot Deflection * Spring Rate
In OPE the displacement allows thermal expansion and the sway assumes neutral position
exerting zero or negligible load on the pipe.
Operating case restraint loads on sway brace =~ 0.0 (does not restrain thermal expansion)

Restraints

3-54

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Sway Brace Assemblies

Example: Sway Brace Installed in Operating Condition

Sway Brace opposing compression force (movement occurs after pre-load is overcome)

Spring rate: 150 lb/in.


Initial loading: 150 lb
Allowed movment: 3.0 in.
Calculated displacement: .5 in.

Note

Restraints

Be sure to include D2 in the sustained and operating cases.

3-55

Sway Brace Assemblies

3-56

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Restraints

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General Information

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

General Information
Select ModelHanger Design Control Data from the menu on the Input Spreadsheet to
enter parameters affecting hanger design throughout the model. The hanger control
spreadsheet items, with default values, are shown below. Complete descriptions of each
item can be found in the Technical Reference Guide. These items can greatly affect the
hangers designed and should be reviewed carefully at least one time so that the user is
aware of the capability available.
Whenever CAESAR II designs a zero load constant effort support, a proposed spring
location is found to be holding the pipe down at that point. Hanger loads in the vicinity can
be calculated, even when this occurs. Analysis results should almost never be used when a
zero load constant effort support is among the systems designed hangers.
There are instances where the stiffness of the adjacent piping and the hanger location
restraints in the restrained weight run unfavorably interact, producing an undesirable distribution of loads. This is certainly true when zero load constant effort supports are
designed for the piping system. Often these load distribution problems can be eliminated
by reducing the stiffness used to compute the hanger loads in the restrained weight run.
The default for this stiffness is 1.0E12. Values on the order of 50,000 or 75,000 have been
used successfully to relax the system somewhat and redistribute these piping loads. This
stiffness can be changed through the Computation Control tab of the Configuration Setup
item of the Main Menu.

4-2

Hangers

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Simple Hanger Design

Simple Hanger Design


Double-click the Hanger checkbox on the pipe spreadsheet to enter the spring hanger data
for a particular node.
For a simple hanger no additional input is required. Note that a number of the parameters
from the hanger control sheet also show up on the individual hanger auxiliary data fields.
These items may be set globally (in hanger control) for all springs, or overridden locally
(on each hanger auxiliary data area).

Example: Simple Hanger Design

Hangers

4-3

Single Can Design

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Single Can Design


Indicate that the pipe is supported from below by entering a negative number in the
Hanger/Can Available Space field on the hanger spreadsheet.
The magnitude of the number in the available space field represents the distance between
the pipe support and the concrete foundation, or baseplate. See the Technical Reference
Manual for each of the manufacturers definitions of available space. If the available
space is not really a criteria in the hanger design, then input a large negative value (i.e 1000).
CAESAR II input plots will use a different symbol for these base supports.

Example: Design of single can at one node

4-4

Hangers

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Constant Effort Support Design

Constant Effort Support Design


Design a constant effort support by specifying a very small allowable travel. A typical
value to use is (0.001 in.).

Example: Design of a Constant


Effort Supports

Hangers

4-5

Inputting Constant Effort Supports (No Design)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Inputting Constant Effort Supports (No Design)


Follow these steps to enter the constant effort support information:
1. Enter the constant effort support load (per hanger) in the Predefined Hanger Data
field.
2. Enter the number of constant support hangers at the location.

Do not enter spring rate or theoretical cold load.


Hangers completely predefined will not be designed by the hanger design algorithm.

Example: Multiple Predefined Constant Effort Supports

The two constant effort supports


at node 377 should carry 10484
lb. each.

Note

4-6

Any other data entered on this hanger spreadsheet will be ignored.

Hangers

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Entering Existing Springs (No Design)

Entering Existing Springs (No Design)


Follow these steps to enter existing springs information:
1. Enter the Spring Rate and the Theoretical Cold Load (installation load, on a per
hanger basis) in the Predefined Hanger Data fields.
2. Enter the number of Variable Support Hangers at the location.

Hangers completely predefined will not be designed by the hanger design algorithm. Any
other data can exist for the spring location but this data is not used. Entered spring rates
and theoretical cold loads will be multiplied by the number of hangers at this location.
CAESAR II requires the Theoretical Cold (Installation) Load to pre-define the spring.
Theoretical Cold Load = Hot Load + Travel * Spring Rate, where upward travel is positive.

Example: Predefined Spring Hanger

Known Information:
Spring Rate:

590 lb/in.

Calculate the Theoretical Cold Load:


Cold Load = (2000) + (1.375 * 590) = (2811)lb.

Hot Load:
2000 lb.
Design Travel:1.375 in.

Hangers

4-7

Multiple Can Design

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Multiple Can Design


Enter the number of hangers or cans as a positive number in the No. of Hangers at Location
field.
Placing a negative number in that field allows CAESAR II to design up to that number of
hangers at the location.
All other hanger design parameters are still active.

Example: Trapeze Hanger Assembly


Note

Power Piping springs


Allowable load variation: 15%,
Rigid Support Displacement Criteria: 0.05 in.

4-8

The program will design


up to three cans at the support if the load is too high
for a single or double can
configuration.

Hangers

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Old Spring Redesign

Old Spring Redesign


This option is used to determine if the old spring can still be used. If the old spring can be
used then the new preset (initial cold load) is determined. If the old spring cannot be used
then a new spring design is recommended.
The old spring is always left in the problem for subsequent load case analysis. The old
hanger information needed for the re-design is

the hanger table

the number of springs at the location

the old spring rate

The old spring rate is entered in the Spring Rate field under Predefined Hanger Data. The
Theoretical Cold Load must not be specified.

Example: Old Spring Redesign

3 springs at node 97 and


each has a spring rate of
1105 lb./in.

Hangers

4-9

Pipe and Hanger Supported From Vessel

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Pipe and Hanger Supported From Vessel


Connecting nodes associated with hangers and cans function just like connecting nodes
with restraints.
Connecting node displacements are incorporated in the hanger design algorithm.

Example: Pipe Supported by Hanger from Vessel

Spring hanger is supported from the vessel at


node 135. The hanger supports the pipe at
node 550. Bergen-Paterson springs.

4-10

Hangers

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Hanger Design with Support Thermal Movement

Hanger Design with Support Thermal Movement


Unique connecting node numbers that do not exist on any pipe element are input on the
hanger spreadsheet in the Hanger Connecting Node field. The hanger is designed to act
with one end at the Hanger Node and with one end at the Hanger Connecting Node.
Thermal growth of the hanger connecting node can be specified on any pipe element
spreadsheet.
The hanger at node 9 is supported from a structural steel extension off of a large vertical
vessel. The vessel at the point where the hanger is attached grows thermally in the plus Y
direction approximately 3.5 in.

Example: Hanger with Support Thermal Movement

The vessel and the structural


support are not modelled.

Hangers

4-11

Hanger Between Two Pipes

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Hanger Between Two Pipes


Part of the weight of the lower pipe is supported by a pipe crossing overhead.
The node on the pipe passing overhead is entered into the hanger spreadsheet as the
CNode.
When using hangers with connecting nodes to design springs, users should be particularly
careful that CAESAR IIs design hot load is accurate. To find the hot load, CAESAR II
puts a rigid element between the pipe node and the support node (which may be another
pipe node as in the example below), and runs a weight case. If in the weight run both
nodes are expected to deflect, then the hanger weight loads will be distributed to other
parts of the piping system, and not to the hanger. In this case it might be necessary for the
user to estimate the loads on the hanger in an independent run, and then enter by hand the
operating load on the particular spring hanger spreadsheet with the connecting node.
If zero load constant effort supports are designed for a spring location with a connecting
node, the user is recommended to switch the hanger node and the connecting node. In this
situation, in the weight run the pipe node tends to deflect downward less than the connecting node. To CAESAR II this looks like the connecting node is pushing down on the
hanger node, thus holding the pipe down. Switching the hanger node and the hanger
connecting node eliminates this problem.
Note

The directive Connect Geometry through CNodes must be turned off in the
Configuration Setup to avoid plot and geometry errors.

Example: Hanger Between Two Pipes

The pipe at 65 is supported via a spring hanger by the pipe at 470.

4-12

Hangers

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Hanger Design with Anchors in the Vicinity

Hanger Design with Anchors in the Vicinity


Hangers are designed to support a given weight load through a specified travel with a minimum of load variation.
Most often the weight load is that of the pipe between an anchor and the hanger.
The travel is the displacement of the hanger node as it thermally expands away from the
anchor. When weight sensitive anchors (e.g. equipment nozzles) are relatively close to the
hangers (less than 4 or 5 pipe diameters in the horizontal plane), the anchors should probably be freed during the hanger restrained weight run. When the anchors are freed, the
weight of the pipe between the anchor and the hanger should fall almost in its entirety on
the hanger.
Anchor nodes to be released are entered on the specific hanger design spreadsheet. The
anchor degrees of freedom are released according to the specified Free Code.
Anchor degrees of freedom are released for the hanger design Restrained Weight run only.
If the Free Code is not specified for an anchor or restraint to be freed, all degrees of freedom associated with the anchor or restraint will be released for the restrained weight solution.
Restraints as well as anchors can be freed to cause additional weight to be carried by the
hanger.
Only linear restraints may be freed.

Example: Hanger Design in Vicinity at


Equipment or Vessel Nozzle.

the anchor at 5 is freed in the


Y-direction, the anchor at 105
is freed in all directions.

Hangers

4-13

Hanger Design with User-Specified Operating Load

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Hanger Design with User-Specified Operating Load


In certain situations around equipment nozzles, and usually where the piping leaving the
nozzle is very complex or very rigid, the hanger design algorithm will select operating
loads that are too small. In these cases the user can override CAESAR IIs calculated
operating (hot) loads. The design algorithm will proceed normally, except that the users
entered hot load will be substituted for CAESAR IIs calculated value for both the hanger
design and all post hanger design analysis load cases.

Example: Hanger Design with User-Specified Operating Load

In this configuration, freeing the anchors at 5


and 60 didnt help the thermal case nozzle
loads. It was postulated that, due to the stiffness of the overhead branches, the hanger
calculated hot load was not sufficient. The
calculated hot load was 2376 lb. A new hot
load of 4500 lb. is tried here.

4-14

Hangers

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Spring Can Models with Bottom-Out and Lift-Off

Spring Can Models with Bottom-Out and Lift-Off Capability


The spring can must be fully pre-defined to describe bottom-out, or lift-off attributes (i.e.
the spring can stiffness and theoretical cold load must be known.)
The spring can to be illustrated is a Grinnell, fig.B268, size 10.
The theoretical cold load: 1023 lb.
The spring rate from the spring table: 260 lb./in.
The smallest load in the spring table: 910 lb.
The largest load in the spring table: 1690 lb.
To get from the installed condition to the bottom-out condition the can must displace in
the minus Y direction:
(Max. Table Load) - (Installed Load) = (1690 - 1023) = 2.565 in.
Spring Rate 260
To get from the installed condition to the initiate lift-off condition the can must displace
in the positive Y direction:
(Installed Load) - (Min. Table Load) = 1023 - 910) = 0.4346 in.
Spring Rate

260

To get from the initiate lift-off condition to the completely lifted-off condition the
pipe node must displace in the positive Y direction an additional:
(Min. Table Load) = 910 = 9.1E-6 in.
(Est. Spring Can Annular Plate Stiffness)1E8
Values for the gaps shown in the Stiffness Characteristics Graph on the following page are
g1 = 0.4346
g2 = 0.4346 + 9.1E-6
g3 = 2.5650

Hangers

4-15

Spring Can Models with Bottom-Out and Lift-Off Capability

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example: Spring Can Characteristics

Bottom out

4-16

Hangers

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Spring Can Models with Bottom-Out and Lift-Off

Example: Input for Lift-off and Bottom-out Spring Can model

Notes when building the model:

Hangers

Use displacements to prevent the rigid element between 6 and 106, modelling the spring can body, from translating or rotating laterally. (i.e. displacements should be defined at node 106 for the X, Z, RX, RY and RZ
directions.)

The spring is not defined in the spring hanger spreadsheet. (It could have
been, but doing it as shown keeps the modelling simpler and in the same
place.)

When the pipe lifts-off of the spring support, the load on the spring
assemblage should be equal and opposite, and its magnitude equal to the
smallest load in the spring hanger table.

When the restraint bottoms-out, the total restraint load will be distributed
over the spring restraint and the +Y restraint with the gap.

4-17

Spring Can Models with Bottom-Out and Lift-Off Capability

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example: Input for Lift-off and Bottom-out Spring Can Model (continued)

Note

4-18

The gap field in the restraints auxiliary


data area rounds off values to 3 decimal
places for display only. Internally,
CAESAR II stores values to 7 digits for
calculations. Therefore the gap corresponding to the -Y restraint in this example was input as 0.4346 + 9.1e-06 and
this value will be retained in memory for
calculations.

Hangers

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Spring Hanger Model With Rods, Bottom-Out, and

Spring Hanger Model With Rods, Bottom-Out, and Lift-Off


To define lifting-off and bottoming-out the hanger should be fully pre-defined.
See the previous example for additional details modelling bottom-out and lift-off in
spring supports.
The following example illustrates a Grinnell Fig. B268, size 9 hanger.
The spring rate = 200 lb./in.
The theoretical cold load = 1011 lb.
The smallest load in the spring table= 600 lb.
The largest load in the spring table = 1300 lb.
Bottom-out displacements:
(Max. Table Load) - (Installed Load)1300 - 1011 = 1.445 in.
Spring Rate

200

Initiate lift-off displacements:


(Installed Load) - (Min. Table Load)1011 - 600 =2.055 in.
Spring Rate

200

Initial to final lift-off displacements:


Min. Table Load 600 = 6.0E-6 in.
Est. Spring Annular Plate Stiffness

1E8

The following are notes for building the model:

Hangers

When modelng a spring between two different nodes in the piping system, note how
the initial spring load must be applied equally, but in opposite directions at the two
internal hanger nodes 20 and 25.

The distributed length expansion joint is used to provide an estimated lateral stiffness
for the spring hanger, and to define the hangers spring rate.

Since the expansion joint is used to model the spring hanger stiffness, only three
restraints are needed for the hanger model, instead of the four needed for the can
model.

4-19

Spring Hanger Model With Rods, Bottom-Out, and Lift-Off

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example: Spring Hanger Model with Rods, Bottom-out, and Lift-off

4-20

Hangers

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Spring Hanger Model With Rods, Bottom-Out, and

Example: Bottom-out and Lift-off Spring Hanger Model with Rods

Rod modeled as
solid pipe.

Dummy rigid modeled between


nodes 10 and 15. Pipe connected
to the rod through a +Y restraint.

Hangers

4-21

Spring Hanger Model With Rods, Bottom-Out, and Lift-Off

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example: Bottom out and Lift off Spring Hanger Model with Rods (continued)

No bending stiffness. Effective ID is zero (this


eliminates pressure thrust)
Gap on -Y support at node 25 is .000001 in. The
display does not show this value but calculations
will be performed correctly.

4-22

Hangers

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Simple "Bottomed-Out" Spring

Simple "Bottomed-Out" Spring


Spring supports that may "bottom out" have SPR following a translational direction in the
restraint Type field. (For example, YSPR for a vertical bottomed-out spring.)
When a bottom out spring is entered, the restraint auxiliary screen changes as follows: The
Gap field changes to x, the permitted travel, and the Mu field changes to F, the initial
spring load. The direction of permitted travel is assumed opposite to the initial load on the
pipe. These definitions were setup almost exclusively to handle vertical springs, and as
such x and F inputs are always entered as positive, as shown in the following example.

Used most often to conveniently enter predefined springs into the piping system model.
These spring restraints provide a bottoming-out capability that occurs when the spring
has exceeded its maximum travel limit.
The user should always enter the stiffness Stif, the allowed travel x, and the initial load on
the spring F, to properly utilize the "bottomed-out" spring model. If the travel x is not
entered it defaults to zero. If the initial load is not entered it also defaults to zero, and its
sign is taken as positive.
Note that no hanger should be entered at the same position as a bottomed-out spring.

Hangers

4-23

Modeling Spring Cans with Friction

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Modeling Spring Cans with Friction


In many systems, portions of the pipe are supported by spring cans. These spring cans perform the same function as spring hangers, only they are below the pipe, pushing up. In
some models, these spring cans are allowed to slide on their foundation, subjecting the
system to friction forces.
Basically, each support of this type needs the following:

A rigid element from the pipe center to the top of the can. Length equals pipe radius +
insulation thickness + shoe height + any trunnion height.

A Cnode to connect to the spring. Except for the vertical spring stiffness, all other
DOFs are rigidly connected.

A rigid element representing the spring can height.

These points are illustrated in the model below.

Example: Model of Spring Can with Friction

node 5 - 10, zero-weight


rigid (trunnion length)
node 10 Cnode 15, Translational and rotational
restraints (except Y)
node 10 Cnode 15,
Hanger
node 15 - 20, zero-weight
rigid (can length)
node 20, +Y restraint
with friction

Alternatively, element 15-20 may be omitted, with the +Y restraint (with friction) placed
directly on node 15.
This modeling technique can also be applied to situations where the shoe or trunnion
slides on top of a bolted spring can.

4-24

Hangers

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Simple Bellows with Pressure Thrust

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

CAESAR IIs Expansion Joint Modeler can model many different expansion joint assemblies quickly and accurately. This chapter reviews variations on those models.

Simple Bellows with Pressure Thrust


Bellows expansion joints can be modeled with either a zero or a finite length. When finite
length bellows are used, either the bending or the transverse stiffness must be left blank.
CAESAR II will calculate the exact stiffness coefficient for the term left blank.
For finite length expansion joints, the user is recommended to leave the bending stiffness
field blank, and to enter the lateral stiffness given by the manufacturer into the transverse
stiffness field on the expansion joint spreadsheet. The lateral stiffness may be computed
from the axial stiffness (if not provided) from the equation:
KTR = (3/2) (KAX) (D/L) 2
If the bending stiffness is given, its value should be approximately (within 1%) equal to:
KBEND =(1/2) (KAX) (D2) (/180)
KAX is the axial stiffness of the expansion joint
D - is the effective diameter of the expansion joint
L - is the flexible length of the joint.
For zero length expansion joints:
KBEND = (1/8) (KAX) (D2) (/180)
When a zero length expansion joint is used, CAESAR II will use either the preceding or
the following element to determine the axial direction of the bellows stiffnesses. The preceding element is checked first.
Bellows are very fragile under torsional loading. It is recommended that accurate torsional
stiffnesses and allowable torsional rotations be obtained from the vendor.
Systems using untied bellows should either be of very low pressure or adequately
anchored to withstand the possibly large thrust loads developed due to the unrestrained
bellows.
Bellows and any other miscellaneous weights should be added to flanges on either side of
the bellows (or can be added as concentrated forces). This is particularly true when the
bellows is part of a hanger sizing weight calculation.
A zero or blank Bellows ID results in a zero pressure thrust.
The Bellows ID is the diameter used to find the area for pressure thrust calculations.
The total thrust load is applied at the From and To ends of the bellows, and is used to
open the bellows (providing the pressure is positive). The magnitude of the thrust load is
P * A, where P is the pressure in the pipe above atmospheric, and A is the area, found from
A = /4 * (Bellows ID) 2
Many manufacturers specify the effective area of the bellows. The bellows ID for
CAESAR II input may be calculated by using the following equation:
Bellows ID = --4- EffectiveArea

5-2

Expansion Joints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Simple Bellows with Pressure Thrust

In the system shown below, the untied bellows runs between the nodes 8 and 9. The elbow
at 11 is anchored to take the thrust load developed in the bellows. The manufacturers
specification for the joints axial stiffness is 6530 lb./in. with a transverse stiffness of 3250
lb./in. The bending stiffness is left blank, and will be calculated by CAESAR II since the
bellows has a finite length. The pump and the baseplate at 5 must be able to withstand the
large axial force that may develop due to pressure thrust in the bellows..
Example: Bellows with Pressure Thrust

Aeff = 67.5 in2


P = 175 psi
Thrust = 67.5(175) = 11812 lb. (will be automatically applied by CAESAR II)
Bellows ID =

Expansion Joints

= 9.28 in.

5-3

Tied Bellows (Simple vs. Complex Model)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Tied Bellows (Simple vs. Complex Model)


Complex models of expansion joints are much more difficult to build than simple models.
Unfortunately there are no hard and fast rules for when to use simple models and when to
use complex models. The following guidelines are presented to aid the engineer in making
this decision.

Complex models are used whenever a failure is being investigated.

Complex models are normally used when the pipe diameter and number of convolutions become large.

Complex models are used when nuts are only on the outside of the flange, allowing
the tie bars to only carry tension.

Complex models give good values for the load distribution in the tie bars. Simple
models give no indication of the load distribution. In some cases, where the tie bars
combine to resist relative bending of the joint ends, one pair of tie-bars can be in compression while the other pair is in tension. This effective redistribution of load in the
tie bars will never be observed in a simple model. When this does occur, and if the tie
bars are very long, buckling of the rods in the complex model should be investigated
(evaluate whether the rods can withstand the compressive forces reported in the output
report).

The single tied bellows is designed to absorb movement by lateral deflection only. There
is no axial deflection or relative bending rotations at the joint ends.
These simple models should only be used where the tie bars are either guaranteed to be
carrying tension, or have nuts on either side of the flange and so will carry compression if
needed.
Be sure to enter the lateral instead of the bending spring rate from the manufacturers catalog. See the previous discussion for a simple bellows for more information about bellows
stiffnesses.
The weights of the bellows and associated hardware should be added to the flange weights
on either side of the bellows. This is particularly true if the expansion joint is between a
hanger to be sized and an anchor.
The expansion joint user should be sure to check the displacement limits for the expansion
joint once the protected equipment loads are within the allowables. CAESAR II has a processor called EJMA Expansion Joint Rating accessible through the Analysis option of the
Main Menu, which helps the user to compute relative bellows movements for evaluating
the bellows distortion.
Simple models of single tied bellows are built by entering a large axial stiffness. This axial
stiffness simulates the tie bars, preventing relative axial movement of the bellows. Tie rods
may also be modeled with a single rigid element along the centerline of the bellows, with
zero weight and rotational restraints, prevents the ends of the joint from rotating relative to
one another. In reality the tie bars being offset from the centerline prevent this rotation.
The complex models are built by running pipe elements whose diameter is equal to the
diameter of the tie-bars, and whose wall thickness is equal to half of the tie-bar diameter,
between rigid elements that extend normal to the pipe axis and from the centerline and to
their intersection with the tie-bar centerline (See the following illustration).

5-4

Expansion Joints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Tied Bellows (Simple vs. Complex Model)

Some manufacturers feel that friction at the tie bar ends, plus other effects serve to limit
the overall lateral flexibility of this joint. For lack of a better value, a 30% increase in lateral stiffness is sometimes used to compensate for these frictional effects.
Field situations such as loose nuts on tie-bars, etc. can be modeled using the complex
expansion joint model.

Expansion Joints

5-5

Tied Bellows Expansion Joint (Simple Model)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Tied Bellows Expansion Joint (Simple Model)


STEP 1Need to compute the lateral stiffness for the bellows:
The flexible length of the bellows is not listed in most expansion joint catalogs. The listed
lengths include the rigid end pieces such as flanges or pipe ends. Since the transverse stiffness is based on the flexible length, the flexible length must be known. A very simple way
of pulling this value from the catalog is to examine the incremental increase in overall
length of the joint as additional convolutions are added. With all convolutions the same
length, this incremental length can be used to calculate the total flexible length. In this
example the total length of a 4 convolution joint is 8 in. and the total length of an 8 convolution joint is 12 in. This means that the extra four convolutions add 4 in., so the length of
all twelve convolutions is 12 in. (This also indicates that the rigid end pieces on this joint
of 4, 8, or 12 convolutions is 4 in.)
Deff =

(4Aeff/ )1/2 = 10.0 in.

KTR =

(3/2) (KAX) (Deff/L)2

Flexible Convolution Length = 12 in.

KTR =
=

(3/2) (850) (12.0/12.0)2


1,275 lb./in.

Example: Tied Bellows (simple model)

Zero-weight rigid
element (tie rod)

Axial Stiffness: 848 lb/in.


No. Convolutions: 12
Leff: 12 in.
Aeff: 78.4 in2

STEP 2Build the CAESAR II model of the flexible portion of the expansion joint. Note
how the rotational restraints between nodes 29 and 30 keep the two flanges parallel. In the
field, the tie bars at four points around the expansion joint will keep the flanges parallel.
(The flanges and the tie bars forms a parallelogram upon lateral deflection.)

5-6

Expansion Joints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Tied Bellows Expansion Joint (Simple Model)

Example: Tied Bellows (simple modelcontinued)

Expansion Joints

5-7

Tied Bellows Expansion Joint (Complex Model)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Tied Bellows Expansion Joint (Complex Model)


In the system shown below the flexible joint is between the nodes 30 and 35. The flanged
ends of the joint are modeled as the rigid elements 20 to 30 and 35 to 45. Additional rigid
elements, perpendicular to the pipe axis, extend from each flange. The tie bars are 1-in. in
diameter. The following nodal layout and input is used to build a comprehensive model of
the tied bellows.
Example: Tied Bellows (complex model)

5-8

Expansion Joints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Tied Bellows Expansion Joint (Complex Model)

Example: Tied Bellows (complex modelcontinued)

Weightless rigid elements extend from


flange centerline to outside edge of
flanges where tie rods are attached.
(only 2 of 8 element inputs shown).

