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HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT #1 - Solution

Due Friday, September 13, 2013

Questions:

1. Explain
what
is
surface
tension.
Provide
examples
for
wetted
and
nonwetted

surface.

2. Explain
what
is
boundary
layer.

Problems:

Problem 2.3

[Difficulty: 2]

Given:

Upper disk rotates, lower fixed.

Velocity field is:

&

V

eT

rZ z

h

Find:

a.

b.

&

Solution:

&

&

V x, y, z form.

&

V r , z . Two space coordinates are included, so the field is 2-D.

1.

&

At lower disk, V

&

z = 0, so V

2.

&

At upper disk, V

&

z = h, so V

eT

eT

0 since stationary.

rZ 0

h

0 , so satisfied.

rZ h

h

eT rZ , so satisfied.

Problem 2.10

[Difficulty: 2]

Given:

Velocity field

Find:

Solution:

For streamlines

dy

dx

dy

dx

y

x

ln( x ) c

Integrating

ln( y )

The solution is

C x

C 1

For a particle

up

dx

dt

and

x dx

or

A dt

3 x

2 A t c

2 A

c

2 A

t

t( x

2) t( x

1)

( 2 m) c

2 A

( 1 m) c

2 A

2 u 2

4 m 1 m

m

s

0.75 s

Problem 2.14

[Difficulty: 2]

Given:

Velocity field

Find:

c1 e

A t

and y p

c2 e

A t

(2,2) at t = 0; compare to streamline through same point, and explain why they are similar or not.

Solution:

Governing equations:

For pathlines

up

dx

vp

dt

dy

For streamlines

dt

dy

dx

Assumption: 2D flow

Integrating

Eliminating t

dx

up

A x

dt

dx

A t C1

c1 e

1

c1 e

A t

A t

ln

x

c1

dy

dx

dy

y

Integrating

ln( y )

The solution is

ln( x y )

A y

A x

A t C2

c2 e

A A

x y

C2 A t

const

const or

or

x y

A t

A A

ln x y

const

dx

x

ln( x ) c

or

x y

const

or

x y

The streamline passing through (2,2) and the pathline that started at (2,2) coincide because the flow is steady!

c2 e

A t

1 1

A A

ln x y

ln

A

c2

1

so

For streamlines

A t C2

ln( y )

C1 A t

A y

A dt

A t C1

ln( x )

dt

dy

A dt

dy

vp

Problem 2.38

Given:

Find:

Solution:

Governing equation:

[Difficulty: 2]

b T

1

Sutherland equation

S

T

kg

6

1.458 u 10

m s K

110.4 K

2

1

Converting constants

kg

6

1.458 u 10

m s K

Alternatively

2.27 u 10

ft s R

Also

110.4 K u

lbm

0.454 kg

slug

32.2 lbm

0.3048 m

ft

5 K

9 R

8

2.27 u 10

slug

1

ft s R

2

slug

8

lbf s

slug ft

8 lbf s

2.27 u 10

1

2

ft R

9 R

5 K

198.7 R

and

b T

1

S

T

with T in Rankine, in

lbf s

ft

Problem 2.46

Given:

Find:

[Difficulty: 2]

Solution:

Governing equations:

yx

Fx

du

dy

N

W

M ax

T

The given data is

10 kg

M

d

0.025 mm

10

M g

98.066 N

30 deg

75 N

1 Ns

250 mm

Equation of motion

Fx

yx A

f W sin ( )

M ax

F f W sin ( )

so

du

dy

U

d

d W sin( )

0.196

Pushing up:

d ( F W sin( ) )

0.104

d

2

w W sin ( )

For no force:

d ( F W sin( ) )

sign of W)

m

s

m

s

Pushing down:

d ( F W sin ( ) )

2

0.496

m

s

Problem 2.85

Given:

Local temperature

Find:

[Difficulty: 1]

Solution:

Basic equation

V

c

Hence

M c