Expansion Joints

5-9

Universal Expansion Joints (Simple Models)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Universal Expansion Joints (Simple Models)


Please refer to the previous models of bellows expansion joints for specific notes relating
to individual bellows designs, and to some comparisons of simple and complex expansion
joint input.
The tied universal bellows is designed to absorb movement by lateral deflection only.
There is no axial deflection or relative bending rotations at the joint ends.
Lateral instead of the bending spring rates from the manufacturers catalog should be
entered. See the discussion for a simple bellows for more information about bellows
stiffnesses.
Manufacturers publish a wide variety of data for universal expansion joints. In most cases
the published spring rates are for the universal joint as a whole assembly. When the lateral
stiffness is given for the whole assembly the simple or complex models of single bellows
can be used. In this case the manufacturer must also provide a cumulative assembly displacement limit so that the piping designer can make sure that neither of the bellows are
over-extended.
Many universal expansion joint assemblies have stops along the tie-bars that are connected to the center spool-piece. These stops are designed to prevent over-extension of the
bellows and can be modeled in the complex universal joint model. For the simple universal joint model, the user must check the results to make sure that the stops are not engaged.
Stops should typically be considered a safety feature, and should not be included as a
working part of the design, unless particular attention is paid to the design surrounding the
stop components.
The expansion joint user should be sure to check the displacement limits for each of the
expansion joints once the protected equipment loads are within the allowables.
CAESAR II has a program called EJMA Expansion Joint Rating which helps the user to
compute relative bellows movements for evaluating the convolutions strength. This program only works on single bellows, however, and so the user would need to model and
then check each bellows in the universal assembly.
Some manufacturers feel that friction at the tie bar ends, plus other effects serve to limit
the overall lateral flexibility of this joint. For lack of a better value, a 10% increase in
overall lateral stiffness is sometimes used to compensate for these frictional effects.
The complex models are built by running pipe elements, whose diameter is equal to the
diameter of the tie-bars, and whose wall thickness is equal to half of the tie-bar diameter,
between rigid elements that extend normal to the pipe axis and from the centerline and to
their intersection with the tie-bar centerline. See the next example.
The weights of the bellows and associated hardware should be added to the flange weights
on either side of the bellows. This is particularly true if the expansion joint is between a
hanger to be sized and an anchor.
In-situ field effects like loose nuts on tie-bars, etc., can be modeled using the complex
expansion joint model.
Descriptions of some various universal models are shown in the following figures. The
two models shown have example input given on the following pages. Simple models
should only be used when the user knows that both ends of the tie-bars will be fixed to the
flanges, i.e. when there are nuts on both sides of the flange. (The top drawing shows nuts

5-10

Expansion Joints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Universal Expansion Joints (Simple Models)

on only one side of the flange at the left end. This configuration should be modeled with a
complex joint model unless the user is sure that all tie-bars will remain in tension.)
The top model is used when the analyst is provided with global assembly data for the universal, i.e. the assembly lateral stiffness.
The second model is used when the analyst is given angular spring rates for each of the
two bellows used in the model.

Expansion Joints

5-11

Universal Expansion Joints (Simple Models)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

When provided individual bellows angular stiffness:

5-12

Expansion Joints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Universal Expansion Joints (Simple Models)

Example: Universal Expansion Joint (simple model)

Note

Expansion Joints

This model does not show


the addition of any extra
hardware or bellows weights
which could affect weight
load distribution and spring
hanger design in the area.

5-13

Universal Expansion Joints (Simple Models)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

When provided individual bellows angular stiffness

5-14

Expansion Joints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Universal Expansion Joints (Simple Models)

Example: Universal Expansion Joint


(simple modelindividual bellows)

Note

Note

Expansion Joints

The rigid tie bar(s) should be modeled at the ambient temperature.

This model does not show the addition


of any extra hardware or bellows
weights which could affect weight
load distribution and spring hanger

5-15

Universal Joint (Comprehensive Tie Rod)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Universal Joint (Comprehensive Tie Rod)


The comprehensive universal joint model involves defining, as accurately as possible, all
tie rods and connections between tie rods and end plates.

The following groups illustrate the method used in constructing the universal expansion
joint model shown above.
Rigid Elements (Flanges)
15-17 / 31-33
Rigid Elements normal to the pipe axis, and between the pipe and tie bar centerlines.
At the end where there are nuts on either side of the flange, fixing the tie-bar to the flange.
33-1033 / 33-2033 / 33-3033
Rigid Elements normal to the pipe axis, and between the pipe and tie-bar centerlines.
At the end where there are nuts only on the backside of the flange.
15-1015 / 15-2015 / 15-3015
Intermediate lateral tee supports (Rigid)
23-1023 / 23-2023 / 23-3023
25-1025 / 25-2025 / 25-3025
Tie-bars
1033-1034-1035-1036
2033-2034-2035-2036
3033-3034-3035-3036
Restraints with connecting nodes at the tension-only flange end.
RESTR NODE =

1036

CNODE =

1015

TYPE =

-X , Y , Z

RESTR NODE =

2036

CNODE =

2015

TYPE =

-X , Y , Z

RESTR NODE =

3036

CNODE =

3015

TYPE =

-X , Y , Z

Restraints with connecting nodes at the intermediate support points.

5-16

RESTR NODE =

1035

CNODE =

1023

TYPE =

Y,Z

RESTR NODE =

2035

CNODE =

2023

TYPE =

Y,Z

RESTR NODE =

3035

CNODE =

3023

TYPE =

Y,Z

RESTR NODE =

1034

CNODE =

1025

TYPE =

Y,Z

RESTR NODE =

2034

CNODE =

2025

TYPE =

Y,Z

RESTR NODE =

3034

CNODE =

3025

TYPE =

Y,Z

Expansion Joints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Universal Joint with Lateral Control Stops (Compre-

Universal Joint with Lateral Control Stops (Comprehensive Tie Rod


Model)
Double-acting restraints with connecting nodes and gaps are used to model stop gaps
along the tie bars.
Stops along the tie-bars are installed to restrict lateral motion at each end of the universal
joint.

The following groups illustrate the method used in constructing the universal joint with
lateral stops shown above. Only the right side tie rod elements are shown below.
Standard pipe elements
34-36 / 36-38
Rigid flange elements
30-32 /

40-42

Bellows elements
32-34

38-40

Rigid elements from the pipe to the tie-bar centerline


(Normal to the pipe axis)
30-1030 / 36-1036 / 42-1042
Tie-bar elements
1003-1002 / 1002-1001
Restraints with connecting nodes
RESTR NODE=1001 CNODE = 1042 TYPE = +Y , X , Z
RESTR NODE=1002 CNODE = 1036 TYPE = Y w/gap=1.5 , X , Z

Expansion Joints

5-17

Hinged Joint

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Hinged Joint
The relationship between the rotational bellows stiffness used in the model and the axial
bellows stiffness should be approximately:
Kbend = (1/8) (Kax) (D2)(/180)
This is typically the value given in expansion joint manufacturers catalogs. This equation
and the bending stiffness value from most manufacturers catalogs should only be used
with a zero length expansion joint.
The hinged joint is defined using a zero length expansion joint with axial, transverse, and
torsional stiffnesses rigid. The bending stiffness is set equal to the bending stiffness of the
hinge.
Hinge directions are defined using restraints and connecting nodes. The restraint line of
action is always normal to the hinge axis.
Hinged joints are designed to take pressure thrust. The analyst should make sure that the
joint manufacturer is aware of the design loads in the hinges.
Some expansion joint manufacturers believe that the hinge friction can provide considerable additional resistance to bending. Certainly as the axial load the hinge is to carry
becomes large, this hinge friction effect will increase. Approximations to this increase
in bending stiffness can be made by increasing the stiffness of the bellows in proportion to
the axial load on the hinge. The expansion joint manufacturer can hopefully provide assistance here.
Several typical geometries for hinged expansion joints are shown in the figures below:

5-18

Expansion Joints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Hinged Joint

In the example that follows, the hinged joint is zero length and is defined between nodes
45 and 46. X is the hinge axis, i.e. all relative rotations are permitted between 45 and 46
about the X axis. 45 and 46 are fixed rotationally relative to each other in the Y axis.
(See the second note above.)

Expansion Joints

5-19

Slotted Hinge Joint (Simple)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Slotted Hinge Joint (Simple)


The hinged joint is defined using a zero length expansion joint and rigid elements with
zero weight to define the interaction of the hinge geometry.
Hinge directions are defined using restraints with connecting nodes. The restraint line of
action is always normal to the hinge axis.
Example: Slotted Hinged Joint (simple model)

Elements from 10 to 15 and


from 16 to 20 are weightless 9inch long rigids.

5-20

Expansion Joints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Note

Slotted Hinge Joint (Comprehensive)

In this model, the relative rotation at the hinge about the Y axis is assumed to be
zero. The slots on either side will provide some limit to this Y rotation. In most
applications of this type, the relative Y rotation is zero because the problem is
kept planar using guides. A good first pass can be made using the model shown,
then if the analysis shows that the RY restraint between nodes 15 and 16 is supporting load, a further refinement to the model can be made.

Slotted Hinge Joint (Comprehensive)


This model is somewhat different from the previous model because of the need to provide
for the non-hinge axis rotation due to the slots on either side of the joint. The schematic
below illustrates the extra input required to incorporate this effect.
Example: Slotted Hinge Joint (comprehensive)

Expansion Joints

5-21

Slotted Hinge Joint (Comprehensive)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Zero weight rigid elements defining the hinge assembly are listed below:
10 -

15

Normal to pipe axis to centerline of hinge assy.

10 -

35

"

55 -

30

"

55 -

50

"

15 -

20

Parallel to pipe axis to centerline of hinge axis.

35 -

40

"

50 -

45

"

30 -

25

"

The finite length bellows must be defined accurately between nodes 10 and 55. This typically means entering the correct flexible length and using the manufacturers axial and lateral spring rates. Remember that manufacturers angular spring rates should not be used in
finite length expansion joint models.

5-22

Expansion Joints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Slip Joint

Slip Joint
Large slip joints are usually difficult to install and difficult to accurately model.
Smaller diameter slip joints are telescoping, axial displacement devices, that permit considerable axial displacement of the slip joint ends and moderately rigid resistance to pipe
bending.
Smaller slip joints are usually categorized by having two annular packing glands separated
axially along the joint by a dead air space, or by a small bellows sleeve.
The following figure shows the cross-section of a typical large slip joint. The stiffnesses
between nodes 110 and 115 are a function of the packing stiffness for transverse and rotational relative deformation and of packing stiffness and tightening for axial relative deformation.
Example: Slip Joint

Expansion Joints

5-23

Gimbal Joint

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Gimbal Joint
Gimballed joints are designed to resist pressure thrust. The analyst should make sure that
the joint manufacturer is aware of the design loads on the gimbals.
There are two basic types of Gimballed expansion joints:

Those designed to take angular deformation only.

Those designed to take angular deformation and transverse offsets.

Typically, gimbals in the smaller sizes absorb only angular deformation. The difference
between the two types of joints can be seen by counting the total number of hinges. Gimbal joints which take angular deformation have two hinges. Gimbal joints which take
angular deformation and transverse offsets have four hinges.
Modeling for the two types of gimballed joints is completely different.
Angular-only gimbals are by far the most common and are most often used in pairs. Single
gimbal, angular-only joints are very easy to model provided the correct angular spring
rates are used. The analyst is generally discouraged from using the manufacturers angular
spring rates, but in this case (and for all point expansion joint applications) it is precisely
the angular spring rate that should be used.
The angular-only gimbal can be input as a zero length expansion joint with rigid axial,
transverse, and torsional stiffnesses. The bending stiffness is set equal to the rotational
stiffness specified in the manufacturer's catalog.
Angular and Offset gimbals should probably be thoroughly modeled as shown in the following figures. Angular and Offset gimballed joints are usually installed in large diameter
lines where lumped property assumptions for the bellows may not be within reasonable
engineering accuracy.

5-24

Expansion Joints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Gimbal Joint

Example: Angular-only Gimballed Joint


Rigid elements between
nodes 105 and 110 and
nodes 111 and 115 each containing half the weight of the
hinge mechanism.

Expansion Joints

5-25

Gimbal Joint

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example: Angular and Offset Gimbal Joint


Bellows Assembly nodes are
above on illustration
Hinge Assembly nodes are below
on illustration

All 3 expansion joints are defined the


same (as above)
Rigid Elements from node 5 to 10, node 11
to 15, node 16 to 20, and node 21 to 25.

Hinge Assembly Inputs

5-26

Expansion Joints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Gimbal Joint

Example: Angular and Offset Gimbal Joint

Rigid elements between nodes 5 and 105, nodes


Expansion Joints for both elements
110 and 115, and nodes 120 and 25.
have same auxiliary data as shown.
These are NOT zero length.
Bellows Assembly Input

Expansion Joints

5-27

Dual Gimbal

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Dual Gimbal
Dual gimbal joints are two, usually angular-only, gimballed joints in series in the pipeline.
Putting two (or even three) angular-only gimballed joints together provides for an ability
to absorb lateral and possibly axial deformation.
(An elementally linear piping program will never be able to model the axial-only component of the possible deformation because it requires large rotation of the expansion joint
componentssomething not considered in such programs.)
The single angular deformation only gimbal should always be used in series with at least
one other gimballed joint. It is only in series that the angular deformation only gimbal
provides for any lateral movement.
Gimballed joints are designed to take pressure thrust. The analyst should make sure that
the joint manufacturer is aware of the design loads on the gimbals.
Each individual angular-only gimbal joint should be modelled as a zero length expansion
joint with rigid axial, transverse, and torsional stiffnesses. The bending stiffness should be
equal to the manufacturer's published rotational stiffness term. See the notes for a single
gimballed expansion joint for a more complete discussion.
The minimum required distance L between adjacent single gimballed joints (shown as
8-7 in the following example), is principally a function of the angular and rotational deformation to be absorbed, the diameter, and the number of corrugations per joint.
The following figure shows a dual gimbal comprised of two angular-only gimbals. The
bending stiffness for each gimballed joint is 490.0 in.lb./deg.

5-28

Expansion Joints

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Dual Gimbal

Example: Dual Gimbal (Angular-Only)

Expansion Joints

5-29

Pressure-Balanced Tees and Elbows

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Pressure-Balanced Tees and Elbows


Pressure balanced tees and elbows are used primarily to absorb axial displacements at a
change in direction, without any associated pressure thrust. Pressure balanced tees can
also be used in universal type configurations to absorb axial and lateral movement.

The example below shows briefly the coding of a pressure-balanced tee in a turbine
exhaust line. The bottom side of the tee is blanked off. The tee is a standard unreinforced
fabricated tee. The tie bars will only act in tension.

5-30

Expansion Joints

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Reducers

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Reducers
There are two common ways to model reducers:
1. Enter a data point at the center of the reducer and change the diameter and wall thickness on the following element.
2. Enter a data point at both ends of the reducer fitting. The diameter and wall thickness
of this element should be equal to the average diameter and average wall thickness of
the mating pipes.
Method 2 above is recommended. The axial stiffness of this model is exact and the bending stiffness approximate.
Where eccentric reducers are used, the reducer element should show a corresponding
change in elevation. The centerlines of the mating pipes should be correctly represented.
B31.1 Table D-1 gives the following equation for calculating the stress intensification factor for concentric reducers as per B16.9:
SIF = 0.5 + 0.01(a)(D2/t2)1/2
where (a) is the cone angle and does not exceed 60 degrees, D2 is the outside
diameter of the small end of the reducer, and t2 is the wall thickness of the small
end of the reducer. Additionally, the larger of D1/t1 and D2/t2 should not exceed
100, and the wall thickness throughout should not be less than t1 except in and
immediately adjacent to the cylindrical portion of the small end, where the thickness shall not be less than t2. The maximum SIF is 2.0.
The stress intensification factors should be specified for each end of the reducer element.
The user should activate the SIFs & TEEs field on the pipe spreadsheet, leave the TYPE
field blank, and enter the SIFs in the SIF(i) and SIF(o) fields.

6-2

Miscellaneous Models

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Reducers

Example: Concentric Reducer Modeling

B31.1 maximum SIFs for concentric reducers are


used here.

Miscellaneous Models

6-3

Reducers

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example: Eccentric Reducer Modeling

B31.1 does not specify SIFs for eccentric


reducers so same as concentric are used in
lieu of a more suitable value

6-4

Miscellaneous Models

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Ball Joints

Ball Joints
Ball joints can be modeled with zero length expansion joints, or with restraints and connecting nodes.
When using expansion joints, each ball and socket is defined with one zero length expansion joint having rigid axial and transverse stiffnesses, and essentially zero bending and
torsional stiffnesses.
When bending and torsional stiffnesses should be small, a value of (1.0) should be used.
Results are invalid for large rotations.

Example: Two methods of modeling a Ball Joint

Modeling a ball joint between nodes


20 and 21 using a zero length expansion joint

Modeling a ball joint between nodes 20


and 21 using axial and translational
restraints with Cnodes.

Modeling a ball joint between nodes 20


and 21 using a torsional restraint.

Miscellaneous Models

6-5

Jacketed Pipe

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Jacketed Pipe
Jacketed piping systems are input by running the jacket elements directly on top of the
core elements where the two are concentric.
A very simple way to generate a jacketed pipe model is to run through the entire core and
then duplicate the core piping using a proper node increment (such as 1000). This will produce a second run of pipe which will be modified to build the jacket model. For the jacket,
change pipe size, temperature, bend radii, etc., to finish the model. The jacket and core can
then be attached by changing node numbers and adding restraints.
Typically, the end caps connecting the core to the jacket pipe are much stiffer than either
the core or the jacket. For this reason node pairs like (10 and 1010), (25 and 1025), (35 and
1035), and (40 and 1040) are often joined by using the same node for each, i.e. the displacements and rotations at the end of the core pipe are assumed to be the same as the displacements and rotations at the end of the jacket pipe.
Internal spiders offer negligible resistance to bending and axial relative deformation. Node
15 might be connected to node 1015 via a restraint with connecting node. For an X run of
pipe, rigid restraints would exist between the two nodes for the Y and Z degrees of freedom.
The +Y support acting on the jacket at node 1020 does not cause any stiffnesses to be
inserted between 20 and 1020. Node 20 is included in the model so that outside diameter
interference can be checked at the 20-1020 cross section. Should there be any concern
about interference, or interference-related stresses at the 20-1020 nodes, then restraints
with connecting nodes and gaps can be used to approximate the pipe-inside-a-pipe with a
clearance geometry.
Since CAESAR II constructs the jacketed piping model by associating nodal DOFs, the
program really does not know one pipe is inside of another. Therefore the following items
should be considered.
If both the jacket and the core are fluid-filled, the fluid density of the jacket must be
reduced, to avoid excess (incorrect) weight.
If wind loads are specified, the wind or wave loading must be deactivated for the core, or
else the core will pick up wind load.
The core pipe should probably have its insulation thickness set to zero.

6-6

Miscellaneous Models

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Miscellaneous Models

Jacketed Pipe

6-7

Cold Spring

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Cold Spring
See the CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual for a detailed discussion of the two
methods for analyzing Cold Spring.
The General Method is primarily used when there are concentrated loads in the F1 load
vector such as during hanger design, especially when the Cut Short or Cut Long is in a
vertical run of pipe.
The Simplified Method is primarily used when there are no concentrated loads in the F1
load vector and no hangers.

Example: Cut Short Using the Simplified Method

Material 18 is used for Cut Short (Material 19 for Cut Long). Material
is changed back on element 11 to 15 to actual material. Cold spring
will be considered in all load cases that contain concentrated load vector F1.

Note

6-8

For the General Method, the User must change the Alpha Tolerance in Configure/
Setup before running the model.

Miscellaneous Models

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Miscellaneous Models

Cold Spring

6-9

Cold Spring

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example: Cut Long using the General Method

Cut Long element from 20 to 21 consists of actual pipe material. The Temp 2
field is set equal to 1.0 which is a flag designating Cut Long (use -1.0 for Cut
Short). For a discussion of proper load case design see the Technical Reference
Manual.

6-10

Miscellaneous Models

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Example 1: Harmonic Analysis (TABLE)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 1: Harmonic Analysis (TABLE)


This problem is taken from the following source:
I. S. Tuba and W. B. Wright, Pressure Vessel and Piping 1972 Computer Programs
Verification An Aid To Developers and Users. The American Society of Mechanical
Engineers. New York, 1972. Problems 6 and 2.
It is assumed that the user reviewing this example is familiar with the basic CAESAR II
input. Only the input germane to the dynamic analysis is discussed.
The following model is to be analyzed first for natural frequencies and second for harmonic loads imposed on the top of the structure at nodes 8 and 13.

Enter the model as shown and set the material density on the pipe spreadsheet to be zero.
(All weights are input as concentrated masses.) Do not enter bends, but rather only straight
elements.
Member Properties:
Pipe Outside Diameter: 2.375 in.
Pipe Wall Thickness:

0.154 in.

Elastic Modulus:

27.9E+06 psi

Poissons Ratio:

0.3

Run the static case and then access the Dynamic Input.
First, additional masses may be added, or degrees of freedom deleted. In the eigensolution
of larger systems the deletion of un-needed degrees of freedom may be a very important

7-2

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 1: Harmonic Analysis (TABLE)

factor in keeping the run times reasonable. In most normal cases, however, masses must
neither be added nor deleted. The mass of the piping, fluid, and insulation is automatically
calculated and included by CAESAR II. For the current example the weight of the pipe is
zero and all masses are concentrated and prespecified as lumped masses.

Next, modify the Control Parameters as shown below:

Examples

7-3

Example 1: Harmonic Analysis (TABLE)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

By turning off the Frequency Cutoff and setting the value of the maximum number of
Eigenvalues we are guaranteed to acquire the first five natural frequencies in our results.
When the eigensolution is completed, the calculated natural frequencies are printed on the
screen:

Choose Output-View Animation from the main menu to view the animations of the 5
modes of vibration. The first mode is back and forth along the x-axis, the second mode is
transverse along the z-axis and the third mode is a twisting about the y-axis. The next two
modes are combinations of the previous three.

Harmonic Analysis of this System


Assume a 120 Hz electric motor sits on the piping structure and acts:
FX @ 8 = ( -95 cos t ) lb.
FX @ 13 = ( 95 cos t ) lb.
What is the largest stress in the small piping structure subject to these dynamic loads?

7-4

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Note

Example 1: Harmonic Analysis (TABLE)

The 120 Hz vibration falls between the structural resonant frequencies 115 Hz and
137 Hz. The torsional mode will most likely be excited because the sign difference on the forces promotes a twisting of the structure. The model has already
been built and so dynamic input is simply modified. There is only a single harmonic frequency of excitation to be investigated.

Harmonic loads are input next. The user is first asked for harmonic forces, and then harmonic displacements. Harmonic forces act at points (8) and (13) on the example piping
system. The forces act in the X direction, with an opposite sense, and with a magnitude
of 95 lb. The force acting at point (8) can be plotted as a function of time as shown in the
following figure:

For the example problem, there are


120 cycles per second.

Harmonic force data input is shown as follows. Harmonic displacements may exist in the
same problem with harmonic forces if necessary. The example problem has harmonic
forces only.

Examples

7-5

Example 1: Harmonic Analysis (TABLE)

Note

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

The same force effect could have been achieved by entering +95.0 lb at each node,
but entering a phase angle of 180.0 degrees at node 13.

Calculations for the example problem take less than 30 seconds to complete. The user may
view the structure in animated motion or view standard displaced shape plots from the
Dynamic Output using the Display Graphical Results option (shown below). Additionally,
for harmonic results, restraint loads, forces, and stresses can accurately be calculated for
the maximum displacements due to the harmonic loads.

7-6

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 2: Relief Valve Loads (RELIEF)

Example 2: Relief Valve Loads (RELIEF)


PROBLEM:

Examples

Analyze the two relief valve systems, shown as follows, subject to the
simultaneous firing of both valves.

Process steam conditions:

450 psi, @ 650F

Relief Valve Orifice:

JOHNSON #34A-06

Valve Opening Time:

8.0 milliseconds

Valve Closing Time:

8.0 milliseconds

Relief Duration:

1.0 sec.

2.141 in. ID.

7-7

Example 2: Relief Valve Loads (RELIEF)

7-8

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 2: Relief Valve Loads (RELIEF)

CAESAR II Gas Thrust Load Calculations

Examples

7-9

Example 2: Relief Valve Loads (RELIEF)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Relief Valve Example Problem Setup


REQUIRED:

Compute the support loads, forces, and stresses in the vent piping system
when the relief valves fire simultaneously.

GIVEN:

Venting steam stagnation properties are given. The CAESAR II


RELIEF LOAD SYNTHESIS option is run to compute the maximum
thrust load magnitude at the vent pipe exit. This dynamic load will act
downward at the vent elbow nodes 65 and 100. Venting will last for
approximately one second, and the opening and closing time for the relief
valve (as provided by the manufacturer) is 8.0 milliseconds. A static load
case is run first to perform spring hanger sizing at node 22. The static load
case #3 is the operating case, and will be used to set the nonlinear
restraints for the dynamic analysis.

SOLUTION:

The spectrum table name is arbitrarily selected as Relief and is defined


as having a Frequency range and a Force ordinate. (A # sign precedes the
name in the spectrum definition because the shock table is to be read from
an ASCII file on the hard disk.) The spectrum definition follows:

The DLF Spectrum Generator builds the ASCII file Relief that contains the relief valve
spectrum table. Input to the DLF Spectrum Generator is the filename, maximum table frequency, number of points, and the time-history waveform. For this example a maximum
frequency of 33 Hz and 20 data points are used to generate the table. The points in the time

7-10

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 2: Relief Valve Loads (RELIEF)

history waveform are entered as shown as follows. These points represent the valves
opening, its one second vent time, and its closing.

Examples

7-11

Example 2: Relief Valve Loads (RELIEF)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

The resulting DLF Spectrum is shown below. The Frequency vs. Dynamic Load Factors
are written to the file "Relief."

The thrust loads act at points 65 and 100. These loads are defined as Force Sets and are
entered as shown as follows:

There is only a single Spectrum Load Case defined as follows:

7-12

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 2: Relief Valve Loads (RELIEF)

There is one static/dynamic combination case of interest and that is the combination of the
sustained static load case with our one dynamic load case. This is defined as follows:

Only one item needs to be set on the Control Parameter spreadsheet. It defines the static
load case to be used for setting the nonlinear restraints, (3). Alternatively, the modal combination method could have been set to ABS instead of SRSS to produce unquestionably
conservative results.

Examples

7-13

Example 2: Relief Valve Loads (RELIEF)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Relief Valve Loading - Output Discussion


There are four key reports for a relief valve analysis:

Mass Participation Report. This report illustrates how sensitive each of the piping
systems modes are to the relief valve firing. High modal participation factors indicate that
the mode is easily excited by the applied dynamic forces. If subsequent displacement,
restraint, or stress reports indicate excessive dynamic responses, then the modes having
high participation must be dampened or eliminated. Once a particular mode is targeted as

7-14

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 2: Relief Valve Loads (RELIEF)

being a problem, it may be viewed tabularly via the mode shape report, or graphically via
the animated mode shape plots.

Examples

7-15

Example 2: Relief Valve Loads (RELIEF)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Displacement Report. This report gives the maximum possible positive or negative
displacement that may occur at some time during the relief valves firing. Values in this
report are always positive.

7-16

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 2: Relief Valve Loads (RELIEF)

Restraint Report. This report gives the maximum dynamic load the support should be
designed for. The top value is the maximum support reaction. The second value is the largest support reaction due to any one mode. The last number on the left tells which mode.

Stress Report. This report gives the maximum dynamic stress due to the relief valve firing. Stresses from a dynamic shock load case should be combined with the sustained
stresses from a static analysis and the result compared with the code defined occasional
stress for the material.
The Participation Factor report shows which modes tend to be excited by the applied
dynamic load.
The Displacement Report shows the maximum displacements that occur due to the relief
loads. These displacements may actually be positive or negative. Their true sign is indeterminate and always shown positive in the displacement report.
The following Stress Report shows element stresses due to the dynamic relief loads. The
top value is the maximum stress due to the interaction of all the system modes. The second
value is the largest stress due to any one mode. The bottom number on the left tells which
mode.
For example:

Examples

7-17

Example 2: Relief Valve Loads (RELIEF)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

The maximum stress at node 5 is 1486 psi. The stress at node 5 due only to mode #1 was
1288 psi.

The maximum stress at node 40 on the 40-50 element is 5864 psi. The stress at node 40
due to mode #4 was 3982 psi. Mode #4 was the largest contributor to the stress at node 40.

Support reactions due to the combination of the static sustained and the dynamic solutions.

7-18

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 2: Relief Valve Loads (RELIEF)

Stresses due to the combination of the static sustained and the dynamic solutions. This
stress combination can be compared to the B31 code allowables for occasional stresses.

Examples

7-19

Example 3: Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads (HAMMER)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 3: Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads (HAMMER)


PROBLEM:

The cooling water supply line shown as follows suffers a pressure surge
when the turbine driven pump drops offline due to a bearing temperature
problem. The elbow at node 45 is observed to jump 6 to 8 in. in the X
direction when the turbine trip occurs.

Design an alternative support scheme to eliminate the large field displacements associated
with the turbine trip.
Fluid Properties:

250 psi @ 140F

Flow Velocity:

6 fps

Water Bulk Modulus:

313000 psi

SOLUTION:

The magnitude of the pump supply side pressure wave which emanates
from the pump discharge at node 5 can be estimated from

dp = c dv
where:

7-20

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 3: Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads

dp - the pressure rise due to the pumps instantaneous stopping


- the fluid density
c - the speed of sound in the fluid
dv - the change in velocity of the fluid
The speed of sound in the fluid can be estimated from
c = [Ef / ( + (Ef / E) (d/t) )] 0.5
where:
Ef

is the bulk modulus of the fluid (313000 psi)

is the modulus of elasticity of the pipe (30E6 psi)

is the pipe mean diameter

is the pipe wall thickness

is the fluid density (62.4 lbm/ft3)

+ (Ef / E)(d/t) = 62.4 lbm/ft3 [1 + (313000/30E6) (8.625 -0.322)/0.322 ]


= 79.1875 lbm/ft3
c = (313000 lbf/ in2) (ft3/79.1875 lbm) (32.2 lbm ft/lbf sec2) (144in2 /ft2)1/2 = 4281 ft/sec

Note

See the PIPING HANDBOOK, Crocker & King, Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill pp.
3-189 through 3-191 for a more detailed discussion and evaluation of the speed of
sound.

Apply the equation above for the magnitude of the water hammer pressure wave.
dp = c dv = (62.4 lbm/ft3) (4281 ft/sec) (6.0 ft/sec)
= (62.4 lbm/ ft3) (4281 ft/sec) (6.0 ft/sec) (lbf sec2/32.2 lbm ft) ( ft2/144 in2)
= 345.6 psi
There are two distinct pressure pulses generated when a flowing fluid is brought to a stop.
One pulse originates at the supply side of the pump, and the other pulse originates at the
discharge side of the pump. This example only deals with the supply side water hammer
effect, but the magnitude and impact of the discharge side water hammer load should likewise be investigated when in a design mode.

Examples

7-21

Example 3: Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads (HAMMER)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

The time history wave form for both types of water hammer pulses is shown as follows:

Pod

- Discharge pressure

Ps

- Source (tank or static) pressure

Pos

- Suction pressure (while running)

dp

- Pressure fluctuation due to the instantaneous stoppage of flow through the pump

pv

- Liquid vapor pressure at flow temperature

There will be an unbalanced load on the piping system due to the time it takes the pressure
wave to pass successive elbow-elbow pairs. The magnitude of this unbalanced load can be
computed from:
F unbalanced = dp * Area
The duration of the load is found from t = L/c; where L is the length of pipe between adjacent elbow-elbow pairs. For this problem the elbow-elbow pairs most likely to cause the
large deflections at node 45 are 45-75 and 90-110.
The rise time for the unbalanced dynamic loading should be obtained from the pump manufacturer or from testing and can be determined from graphs such as those shown above.
For this problem a rise time of 5 milliseconds is assumed.
CALCULATIONS:
L 45-75 = 7 + 4(20) + 4 = 90 ft.
L 90-110 = 3(20) + 15 = 75 ft.
Area = p /4 di2 ; di = 8.625 - (2) (0.322) = 7.981 in.
Area = p /4 (7.981)2 = 50.0 in2
F unbalanced = dp * Area = (345.6) (50.0) = 17289 lbf
t duration = L/c

7-22

(90) / (4281)

21 milliseconds,

on leg from 45 to 75

(75) / (4281)

17.5 milliseconds, on leg from 90 to 110

t rise

5.0 milliseconds

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 3: Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads

Because the piping in this example is ductile low carbon steel, the major design variable
will be the large displacement; i.e. the problem will be assumed to be solved when the
restraint system is redesigned to limit the large displacements due to water hammer without causing any subsequent thermal problem due to over-restraint.
First we generate the DLF Spectrum Files as follows.

75

Examples

7-23

Example 3: Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads (HAMMER)

7-24

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 3: Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads

Next we define the Spectrum:

Then we define the force sets as follows:

Three Spectrum load cases are of interest here: Each spectrum separately and the two of
them in combination as follows:

Examples

7-25

Example 3: Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads (HAMMER)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

The sustained static load case is now combined with each dynamic load case for code
stress checks. Note that for operating restraint loads the static operating case would be
combined with each dynamic load case as well. That is left for the user to investigate.

7-26

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 3: Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads

The Control Parameters should be set as follows:

Examples

7-27

Example 3: Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads (HAMMER)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Notes for Analyzing Water Hammer Loads


On the pump or valve supply side the magnitude of the pressure wave is calculated as
shown in this example using: dp = c dv.

On the pump or valve discharge side the maximum magnitude of the pressure wave is the
difference between the fluid vapor pressure and the line pressure.
On the supply side a positive pressure wave moves away from the pump at the speed of
sound in the fluid. The magnitude of the pressure wave is equal to the sum of the suction
side pressure and dp.
On the discharge side a negative pressure wave moves away from the pump at the speed of
sound in the fluid. The maximum magnitude of this negative pressure wave is the difference between the pump discharge pressure and the fluid vapor pressure. Once the pump
shuts down, the pressure at the discharge begins to drop. The momentum of the fluid in the
downstream piping draws the discharge pressure down. If the fluid reaches its vapor pressure the fluid adjacent to the pump flashes. As the negative pressure wave moves away
from the pump these vapor bubbles collapse instantly. This local vapor implosion can
cause extremely high pressure pulses. In addition, there may be a fluid backflow created
due to the rapid drop in pressure. In this case the backflow slap at the idle pump can be
accentuated by the collapse of created vapor bubbles, resulting in an extremely large
downstream water hammer loading.
Water hammer loadings will cycle to some extent. The pressure wave passes through the
system once at full strength. Reflections of the wave may then cause secondary pressure
transients. Without a transient fluid simulation or field data the usual procedure is to
assume one or two significant passes of the pressure wave.
Where critical piping is concerned or where the maximum loads on snubbers and restraints
is to be computed, the independent effect of a single pass of the pressure wave should be
analyzed for each elbow-elbow pair in the model. A separate force spectrum load set is
defined for the elbow with the highest pressure as the wave passes between the elbowelbow pair. The direction of the applied force is away from the elbow-elbow pair. An individual dynamic load case is run for each separate force set, combinations of different
force sets are usually not run. This approach has proved satisfactory when applied to
large, hot steam piping systems that have very few fixed restraints, and a high number of
low modes of vibration. Extrapolation to other types of piping systems should be made at
the designers discretion.
CAESAR II does not check the integrity of the piping system due to the local increase in
hoop stress that occurs as the fluid pressure wave passes each pipe cross-section.
The magnitude of the water hammer loads can be reduced by slowing the mechanism that
tends to reduce the flowrate. In the case of valve closing, this means slowly closing the
valve. In the case of a pump going off line, this means slowly removing power from the
pump. Slowly in each of these instances can be estimated from:

7-28

2L/c

where

time of one wave cycle sec.

Characteristic length of the piping system. Usually taken


as the length between the pump or valve and the source or
sink.

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 3: Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads

c
=
Speed of sound in the fluid.
If the pump or valve stops in a time shorter than T then the water hammer should be analyzed as shown in this example for instantaneous closure. Calculations for this problem
are given as follows:

Of primary interest is the largest time that must be used to close a valve, or bring a pump
flowrate to a halt such that water hammer type pressure pulses are not generated. Calculations using the lengths of several reflecting systems will be made to get a feel for the
variation of the computed Ts. The longest time will be for the wave to leave the supply
side at node 5 and move to the tank connection at node 125. This represents a total L of
about 270 ft.
T = (2) (270) ft./(4281)ft/sec = 126 milliseconds
The length through which the wave passes that causes the most trouble is the
length between nodes 45 and 75:
T = (2) (90)/(4281) = 42 milliseconds

So, if the pump or valve can slow down in greater than 126 milliseconds, the tendency for
water hammer in the piping system will probably be abated. If the pump or valve can slow
down in greater than 42 milliseconds then the tendency for water hammer in the 45-75
length will be abated.
Water hammer excitation initially produces axial acoustic waves in the steel pipe wall that
can induce locally very high, very short duration forces and stresses. These short duration
loads are usually not a design problem in ductile steel piping systems. Where crack propagation in welds and material due to water hammer loads is a concern the following rules
should be followed:

A very high number of natural frequencies must usually be included in the analysis.
Cutoff frequencies of 300 Hz are not unusual. These are the axial natural modes of the
pipe between the excited elbow-elbow pairs. Higher modes must be computed until
the inclusion of extra modes doesnt produce an appreciable change in the force/stress
response. The maximum frequency cutoff can be estimated from SQRT (E/)/L
where: E = Pipe material modulus of elasticity, = Pipe material density, L = Length
of a single pipe element in the primary run that is to have accurate stresses computed
due to the passing of the water hammer originated acoustic stress wave. Calculation of
the maximum cutoff frequency for the 45-75 elbow-elbow pair for the 20 ft pipe
lengths is given as follows:
f cutoff

SQRT (E/)/L

SQRT ((30E6)(32.2)(12)/(0.283))/20

(202388 in./sec) / (20 ft. 12 in/ft)

(843.3 rad./sec) / (2 rad./cycles)

134.2 Hz.

Alternatively, including the Missing Mass Correction will approximate the contribution from the omitted modes.

Examples

7-29

Example 3: Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads (HAMMER)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

The length of any element in the primary axial runs should not be greater than about
ct/4, where c equals the speed of sound in the pipe and "t" equals the duration of the
water hammer load. Calculation of the greatest element length for the 45-75 elbowelbow pair is given as follows:
Lmax

ct/4

(4281) ft/sec (0.021) sec/(4)

= 22.5 ft.
and so, to get an accurate estimate of the stresses due to the passing of the stress wave
in the pipe, individual element lengths should be smaller than about 20 ft. Shorter
duration loads require shorter elements to monitor the passing of the stress wave.

The inclusion of the response due to the higher modes will not affect the displacement
results (only the force and stress results). Displacement results, such as the 6 to 8 in. in
the example can usually be computed accurately after the inclusion of the low frequency modes with participation factors greater than about 0.01.

Water Hammer Loading - Output Discussion


Mass Participation Report
This report illustrates how sensitive each of the piping systems modes are to the water
hammer dynamic loading. High modal participation factors indicate that the mode is easily excited by the applied dynamic forces. If subsequent displacement reports indicate
high dynamic responses then the modes having high participation must be dampened or
eliminated. Once a particular mode is targeted as being a problem, it may be viewed tabularly via the mode shape report, or graphically via the animated mode shape plots.

Displacement Report
This report gives the maximum possible positive or negative displacement that may occur
at some time during the event. Values in this report are always positive.

Restraint/Force/Stress Reports
If high modes are included, as discussed in the notes in this section, then these reports give
the maximum values of the forces and stresses in the system due to gross deformation and
the propagation of an acoustic stress wave in the pipe. If the high modes are not included,
then these reports give the maximum values of forces and stresses in the system due to
gross deformation alone.

Combination Cases
The force spectrum approach to the water hammer problem does not include consideration
of the time relationship between modal or directional maximums. Completely conservative results can be guaranteed by taking the absolute summation of both the modal and
directional response properties. Running one load case for each main piping run, and a
final load case including all of the individual load cases typically gives the analyst a good
feel for where problems exist.

7-30

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 3: Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads

In this example the main piping run between nodes 45 and 75 added the major contribution to the system dynamic responses. The combination load case including the 45-75 and
90-110 contributions together yielded little extra information.

Problem Solution
A guide and axial limit stop at nodes 45 and 105 produces little increase in thermal
stresses (which were low to begin with), and serves to attenuate the large axial displacements in the line due to the water hammer load. Loads on this support due to the low mode
displacements are seen to be small. Local, very short duration loads may not be so small.
The restraint should be designed with this in mind. A few simple design rules are usually
sufficient:

Examples

Flexible is better. The restraint should only be stiff enough to sufficiently attenuate the
low frequency gross deformation.

Areas of local discontinuities, such as the weld of the support to the pipe, should have
extra weld or support plate area (Discontinuities at other restraints in a problem area
should probably also be beefed up to withstand the local passing of the impact stress
wave.)

7-31

Example 3: Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads (HAMMER)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Portions of the CAESAR II output reports for this job are shown as follows:

7-32

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Examples

Example 3: Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads

7-33

Example 3: Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads (HAMMER)

7-34

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Examples

Example 3: Dynamic Analysis of Water Hammer Loads

7-35

Example 4: Dynamic Analysis of Independent Support Earthquake Excitation (CRYISM) CAESAR II - Ap-

Example 4:

Dynamic Analysis of Independent Support Earthquake


Excitation (CRYISM)

PROBLEM:

The cryogenic piping system shown on the following page is to be


designed in accordance with B31.3 using the ground, building, and envelope spectra shown. Two analyses are to be run:

Assume the pipe (structural steel) supports are rigid.

Include the flexibility of the structural steel supports by including the steel frames in
the analysis.

Finally, compare the results from the two analysis.


Design parameters are:
Ambient Temperature:

100F

Operating Temperature:

-59F

Pipe:

8-in. Sch 10S

Insulation:

4-in. 22.3 lb/cu ft

Fluid:

0.232 SG

Columns:

W14x82

Beams:

W10x12

Cryogenic Piping Dynamics Example


The isometric of the complete model is shown in the following figure. This drawing shows
the piping, pipe supports, and the structural steel frames.

7-36

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 4: Dynamic Analysis of Independent Support

The excitation spectra to be applied to this model are


Ground Response Spectra
Ground Response

Building Response Spectra


Building Response

Envelope Response Spectra


Envelope Response

T, sec

V, in/sec

T, sec

V, in/sec

T, sec

V, in/sec

0.05
0.2
0.5
1
2
3.5
5

0.787
7.874
21.653
39.37
18.89
43.7
11.8

0.05
0.2
0.5
1
2
3.5
5

0.787
1.3
3.4
27.3
30.4
21.12
21.3

0.05
0.2
0.5
1
2
3.5
5

0.787
7.874
21.653
39.37
30.4
43.7
21.3

10

5.9

10

Examples

5.9

10

5.359

7-37

Example 4: Dynamic Analysis of Independent Support Earthquake Excitation (CRYISM) CAESAR II - Ap-

The necessity for the various spectra can be best understood by investigating the difference between independent support excitation and uniform support excitation. These excitation methods are shown in the following figures.

7-38

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 4: Dynamic Analysis of Independent Support

For the analysis with steel supports, the structural steel must be included as part of the piping model. This can be accomplished by using the Include Structural Input Files option
from the KAUX feature of the CAESAR II spreadsheets.
The structural steel model for this problem can be generated by invoking the structural
input from the Main Menu. The input listing from the structural input session is shown as
follows:
SECID=1, W14 X 82; COLUMN CROSS SECTION
SECID=2, W10 X 12; BEAM CROSS SECTION
MATID=1, YM=29E6 POIS=0.3 G=11E6 DENS=0.283
DEFAULT SECID=1
ANGLE=90
EDIM 1038 1039 DY=15-0; DEFINE ALL COLUMNS
EDIM 1043 1044 DY=15-0
EDIM 1048 1049 DY=15-0
EDIM 1053 1054 DY=15-0
DEFAULT SECID=2
ANGLE=0
EDIM 1039 1040 DZ=-2-0;DEFINE ALL BEAMS

Examples

7-39

Example 4: Dynamic Analysis of Independent Support Earthquake Excitation (CRYISM) CAESAR II - Ap-

EDIM 1044 1045 DZ=-2-0


EDIM 1054 1055 DZ=-2-0
FIX 1038 ALL
FIX 1043 ALL
FIX 1048 ALL
FIX 1053 ALL

The dynamics input for this problem is summarized in the figure that follows. Details of
the dynamics input are contained on the following pages.

7-40

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Examples

Example 4: Dynamic Analysis of Independent Support

7-41

Example 4: Dynamic Analysis of Independent Support Earthquake Excitation (CRYISM) CAESAR II - Ap-

In order to keep the documentation for this example brief, the only results presented are
those for the uniform support excitation case. Using this load case, the model with and
without structural steel supports will be compared. The results from these two models are
shown in the tables that follow:

7-42

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 4: Dynamic Analysis of Independent Support

DISPLACEMENTS
X

RX
0.4298
0.2902

RY

RZ

0.5932
0.3832

0.0622
0.0033

35

with
without

0.4253
0.0049

0.0336
0.0076

1.5831
1.0334

45

with
without

0.4240
0.0036

0.0379
0.0

3.7952
1.9555

0.2311
0.1635

0.5550
0.2576

0.0412
0.0007

50

with
without

0.4219
0.0020

0.0447
0.0

3.7435
1.4764

0.1911
0.0817

0.5695
0.4083

0.1220
0.0002

60

with
without

0.3799
0.0366

1.4247
0.5838

0.5930
0.0635

0.3613
0.0292

0.3534
0.0425

0.2322
0.0236

75

with
without

0.8484
0.6447

1.3529
0.5631

1.3033
1.1291

0.5127
0.4482

0.4247
0.3346

0.4924
0.2114

90

with
without

0.5927
0.4689

0.4228
0.3414

0.2087
0.1815

0.3816
0.3425

0.5229
0.4236

0.4461
0.2465

RESTRAINT LOADS

40

RX

with

241

319

523

4761

981

1133

without

207

353

353

3114

647

1001

146

1118

with
without

45

with
without

50

with
without

55

with
without

Examples

18

RY

RZ

597
229

4
754
1

976

2029

1939

1154

1536

384819

1408

596

434

8100

11638

7-43

Example 4: Dynamic Analysis of Independent Support Earthquake Excitation (CRYISM) CAESAR II - Ap-

65

with
without

70

580

with
without

80

956
560
538
500

895
743

with

236

without
115

1101

110

with

743

253

429

2531

1568

4025

without

504

200

359

2286

1339

2701

STRESSES
AXIAL

7-44

BENDING

TORSION MAX OCT CODE

20F

with
without

80
88

20614
13344

1742
1151

9834
6363

20639
13350

35F

with
without

22
17

13454
8558

571
280

6366
4041

13468
8559

40

with
without

164
122

7179
4779

571
280

3431
2265

7211
4782

45

with
without

297
193

11001
7963

571
280

5246
3762

11081
7966

55

with
without

429
232

16435
11664

571
280

7832
5504

16582
11667

55

with
without

140
86

15886
17125

1009
148

7600
8114

16024
17210

60F

with
without

340
357

20784
12164

696
414

9920
5911

21114
12520

75F

with
without

69
59

11489
6208

375
281

5448
2963

11539
6267

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 4: Dynamic Analysis of Independent Support

Discussion of Results
These comparison tables illustrate the differences that can exist when the structural steel
models are not included in the analysis. In some cases, the results with the structural steel
included are many times higher than the results computed without the structural steel. The
steel models add flexibility to the piping system. More flexibility means lower natural frequencies and more modes to be excited by the shock. A comparison of the natural frequencies of the two models is given as follows:
NATURAL FREQUENCIES
No.

Examples

With Structure

Without Structure

1)

1.307

1.706

2)

2.244

2.533

3)

2.520

3.371

4)

3.149

3.936

5)

3.443

4.384

6)

4.206

5.294

7)

4.404

5.929

8)

5.250

8.957

9)

5.675

11.849

10)

5.761

16.367

11)

5.988

16.564

12)

6.594

20.588

13)

7.992

22.954

14)

11.855

23.474

15)

14.086

25.582

16)

14.086

29.685

17)

14.086

35.083

18)

16.504

19)

15.554

20)

20.333

21)

20.589

22)

20.909

23)

20.909

24)

20.909

25)

23.052

26)

23.475

27)

25.582

7-45

Example 4: Dynamic Analysis of Independent Support Earthquake Excitation (CRYISM) CAESAR II - Ap-

28)

38.085

In the above table, there are only five extra mode shapes for the system which includes the
structure.
The restraint moment at node 55 in the Z direction is much larger without the steel model
than it is with the steel model. Even though the piping is tied to the steel, the steel frame
will not support much moment in the Z direction. The steel frame bends slightly about the
Z axis, and the moment is carried through from the pipe. In the piping only model, the
rigid anchor at node 55 will not rotate about the Z axis (or any other axis) and so ends up
carrying all of the moment load.

7-46

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 5: Structural Analysis (FRAME)

Example 5: Structural Analysis (FRAME)


PROBLEM:

Analyze the braced frame shown below subjected to the given


uniform load and self weight.

Column section data: area

15 in2 inertias

250 in.4

Beam section data:

area

10 in2 inertias

500 in.4

Brace section data:

area

5 in2 inertias

1 in.4

Material density:

490 pcf

Beam loading:

200 lb/in.

This example shows how to model a structure using the CAESAR II structural preprocessor.
The figure below shows a single bay, braced space frame. All beam and column lengths
are 50 in. as shown. This frame is subjected to its own weight load as well as a uniform
load of 200 pounds per inch on all of the top level beams. We wish to know the displacements, reactions, and element forces for three load cases: self weight, uniform load, and
self weight plus uniform load.

This example will illustrate how to use most of the keyword directives in the structural
preprocessor. A standard finite element modeling approach will be followed, where the
system nodes are defined, then materials and section properties, then elements, and finally
the loading.

Examples

7-47

Example 5: Structural Analysis (FRAME)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

To process the input file Frame.str start the structural preprocessor by selecting option
File-Open from the Main Menu then select the type of file as Structure and select the
examples directory to find the file.

Next, select Input-Structural Steel from the Main Menu to enter the input window shown
(only the input portion of the window shown here). Press the Save button or choose File-

7-48

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 5: Structural Analysis (FRAME)

Save from the structural processor to error check and save the model. You may also want
to view the plot of the model before you exit.

Examples

7-49

Example 5: Structural Analysis (FRAME)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

After the input has been saved and error checked exit the structural steel input processor to
go back to the Main Menu. The analysis can be started immediately by selecting option
Analysis-Statics. At this point CAESAR II will read the binary files created by the structural preprocessor and recommend load cases. Note, in all probability you will not want to
analyze the structure with the recommended load cases. CAESAR II recommends load
cases to satisfy piping code compliance. Therefore occasional loads (like the current uniform load) will not be used. Edit the load cases as shown below. Note that load case 2 consists of only U1 and that it is designated as an operating case. It is purely a construction
case and is segregated here only because it may be interesting to see the loads produced by
the Uniform Load solely.

7-50

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 5: Structural Analysis (FRAME)

The results for this analysis are shown in the following nine figures:

Examples

7-51

Example 5: Structural Analysis (FRAME)

7-52

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Examples

Example 5: Structural Analysis (FRAME)

7-53

Example 5: Structural Analysis (FRAME)

7-54

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Examples

Example 5: Structural Analysis (FRAME)

7-55

Example 5: Structural Analysis (FRAME)

7-56

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Examples

Example 5: Structural Analysis (FRAME)

7-57

Example 6: Dynamic Analysis (NUREG9)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 6: Dynamic Analysis (NUREG9)


PROBLEM:

Analyze the piping system shown on the following page subjected to a


series of shock spectra.

This problem is one of the NRC benchmark problems run to verify the dynamic capabilities of CAESAR II. The detailed input will not be shown or discussed in this example.
Users will find the necessary input files on the examples diskette. For those users interested, this problem was taken from: NUREG/CR -1677, BNL-NUREG-51267, VOL II,
August 1985.

NRC Example NUREG9


This problem is a three-branch system, composed of 20 pipe elements and 14 support elements. The support elements are divided into four groups corresponding to four distinct
input excitation spectra sets. This problem demonstrates the independent support motion
feature of CAESAR II.
In modeling this problem, the 14 support elements were input as restraints with stiffnesses.
All bend elements include a node at the near point to insure mass and stiffness computations consistent with the NRC example. Users should note that in addition to the pipe density, there is a single lumped mass applied at node 18.
For this example, the contributions from the pseudo-static anchor point displacements are
not included. The three solutions presented represent the following:

7-58

envelope spectrum; spatial then modal combinations

ISM (independent support motion); directional, spatial, then modal combinations


using SRSS

ISM; directional, spatial, then modal combinations using ABS

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Examples

Example 6: Dynamic Analysis (NUREG9)

7-59

Example 6: Dynamic Analysis (NUREG9)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

NRC BENCHMARK SERIES

NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.II 1980.

NRC PROBLEM 2A

CAESAR II JOB NUREG9

NATURAL FREQUENCY REPORT (Hz)

MODE

NRC

CAESAR II

9.360

9.362

12.71

12.708

15.38

15.379

17.80

17.800

21.60

21.606

25.10

25.102

32.03

32.039

38.07

38.075

40.29

40.299

10

48.90

48.905

11

57.51

57.524

12

61.50

61.510

13

62.54

62.550

14

69.35

69.359

15

77.44

77.456

16

78.88

78.893

17

101.7

101.731

18

103.6

103.598

19

108.0

107.983

20

115.1

115.116

21

135.2

135.265

22

155.2

155.244

23

160.6

160.626

24

203.8

203.820

25

209.9

209.957

NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.II 1980.

7-60

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 6: Dynamic Analysis (NUREG9)

NRC PROBLEM 2A

CAESAR II JOB NUREG9

TRANSLATIONS (in)

DX
NODE

DY

DZ

NRC CAESAR II

NRC

CAESAR II

NRC

CAESAR II

.0105

.0105

.0

.0

.0250

.0250

.0431

.0431

.0049

.0049

.0907

.0907

.0475

.0475

.0253

.0252

.0327

.0327

.0280

.0280

.0379

.0379

.0491

.0491

10

.0108

.0107

.0249

.0249

.0631

.0631

12

.0285

.0285

.0186

.0186

.0633

.0633

14

.0849

.0849

.0085

.0085

.0635

.0635

16

.0476

.0476

.0001

.0001

.0402

.0401

18

.0286

.0286

.0318

.0138

.0421

.0421

20

.0131

.0131

.0095

.0095

.0001

.0001

ROTATIONS (deg)

RX

Examples

RY

NODE

NRC

CAESAR II

NRC

.0457

.0457

.0260

.0515

.0515

.0389

RZ

CAESAR II

NRC

CAESAR II

.0260

.0190

.0190

.0688

.0688

.0269

.0268

.0389

.1012

.1012

.0268

.0267

.0309

.0309

.0950

.0949

.0217

.0217

10

.0201

.0201

.0289

.0289

.0203

.0203

12

.0105

.0105

.0328

.0328

.0224

.0224

14

.0102

.0102

.0514

.0511

.0299

.0299

16

.0359

.0359

.0496

.0496

.0476

.0476

18

.0105

.0105

.0343

.0343

.0128

.0127

20

.0215

.0214

.0273

.0273

.0090

.0090

7-61

Example 6: Dynamic Analysis (NUREG9)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.II 1980.

NRC PROBLEM 2A

CAESAR II JOB NUREG9

SUPPORT FORCES (lb)

FX

FY

CAESAR II

NRC

FZ

NODE

NRC

CAESAR II

NRC

CAESAR II

90

90

65

64

177

177

708

707

446

445

11

206

206

13

164

164

15

188

187

188

187

263

262

17

58

58

198

197

103

103

21

378

377

192

191

245

245

TRANSLATIONS (in)

DX
NODE
SAR II

NRC

DY
CAESAR II

NRC

DZ

CAESAR II

NRC

CAE-

.0064

.0064

.0002

.0

.0158

.0158

.0267

.0267

.0031

.0031

.0574

.0574

.0295

.0295

.0162

.0162

.0207

.0207

.0170

.0170

.0242

.0242

.0311

.0311

10

.0029

.0029

.0152

.0152

.0399

.0399

12

.0103

.0103

.0110

.0110

.0400

.0400

14

.0530

.0530

.0053

.0053

.0401

.0401

16

.0301

.0301

.0001

.0001

.0255

.0255

18

.0103

.0103

.0187

.0187

.0267

.0267

20

.0033

.0033

.0057

.0057

.0

.0

NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.II 1980

NRC PROBLEM 2B

7-62

CAESAR II JOB NUREG9

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 6: Dynamic Analysis (NUREG9)

ROTATIONS (deg)

RX

RY

NODE

NRC

CAESAR II

NRC

.0289

.0289

.0165

.0326

.0326

.0247

CAESAR II

RZ
NRC

CAESAR II

.0165

.0116

.0116

.0435

.0435

.0172

.0171

.0247

.0641

.0640

.0171

.0171

.0199

.0199

.0599

.0598

.0132

.0132

10

.0134

.0134

.0075

.0075

.0120

.0120

12

.0071

.0071

.0204

.0204

.0134

.0134

14

.0062

.0062

.0307

.0307

.0184

.0184

16

.0228

.0228

.0276

.0276

.0301

.0301

18

.0070

.0070

.0208

.0208

.0079

.0079

20

.0128

.0128

.0074

.0074

.0053

.0053

SUPPORT FORCES (lb)

FX
NODE NRC

Examples

FY

CAESAR II

FZ

NRC

CAESAR II

NRC

CAESAR II

53

53

46

46

113

112

441

440

257

256

11

123

123

13

98

98

15

111

111

111

111

156

155

17

32

32

124

123

66

66

21

103

103

114

113

116

115

7-63

Example 6: Dynamic Analysis (NUREG9)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

NRC BENCHMARK SERIES

NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267 VOL.II 1980.

NRC PROBLEM 2C

CAESAR II JOB NUREG9

TRANSLATIONS (in)

DX
NODE

NRC

.0090

.0373 .

DY

CAESAR II
.0090

NRC

DZ

CAESAR II

NRC

CAESAR II

.0

.0

.0220

.0220

0372

.0044

.0044

.0800

.0800

.0411 .

0411

.0235

.0235

.0289

.0288

.0237 .

0237

.0355

.0355

.0434

.0434

10

.0043 .

0043

.0227

.0227

.0556

.0556

12

.0148 .

0148

.0164

.0164

.0558

.0558

14

.0741 .

0740

.0074

.0074

.0560

.0560

16

.0420 .

0420

.0001

.0001

.0355

.0355

18

.0148 .

0148

.0281

.0372

.0372

.0372

20

.0049 .

0049

.0085

.0085

.0001

.0001

ROTATIONS (deg)

RX
NODE

7-64

NRC

RY

CAESAR II

NRC

RZ

CAESAR II

NRC

CAESAR II

.0402

.0402

.0229

.0229

.0163

.0163

.0456

.0455

.0606

.0605

.0244

.0244

.0347

.0346

.0894

.0893

.0252

.0252

.0282

.0282

.0835

.0835

.0196

.0196

10

.0197

.0197

.0112

.0112

.0179

.0179

12

.0104

.0104

.0285

.0285

.0199

.0199

14

.0092

.0092

.0429

.0429

.0260

.0260

16

.0318

.0317

.0387

.0387

.0421

.0420

18

.0104

.0104

.0291

.0291

.0116

.0116

20

.0191

.0191

.0110

.0110

.0079

.0079

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 6: Dynamic Analysis (NUREG9)

NRC BULLETIN NUREG-51267

NRC PROBLEM 2C

VOL.II 1980.

CAESAR II JOB NUREG9

SUPPORT FORCES (lb)

FX

Examples

FY
CAESAR II

NRC

FZ

NODE

NRC

CAESAR II

NRC

CAESAR II

76

76

70

69

156

155

607

607

350

350

11

184

184

13

146

146

15

151

151

151

151

212

211

17

45

45

169

168

91

90

21

152

151

170

169

158

157

7-65

Example 7: Omega Loop Modeling (OMEGA)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 7: Omega Loop Modeling (OMEGA)


PROBLEM:

The Omega expansion loop consists of a series of back to back 135


degree bends. Generate a piping model of an Omega loop according to the
following sketches.

DESIGN PARAMETERS:
Pipe:

3-in., standard wall

Bend Radius:

24 in.

Material:

low carbon steel

Temperature:

200F, 300F, 400F

The objective of this example is to illustrate the techniques necessary to code a series of
back to back bends. For this example, we will use an Omega loop as shown below.
The given dimensions are the 6-ft 10-in. height, the 2-ft bend radius, and the bend angles
of 135 degrees and 270 degrees. From this information the other dimensions shown in the
figure can be derived.

Figure 1
In coding a series of back to back bends it is important to remember that the delta dimensions should be measured from tangent intersection point (TIP) to tangent intersection
point. (See Chapter 2 of the Applications Guide for additional information on the proper
coding of bends.)

7-66

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 7: Omega Loop Modeling (OMEGA)

Figure 2 shows the node points which will be coded on the spreadsheets to model the
Omega loop. (The model will be anchored at nodes 1 and 35.) The first bend (lower left
bend) will span between nodes 5 and 10. Note that the TIP 10, is far to the right of the
bend. For analysis and output, the actual location of node 10 is at the far weld line, as
shown in Figure 3.

Figure 2
The second bend (upper left bend) will span between nodes 10 and 15. Recall that we code
TIP to TIP. Therefore the delta coordinates entered on the spreadsheet are the X and Y distances between nodes 10 and 15 on Figure 2. The actual location of node 15 is at the far
weld line, shown in Figure 3. Node 15 is the TIP for this bend, and lies to the left of the
pipe.
The third bend (upper right bend) spans between nodes 15 and 20, where node 20 is TIP.
In coding from TIP to TIP, only a delta X is required. Figure 3 shows the actual location of
node 20 on the pipe.
The fourth and final bend (lower right bend) spans between nodes 20 and 25. In this case,
a delta X and a delta Y are required. The actual location of node 25 is shown on Figure 3.
The element from 25 to 30 is a straight element necessary to finish off the bend. (Recall a

Examples

7-67

Example 7: Omega Loop Modeling (OMEGA)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

bend in CAESAR II requires an element beyond the far weld line to determine its orientation.)

Figure 3
Below is an input listing for the model. The delta dimensions shown were obtained from
Figure 1. Note that 3 additional, equally spaced points are located on each bend.
Note

7-68

This example requires a change in Configuration/Setup to allow the error


checker to accept large angle (> 95 deg.) bends.

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Examples

Example 7: Omega Loop Modeling (OMEGA)

7-69

Example 7: Omega Loop Modeling (OMEGA)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

The following figures depict line and volume input plots from the CAESAR II preprocessor. It should now be obvious why volume plot should always be reviewed. This will
insure the model is as the analyst thinks it is.

7-70

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Examples

Example 7: Omega Loop Modeling (OMEGA)

7-71

Example 8: Jacketed Piping (JACKET)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 8: Jacketed Piping (JACKET)


This example is intended to serve as a guide for modeling techniques used in the analysis
of jacketed piping systems. Where applicable, various alternatives are discussed that may
be benefit specific systems or problems.
The piping system to be analyzed is shown in the following figure. The piping system consists of an 8-in., schedule-40 crude oil line and a 12-in., schedule-40 steam jacket. The
section of piping from the pump to the valve is completely jacketed, while the section
from the valve to the vessel has only the straight sections jacketed. (This variation in the
jacket is used to illustrate the two common types of jacketed systems.) The core pipe is
supported in the jacket through the use of spiders. These spiders provide translational
restraints in two directions, normal to the axis of the pipe. For this system, the spiders are
located at each elbow weld line, and in the straight runs such that the spider spacing does
not exceed 6 ft. For this system, both the jacket and the core are low carbon steel.
Note

7-72

In some systems, the jacket and the core consist of different materials. This condition must be modeled very carefully, since the thermal growth in the core will be
different from the thermal growth of the jacket. Improper axial restraints in such a
system can cause extremely large loads in the pipe.

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 8: Jacketed Piping (JACKET)

Step 1 - Modeling Plan


The first step in modeling any system is to consider the most efficient way to create the
input, and more importantly, how to best review the results. By deciding how to best
review the results, the input node numbering scheme can be setup. From the node numbering scheme, one can decide how to generate the model to take advantage of the various
rotate, duplicate, and include options.
For this example system, the core piping will be modeled using node numbers from 1000
to 1999, and the jacket will be modeled using node numbers starting at 2000. Additionally,
similar locations on the two systems will have the same base node number, i.e. 1110 and
2110 describe the same point on both the core and the jacket. Setting up the node numbers
in this manner enables one of the systems to be generated from the other, using either the
duplicate or the include options of the input preprocessor. The systems can also be
viewed individually in the plot by using the Range command and breaking the model at
1999. The other advantage to this scheme is that when reviewing output we can
tell immediately from the node number whether the point in question belongs to the core
or the jacket.
Although not necessary for a small system such as this, additional node number ranges can
be employed to differentiate parts of the model. To illustrate this concept, the following
additional constraints will be placed on the node numbers. The ground level piping will
have nodes in the 100-400 series, while the second level piping will have nodes in the 500900 series. For example, node 1110 will be a core node at ground level, and node 2550
will be a jacket node on the second level. To indicate locations where external supports are
applied to the system, node numbers will end in 5, all other points will be multiples of 10.
Similar node numbering schemes can be used to differentiate branches from headers, pipe
from structural steel, and various line sizes. A little thought and planning at the start of a
model can ease both input verification and output review. For example, consider reviewing the input for this system and finding a spring hanger at node 1530. This should quickly
be recognized as an error since the 1000 series nodes make up the core piping, and cant
utilize spring hangers. Additionally, a support node should end with a 5.

Step 2 - Layout of Nodes


The system as defined in the preceding figure consists of nine segments of piping. Each
segment is shown in the following figure with the node numbers assigned to the various
points for the core piping. Each segment is discussed in the following paragraphs.
Please note, the term segments is used solely to assist in discussing this example.
CAESAR II does not require the segregation of a piping system into segments. There are
no such input requirements or restrictions in CAESAR II.

Examples

7-73

Example 8: Jacketed Piping (JACKET)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Core Pipe Layout

Segment A
This segment runs from the pump to the first elbow. Since this section is at ground level
the 100 series nodes will be used. Since the pump acts as an anchor, the start node of this
segment will end in 5, thus the pump is assigned node 1105. The length of the segment
requires an intermediate node point for a spider, thus node 1110 is assigned 5 ft from the
pump. Nodes 1120 and 1115 are assigned to the elbow. Note that the +Y support is not at
node 1115, since 1115 is part of the core piping. The +Y will be applied at node 2115 (the
jacket), and therefore we assign the 5 to this node point.

Segment B
This segment is the six foot vertical section, beginning with the elbow at 1120. This section can be simply modeled by coding to the top elbow and assigning nodes 1500 and
1510. Note that we are using the 500 series nodes here, because we are now modeling the
2nd level piping.

Segment C
The first horizontal run in the 2nd level requires a node at mid-span to accommodate a
spring hanger (on the jacket). This mid-span node will divide the segment into two
9 ft lengths, which exceed the maximum spider spacing of 6 ft. Therefore, the eighteen
foot span will be divided into four elements, each 4 ft 6 in. The nodes assigned are 1520,

7-74

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 8: Jacketed Piping (JACKET)

1525 (for the hanger location), and 1530. The segment is finished off with the elbow modeled by nodes 1540 and 1550.

Segment D
This horizontal segment in the 2nd level is modeled using nodes 1560, 1570, and nodes
1575 and 1580 at the elbow. The nodes 1560 and 1570 are for spiders while 1575 is a
hanger location.

Segment E
This horizontal segment contains the valve. Nodes for this segment are: 1590, 1600, 1610,
and 1615. Note that node 1615 terminates the elbow and is also a hanger location. The element from 1590 to 1600 should be declared rigid with a weight of 452 lb. Note also that
starting with the elbow 1610-1615, all of the elbows will be modeled as individual elements. This will ease the coding of the jacket later on. The elbows in this part of the model
will consist of two straight pieces of pipe, equal in length to the radius of the elbow.

Segment F
The third horizontal leg of the expansion loop, modeled using nodes 1620, 1630, 1640,
and 1650.

Segment G
The last horizontal run of the 2nd level is modeled using nodes 1655, 1660, and 1670.
Note that 1655 is a hanger location.

Segment H
The second vertical section of piping returns the system to ground level. The only additional nodes required for this section are for the elbow, at 1130 and 1135. The node 1135 is
a +Y location on the jacket.

Segment I
This is the last segment that terminates at the vessel nozzle. The nodes used to model this
segment are: 1140, 1150, and 1155.

Step 3 - Input of Core Piping


During the input of the above sections, frequent use of the CAESAR II plot facility
should be made. This will insure that the system is being modeled correctly and that any
input errors are detected as soon as possible. The following figure shows a volume plot of
the completed core piping, with node numbers and anchors.

Examples

7-75

Example 8: Jacketed Piping (JACKET)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Completed Core Piping

At this phase of the input, it would be prudent to save the input file and invoke the
CAESAR II error checker. Running the error checker at this time is a wise idea, because
we intend to use the core piping model to generate the jacket piping model. Any errors that
exist in the core will be duplicated in the jacket, thus doubling our correction efforts.
The additional data required to finish the model (allowable stresses, temperatures, pressures, etc.) are contained in the CAESAR II input file which accompanies the software.
This data is found in the file Jacket._a in the Examples subdirectory of the Caesar II installation directory.

Step 4 - Input of Jacket, 1st Half


At this point there are several ways to obtain the jacket model. The first and obvious
method is to continue with the spreadsheet input and simply build the jacket. The second
method is to duplicate the core pipe input file, and then use the include feature to combine the two models. The third method is to use the List processor and duplicate the necessary elements from within the preprocessor. The later method is the one we will use for
this example.
The modeling of the jacket will begin by invoking the List processor from the
CAESAR II spreadsheet by choosing the Edit-List menu option. The various list options
are available by choosing the appropriate tab at the bottom of the window. We want to
choose the Elements tab, which is the default. The resulting list of the elements contains
their associated delta coordinates. This screen is shown as follows:

7-76

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 8: Jacketed Piping (JACKET)

Core Pipe Input Listing

For the first half of the jacket, we will duplicate the core piping. The duplicated region will
start at the pump and terminate at the valve. The duplication can be accomplished by performing the following steps:
1. Click the mouse cursor to the row number for the element from 1105 to 1110.
2. Click the mouse cursor, while holding the shift-key down, to the row number for the
element from 1580 to 1590, which is the element just before the valve. All rows
between our two selections should now be highlighted.
3. Next, select Block - Duplicate to generate the duplicate dialog box. Click on the radio
button for identical. Choose the radio button to place the duplicate block at end of
input. Specify 1000 for the node increment.
4. After clicking OK to dismiss this Window and again to dismiss the Duplication Status
Window, CAESAR II will duplicate the block and increment all of the node numbers
by 1000. This will result in a section of pipe identical to the pipe from 1105 to 1590
with node numbers from 2105 to 2590.

Examples

7-77

Example 8: Jacketed Piping (JACKET)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Three changes must be made to the new section of pipe to obtain the jacket piping. First
the diameter and wall thickness must be changed to 12 in., schedule 40. This is easily
accomplished in the List Editor by finding the element from 2105 to 2110, and simply typing over the current values. The following values should also be specified here: jacket
temperature, jacket pressure, jacket insulation, and jacket fluid weight. The final modification requires changing all of the jacket bend radii from long to short. The best way to
accomplish this change is to enter the Bend list by clicking on the Bend tab on the bottom
of the list window. Then, starting at the bend at node 2120, change the radius from Long to
12.0 in. This change must be made to all of the following bends.
Once the above changes have been made, the 1st half of the jacket is finished. A volume
plot of the system will now show the core piping overlaid by the jacket piping.

7-78

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Note

Example 8: Jacketed Piping (JACKET)

Even though the two models are correctly positioned with respect to each other,
they are not connected. All we have done so far is duplicate several pipes. The fact
that the graphics shows them positioned properly is merely coincidence. As far as
CAESAR II is concerned, we have two discontiguous systems in the same input
file. The graphics module plots discontiguous systems such that they all start from
the same point, which is why the jacket and core line up properly in this case.

The next step is to correctly connect the jacket to the core, and apply any external
restraints. The connection between the jacket and the core piping will model the spiders
that align the two in the real system. These connections can be modeled in CAESAR II by
using restraints with connecting nodes (CNodes).
Note

A CNode associates degrees of freedom. Simply stated, if a CNode connects two


nodes in the Y-direction, they will experience identical displacements in the Ydirection. Use CNodes to restrain two nodes to each other without restraining
them to the "outside world."

The modeling of the connection between the jacket and the core will start at the pump. On
the very first spreadsheet of the model, the restraint field should be entered. Then add a
restraint at node 1105 with a CNode at 2105 of type "anchor." This will associate all six
degrees of freedom between nodes 1105 and 2105.
On the same spreadsheet, add two restraints at node 1110. Both of these restraints have a
CNode at 2110, one in the Y-direction, and one in the Z-direction. These two restraints
model the spider between the core and the jacket.
Note

The spider was not modeled using gaps. The actual clearance between the spider
and the pipes is very small, and attempting to numerically model this clearance
using restraints with gaps causes the job to be highly non-linear. Models with gaps
at each spider will have convergence problems and in all probability never reach a
solution.

The next spreadsheet from 1110 to 1120 defines the first elbow. A total of four restraints
should be added to this spreadsheet: at 1115, put a CNode of 2115 with Y and Z-direction
restraints, at 1120, put a CNode of 2120 with X and Z-direction restraints. Note that these
restraints are perpendicular to the axis of the pipe. Also recall that at 2115 we have an
external restraint, a +Y. This support should be added to the system on the spreadsheet
containing the node 2115.
In similar fashion, the remaining spiders should be added to the model (see the example
job JACKET found in the Examples directory to review these restraints). When node
1590 is reached, the CNode at 2590 is connected with an Anchor. The spring hangers at
nodes 2525 and 2575 should also be added.
Aside from the two anchors at the pump and the valve, all of the spider connections
between the jacket and the core are modeled using two perpendicular restraints, with connecting nodes. How are the other four degrees of freedom restrained? What keeps this
model from undergoing rigid body motion? These questions can be resolved by considering two points. First, the jacket is continuous over the core from the pump to the valve. At
both of these points we have connected all six degrees of freedom. Second, the transla-

Examples

7-79

Example 8: Jacketed Piping (JACKET)

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

tional restraints obviously prevent motion in the three translational directions. Additionally, these restraints also prevent rotation, because the jacket is continuous.
Note

Whenever a model is constructed, you must insure that the model, or parts of the
model, cannot undergo rigid body motion. Such a model produces a singular stiffness matrix, and the solution can not be attained. An example of such a poor
model is a cantilever beam with a hinge at mid span.

At this point in the input session, the user should invoke the error checker (click on the
single running man button). The input will be saved and any errors reported should be corrected at this time.

Step 5 - Input of Jacket, 2nd Half


The input of the 2nd half of the jacket is more complex than the 1st half, since the jacket
only covers the straight runs of piping. For this reason, the jacket elements will be coded
manually, as opposed to any form of duplication. Duplicating portions of the model would
work, however the extra time involved in deleting the jacket from the elbows is greater
than the time required to input only the straight sections. By modeling the jacket directly,
the restraints for the spiders can be input as we encounter them.
To start the input session, enter Piping-Input and press [Control-End] to go to the last
spreadsheet in the model. At this point, press the continue button and change the node
numbers to 2600 and 2610, with a DX of 5 ft. Where is the element from 2600 to 2610?
Return to the spreadsheet and temporarily change the diameter of 2600-2610 to 24 in., and
try the volume plot. The element 2600-2610 has been positioned at the plot origin, because
at this time the element is not connected to anything. Return to the spreadsheet and correct
the diameter, back to 12-in. nominal.
To properly connect the jacket to the core, restraints must be added at 2600 and at 2610. At
2610 a CNode of 1610 will be added with restraints in the Y and Z-directions. At 2600, we
need a CNode of 1600. Avoid the temptation to associate these two nodes (2600 and 1600)
in the Y and Z-directions as this is incorrect and will produce an unstable model. The reason for this is because doing so would allow the jacket to move freely in the X-direction
and to spin about the X-axis, hence we have a mechanism. Note that we did not have this
problem in the first half of the model since the jacket was continuous over the elbows and
the model was three dimensional in nature. We must ensure that in this half of the model
the appropriate axial and torsional restraints are applied to the jacket. At node 2600, we
will model an Anchor to 1600. (This is simpler than modeling separate X, Y, Z, and RX
restraints.) This causes the 8-in.line to be physically connected to the 12-in.line in all 6
degrees of freedom.
The next jacket element covers the core from 1616, the end of the elbow, to 1640. The
node 2615 is anchored to 1616 via a CNode.
The next two elements 2620-2630 and 2630-2640 are standard pipe element with a DZ of
-4.333 ft. Each To- node is connected to the corresponding core node with a CNode associating the X and Y-directions.
The remaining three sections of jacket are modeled in exactly the same manner. The final
step in the modeling is to add the spring hangers at nodes 2615 and 2655, and the +Y
restraint at 2135. The completed model is shown below in the following figure.

7-80

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 8: Jacketed Piping (JACKET)

Completed Jacketed Piping System

The completed input file can be found as part of the examples set, under the job name
JACKET. Once the input task has been completed, the job must be error checked and then
analyzed for the specified loading conditions. The resulting output should be checked to
ensure that the system was modeled correctly. These checks should include the following:

Examples

Verification of the weight of the core system, the jacket system, and the combined system. The Sustained-Restraint report can be used for this check. Be sure that the
jacket pipe fluid density accounts for the volume lost due to the core. CAESAR II
does not do this automatically, the user must reduce the density of the jacket fluid
accordingly.

Verify that the piping system does not develop large axial loads in either the core, the
jacket, or equipment anchors. This can be caused by improperly over restraining the
pipe in the axial direction, or the effects of thermal growth on dissimilar metals.

Check the displacements at the elbows in the operating case and make sure that the
core pipe does not tend to move through the jacket. It is important to note that
CAESAR II does not perform interference checking.

Check the displacements at the spiders, where the jacket and the core are connected.
In the direction of the spiders the displacements should be the same for both the jacket
and the core.

If wind or wave loads are specified, they should be disabled on the core piping.

The core pipe should probably have its insulation thickness set to zero.

7-81

Example 9: WRC 107

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 9: WRC 107


The example problem which follows goes through a comprehensive local stress analysis
of a vessel/nozzle using WRC 107 and ASME Section VIII, Division 2 criteria.

In order to determine whether the WRC 107 Bulletin is appropriate for the computation of
the local stress state in the vessel due to external loading, geometry guidelines should first
be reviewed:

7-82

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 9: WRC 107

D = 120.0 in. , T = 0.625 in., d = 12.75 in. , t = 0.375 in.


d / D = 0.10625 < 0.33
Dm/ T = (D-T) /T = 191 > 50

In the present case, both conditions are satisfied. The actual preparation of the WRC 107
calculation input can now begin. One of the most important steps in the WRC 107 procedure is to identify the correlation between the CAESAR II global coordinates and the
WRC 107 local axes. The CAESAR II program performs this conversion automatically.
The user will, however, have to identify the vectors defining the vessel as well as the nozzle centerline. The following figure is provided to illustrate the definition of the direction
vectors of the vessel and the nozzle.

Converting Forces/Moments in CAESAR II Global Coordinates to WRC 107


Local Axes
Notice that in order to define a vessel direction vector, the user first needs to designate the
output data points (A-D) as defined by the WRC 107 Bulletin. Note that the line between
data points B and A defines the vessel centerline (except for nozzles on heads, where the
vessel centerline will have to be defined along a direction which is perpendicular to that of
the nozzle). Since, in the vessel/nozzle configuration shown, point A is assigned to the
bottom of the nozzle, the vessel direction vector can be written as (0.0, -1.0, 0.0), while the
nozzle direction vector is (1.0, 0.0, 0.0).
Note

The nozzle direction vector is always defined as the vector pointing from the vessel nozzle connection to the centerline of vessel.

In the figure, the user may also notice that there are two nodes occupying the same space
at the nozzle/vessel surface junction: nodes 55 and 56. An anchor at 55 with a connecting

Examples

7-83

Example 9: WRC 107

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

node at 56 could be used to model the local vessel flexibility as rigid. (For those who are
not familiar with this modeling approach, refer to Chapter 3 of the Technical Reference
Manual for more details). The anchor could then be replaced with a WRC 297 local vessel flexibility model, and the job rerun to get a good idea of the range of loads and displacements that exist in the system around the vessel nozzle. In either case, the restraint
loads (forces and moments) can be obtained from the CAESAR II restraint report. These
loads reflect the action of the piping on the vessel. The restraint report of the rigid anchor
model are shown as follows.

The total sustained axial load on the nozzle may not be reflected in the restraint report. A
pressure thrust load will contribute an additional axial load to the nozzle. The pressure

7-84

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 9: WRC 107

thrust force always tends to push the nozzle away from the vessel. For example, with a
pressure of 275 psi over the inside area of the 12-in. pipe, the total P load becomes:
P

-26 - P(A)

-26 - 275p (122) / 4

=
-31,128
The P load may be adjusted automatically for the input by CAESAR IIs WRC 107 module, if the user so requests.

The WRC 107 module is started by selecting Analysis-WRC-107 from the CAESAR II
Main Menu. The program first prompts the user for the entries of geometric data describing both the vessel and nozzle, followed by spreadsheets for loadings. The values of the
geometric entries in this example are shown in the following printouts from the program.

Examples

7-85

Example 9: WRC 107

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

The user may enter up to three sets of loadings representing Sustained (SUS), Expansion
(EXP), and Occasional (OCC) load cases. The program automatically performs the stress
calculation of each of the load cases consecutively. In the present case, we only have to be
concerned about the sustained and thermal expansion cases. The loads are shown in the
following two screens. The user can elect to leave any input cells blank if they are found
not applicable. If a static analysis has been performed on the system to be analyzed with
WRC-107 then the Caesar II can import the loads directly from the output file. This is
accomplished using the Get Loads from Output File button on the bottom of the dialog
for each load case. Caesar II will then read in the loads for the nozzle node number that
was specified under the nozzle data tab.

7-86

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 9: WRC 107

To run the analysis the User selects the Analyze - WRC-107 from the menu. An Output
tab will be generated, which the User clicks on to review the Output. After the input echo,
the parameters extracted from the WRC 107 figures are printed to this report. This step is
similar to collecting the data by hand. These non-dimensional values are combined with
the nozzle loads to calculate the two normal and one shear stress. The stresses will be
reported on the outer and inner vessel surfaces of the four points A, B, C & D located
around the nozzle. The program provides the normal and shear stresses and translates
them into stress intensities which can be used for comparisons against material allowables.
The output of the stress computations are shown as the following four tables. As the output shows, the largest expansion stress intensity (117475 psi) occurs at the outer surface of
point B (Bu).

Examples

7-87

Example 9: WRC 107

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

WRC 107 Stress Calculations

Date = Mar 6, 1996

Attachment/Shell ID = EXP14

Time =

Page = 1 of 4

2:02 pm

Vessel Stresses @ Nozzle Junction

Vessel Node:

60

DESCRIPTION:

Vessel Type: Cylindrical

THIS IS INPUT TITLE PAGE FOR CAESAR II

Vessel Ori.: 0.00,-1.00, 0.00

Nozzle Node:

55

WRC 107 STRESS CALCULATION AND ASME SEC.VIII

Nozzle Type: Round-hollow


Nozzle Ori.:
Pressure

APPLICATION GUIDE, EXAMPLE NO.14.

DIV.2 STRESS SUMMATIONS.

1.00, 0.00, 0.00

: 275.0

lb./sq.in.

------------------------------------------------------------------------Dimensions

Nozzle Loads

(SUSTAINED)

-----------------------------------------------------------------Vessel Mean Rad.

Rm =

Vessel Thickness

Noz. Outside Rad.

ro =

Nozzle Thickness

59.688 in.| Axial

Force

-31128. lb.

VC =

32. lb.

6.375 in.| Long. Sh. Force

VL =

1389. lb.

0.375 in.| Circ.

Moment

MC =

127. ft.lb.

| Long.

Moment

ML =

4235. ft.lb.

| Tors.

Moment

MT =

65. ft.lb.

0.625 in.| Circ. Sh. Force

Parameter(s) used in the Interpolation of Dimensionless Loads:

Gamma =

95.50

Dimensionless Loads for Cylindrical Shells


----------------------------------------------------------------Curves read for

Beta

Figure

Value

-----------------------------------------------------------------

7-88

N(PHI) / ( P/Rm )

0.093

4C

14.994

M(PHI) / ( P )

0.093

2C1

0.059

N(PHI) / ( MC/(Rm**2 * Beta) )

0.093

3A

3.449

M(PHI) / ( MC/(Rm

* Beta) )

0.093

1A

0.085

N(PHI) / ( ML/(Rm**2 * Beta) )

0.093

3B

10.793

M(PHI) / ( ML/(Rm

0.093

1B

0.035

* Beta) )

N(x)

/ ( P/Rm )

0.093

3C

12.082

M(x)

/ ( P )

0.093

1C1

0.097

N(x)

/ ( MC/(Rm**2 * Beta) )

0.093

4A

5.631

M(x)

/ ( MC/(Rm

* Beta) )

0.093

2A

0.045

N(x)

/ ( ML/(Rm**2 * Beta) )

0.093

4B

3.511

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

M(x)

Example 9: WRC 107

/ ( ML/(Rm

* Beta) )

0.093

2B

0.051

N(PHI) / ( P/Rm )

0.093

3C

12.082

M(PHI) / ( P )

0.093

1C

0.094

0.093

1B1

0.035

Stress Points C & D (March 1979)

M(PHI) / ( ML/(Rm

* Beta) )

N(x)

/ ( P/Rm )

0.093

4C

14.994

M(x)

/ ( P )

0.093

2C

0.060

M(x)

/ ( ML/(Rm

0.093

2B1

0.052

* Beta) )

WRC 107 Stress Calculations

Date = Mar

6, 1996

Attachment/Shell ID = EXP14

Time =

2:02 pm

Page =

2 of

Vessel Stresses @ Nozzle Junction


-----------------------------------------------------------------

Type of

Stress values at

(lb./sq.in.)

----------------------------------------------------------------Stress

Load|

Au

Al

Bu

Bl

Cu

Cl

Du

Dl

----------------------------------------------------------------Circ. Memb. P -Pl |

12510

Circ. Bend. P -Q

28242 -28242

Circ. Memb. MC -Pl |


Circ. Bend. MC -Q

12510

12510

28242 -28242
0
0

10081

10081

44865 -44865

10081

10081

44865 -44865

-25

-25

25

25

-358

358

358

-358

Circ. Memb. ML -Pl |

-2635

-2635

2635

2635

Circ. Bend. ML -Q

-4938

4938

4938

-4938

12510

|
Total Circ. Stress | 33179 -13429 48325 -18035 54563 -34451 55329 -35117
----------------------------------------------------------------Long. Memb. P -Pl |

10081

Long. Bend. P -Q

46473 -46473

10081

10081

10081

46473 -46473

12510

12510

28748 -28748

12510

12510

28748 -28748

Long. Memb. MC -Pl |

-41

-41

41

41

Long. Bend. MC -Q

-190

190

190

-190

Long. Memb. ML -Pl |

-857

-857

857

857

-7325

7325

7325

-7325

Long. Bend. ML -Q

|
|

Total Long. Stress | 48372 -29924 64736 -42860 41027 -16089 41489 -16387
-----------------------------------------------------------------

Examples

Shear

VC -Pl |

-2

-2

Shear

VL -Pl |

-110

-110

110

110

Shear

MT -Pl |

7-89

Example 9: WRC 107

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

|
Total Shear Stress |

-106

-106

114

114

----------------------------------------------------------------Stress Intensity

48372

29924

64736

42860

54563

34451

55329

35117

-----------------------------------------------------------------

WRC 107 Stress Calculations


Attachment/Shell ID = EXP14

Date = Mar 6,1996 Page = 3 of


Time =

2:02 pm

Vessel Stresses @ Nozzle Junction

Vessel Node:

60

DESCRIPTION:

Vessel Type: Cylindrical

THIS IS INPUT TITLE PAGE FOR CAESAR II

Vessel Ori.: 0.00,-1.00, 0.00

Nozzle Node:

55

WRC 107 STRESS CALCULATION AND ASME SEC.VIII

Nozzle Type: Round-hollow


Nozzle Ori.:

APPLICATION GUIDE, EXAMPLE NO.14.

DIV.2 STRESS SUMMATIONS.

1.00, 0.00, 0.00

----------------------------------------------------------------Dimensions

Nozzle Loads

(EXPANSION)

----------------------------------------------------------------Vessel Mean Rad.

Rm =

Vessel Thickness

Noz. Outside Rad.


Nozzle Thickness

8573. lb.

0.625 in.| Circ. Sh. Force

VC =

-5866. lb.

ro =

6.375 in.| Long. Sh. Force

VL =

-23715. lb.

0.375 in.| Circ.

Moment

MC =

-5414. ft.lb.

| Long.

Moment

ML =

-52583. ft.lb.

| Tors.

Moment

MT =

-31659. ft.lb.

59.688 in.| Axial

Force

Parameter(s) used in the Interpolation of Dimensionless Loads:

Gamma =

95.50

Dimensionless Loads for Cylindrical Shells


----------------------------------------------------------------Curves read for

Beta

Figure

Value

-----------------------------------------------------------------

7-90

N(PHI) / ( P/Rm )

0.093

4C

14.994

M(PHI) / ( P )

0.093

2C1

0.059

N(PHI) / ( MC/(Rm**2 * Beta) )

0.093

3A

3.449

M(PHI) / ( MC/(Rm

* Beta) )

0.093

1A

0.085

N(PHI) / ( ML/(Rm**2 * Beta) )

0.093

3B

10.793

M(PHI) / ( ML/(Rm

0.093

1B

0.035

* Beta) )

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 9: WRC 107

N(x)

/ ( P/Rm )

0.093

3C

12.082

M(x)

/ ( P )

0.093

1C1

0.097

N(x)

/ ( MC/(Rm**2 * Beta) )

0.093

4A

5.631

M(x)

/ ( MC/(Rm

* Beta) )

0.093

2A

0.045

N(x)

/ ( ML/(Rm**2 * Beta) )

0.093

4B

3.511

M(x)

/ ( ML/(Rm

0.093

2B

0.051

N(PHI) / ( P/Rm )

0.093

3C

12.082

M(PHI) / ( P )

0.093

1C

0.094

0.093

1B1

0.035

* Beta) )

Stress Points C & D (March 1979)

M(PHI) / ( ML/(Rm

Examples

* Beta) )

N(x)

/ ( P/Rm )

0.093

4C

14.994

M(x)

/ ( P )

0.093

2C

0.060

M(x)

/ ( ML/(Rm

0.093

2B1

0.052

* Beta) )

7-91

Example 9: WRC 107

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

WRC 107 Stress Calculations


Attachment/Shell ID = EXP14

Date = Mar 6,1996


Time =

Page = 4 of 4

2:02 pm

Vessel Stresses @ Nozzle Junction


-----------------------------------------------------------------

Type of

Stress values at

(lb./sq.in.)

----------------------------------------------------------------Stress

Load

Au

Al

Bu

Bl

Cu

Cl

Du

Dl

----------------------------------------------------------------Circ. Memb. P -Q

-3445

-3445

-3445

Circ. Bend. P -Q

-3445

-7778

7778

-7778

Circ. Memb. MC -Q |

Circ. Bend. MC -Q |

Circ. Memb. ML -Q |

32728

Circ. Bend. ML -Q |

-2776

-2776

7778 -12356

61318

Total Circ. Stress | 82823 -24257-105269

32923

-2776

12356 -12356

1076

1076

12356

-1076

-1076

15282 -15282 -15282

15282

32728 -32728 -32728

61318 -61318 -61318

-2776

1226 -4626 -31490

23786

----------------------------------------------------------------Long. Memb. P -Q

Long. Bend. P -Q

| -12799

-2776

-2776

-2776

-2776

-3445

-3445

-3445

-3445

12799 -12799

12799

-7917

7917

-7917

7917

Long. Memb. MC -Q

1758

1758

-1758

-1758

Long. Bend. MC -Q

8120

-8120

-8120

8120

Long. Memb. ML -Q

10647

Long. Bend. ML -Q

90954 -90954 -90954

10647 -10647 -10647


90954

|
Total Long. Stress |
10834

86026 -70284-117176

90330

-1484

-1890 -21240

----------------------------------------------------------------Shear

VC -Q

Shear

VL - Q

Shear

MT - Q

|
|
|

Total Shear Stress |

-468

-468

468

468

1894

1894

-1894

-1894

-2380

-2380

-2380

-2380

-2380

-2380

-2380

-2380

-1912

-1912

-486

-486

-2848

-2848

-4274

-4274

----------------------------------------------------------------Stress Intensity

87691

70459 117475

90393

2879

4709

33038

25069

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Once the stress intensities are computed, the user can elect to use the WRC 107 stress
summation routine to compare the computed stress intensities against the stress allowables
as required in Appendix 4 of ASME Section VIII, Division 2.
The WRC 107 stress summation routine can be activated by selecting the Analyze-Stress
Summation menu option. The stress summation will be performed and the output will be
appended to the existing report. A sample output is given below.

7-92

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 9: WRC 107

WRC 107 Stress Summations

Date = Mar 6,1996 Page = 1 of 1

Attachment/Shell ID = EXP14

Time =

2:03 pm

Vessel Stress Summation @ Nozzle Junction

----------------------------------------------------------------Type of

Stress values at

Stress Intensity

(lb./sq.in.)

----------------------------------------------------------------Location

Au

Al

Bu

Bl

Cu

Cl

Du

Dl

----------------------------------------------------------------Circ. Pm (SUS)

26125

26125

26125

26125

Circ. Pl (SUS)

9875

9875

15145

15145

10056

10056

10106

10106

Circ. Q

(SUS)

23304 -23304

Circ. Q

(EXP)

82823 -24257-105269

33180 -33180

44507 -44507

32923

1226

45223 -45223

-4626 -31490

23786

----------------------------------------------------------------Long. Pm (SUS)

12994

12994

12994

12994

Long. Pl (SUS)

9224

9224

10938

10938

12469

12469

12551

12551

Long. Q

(SUS)

39148 -39148

Long. Q

(EXP)

86026 -70284-117176

53798 -53798
90330

28558 -28558
-1484

28938 -28938

-1890 -21240

10834

----------------------------------------------------------------Shear Pm (SUS) |

Shear Pl (SUS) |

-2

-2

-110

-110

110

110

Shear Q

(SUS) |

Shear Q

(EXP) |

-2848

-2848

-1912

-1912

-486

-486

-4274

-4274

----------------------------------------------------------------S.I. Pm (SUS)

26125

26125

26125

26125

12994

12994

12994

12994

----------------------------------------------------------------S.I. Pm+Pl (SUS)

36000

36000

41270

41270

25463

25463

25545

25545

----------------------------------------------------------------S.I. Pm+Pl+Q (TOTAL)| 143059 100299 52607 47992 55893 39087 34819 20533
-----------------------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------------Type of
Stress Intensity

Max. S.I.

S.I. Allowable

(lb./sq.in.)

Result

----------------------------------------------------------------S.I. Pm (SUS)

26125

20000

Failed

S.I. Pm+Pl (SUS)

41270

30000

Failed

S.I. Pm+Pl+Q (TOTAL)|

143059

60000

Failed

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Examples

7-93

Example 9: WRC 107

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Since the present nozzle loading will cause stress intensities that are not acceptable to the
ASME Section VIII, Division 2 criteria, it will have to be corrected. One way of dealing
with this type of situation is to adjust the nozzle loading form its source, while the other
option might be to reinforce the nozzle connection on the vessel side either by increasing
the vessel thickness or by adding a reinforcing pad. The same analysis procedure can be
repeated until the final results become acceptable.
Note

7-94

Once a reinforcing pad is selected, the program will automatically compute the
stress at the edge of the pad as well.

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 10: NEMA SM23

Example 10: NEMA SM23


This section illustrates the use of the NEMA SM-23 computations of the CAESAR II
Equipment module. Two examples are presented. The first example can be found in the
NEMA SM-23 Standard, 7th edition as Example 8A, beginning on page 47. The second
example illustrates the use of metric units and the correct implementation of paragraph
8.4.6.2.
Enter a NEMA SM23 problem by choosing the Analysis - NEMA SM23 option from the
CAESAR II Main Menu.

NEMA Example PT69M


This example illustrates the computations for Dc and De, the use of metric units, and the
correct computation of the total moment loads resolved about the discharge nozzle. The
input is shown in the following figures.

Examples

7-95

Example 10: NEMA SM23

7-96

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 10: NEMA SM23

The results for this analysis and discussion follow.

Examples

7-97

Example 10: NEMA SM23

7-98

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Examples

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Example 10: NEMA SM23

Nozzle Results for PT69M


The first item of interest in this output report is the variation in the units systems used. The
input values are reflected in the User set of units, in this case millimeters, newtons, and
newton-meters. The computed values are reported in inches, pounds, and foot-pounds.
This is necessary due to the equations used to determine code compliance. These equations combine, directly, forces and moments, and then compare the sum to a dimension. In
essence, pounds plus foot-pounds must be less than inches. The results can be interpreted
correctly only if presented in English units.
For the exhaust nozzle, the input value of 254 millimeters converts to a 10-in. nominal
pipe. Since this is larger than 8 in., De is equal to (16 + 10 ) divided by 3, or 8.667 in. This
yields an allowable of 500 times 8.667 or 4333.
Then, the square root of the sum of the squares of the forces acting on the exhaust nozzle
yields 7922 newtons, which converts to 1781 pounds. Similarly, the square root of the sum
of the squares of the moments acting on the exhaust nozzle yields 3000 newton-meters,
which converts to 2213 foot-pounds. Applying the 3F + M equation yields 7566. Since
7566 is larger than 4333, this nozzle fails the requirements of the SM-23 Standard.
The same computations must also be performed on the inlet nozzle. The output shown
above shows that this nozzle also fails the requirements of the SM-23 Standard. Also
shown for the inlet nozzle are the moments about the discharge nozzle caused by the inlet
nozzle forces. Applying the standard right hand rule sign convention, a positive Y force
offset a positive Z distance, causes a negative X moment. Similarly, a positive Z
force offset a positive Y distance, causes a positive X moment. Therefore, the inlet
nozzle forces cause an MX moment about the exhaust nozzle of: -(3296*.6) + (3999*0)
which yields -1978 newton-meters. The MY and MZ moments caused by the suction
nozzle forces about the exhaust nozzle can be computed in a similar fashion. These
moments are needed to correctly comply with Section 8.4.6.2.
The above report is repeated for each extraction nozzle specified. This particular example
did not contain extraction nozzles, so these reports are not produced. Following the indi-

Examples

7-99

Example 10: NEMA SM23

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

vidual nozzle reports is the summation of forces and moments about the exhaust nozzle.
This report is shown in the figure below.

Nozzle Load Summation Report


This report shows the force summations in the three global directions as well as the resultant force, computed by the SRSS method discussed above. These forces are shown in the
users set of units on the left, followed by the forces in pounds. The next column shows the
allowable for each force, as a function of Dc, which is defined above.
Following the force summation is the moment summation. This summary reports the total
moment about the three global directions and the resultant moment, computed by the
SRSS method. It is important to note that the total moment is the sum of the individual
moments plus the contribution from the forces multiplied by their distanced from the discharge nozzle. Consider for example the MX moment of 721 newton-meters. This value
was obtained from: 1200 + 1499 + -1978.
The final line of this report combines the resultant force and resultant moment and compares the result to its allowable.

7-100

Examples

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System Overview

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

System Overview
This tutorial presents the flexibility and stress analysis of a piping system using
CAESAR II. This process includes the creation and entry of the pipe stress model, the
analysis and evaluation of the results, and a re-design of the system. The system chosen
for this purpose, though small, exercises common modeling situations, as illustrated in the
following figure. As noted on the drawing, this system moves crude tower bottoms from
the bottoms pump to a steam stripper unit which is utilized in a refining process. The end
suction, top discharge pump has a 10-in. suction nozzle and an 8-in. discharge nozzle. The
8-in. line runs through a check valve with a 6-in. bypass, up to a spring hanger support and
over a hard support before entering the vertical vessel.

The Tutor Piping System Layout

The boundaries of this system are the pump discharge nozzle and the vessel nozzle. Other
acceptable choices could have been the pump support (or base) point and the vessel foundation. The pump nozzle is a satisfactory boundary because the movement of that point (as
the pump heats up in operation) is rather certain and easily calculated from the thermal
strain between the pump nozzle and the base point. The vessel nozzle is an adequate
boundary because of the known thermal growth of the vessel and the greater stiffness of
the vessel with respect to the 8-in. pipe. An opposite approach may be taken by running
the model all the way to an immovable point - the vessel foundation.
The check valve sits right on top of the welding tee for the 6-in. bypass piping. The 6-in.
line runs through a gate valve before re-entering the 8-in. line through a second welding

8-2

Tutorial A

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

System Overview

tee above the check valve. The total weight and length of this valving is unknown at this
time, therefore the valve lengths and weights were pulled in from the CAESAR II
GENERIC data base. Note that the spring hanger above this valving will be quite sensitive
to the weights used here. The difference between the actual installed valve weights and
modeled weights should be used to adjust the spring pre-load. It is best to make sure that
the hot load on the spring is toward the center of the manufacturers recommended spring
working range to allow errors in load estimation. If there is any appreciable change in
these weights perhaps the system should be re-analyzed.
The hanger is included at the top of the vertical run to carry the deadweight and absorb its
thermal growth. The hanger is attached to the elbow and in line with the vertical pipe at
the near end of the elbow. (Near is a term associated with the path used to define the
elbow. Here, by coding up the vertical leg and then the horizontal leg, the weld point on
the vertical run of the elbow is the near end and the horizontal run weld point is the far
end.) The other end of the hanger is attached to some available structure above this point.
Because of the vertical thermal growth of the hanger attachment point a simple rod hanger
is not acceptable here. The analysis will be set to force CAESAR II to select a variable or
constant support hanger at this point. The program will probably select a variable, spring
support and for that reason the Grinnell table is specified for its selection.
The horizontal piping rests on an unspecified support at the far end of the next elbow. This
support, modeled as a rigid, nonlinear restraint acting on the pipe centerline, allows the
piping to grow upward but prevents downward motion. In some cases a more accurate
model for supporting structures may be required, in which case the structural steel may be
included in the model and analysis.

Preparing the Drawing


The following figure shows the worked up drawing used to construct the model. Immediately apparent are the node numbers. These labels are assigned where anywhere we have a
change in geometry (pipe diameter, wall thickness, change in direction), a change in materials, operating conditions (temperature or pressure), or the application of boundary conditions (restraints, point loads, displacements, etc.). Additional node numbers should be
assigned at any other location for which output is desired. For this tutorial the progression
is by 5s starting with node 5 at the pump nozzle. These nodes are the basis through which
the piping stress isometric is tabulated for the analysis. The bypass piping also has the 5s
progression but they are incremented by 600. In reviewing the results the 600 series will
indicate 6-in. pipe.

Tutorial A

8-3

System Overview

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

input

Tutor Example with Node Numbers and Other Technical Information

Note how in the plot the elbows are shown squared with the node assigned to the intersection. The elbows will be defined so that output is available for the near, mid, and far points
of the bend (at 0, 45, and 90 degrees). The hanger will be sized at the first elbows near
point (node 28).
Other information required for the model is collected on this drawing before the program
is started. Most of the data should be readily available but some research may be required.
Items such as pump nozzle deflections and valve data details can slow down the input session if not noted on the drawing. The next figure shows the dimensions for this system.

8-4

Tutorial A

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

System Overview

Tutor Example with Dimensions

Generating CAESAR II Input


Click on the CAESAR II icon to start the program, CAESAR II will confirm the External
Software Lock (ESL) connection. Next, Go to File-New menu selection and enter a new
filename of Tutor in the resulting dialog. Be sure to note the data directory path that you
will create and store the file in. You may want to use the Browse button to choose another
directory for storage of your CAESAR II data files.

New Job Name Specification Dialog

Tutorial A

8-5

System Overview

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Before beginning the input session it will be useful for this tutorial to set the numeric
increment between nodes. In previous discussion it was stated that node numbers would
use an increment of 5 for this model. The default nodal increment is 10 so this must be
changed. From the Main Menu select Tools-Configure Setup and the window shown
below will appear. Next choose the Geometry Directives tab. Select the number 5 from
the drop list in the Auto Node Number Increment item as shown in the following figure.
Next click on the Exit w/ Save button to save this change and return to the Main Menu.

Changing the Auto Node Number Increment in Configuration Setup

The input session is started by selecting Input-Piping from the Main Menu. If the job is
new, CAESAR II will present the list of input units that will be used. Otherwise, if a job
by the name Tutor already exists on the machine, the first piping element spreadsheet will
appear. If this is the case, exit out of this input by clicking on the x in the top-right of the
window or by selecting File-Exit from the menu. Return to the Main Menu to repeat the
above process to pick an unused jobname. The following window will be displayed if the
file is new.

8-6

Tutorial A

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

System Overview

This Review Current Units window is only provided if the file is new and did not previously exist in the data directory.

If the units file label (bottom left of the Review Current Units dialog) does not show
English Units then press Cancel. Select Tools-Configure Setup, click on the Database
Directives Tab and select English in the units drop list there.
If the English units are shown, press OK to continue with the input. An empty piping element input spreadsheet will appear as shown in the following figure.

Tutorial A

8-7

System Overview

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Blank Input Spreadsheet

All the input spreadsheets for this tutorial are provided on the following pages. Individual
spreadsheets may be repeated if more than one auxiliary field or command is used. Text
will appear with the spreadsheets where explanations are required. Use the Tab key, the
arrow keys, or the mouse to navigate the input spreadsheet. Also, liberally use the Plot
command to review the work completed. If errors are made simply go back to the appropriate spreadsheet [PgUp] and fix the entry.
CAESAR II automatically generates the From Node and To Node when you start a new
spreadsheet. The cursor is initially positioned in the From Node cell. The From Node
should read 5, but if not simply select the node number in the white input box and type a 5
over it. Now use either the Tab or Enter key or Down Arrow key to move to the next input
(the To Node in this case). Enter a 10 in the To Node field if one is not already there. All
the remaining data entered on this screen will now be associated with the first element
from node 5 to node 10 or these two end points.

8-8

Tutorial A

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

System Overview

Move down to the DY cell and enter the element length of 2 ft by


entering 2-, the - indicates feet. Node 10 marks the centerline intersection of the 8-in. main line with the 6-in. by-pass. In the next block
enter the nominal pipe size of 8 in. Note that upon leaving this cell the
actual OD replaces this nominal. Also with the standard wall thickness, the entered S is replaced by the actual wall thickness. The insulation thickness and corrosion allowance are entered next. Note that
fractions are allowed in these cells as well.
Next enter the Operating Conditions of Temperature (600F) and
Pressure (30 psi). We omit the units in our entries of course as Caesar
II already has our units information. The completed first column of
data is given in the figure to the left.
At the top of the second column of this first spreadsheet double click
on the Displacements check box to activate the Displacements Auxiliary Data area to the right where we will enter our displacement information. For node 5 enter the Y and Z anchor displacements of 0.077
in. and 0.046 in. respectively. These two numbers are calculated as
the thermal growth of the pump discharge nozzle from the base support point. Note that the other four degrees of freedom must be
entered as 0 - without the entry of zero (or any other definition of
these boundaries), node 5 would be free to move in these four directions. The figure below shows the displacements entered properly.

Geometry and Operating Conditions for First Element of Tutor

Displacement Boundary Condition at Node 5 of Tutor Model

Tutorial A

8-9

System Overview

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Next we enter the pipe material by clicking on the drop list to the right of the Material
label and choose number 1 Low Carbon Steel. Material properties will now be read in
automatically from CAESAR II's material database. Ambient Elastic Modulus, Poissons
Ratio, and Pipe Density will be filled in. The material number will also be referenced to
pick up the coefficient of expansion for the specified temperatures.
Now double click on the Allowable Stress check box to activate the Allowable Stress Auxiliary data area to the right. The first 21 materials are Generic and do not have Allowable
Stress values associated with them in the database. However the other materials in the list
will also fill in the Allowable Stress values as found in the database. The cold and hot
allowable stresses (Sc and Sh) as defined by the piping code are entered for the type of piping material to be analyzed. Here the cold allowable stress of 20,000 psi (dont use commas) and the hot allowable stress of 17,300 psi is automatically extracted from the
database. Exponential format may be used in these fields to simplify data entry and reduce
mistakes. Click on the drop list and select B31.3 if it is not already there by default (The
default code is defined in the Configure/Setup). The material property and allowable stress
entries are shown in the following figure.

Material Properties are brought in automatically from the included Material Database.

Allowable Stresses Extracted from Database

8-10

Tutorial A

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

System Overview

Node 10 is the intersection of the 8-in. and 6-in. lines.


This intersection is constructed using a 8x6 welding tee.
Piping codes recognize the reduced strength of this piping component by increasing the calculated stress at this
point in the system. For CAESAR II to include this
stress intensification factor in the stress calculation, the
node must be identified as a welding tee. First double
click on the SIFs and Tees check box to activate the SIFs
and Tees Auxiliary data area. Specify node 10 as our
intersection node and select Welding Tee from the Type
drop list. CAESAR II will calculate the SIFs at this
intersection according to the piping code selected (B31.3
in this case) so no more input is needed here.
With an insulation thickness specified, CAESAR II will
assume a density for calcium silicate. For purposes of
illustration this value is entered by hand as 11.5 lbf/ft3.
The input is accepted as lbf/in3 (use the F1 function key
to confirm) so the entered value is divided by 1728 in3/ft3
to make this conversion. To clarify: type in 11.5/1728 in
the Insulation Density field and CAESAR II will convert it. Another conversion capability is shown with the
Fluid Density cell - the commodity is specified as 80%
the deadweight of water so we enter 0.8SG in the field
and CAESAR II will convert it to the proper units.
Defining a Welding Tee at the Intersection Node 10

Density Specifications

Tutorial A

8-11

System Overview

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

To move on to define the next piece of pipe, press ALT-C, select Edit-Continue, or press
on the Continue Button on the far right hand side of the Toolbar.
Note on this new spreadsheet that the To Node of the previous spreadsheet now appears as
the From Node. Also, all the distributed data values (the information that carries on from
one pipe to the next) remain on this new screen. The User only needs to add element
length and any new boundary conditions or changes from the previous element. The distributed data need only be re-entered when they change value. Allowable Stress data carries forward even though the checkbox on subsequent spreadsheets is unchecked. Do not
check this box unless you have a change in material, code, or temperature. Uniform
Loads and Wind also carry forward without the checkbox being checked. None of the
other checkboxes in the input carry forward.
This second element runs from the intersection point to the beginning of the check valve.
This short run finishes out the welding tee and is bounded by nodes 10 and 15 as entered
by CAESAR II. The length of this element is 7 in. in the Y direction so 7 is entered in the
DY field. This data finishes the description of the second element. The entire Spreadsheet
for this second element follows.

Second Element Spreadsheet for Tutor

The next element (15-20) is the flanged check valve. This CAESAR II element would
include the flanged valve and the mating flanges as these piping components are much
more stiff than the attached pipe. If the length and weight of this rigid element were

8-12

Tutorial A

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

System Overview

known, this data could be entered directly by entering the length in the DY field, checking
the Rigid box and then entering the Rigid Weight in the Auxiliary Data area. Here, for lack
of better data and for convenience, the CAESAR II CADWorx valve/flange data base will
be accessed to generate this input automatically. This data is made available through the
Model-Valve menu option or clicking the Valve/Flange Database button on the toolbar.
This command will bring up the window shown below. If the following window does not
appear, refer to Chapter 2 of the CAESAR II Technical Reference Manual (Configuring CAESAR II).

Valve/Flange Database Selection Window

To select the valve type and class use the mouse to highlight the Check Valve selection as
shown above (instead of the default of Gate). A 150 psi class flanged check valve will be
entered between nodes 15 and 20 when the OK button is clicked (or the Enter key is
pressed). CAESAR II will make three entries on the input spreadsheet: The element
length, the Rigid checkbox is activated, and the weight is input into the Rigid Auxiliary
Data area. Here the rigid element runs 2 ft. 3.625 in. in the +Y direction and weighs 470
pounds. When FLG End Type is selected, this rigid element includes the added length and
weight of the mating flanges.
The bypass piping rejoins the main line through a second welding tee sitting on top of the
check valve. The run of pipe to the intersection of the main line and bypass centerlines is 7
in. (half of the total length of the 8 x 6 welding tee). The next figure shows the definition
of this element 20 - 25 and the specification of the welding tee at 25.

Tutorial A

8-13

System Overview

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Tee Specification on fourth element of Tutor

The next node entered is located at the intersection of the vertical pipe centerline and the
horizontal pipe centerline above it. This construction point at node 30 is not actually a
node on the piping system. Any additional input specified at 30 and all output for node 30
will be located at the far weld point of the elbow which connects the vertical and horizontal runs. The dimension of 10 ft. 2 in. runs from node 25 to node 30. The elbow is specified by checking the Bend checkbox. The Bend specification automatically generates
additional nodes around this elbow locating the near weld point and the bend midpoint
(designated by the letter M). Node 28 is listed in the auxiliary data field at angle 0 and the
elbow midpoint is listed as node 29. These added nodes will appear as output points and
they may also be used to locate restraints. By default a long radius elbow (1.5 nominal
pipe size) will be added at the change in pipe direction. The bend radius may be changed
by the user.

Bend Specification at end of element from 25 to 30 in Tutor

8-14

Tutorial A

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

System Overview

The hanger to be sized at this elbow is placed at node 28 in line with the vertical run of
pipe To enter the hanger sizing information, double-click the Hanger checkbox. The
Hanger Auxiliary Data area like that shown in the next figure should be filled out as follows: node 28 is entered as the Hanger Node. For this first pass through the analysis, the
default settings will be used with no additional hanger design data specified. Press F1 on
any of these input cells for a quick definition. Here, the hanger will be chosen from Table
1 the Grinnell hanger catalog. Additionally, a short range spring will not be permitted at
this point as the mid range spring will probably be cheaper.

Hanger Auxiliary Data Specification in Tutor

The piping system continues on to the elbow at node 35. Again, the distance entered as
CAESAR II input is the distance between the intersections of the pipe centerlines; not the
physical length of the straight piece of pipe between the elbows. Here, -12 ft in the X
direction. This X run of pipe will finish off the elbow at 30 by creating a 90 degree turn.
Double click the Bend checkbox to generate the long radius elbow at 35 with the two extra
nodes. There is also a support at the far weld point of this bend. This far end of the bend is
node 35 in the model so the restraint is specified at node 35. This support will not allow

Tutorial A

8-15

System Overview

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

the pipe to move downward but it cannot prevent the pipe from moving upward. This nonlinear restraint (a restraint whose stiffness, rather than remaining constant, is a function of
load or displacement) is entered as a +Y type. The +Y indicated that the restraint supplies
a positive Y (upward) load to the pipe; most users interpret the +Y as indicating the pipe is
free to move in the +Y direction. With no stiffness entered with this restraint, CAESAR II
will set this to a very stiff (rigid) restraint; meaning that under any practical load, the pipe
will not push the restraint down. Note that up to four restraints may be specified in this
auxiliary data field. Except for the anchor designation, a restraint is a vector. If there was a
guide restraining lateral motion of node 35, an X restraint would also be defined here as
the second restraint. Press the F1 function key for more information about these restraint
parameters.

Bend Specification and Restraint Specification on element from 30 to 35 in Tutor

From the second elbow, the pipe runs in the Z direction for 18 ft where it terminates at the
intersection with the vessel wall. As with the pump connection at node 5, node 40 is a satisfactory boundary for this model. The thermal growth of the vessel at this point is calculated and entered as displacements of node 40.

8-16

Tutorial A

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

System Overview

Displacement Boundary Condition Simulating


Vessel Thermal Growth at Node 40 in Tutor

The model now returns to the 6-in. by-pass piping around the 8-in. check valve above the
pump. The welding tee nodes of 10 and 25 will be completely defined as reducing tees
when these 6-in. piping elements are modeled. The figure below shows the changes
required to start the 6-in. line, which are explained here.
The input processor automatically shifts the previous To Node to the current From Node.
Since the model is no longer continuing from node 40, the From Node must be changed
here to 10 and the To Node is set to 605 as the 600 series of node numbers will indicate 6in. pipe. The X length of -2 ft is measured from the 8-in. centerline to the centerline of the
vertical 6-in. line. Diameter is entered as 6 and Wt/Sch is entered as S. An elbow is specified at node 605 by double-clicking the Bend checkbox. Note that CAESAR II automatically generates a long radius elbow for this 6-in. line. This elbow is flanged on one end.
This flange acts like a stiffening ring which reduces the bending flexibility of the elbow.
This characteristic of flanged elbows is addressed by the piping codes through a modification of the flexibility factor and stress intensification for the elbow. To include this effect,
select Single Flange from the Type drop list in the bend auxiliary data area. As simple bypass piping, the inclusion of flange stiffening is probably insignificant and can be ignored.

Tutorial A

8-17

System Overview

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Bypass Inputs in Tutor

8-18

Tutorial A

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

System Overview

The 6-in. piping continues up to node 610, which marks the


beginning of the gate valve. The distance between the horizontal centerline (nodes 30 to 605) and the bottom of the
valve is 9 in. in the Y direction. This 9-in. specification puts
node 610 at the far end of the bend defined on the previous
screen. The input locations of nodes 605 and 610 then are
coincident which would produce a zero length element.
CAESAR II inserts a length for this element 605-610 equal
to 5% of the bend radius - here 0.45-in. This 5% default
value, which can be changed in the CAESAR II configuration, prevents the generation of a zero length element.
The next element is the 6-in. 150
psi class, flanged gate valve running from 610 to 615. Use the
valve/flange data base (with the
command Valve) for this rigid
element. Select the 150 psi
flanged gate valve (default) and
click the OK button.
CAESAR II will return from
the data base with rigid Y run,
17.625 in. long, weighing 225
pounds. As with the 8-in. check
valve, the deadweight and length
of the attached flanges should be
included in this analysis. (Use
the NOFLG End Type if you
do not want these included.)
150# Flanged Gate Valve selected from the
CadWorx Valve/Flange Database.

Resulting CAESAR II Element Definition for the 150# Flanged Gate Valve

The element from 615 to 620 is the length required to bring the pipe up level with the
intersection at node 25. This distance is easy to find by choosing the Distance command
from the toolbar or from the menu with Edit - Distance. The Y-distance in this case
between 615 and 25 is 15 in., so we input this distance as DY on the spreadsheet for 615 to
620. Also a bend must be specified here since the next element will connect the current
element to the intersection at node 25.

Tutorial A

8-19

System Overview

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

The Y value of the distance between nodes 615 and 25 gives us the dimension for the element from 615 to 620.
For the element running from 620 to 25 we know from the previous Distance command
that it is 2 ft in the x-direction. But imagine for a moment that we did not have this information. In this case we can use the Close Loop command (Edit - Close Loop) and CAESAR II will calculate this dimension and enter it into the appropriate DX, DY, and DZ
fields. First create the spreadsheet and type in 25 for the To Node. Then perform the Close
Loop command. DX will now have a value of 2 ft.

Close Loop on element 620 to 25 will fill in the distances for DX, DY, and DZ fields.

Input Review
Two commands are available on any input screen to review the data Plot and List. While
the input may be checked by paging through each input screen, these commands are quite
useful in confirming and/or editing the entire model. The use of these commands will be
demonstrated in this section.
To enter the plot processor, press the Plot button or choose Plot from the menu. The centerline plot for the current piping system is shown with toolbar buttons and menu commands for performing various functions.

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System Overview

A few notes about the commands may be useful here:


Use the arrow keys or insert and delete keys to rotate the plot. Pressing the Shift key down
once will pan the plot when the arrow keys are used. The SHFT designation in the lowerright hand corner of the plot window indicates that model translation is enabled. Another
useful method of panning the plot is accomplished by clicking the right mouse button on
the display and selecting Pan from the pop-up menu. The model will then follow the
mouse cursor within the display. Hit the escape key to terminate panning with this method.
The plus sign (+) will zoom in and the minus sign (-) will zoom out. There are toolbar buttons and menu items to alter the plan view and to display element and restraint information
on the plot. Common entries are N to display nodes and V to show a two line volume plot.
The user is encouraged to experiment with these different items to become familiar with
them. To reset the plot to the default there is a toolbar button and a menu command.

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CAESAR II - Applications Guide

To print a copy of the display simply choose the File-Print menu item.
The next illustration shows a simple centerline plot with the node numbers indicated. By
default, CAESAR II will not print a node number if it will over-write another number.
This simple plot is very useful for confirming the general layout bad connectivity and
improper directions are quite obvious.

Node Numbers Displayed on the Plot in Tutor

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System Overview

The next illustration displays a volume plot of the piping system. Note the differing outside diameters for the 8-in. and 6-in. lines. The restraint at 35 and the hanger at 28 are also
shown by pressing the appropriate toolbars.

Volume Plot Showing Spring Hanger and Support Locations in Tutor

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CAESAR II - Applications Guide

The illustration below shows a view down the Z axis with a zoom and pan to show the
pipe valving. This volume plot shows the nodes, identifies the tees, and lists the thermal
displacements imposed on node 5.

Volume Plot View Along Z-Axis Showing Nodes, Tees, and Displacements in Tutor

Again, when finished with the plot module, click on the x button in the upper right-hand
corner (or select File-Exit) to exit back to the piping input spreadsheet.

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System Overview

The List command (Edit-List) is used to review and edit different categories of data in the
job. List is used here to quickly check the data and modify it if necessary. Clicking on the
row number to the left of a line of data will highlight the entire row. Holding the Shift key
down while clicking on a second row of data will highlight all rows in between these two.
Different types of data sets are available by choosing the appropriate tab along the bottom
of the spreadsheet. The Element list displayed as default is shown in the next figure. Use
the scroll bar on the bottom to view more element data such as temperatures and pressures.
Use the arrows on the bottom left of the window to scroll through the various report tabs.

Element Data in the List Editor

Ending the Input Session


If the input session is interrupted before all the data is collected (say, to go to lunch), be
sure save the model input before exiting the input processor. To save the current input use
the File-Save command from any element input spreadsheet. CAESAR II will interrupt
the input session and prompt for this update 30 minutes after the last save. Input data may
also be saved through the input exit processor which is accessed through the File- Quit
command. The input processor can be re-entered later to continue the model creation.
Upon exiting and saving the input or running the Error Checker (Single Running Man button) CAESAR II will first save binary data for this model under the filename Tutor._a.
(All input files are composed of the jobname with the suffix _a added.) CAESAR II
then checks the job for errors and list a variety of notes and warnings. This tutorial should
generate 2 notes during the error checking. Both notices from the error check are notes to
the user regarding the hanger in the model one hanger must be sized by the program and
certain analyses are required to perform this hanger sizing Toggle through these messages
to arrive at the end of the error checker (by pressing the OK button). The analysis may proceed with notes and warnings but fatal errors must be corrected before continuing. If no

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CAESAR II - Applications Guide

fatal errors are found, CAESAR II will continue on and build the intermediate (scratch)
files for the static analysis. With the scratch files created, the input process is complete and
control is returned to the CAESAR II Main Menu.

Performing the Static Analysis


Now that the piping model is correct and verified the static analysis of the system may be
performed. The analysis is started by selecting Analysis - Statics from the Main Menu.
The first step in the static analysis is to specify the load sets for analysis. For a new model,
CAESAR II assists in this step by reviewing all load categories (e.g. Temperature, Pressure, Displacements, Forces, Weight, etc.) specified in the input and recommending a set
of load cases based on the most standard stress analysis requirements. For the job Tutor
the hanger must be sized before the standard structural and stress analyses are performed.
This hanger sizing algorithm requires two analyses before the standard three cases are analyzed. The five recommended analyses are shown below. (If this window does not appear,
the job has the load cases set from a previous session. From the menu that appears in the
following figure select the option that recommends the load cases.)

Load Case Editor with Two Hanger Design Cases and the Standard Three Load Cases for Tutor

The standard three cases could use a little explanation here. CAESAR II creates load sets
to analyze the operating conditions of the piping system and the installed conditions of the
piping system. The operating condition for this analysis consists of the deadweight of the
pipe, its contents and insulation, the design temperature and pressure, and the pre-load on

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System Overview

the just-selected hanger at node 28. The installed condition includes the deadweights and
hanger pre-load. In addition to these structural analyses, certain stress conditions must be
addressed. For the piping code used here, the sustained and expansion stresses must be
calculated. Sustained stresses include deadweights, pre-loads and pressure. Sustained
stresses can be taken from the installed condition analysis if the pressure loads are
included. CAESAR II will include the pressure term in the installed case since pressure,
in most cases, has no impact on the structural loads on the piping. With the installed case
structural analysis also serving as the sustained case stress analysis, no additional load
case must be added to calculate the sustained stresses. Expansion stresses reflect the
change in system position from its installed position to its operating position. Because of
system non-linearity this change in position cannot be determined by analyzing thermal
loads alone. By default CAESAR II will construct a third load case to calculate the expansion stress (range). This case is not, strictly speaking, a third, complete analysis of the system but instead a product of the operating and installed structural analyses already
performed. The difference in system displacements between these two cases is the displacement stress range from which the expansion stresses are calculated. The third class of
stress in piping occasional stresses (as opposed to expansion and sustained) are not
included in the recommended analyses and must be specified by the user. Likewise,
FATigue stress cases are provided only when specifically required by the active piping
code (TD/12, for example).
For most systems, the recommended load cases are exactly what the user wishes to analyze. Here, Case #1 calculates the deadweight carried by the proposed spring at node 28.
Case #2 also calculates only one number the vertical travel of the proposed spring. All
the load categories which compose the operating load case are used for this analysis deadweight, displacements, thermal set 1, and pressure set 1. With these two numbers - the
load carried by the hanger and the amount of travel it must accommodate - CAESAR II
will enter the Grinnell catalog and select the appropriate spring. This spring and its proper
pre-load are installed in the model for the remaining analyses.
Case #3 is the operating load case. It is identical to case #2 but has the sized hanger preload included in the concentrated force load category (F). This analysis will produce the
operating forces and moments on the supports and the deflections of all points in the system. Case #3 is a structural analysis case and not a B31.3 stress analysis case. The refining
piping code does not recognize pipe stress in the operating condition as a test for system
failure and does not establish a limit for this state of stress. Case #4 is both a structural and
stress case. By eliminating the (assumed) thermal effects (D1+T1), the analysis is of the
cold system. By including pressure (P1), this case also has the necessary components to be
used to report the systems sustained stresses. Case #5 (DS3-DS4) is an algebraic combination of two basic load cases. The displacements of case #4 are subtracted from the displacements of case #3 to produce these results. This case develops the displacement range
of the system in its growth from the installed position to the operating position. This displacement range is used for the calculation of the systems expansion stresses.
With the selection of the recommended load cases CAESAR II will proceed with the
static analysis. The program continues with the data processing by building, sorting, and
storing the equation (matrix) data for the system and the basic load cases. (This process
may be terminated at any time by pressing the Cancel button.) Once this is done the
CAESAR II Solution Module is entered briefly.

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CAESAR II will analyze the four basic loads (hanger design, operating, and installed)
before leaving this screen. At this point the solution screen is replaced with messages concerning the post processing of this data. The displacement results of cases 3 and 4 are used
with the element stiffness matrices to calculate the forces, moments, and stresses throughout the system. The difference between these two sets of displacements is used to establish
the displacement range of the piping system as defined in load case #5. This new displacement set is similarly used to calculate forces, moments, and stresses. At the completion of
this step, all the results are loaded into the binary data file TUTOR._P and the
CAESAR II output processor window is displayed so that output for this job may be
reviewed. The ._p file can only be examined through the output processor. The analysis
need not be rerun to review these results at a later time, instead, the option Output-Statics
from the Main Menu may be used to bring up the output from the TUTOR._P file.

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Reviewing the Static Results

Reviewing the Static Results


Whether entering the output processor directly from the static analysis or through the
Main Menu, the programs Output Window will appear.

Static Output Processor

Usually the first look at output is to verify that the piping model is responding as expected.
Checking deflections and restraint loads in the operating and installed cases should
quickly uncover any major problems with the system layout or input. If there are unusual
results, the input should be re-examined for correctness. If the output verifies the model,
the results can be used to collect pipe stresses, support and equipment loads, and any other
useful data found in the output. This information is useful in documenting a good piping
design or troubleshooting an inadequate one.
A good view of the operating displacements of this piping system is available through Display Graphical Results button or through Options-Graphical Output. Be sure to select
a load case (not a hanger case) prior to issuing the command. The image shown in the following figure will appear on the screen.

Tutorial A

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Output Plot for Tutor

As in other Caesar II windows both the Toolbar Buttons and Menu Items may be used to
select display options. From the menu select Show-Displacement-Deflected Shape. The
plot will show the centerline plot along with a normalized deflected shape of the system in
the operating condition. This screen is shown in the next figure.

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Reviewing the Static Results

Plot of Displaced Shape

When finished viewing the plotted output for the operating case, change the case to Sustained in the drop list on the left of the second toolbar. Select Show-Stress-Overstress and
note that there are no over-stressed points exist in the system. Reset the plot and now
select Show-Stress-Symbol-Code to display the code defined stresses throughout the system. The stress symbols will appear on the screen and locate the highest stress points in
the system. Now select Show-Stress-Maximum to list the stress values on the plot; use
the [Enter] key to list the stresses one at a time starting with the highest. The upper-left
hand corner of the screen shows the node number for the stress value placed on the screen.
Here, the highest (first) expansion stress listed is at node 10 (the first welding tee) with a
value of 12816 psi. This information is displayed in the next figure. Return to the output
processor menu by clicking the Standard Windows Exit button or File-Exit menu option.

Tutorial A

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CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Output Plot with Maximum Stress Point Revealed

For a quick look at the selected hanger data select Hanger Table with Text from the General Computed Results Column in the main Output Processor. The program reports the
Grinnell Fig. B-268 Size 10 spring selected at node 28. This selection is based on the values found in the first two analyses (both, of which, provide no load case reports in the output processor) the expected hot load for the proposed support at node 28 and the thermal
growth of node 28 (1220 lb. and 0.750 in., respectively). Return to the Output Menu and
select only the operating load case and Displacements and Restraint Summary. The
restraint loads at nodes 5 and 60 will be compared to the pump and vessel load limits.
Return to the Output Menu and now select the installed case (turn off 3 and turn on 4) to
examine the installed condition of the piping system. (Both the operating and installed
cases could be reviewed together by having both 3 and 4 highlighted at the same time.)
Now highlight the sustained and expansion cases (4 and 5) and Stresses. Each stress report
will start with a summary stating that the code stresses are below their allowable stress. In
the table that follows the summary, the stresses will be for each node in the system. These
nodes will be listed in pairs with their associated element. Note the last column lists the
ratio of actual stress to allowable stress in terms of percentage.

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Reviewing the Static Results

These results can be dumped to the printer or to a file rather than sent to the screen. Before
creating the report, a title line for the hardcopy may be generated through Options-Title
Lines on the Output Menu. Enter the following two lines for the report header:
CAESAR II TUTORIAL
BOTTOMS PUMP TO STEAM STRIPPER

To send the output to the printer, simply select the File-Print option or click on the Print
button. Start the report with the hanger table by selecting it an clicking Print. For the next
selection turn off the hanger request (click on it while holding the control key down) and
select the operating and sustained load cases and Displacements and Restraint Summary
reports before entering clicking on Print again. Finally add the sustained and expansion
stress reports by having only load cases 4, 5, and Stresses highlighted; again clicking the
Print button to service this request. This completes a typical output report. Segments of the
output reports are included at the end of this section.
Note that an input echo is available through the output processor. A complete input listing
can start the printed report or output file created by this processor. When the output processor is terminated, it will also generate a table of contents for the report built in this session.
To archive the static analysis electronically, the report may be sent to a data file rather than
to the printer. Simply use the above instructions substituting the Save button for the Print
button. The first time you select the Save option it will prompt you for a filename. The
resulting data file, Tutor.out, may be copied with the CAESAR II input and output files
(Tutor._a and Tutor._p) to a floppy diskette. These files along with the configuration file
Caesar.cfg and the Time Sequencing File (Tutor.otl) present a complete record of the analysis and should be stored with the drawing and any listings.

Tutorial A

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Reviewing the Static Results

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Static Analysis Output Listing


The following is a CAESAR II tutorial output report:

Hanger Report

Note

- The output listed in the example includes significant output only.


- Notes which discuss the results are included with each report.
- The reports included in this output are Complete Hanger Report, Operating Case
Displacement Report, Installed (Sustained) Case Displacement Report, Operating
& Installed Restraint Summary, Sustained Stress Summary and Stress Report, and
the Expansion Stress Summary and Stress Report. (Stresses in the operating condition are not used in B31.3 analyses)

The hot load of 1222 lbf. was calculated in the initial weight run (load case #1) with a rigid
Y restraint installed at node 28. The load on the restraint was 1222 lbf.
A 1222 lbf. +Y load replaced the rigid Y restraint at 28 and then an operating case was
analyzed (load case #2). Node 28 moved 0.750 in. in the +Y direction in this analysis.
CAESAR II entered the Grinnell hanger table with these two values and selected an
appropriate mid-range spring. The size 10 spring has the hot load of 1222 lbf. in its working range. This mid-range spring (short range springs were excluded) has a spring rate of
260 lbf./in. Assuming that node 28 moves 0.750 in. between the cold to hot position this
increases the spring load by (.750)(260) or 195 lbf. The cold load on the size 10 spring is
1222+195 or 1417 lbf. This cold load is also within the working range of the size 10 spring
so it is selected by CAESAR II.

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Reviewing the Static Results

Operating Case Displacement Report

Tutorial A

Note

The deflections of nodes 5 and 40 - these were entered as input.

Note

Node 28 again moves up 0.750 in. in the Y direction with the spring installed.

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Reviewing the Static Results

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Sustained Displacements

Note

8-36

The zero position of nodes 5 and 40. When the imposed displacements are not
included in the analysis, the node is fixed with zero movement in each of the
defined directions.

Tutorial A

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Reviewing the Static Results

Restraint Summary for the Operating and Sustained Cases

This restraint report lists the piping forces and moments on the restraint; not the restraint
loads on the piping. The loads at node 5 are the nozzle loads and can be used without sign
change to check the API 610 allowable loads. Loads for node 40 may be used to check the
vessel stresses due to the nozzle loads.
The loads at 28 shows the operating load and the actual installation load (with contents)
for the selected spring. Note how the spring carries the designed load of 1222 pounds in
the operation condition.
The +Y restraint at node 35 shows its nonlinear nature. In the cold condition, the restraint
is active. As the piping moves to the hot position it disengages from the support. Refer
back to the displacement reports to confirm that the Y displacement is 0.0 in the installed
(sustained) condition and +Y in the operating condition.

Tutorial A

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Reviewing the Static Results

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Sustained Case Stress Report - Summary Information

The summary shows that the sustained stresses throughout the system are below their
allowable values.
The sustained stress closest to its allowable limit is at the vessel node, 40.

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Tutorial A

Reviewing the Static Results

8-39

Reviewing the Static Results

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

For the stress detail report previous: Note the application of the tee and bend stress intensification factors. The tee at 25 has SIFs other than 1.00 for all three listings: 25 to 28, 20 to
25, and 25 to 620. Bend SIFs are applied only on the bend side of the node - compare node
28 on 25-28 and 28-29.
No stresses are listed for rigid elements as no valid moment of inertia is provided for these
elements.

Expansion Case Stress Summary

The summary shows that the expansion stresses throughout the system are below their
allowable values.
The expansion stress closest to its allowable limit occurs along the header at the node 10
tee.

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Tutorial A

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Tutorial A

Reviewing the Static Results

8-41

Conclusions

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

For the stress detail report previous: Compare the bend side of 30 with the straight side of
30; the SIF doubles the calculated stress. Also note the changing allowable stress. This is
the result of applying an allowable stress which takes credit for unused stress in the sustained case.

Conclusions
The review of piping stresses show that the piping has adequate wall thickness and support
to keep within the sustained allowable stress and also enough flexibility to remain below
the expansion allowable stress limit. A quick review of the system displacements do not
reveal any interference problems from pipe expansion. Equipment loads must still be
checked to ensure a safe and effective design. The pump loads at node 5 may be compared
to the API (American Petroleum Institute) Standard 610 (Seventh Edition, February 1989)
- Centrifugal Pumps for General Refinery Service. The nozzle loads, too, can be compared
to allowed maximum limits. The nozzle loads can be translated into local stresses using
Welding Research Council Bulletins 107 or 297 - Local Stresses in Cylindrical Shells Due
to External Loadings on Nozzles (WRC 107) or its Supplement (WRC 297). These local
stresses can then be compared to allowable stress values established in ASME Section
VIII Division 2 Appendix 4 - Mandatory Design Based on Stress Analysis. Since the loads
on these boundary conditions are related to the piping system layout, the piping system
cannot be properly approved until these load limit are also verified. These verifications
will be done in the following chapter.

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Tutorial A

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Evaluating Pump Discharge Loads

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Evaluating Pump Discharge Loads


Collecting pump and load information is the first step in reviewing the pump loads. API
610 (8th Edition) examines pump loads at two levelsfirst the individual nozzle loads
and then combined nozzle loads on the pump housing. The suction and discharge nozzles
have a set of allowable load limits based on nozzle orientation and nozzle size; both the
individual X, Y, and Z components and the resultant forces and moments are checked.
Additionally, to assure maintenance of proper pump / motor alignment, all loads on the
pump are resolved about a base point and also compared to their allowable values. The
CAESAR II API 610 processor requires the suction and discharge size, position, and orientation and the loads on these nozzles. The load limits are provided by the processor. For
this evaluation only the discharge nozzle loads have been calculated, therefore, only the
discharge nozzle will be checked and neither the suction limits nor the resolution to the
base point will be evaluated.
Even though all the loads are not known, the entire description of the pump will be collected for the API 610 processor in CAESAR II. The dimensioned isometric shown in the
next figure defines the orientation of this pump with its end suction nozzle and top discharge nozzle. Both nozzles are dimensioned back to the base pointthe intersection of
the shaft axis and the support line for the pump. This pumps drive shaft is along the X
axis.

9-2

Tutorial B

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Evaluating Pump Discharge Loads

The discharge nozzle loads are found in the static analysis output that has just been run.
Since the discharge nozzle served as a boundary condition for this analysis, the nozzle
loads are conveniently listed in the restraint reports. These forces and moments on the
restraint at node 5 are the piping loads acting on the discharge nozzle. No sign change is
required. The operating loads and installation loads must both fall below the defined limits. Examination of the restraint summary for the operating and sustained (installed) cases
reveals the operating loads as the controlling case. The terminal output showing these
numbers is found in the following figure. The operating case loads will be used for the discharge nozzle analysis.

Tutorial B

9-3

Evaluating Pump Discharge Loads

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

The API 610 processor is entered through the CAESAR II Main Menu selection Analysis-API 610. At this point the Open File dialog box will be displayed as shown in the following figure. Navigate to the appropriate directory and then either select an existing file
to work on or in this case type in the name of your new file. This name does not have to
match your jobname, but for this example we will choose the name Tutor.

9-4

Tutorial B

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Evaluating Pump Discharge Loads

Upon clicking the Open button you will be prompted: "The file specified does not exist, do
you want to create one?" Respond by clicking on the Yes button and the new file named
Tutor.610 will be created. The API 610 Window will be displayed as shown in the next
figure. Type in comments and notes related to the analysis here.

Tutorial B

9-5

Evaluating Pump Discharge Loads

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Next select the Input Data tab and fill it out as described below. Arbitrary node numbers
are assigned for the pump base point and for the pump suction nozzle (1 & 105 respectively). Use the data shown in the figure below to enter the remaining data. It is best to
enter as much data as is currently available so that when remaining (suction) data is determined, recollection of data will be minimal. The factors for the Table 2 load multipliers
are left blank. CAESAR II will use the default values established in API 610. If the pump
manufacturer defines pump load limits that are different from those defined in API 650,
enter the modified limit here (This value must be between 1.0 and 2.0).

Define the pump shaft centerline direction, the nozzle types, node numbers, and nominal
diameters under the Input Data tab.

9-6

Tutorial B

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Evaluating Pump Discharge Loads

Next select the Suction Nozzle tab and enter the known data. The distance for the base
point to the suction nozzle (not from the nozzle to the base point) and the nozzle loads.
Since the nozzle loads are unknown at this time, no forces and moments are entered.

Tutorial B

9-7

Evaluating Pump Discharge Loads

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Discharge nozzle data is next. The next figure shows the Discharge Nozzle tab with the
Nozzle orientation. The nozzle orientation is taken from the piping isometric.

9-8

Tutorial B

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Evaluating Pump Discharge Loads

Next, choose the Get Loads from Output button. From the popup dialog navigate to and
choose the name of the output file that contains the restraint loads for this pump (in this
case we select Tutor._P from the list).

The next dialog allows you to choose the appropriate load case for inclusion in the API610 analysis. For this tutorial we will select the Operating case and click OK. Now the
loads from the restraint report at node 5 are read in automatically. This is the end of the
input for the API Standard 610 pump load evaluation.

Tutorial B

9-9

Evaluating Pump Discharge Loads

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Select the Analyze menu item or the EQP toolbar to perform the API-610 equipment
check. The results will become available under the Equipment Report tab.
With no suction nozzle data entered, the suction nozzle cannot be evaluated. But this
report has some value in that the individual load component limits for the suction nozzle
are listed. The discharge nozzle report is complete in its comparison of the operating loads
on the nozzle and the defined limits. If the nozzle load components are less than the Table
2 limits, no additional checks must be made. If the nozzle load components are greater
than the Table 2 values but less than two times the Table 2 values, the pump may still pass
if other checks are within their allowable values. The CAESAR II report first compares
these loads to the Table 2 limits. If the ratios in the report (see the following figure) are all
less than 1.0 the pump is OK; if all the ratios are less that 2.0, the pump must pass additional checks. The moments about the X and Z axes are greater than two times the API 610
standards therefore additional checks are not valid. The moment about the X axis is 10,175
ft-lbf and the (conditional) limit is 5200 ft-lbf1. The moment about the Z axis is 5866 ftlbf and the limit is 2600 ft-lbf. The discharge nozzle loads must be reduced.

9-10

Tutorial B

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Evaluating Pump Discharge Loads

If the discharge nozzle loads were less than two times the Table 2 values, checks shown in
the next part of the report would be used to qualify the pump loads. Here, the resultant of
the applied nozzle forces and moments on each nozzle are compared to their related Table
2 limits (Condition F.1.2.2). Both the suction and discharge loads are also resolved to the
pump base point and again compared to a Table 2 limit (Condition F.1.2.3). For this analysis, these data have no significance as the components of the discharge loads are greater
than two times the Table 2 values.
Once the output has been reviewed, the user may review the reports again or send the
report to a file or to the system printer (File-Print). For this tutorial, the limits on the discharge nozzle will be noted for quick checks on future, re-design analysis. Once this piping system is redesigned so that the discharge nozzle is not overloaded, the existing data in
the equipment file TUTOR can be updated for the final pump verification report. This
ends the rotating equipment tutorial.

Tutorial B

9-11

Creating a More Accurate Model

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Creating a More Accurate Model


The operating moments (X and Z) on the pump nozzle are too large. The system appears
to be modeled correctly so it must be modified to reduce these loads. To make the most
effective change to the system, the cause(s) of these large loads must first be determined.
Returning to the static output for the operating load case, there are two major clues as to
the cause of these excessive loads:
1

Compare the operating loads on the pump to the installed loads on the pump if they
are vastly different, the thermal effects are the cause of the overload; if they are similar, the sustained effects cause the high loads. In this case, only the operating loads are
high, therefore this system has a thermal expansion problem. For a given amount of
thermal growth, thermal forces and moments will be reduced by adding flexibility to
the system (F = KX; for a given X - thermal growth between the end points - F or M
can be reduced by reducing K). If the system would be overloading the pump due to
sustained effects, the system pressure or deadweight is causing the problem. Systems
with pressure problems usually include untied expansion joints; deadweight problems
can be traced back to improper system support either spring pre-loads or support
locations.

Go back to the displaced shapes plot of the operating load case to examine the source
of the high moments. Most engineers / analysts find it easier to understand system
response to loads in terms of system displacements rather than internal forces and
moments. The displacement plot is useful in identifying which runs of pipe are generating the thermal strain and which runs of pipe are turning that thermal strain into the
large forces and/or moments on the pump.

The next figure makes it clear that the large moment about the Z axis at the pump is caused
by the thermal growth of B working against the stiffness of legs A and C. The large
moment about the X axis is due to the thermal growth of A working against the stiffness
of legs B and C. (The thermal growth of the vessel connection also may contribute to
these high loads.)

9-12

Tutorial B

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Creating a More Accurate Model

How can these excessive loads be reduced? Or, more to the point, how can additional flexibility be added to the system so that these loads drop? Two possible solutions are the
addition of an expansion loop to the piping and the installation of an expansion joint.
Before either of these choices be made a much simpler and cheaper solution will be examinedimproving the model to incorporate the inherent flexibilities found in the vessel/
nozzle intersection. Certainly the pump loads due to expansion would drop if the thermal
growth of the three legs A, B & C could deflect the vessel nozzle. Such nozzle flexibilities
are defined in Welding Research Council (WRC) Bulletin 297 - Local Stresses in Cylindrical Shells Due to External Loadings on NozzlesA Supplement to WRC Bulletin No.
107. WRC 297 supplies curves by which the ODs and thicknesses of the vessel and nozzle are used to define local nozzle flexibilities. These curves are limited to certain ratios of
nozzle and vessel terms, such as the following:
d/D < 0.5
d/t > 20
20 < D/T > 2500
d/T > 5
Where:
d = nozzle OD (= 8.625 in.)
t = nozzle thickness (= 0.322 in.)
D = vessel OD (= 60 in.)
T = vessel thickness (= 7/16 in.)
In this system where the vessel is vertical and the nozzle is in the Z direction, flexibilities
are defined at node 40 for translation in the Z direction and rotation about the X and Y
axis. The other three degrees of freedom (the three local shear terms) remain rigid as in the
original model where this nozzle was modeled as a rigid connection with its thermal

Tutorial B

9-13

Creating a More Accurate Model

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

deflections. Note that the vessel wall thickness is 3/16 in. but the nozzle has a 1/4 in. pad
reinforcing the connection; this produces an effective vessel wall of 7/16 in.

So before any costly system modification is made, the model will be refined to incorporate
these WRC 297 nozzle flexibilities. It is possible that a more thorough and accurate model
of the system will show that re-design is not needed. To assist in this model update,
CAESAR II provides a processor which will calculate and insert these flexibilities into
the system. This change will constitute the second analysis of this layout.
Return to the input processor for the job Tutor. Go to the spreadsheet that contains the nozzle node (40) and double click on the Nozzle checkbox. Enter the correct data in the Auxiliary Data Area as illustrated in the following figure.
The nozzle pipe size is imported from the spreadsheet. If this nozzle connection had no
associated thermal growth, the vessel node number need not be entered. Since this vessel
has thermal growth, the vessel node number must be identified and the thermal displacements previously assigned to node 40 must be re-assigned to this new node number. Enter
the vessel node number as node 6000. The calculated nozzle flexibilities will be applied
between nodes 40 and 6000. The vessel dimensions are entered here in terms of OD, wall
thickness, and reinforcing pad thickness. WRC 297 flexibilities are also sensitive to the
proximity of stiffeners to the nozzle. Here, a tray in the vessel is closest to the nozzle and
is 4 ft above the nozzle. On the other side of the nozzle, the bottom head tangent and skirt
connection is 6 ft below. The vessel orientation, based on a direction vector, is entered
next. Simply enter 1 in the Y direction to indicate a vertical vessel. This Z nozzle and Y

9-14

Tutorial B

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Creating a More Accurate Model

vessel will define the orientation of the local stiffnesses assigned through WRC 297. This
completes the definition of the nozzle. There will be no piping element defined between
nodes 40 and 6000. Now the displacements provided at node 40 must be moved to node
6000. Simply click on displacements and change node 40 to 6000.

Displacement on Vessel Node

WRC 297 Input

Tutorial B

9-15

Creating a More Accurate Model

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

WRC 297 Calculations Completed at the End of Error Checking


With the nozzle specification and the node number change for the vessel deflections, the
job is ready for analysis. Simply select start run to invoke the error checker. The error
checker again produces the two notes regarding the hanger sizing. Additionally there is a
warning generated regarding the specification of a vessel node number in the WRC 297
input when this node number is not included on any piping element. This warning message (75) is shown in the following figure. There is no trouble with this job since the displacements of the vessel node (node 6000) are defined.
The following figures review the nozzle flexibility calculations performed by the
CAESAR II error processor.

9-16

Tutorial B

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Creating a More Accurate Model

The previous figure lists the flexibilities extracted from WRC 297 an axial stiffness of
318,640 lb./ in., a longitudinal bending stiffness of 290,366 in.lb./deg, and a circumferential bending stiffness of 58,498 in.lb./deg. These three numbers are certainly much less
than the magnitude of the default rigid stiffness which is 10E12. The local coordinate system is defined by the nozzle/vessel orientation. With the nozzle in the Z direction and the
vessel in the Y direction, this new axial stiffness is in the global Z direction (the nozzle
centerline), longitudinal bending is about the global X axis (bending into the vessel centerline or long axis), and circumferential bending is about the global Y axis (about the vessel
centerline).
After the display of the WRC 297 calculations CAESAR II shows the error processor is
completed by summarizing the type and number of messages. With no fatal errors encountered, press the OK button to build the new set of execution files and return to the programs Main Menu. The model is now ready for a second static analysis; select AnalysisStatics to proceed. There will again be five analyses - two for the hanger sizing followed
by the operating case, the installed or sustained case, and the expansion case.
Once the analyses are completed, the Output Processor is presented for output review.
With only a minor change to the input, a rigorous, error-checking review of the results
should not be necessary. Instead, check the sustained and expansion stresses to confirm
they are still below their allowable limits, check the hanger selection, and then the operating and sustained (installed) restraint summary will be displayed to check the loads on the
pump nozzle node 5.

Tutorial B

9-17

Creating a More Accurate Model

9-18

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Tutorial B

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Creating a More Accurate Model

The highest sustained and expansion stresses are 1068 psi and 11,233 psi, respectively;
well below the allowable limits. The program selected a lighter spring for installation at
node 28. Previously a size 10 spring was selected, now a size 9 is recommended. In the
first analysis the spring carried 1222 lb. in the hot position, now it carries only 914 lb. The
system should still weigh the same so why is the spring load smaller? The reduced longitudinal bending stiffness at the nozzle may explain this change. Finally, to further investigate the effect of the nozzle flexibilities, show the displaced position of the piping system
in its operating condition.

Something can be said about each of these restraints. The pump discharge nozzle loads at
node 5 reveal the impact of the change in flexibility at node 40. The operating moment
about the Z axis shows the greatest change dropping to 748 ft.lb. from 5866 ft.lb. The
shear force in the X direction has also been reduced by 50%. The axial force in the Y
direction, however, has risen from 1562 lb. to 1815 lb. This higher pump load is tied
directly to the hanger selection which was also affected by the WRC 297 nozzle flexibilities. The spring support at node 28 is shown next. While the previous analysis had the
spring carrying 1222 lb. in the operating position, now it carries only 914 lb. This 300 lb.
reduction in the spring load returns as an additional 300 lb. load on the pump nozzle. With
the spring installed directly above the pump nozzle, simply increasing the load carried by

Tutorial B

9-19

Creating a More Accurate Model

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

the spring will reduce the load on the nozzle. If another analysis is required, the hanger
sizing procedure will be adjusted so that more load is carried by the hanger so that the
pump load drops. Looking at the +Y support at node 35 reveals why the hanger load has
changed so much. In the first analysis, the support at node 35 was not active in the operating case; the pipe rested on the support in its installed position but lifted off the support as
it went into operation. The hanger sizing algorithm readjusted the spring load so that it
would carry its portion of the system no longer resting at 35. In this second analysis, the
restraint at 35 remains active in the operating position, therefore the hanger at 28 does not
carry any additional load from 35. The added longitudinal bending flexibility at node 40 is
what allows the pipe to rest at node 35. The support definition at node 40 shows the
changes inherent in the WRC 297 nozzle flexibility calculations. Flexibilities are added in
the axial and bending directions (Z, RX, and RY) while the shear terms remain rigid (X, Y
and RZ). This added flexibility greatly reduces the bending moments about the X and Y
axes at node 40. Again, these reduced loads are not a result of design modifications but
modeling refinements. If the vessel nozzle connection meets the requirements of Welding
Research Council Bulletin 297, there is much to gain in nozzle flexibility.

9-20

Tutorial B

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Creating a More Accurate Model

One final report from this analysis shows the displacements of node 40. The imposed thermal growth of the nozzle were removed from node 40 and redefined at node 6000. This
output would show the operating position of node 6000 as (0, 0.28, -0.10; 0, 0, 0) [defined
as (X, Y, Z; RX, RY, RZ)]. Comparing these numbers with node 40 above, one can again
see the impact of the nozzle flexibilities. The biggest difference is due to the circumferential bending flexibility (RY) but the longitudinal bending flexibility (RX) plays a large role
in the weight distribution of the system.
Do the new pump loads meet the allowable limits defined in API 610?

Tutorial B

9-21

Checking Nozzle Loads

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Checking Nozzle Loads


The operating moments (X and Z) on the pump nozzle were too large in the initial model.
A quick run through the API 610 processor will quickly evaluate the refined model. Now
in the TUTOR input only the discharge loads need be changed so click on the Discharge
Nozzle tab and then Get Loads from Output as before to obtain the new loads.

API 610 Discharge Nozzle Input

Accept the processors warnings and continue with the analysis. The API 610 report follows.

9-22

Tutorial B

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Tutorial B

Checking Nozzle Loads

9-23

Checking Nozzle Loads

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Continued...

The situation is better but not good enough. The Z moment on the discharge nozzle is well
below the limit. The X moment, however, remains more than twice the allowable load.
Exceeding twice the allowable load would be fine if Condition F.1.2.2 is satisfied but it is
not. Condition F.1.2.2 states that even though the individual load components may be
more than twice their individual limit, the loads are satisfactory if the resolved forces
divided by their resolved limits plus the resolved moments divided by their resolved limits
is less than 2. The sum of the ratios for the discharge nozzle is 2.822 so the pump loads are
still too high.
There is a quick what if check that may prove the pump loads may be brought within
their allowable values. The discussion of the restraint loads mentioned that the vertical
load on the discharge nozzle is directly controlled by the set load on the spring at node 28.
This spring pre-load could be ideally set so that when the pump is in operation, there is no
pump load in the Y direction. At this point the hanger carries 914 lb. in the operating position while the pump carries 1815 lb. If the spring load carried 2729 lb. it stands to reason
that the load on the pump would be zero in Y. Would that satisfy Condition F.1.2.2? Rerunning the API 610 processor with the Y load set to zero will show the Condition F.1.2.2
reduced to 2.313 which still remains above the limit. Spring load adjustment is useful but
system redesign is indicated.

9-24

Tutorial B

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

System Redesign

System Redesign
The probable causes of the large X moment at node 5 were developed earlier. This excessive load is caused by the thermal expansion of the leg from node 35 to 40 (the A leg)
working against the stiffness of the remainder of the system (legs B and C). Assuming
the thermal strain of leg A is fixed, only the system stiffness may be changed to reduce
the operating load at 5. This reduced stiffness may be realized by the addition of an expansion loop or the addition of an expansion joint. For this system an expansion loop is chosen.
Where should the expansion loop be added? As a rule of thumb, the best location for an
expansion loop is determined by the orientation of the leg which produces the thermal
strain causing the problem. Here leg A sets the orientation of the loop. The added piping
to generate the expansion loop will lie perpendicular to leg A which runs in the Z direction. This means that for this system pipe may be added in either the X or Y direction. This
added pipe effectively increases the cantilever length which is displaced by leg A. By
increasing cantilever length, stiffness is reduced and load(s) will drop. It will be sensible,
therefore, to add a loop on the A run of pipe (35 - 40) by adding pipe in the X direction.
How long should the loop legs be? There are several conditions which would set the loop
size: available support location, maximum distance between supports, cost of pipe, and
space available to name a few. For this system an eight foot by 8-ft loop will be used. For
systems that are not analyzed, the recommended maximum spacing between supports for
8-in. water-filled pipe is 19 ft (see ASME B31.1 121.5 or MSS SP-69). The 8-ft loop run
will lengthen the 30 - 35 pipe from 12 ft to 20 ft, which is close to this recommended spacing.

Return now to the CAESAR II Main Menu and re-enter the input processor with TUTOR
as the current jobname. When testing layout modifications which may not prove success-

Tutorial B

9-25

System Redesign

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

ful, it is wise to create a new input set with the proposed changes and leave the original
model intact. If the proposed changes do not produce the desired results, the original
model is still available for the next attempt; the proposed changes need not be de-constructed from the model. The easiest way to do this is to choose File-Save As from the
menu and give the model a new name. The current model will now be the new one.
Changes can be made to this new model and the original is intact with the original name.
Let's call this new model Tutor2.

There are several ways to add the loop to Tutor2. For this tutorial try following these steps:

Change the length of 30 - 35 from 12 ft to 20 ft


[PgDn] through the element input screens to display the element From 30 To 35.
Move the cursor over the DX field and re-specify the twenty foot length by highlighting the current value and then entering -20-

Move the +Y support from 35 to 33


The recommended maximum spacing between supports for this size pipe is 19 ft *.
Leaving the support at 35 would place the support 21 feet from the hanger at 28 so the
support is moved closer - to node 33. Move the cursor to the Restraints field. Once the
cursor is in the restraints field the Auxiliary Data Area will display the current +Y
restraint at node 35. Move the cursor over the 35 and enter 33.

Break 30 - 35 by adding 32 at the midpoint


Node 32 is added as an output point to check mid-span sag. Still on element 30 35
select Model-Break to call up the Break command. Answer the questions so that node
32 is added to this line 10 ft from node 30 with no restraints at node 32. The dialog
box for this line break is shown in the next figure.

* The maximum distance between supports as specified in ASME B31.1 and MSS SP-69 ensures a
very low sustained stress in the line. Since CAESAR II calculates these sustained stresses, the output would confirm that much greater distances between supports are safe. The recommended spacing also limits the pipe sag between supports to 0.1 inch. The recommended spacing is conservative
but it serves as a useful guideline here.

9-26

Tutorial B

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

System Redesign

Break 35 - 40 8 ft down the line by adding 135.


[PgDn] to the element 35 - 40. Break this element and add the new node 135, 8 ft (8-)
from node 35.

Insert an 8-ft element after 35 - 135.


While still on the (new) element 35 - 135 press I to invoke the Insert command. Select
the After button to place this new element after the element 35 - 135. CAESAR II
then displays a new input screen for the new element. Enter the To Node as 235, specify the length in the DX field as 8 ft (8-) and double click the Bend checkbox to add
the bend at node 235. [PgDn] to the next element (135 - 40) and change the From
Node (135) to the new node 235. This change will button up the system to finish the
entry of the new element. One final step is required for this element - the specification
of the bend at node 135. [PgUp] two elements to display element 35 - 135 and double
click the Bend checkbox.

Add a support to the new run 135 - 235.


As mentioned earlier both ASME B31.1 and MSS SP-69 provide limits to spacing
between supports. These guidelines were used to set the size of this expansion loop
(maximum support spacing for 8-in. carbon steel water line is 19 ft). These guidelines
also state that the maximum run of pipe where bends are included is 3/4 of the straight
run limit. Here, that limit is about 15 ft. There are over 26 ft of pipe between 35 and 40
so a new support should be added. The support will be added about halfway between
35 and 40 - 13 ft from the nozzle at 40 or 3 ft back from 235. [PgDn] to the element
135 - 235 and issue the Break command. Define a single node 140, 5 ft (5-) from node
135. Enter 33 in the Get support condition from? field. This will cause CAESAR II to
duplicate the +Y support entered at node 33 at this new node 140.

Tutorial B

9-27

System Redesign

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

One final modification is suggested for this analysis. A large vertical load remained on the
pump nozzle after the hanger at node 28 was sized and installed by CAESAR II. The
spring selected from the Grinnell hanger table should carry more of the deadweight of the
pipe and valving. The sizing algorithm may be adjusted so that the pump nozzle carries no
load when the program calculates the load to be carried by the spring. This change will
greatly reduce the final nozzle load by sizing a larger spring at 28. To make this change,
enter the Hanger input auxiliary data area. Type in a 5 in the Free Anchor at Node field;
Then move down to Free Code field and select Y from the drop list. With this change,
CAESAR II will disconnect the Y restraint at node 5 while it calculates the deadweight
load carried by the proposed spring at 28.

To invoke the error checker select either File-Start Run - or select the Start Run toolbar.
This data should now process without error. If any errors do occur, carefully read the error
messages and return to the input processor to correct them. If everything looks correct,
allow CAESAR II to create the execution files and return to the Main Menu.
The job is again ready for static analysis. Enter Analysis-Statics from the Main Menu and
run Tutor2 with the same load cases that where created for Tutor. Do this by accepting the
default setting on the Load Case Editor. The Output Processor will be presented once the
analysis is complete.
As previously recommended, the sustained and expansion stresses are first checked to
confirm that they remain below their allowable limits. The hanger selection and the operating and sustained (installed) restraint summary will be displayed to examine the impact
of this model modification on the pump nozzle loads at node 5. The highest sustained and
expansion stresses are 1708 psi and 5415 psi, respectively; well below the allowable limits. The sustained stresses increased a small amount due to the longer spans between supports while the expansion stresses show a significant reduction. The added system
flexibility caused this reduction in expansion stress; a good indication that the nozzle loads

9-28

Tutorial B

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

System Redesign

have dropped as well. Now select the Hanger Table with Text from under the General Computed Results column. The program selected a heavier spring for installation at node 28. In
the last analysis a size 9 spring was selected, now a size 12 is recommended. The spring
now carries 2221 lb. in its hot position. This greater load is the result of the modification
to the spring hanger selection criteria where the pump is disconnected when the springs
hot load is calculated. Hopefully, the added load-carrying capability of the spring will
reduce the vertical load on the pump nozzle. Be aware that the spring loads can be further
manipulated if the nozzle load needs additional adjustment. Select Operating and Sustained load cases and Restraint Summary to display the restraint summary report. Finally,
to quickly check the effect of the loop on the overall displacement, show the displaced
shape of the piping system in its operating condition. The following figures show the various reports referred to above.

Tutorial B

9-29

System Redesign

9-30

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Tutorial B

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Tutorial B

System Redesign

9-31

System Redesign

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

The pump discharge nozzle loads at node 5 look much better; revealing the impact of the
change in flexibility at node 40. The loop adds flexibility in the Z direction. The Z force on
the pump fell from 750 lb. to 235 lb. The large operating moment about the X axis and the
target of this re-design dropped from almost 10,000 lb. to 2753 lb. Another interesting
effect of this added flexibility is the increase in the Z moment from -300 ft.lb. to +1541
ft.lb. The pump load in the Y direction exhibits the adjustment to the hanger selection. The
hot load on the pump is -204 lb. and the cold load on the pump is +332 lb. The absolute
magnitude of the pump load could not be much smaller. If necessary, the hanger load
could be adjusted to bring the pump installation load to zero or the pump operating load to
zero. The spring support at node 28 now shows a hot and cold load of 2221 lb. and 2558
lb., respectively. By releasing the anchor in the initial weight analysis the spring carries
the riser load. This load was only 913 lb. in the previous analysis. The extra flexibility has
also changed the support load at node 33. Previously the support load dropped as the pipe
became hot; now the load increases as the pipe heats up. The vessel nozzle loads at node
40 shows a similar pattern of change as the pump nozzle. Most loads drop but there is one
moment (here its X) that increases.
Are the nozzle loads OK?
The API 610 processor need not be used to confirm that the discharge nozzle loads are
below their maximum allowed values. Refer back to either of the previous analyses to
quickly locate the individual limits and compare them to the new operating loads on node
5:

9-32

Tutorial B

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Direction

System Redesign

API Limit Model Results

X (lb.)

1700

136.

Y (lb.)

2200

-204.

Z (lb.)

1400

-236.

RX (ft.lb.)

5200

-2709.

RY (ft.lb.)

3800

-1547.

RZ (ft.lb.)

2600

1543.

Since all six components of the discharge nozzle loads are below their limits, no additional
checks (conditions F.1.2.2. & F.1.2.3.) need be made. The discharge nozzle is no longer
overloaded. The final pump evaluation cannot be made until the suction nozzle loads are
compared with their API 610 limits.

Tutorial B

9-33

Conclusion

CAESAR II - Applications Guide

Conclusion
The pump discharge loads are now within their allowable limits. The vessel loads from the
nozzle at node 40 should also be checked to ensure they are not too high. These loads cannot be compared to a fixed load limit as with the pump. Instead, these loads must be converted to local stresses on the vessel and these stresses compared to their limits as defined
by ASME Section VIII, Division 2. As a very rough guide for evaluating local vessel
stresses, one can check the code defined stress on the pipe connected to the vessel. If those
stresses are below about 6000 psi, the vessel stresses should be OK. Looking at the operating, sustained, and expansion stresses at node 40, the maximum stress is less than 2500
psi. The vessel loads seem fine. If the stresses are to be checked, the Welding Research
Council Bulletin 107 (WRC 107) can be used to convert the applied forces and moments
to the appropriate local stresses. CAESAR II provides a processor to convert these loads
into WRC 107 stresses and a second processor to combine the different stress categories
(general or local primary membrane stress intensity, primary membrane plus primary
bending stress intensity, and primary plus secondary stress intensity) for comparison with
their design limits.
Final reports should now be made to document this design change. As shown earlier in
this tutorial, the input listing could be generated from the Input Processor or from the Output Processor. It would be wise to include the current status of the programs default settings in this input echo. A hard copy of a few input plots would also help in defining this
model and analysis. Structural and stress results from the Output Processor will substantiate the current design. Structural output includes the system displacements and restraint
loads for both the operating and installed cases. The code-defined pipe stresses are generated for the sustained and expansion cases. The hanger report should also be generated
from the Output Menu. The data files for and from this analysis may also be archived with
the hard copy reports. Copy the files Tutor2._a, Tutor2._J, and Tutor._P and Caesar.cfg to
diskette to archive a copy of the CAESAR II input, load case definition, CAESAR II output, and program default settings. Also save the Tutor2.otl file to enable full access to
these CAESAR II files without the need to re-run the analysis. Note that often upon
release of a new version of CAESAR II that archived files will have to be converted to the
new version and subsequently re-analyzed. This is primarily due to frequent format
changes within CAESAR II as new features are added. To avoid this, limited-run users
are encouraged to keep the old version of the software available to them and use newest
version for new jobs. The other files generated for this analysis (Tutor._b, Tutor._n, etc.)
can be deleted from the hard disk without losing any information. These scratch files are
produced by the input processor for use in the analysis and can always be regenerated. The
CAESAR II Main Menu selection File-Cleanup/Delete Files can be used to copy and
delete the files generated by CAESAR II.
Any questions or comments about this tutorial may be directed to anyone in the COADE
support staff. COADE may be reached in Houston, Texas at (281)890-4566. Our Fax number is (281)890-3301, our Bulletin Board (BBS) number is (281)890-7286, and our CompuServe address is 73073,362. We can also be reach via E-mail at query@coade.com.

9-34

Tutorial B

Index

Numerics

180 degree return (fitting-to-fitting 90


deg. bends) A2-6
A

Acoustic waves A7-29


Alpha tolerance A6-8
Analysis-statics A7-50, A9-28
Analyzing water hammer loads A7-28
Anchors A3-2
Anchors with displacements A3-3
Anchors, flexible A3-5
Angle field A2-2
Angle to adjacent bend A2-3
Angular gimbal A5-24
Angular-only gimballed joint A5-25
Archive A8-33
Axial deflection A5-4
B

Ball joints A6-5


Bellows angular stiffness A5-14
Bellows ID A5-2
Bellows with pressure thrust A5-3
Bellows, Simple A5-2
Bellows, Tied A5-4, A5-8
Bend
Angle A2-2, A2-3
Auxiliary input A2-4
Definition A2-2
Radius A2-2
Bends A2-1
Bends, double A2-4
Bends, single-flanged A2-4
Bends, stiffened A2-4
Bilinear restraints A3-47
Bilinear supports A3-47
Bottom-out A4-15
Bottom-out spring A4-23
Break command A9-26
Button
Get loads from output file A7-86
C

Can design A4-8

CAESAR II Applications Guide

Can design, Multiple A4-8


Can design, Single A4-4
Closely spaced mitered bend A2-8
CNodes A3-6, A3-22, A3-32
Coade technical support contact
information A1-2
Cold spring A6-8
Combination cases A7-30
Computation Control tab A4-2
Concentric reducer modeling A6-3
Concentric reducers A6-2
Configuration/setup A7-68
Configure-setupgeometry A2-3
Connect geometry through
CNodes A4-12
Connecting node displacements A4-10
Connecting nodes A4-10, A7-79
Constant effort support design A4-5
Constant effort supports A4-6
Control stops, Lateral A5-17
Core piping A6-6, A7-75
Core piping, Input A7-75
Cryogenic piping dynamics
example A7-36
D

Deformation A6-6
Discharge nozzle A9-8, A9-22
Discontiguous systems A7-79
Displacement
Report A7-16, A7-30
Stress range A8-27
Vector A3-4
Displacements, Non-zero A3-3
DLF spectrum A7-12
DLF spectrum files A7-23
Double-acting restraint
(rotational) A3-18
Double-acting restraints A3-17
Double-acting restraints
(translational) A3-17
Dual gimbal A5-28
Dummy leg on bends, Horizontal A340

Dummy leg, Vertical A3-36

Dynamic analysis A7-58


Dynamic analysis of independent
support earthquake
excitation A7-36
Dynamic analysis of water hammer
loads A7-20
E

Earthquake excitation, Independent


support A7-36
Eccentric reducer modeling A6-4
Eccentric reducers A6-2
Eigensolution A7-4
Elbows - different wall thickness A213

Elbows, pressure-balanced A5-30


EQP toolbar A9-10
Equipment report A9-10
Example
Dynamic analysis A7-58
Dynamic analysis (nureg9) A7-58
Dynamic analysis of independent
support earthquake
excitation A7-36
Dynamic analysis of water hammer
loads A7-20
Dynamic analysis of water hammer
loads (hammer) A7-20
Harmonic analysis A7-2
Harmonic analysis (table) A7-2
Jacketed piping A7-72
Jacketed piping (jacket) A7-72
Natural frequency analysis A7-2
NEMA SM23 A7-95
Omega loop modeling A7-66
Omega loop modeling (omega) A766

Relief valve loads A7-7


Relief valve loads (relief) A7-7
Structural analysis A7-47
Structural analysis (frame) A7-47
WRC 107 A7-82
Expansion joint rating A5-4, A5-10
Expansion joints A5-1, A5-2, A5-6, A58, A5-10

CAESAR II Applications Guide

Expansion load case A7-86


Expansion stresses A8-27
External software lock A8-5
F

File-Cleanup/Delete Files A9-34


Flexible anchors A3-5
Flexible anchors with predefined
displacements A3-6
Flexible nozzle (WRC bulletin
297) A3-8
Flexible nozzle w/ complete vessel
model A3-12
Flexible nozzle w/ predefined
displacements A3-11
Force sets A7-12
Forces/moments, Conversion to WRC
107 local axes A7-83
Free code option A4-13
Frequency cutoff A7-4
G

Gas thrust load calculations A7-9


General Method A6-8
Generating input, Tutorial A8-5
Get loads from output
Button A9-9, A9-22
Gimbal joint A5-24
Guides A3-20
H

Hanger
Between two pipes A4-12
Data A4-3
Design A4-2, A4-11
Design with anchors A4-13
Design with anchors in the
vicinity A4-13
Design with support thermal
movement A4-11
Design with user-specified operating
load A4-14
Sizing algorithm A8-26
Supported from vessel A4-10
Hanger assembly, Trapeze A4-8

Hanger design, Simple A4-3


Hanger table with text A9-29
Hangers A4-1
Harmonic
Analysis A7-2, A7-4
Force data A7-5
Loads A7-2
Hinge joint, Slotted A5-20, A5-21
Hinged joint A5-18
Hinges, plastic A3-52
I

Independent support motion A7-58


Input
Constant effort supports A4-6
Data A9-6
Review A8-20
Session A8-25
Structural steel A7-48

Modeling reducers A6-2


Modeling guidelines A9-12
Models, Complex A5-4
Models, Miscellaneous A6-1
Models, Simple A5-4
N

Near/Far Point Method A3-36


NEMA A7-95
Nodal degree of freedom A3-3
Node fields A2-2
Non-zero displacements A3-3
Nozzle load summation report A7-100
Nozzle loads A9-22
Nozzle results for pt69m A7-99
Nozzle spreadsheet A3-12
NRC
Benchmark problems A7-58
Spectrum example A7-58
NRC example NUREG9 A7-58

Jacket, Input A7-76, A7-80


Jacketed pipe A6-6
Jacketed piping A7-72
Jacketed piping systems A7-72
L

Lateral deflection A5-4


Layout of nodes A7-73
Lift-off A4-15
Limit stops A3-22
Loads, Large A7-72
M

Mass participation report A7-14, A7-30


Methods for modeling dummy legs on
bends A3-36
Missing mass correction A7-29
Mitered bend, evenly spaced A2-7
Mitered bend, widely spaced A2-10
Mitered bends A2-7
Miters, closely spaced A2-7
Model-break A9-26
Modeling dummy legs on bends A3-36
Modeling plan A7-73

CAESAR II Applications Guide

Occasional load case A7-86


Offset element method A3-36
Offset gimbal A5-24
Offset gimbal joint A5-26
Old spring A4-9
Old spring redesign A4-9
Omega loop A7-66
Omega loop modeling A7-66
On Curvature Method A3-36
Operating load, User-specified A4-14
Output-view animation A7-4
P

Pipe and hanger support A4-10


Pipe nominal diameter A2-2
Pipe supported from vessel A4-10
Plastic hinges A3-52
Predefined displacements A3-6
Preparing the drawing A8-3
Pressure
Pulses A7-21
Thrust A5-2
Wave A7-28

Pressure thrust, Bellows A5-3


Pressure-balanced tees and elbows A530

Pump discharge loads A9-2


R

Reducers A6-2
Relief
Valve loads A7-7
Valves A7-10
Relief valve example problem
setup A7-10
Relief valve loading - output
discussion A7-14
Report
Displacement A7-16, A7-30
Equipment A9-10
Force A7-30
Mass Participation A7-14, A7-30
Restraint A7-30
Stress A7-30
Restrained weight run A4-13
Restraint
Report A7-17, A8-37
Settlement A3-28
Restraint and guide, Singledirectional A3-27
Restraint between two pipes A3-32
Restraint between two pipes (use of
CNodes) A3-32
Restraint between vessel and pipe
models A3-33
Restraint, Single-dimensional A3-26
Restraint, Single-directional A3-19
Restraint, Skewed double-acting A3-29
Restraint, Skewed singledirectional A3-31
Restraint/force/stress reports A7-30
Restraints A3-1
Restraints on a bend at 30 and 60
degrees A3-35
Restraints on a bend at 45 degrees A334

Restraints, Rotational directional A325

CAESAR II Applications Guide

Results A7-45
Rigid
Body motion A7-80
Rotation rods (basic model),
Large A3-42
Rotation rods (chain supports),
Large A3-44
Rotation rods (constant effort hangers),
Large A3-46
Rotation rods (spring hangers),
Large A3-45
Rotation rods (struts), Large A3-47
Rotation rods, large A3-42
Rotational directional restraints with
gaps A3-25
S

Segments A7-74, A7-75


Shock spectra A7-58
Simple "bottomed-out" spring A4-23
Simple bellows A5-2
Simple bellows with pressure
thrust A5-2
Simple hanger design A4-3
Simplified Method A6-8
Single and double flanged bends A2-4
Single and double flanged bends or
stiffened bends A2-4
Single-directional restraint with
predefined displacement A326

Single-directional restraints A3-19


Singular stiffness matrix A7-80
Skewed double-acting restraint A3-29
Skewed single-directional
restraint A3-31
Slip joint A5-23
Slotted hinge joint A5-20, A5-21
Slotted hinge joint
(comprehensive) A5-21
Slotted hinge joint (simple) A5-20
Snubbers, static A3-51
Speed of sound A7-21
Spring can characteristics A4-16
Spring can models A4-15

Spring can models with bottom-out


and lift-off capability A415

Spring cans w/ friction, Modeling A424

Spring cans with friction A4-24


Spring hanger model with rods A4-19
Spring hanger model with rods,
bottom-out, and lift-off A4-19
Spring hangers, Existing A4-7
Spring hangers, Existing (no
design) A4-7
Spring Rate field A4-9
Spring, Bottomed-out A4-23
Static analysis A8-26
Static analysis output listing A8-34
Static results A8-29
Static snubbers A3-51
Stiffness characteristics A4-15
Stress report A7-17
Structural analysis A7-47
Structural input files A7-39
Structural preprocessor A7-47
Structural steel A7-39
Suction nozzle A9-7
Support A1-2
Support / user assistance A1-2
Sustained load case A7-86
Sustained stresses A8-27
System overview A8-2
System redesign A9-25
T

Tangent intersection point A7-66


Technical support A1-2
Tees, pressure-balanced A5-30
Thermal support movement A4-11
Tie bar A5-4, A5-15
Tie rod model, Comprehensive A5-17
Tied bellows (simple vs. complex
model) A5-4
Tied bellows expansion joint A5-6, A58

Tied bellows expansion joint (simple


model) A5-6
Trapeze A4-8
Trapeze hanger assembly A4-8
Turbine trip A7-20
Tutorial A8-1, A9-1
Tutorial, Generating input A8-5
U

Universal expansion joints A5-10


Universal expansion joints (simple
models) A5-10
Universal joint (comprehensive tie rod
model) A5-16
Universal joint with lateral control
stops A5-17
Universal joint with lateral control
stops (comprehensive tie rod
model) A5-17
V

Vertical dummy leg on bends A3-36


Vertical leg attachment angle A3-39
Vessel, Pipe and hanger supported
from A4-10
W

Water hammer A7-21


Water hammer loading - output
discussion A7-30
Water hammer loads A7-28
Widely spaced mitered bend A2-10
Windows A3-24
WRC 107 A7-82
WRC 297 A3-8
Y

Yield force A3-52


Z

Zero length expansion joint A5-18, A520, A5-24

Zero weight A5-20

Tied bellows expansion joint (complex


model) A5-8

CAESAR II Applications Guide


COADE, Inc.
12777 Jones Rd., Suite 480
Houston, Texas 77070
Phone: (281)890-4566
Fax: (281)890-3301
E-mail: techsupport@coade.com
WWW: www.coade.com

CAESAR II
Applications Guide
V E R S I O N 4.20
( L A S T R E V I S E D 1/2000 )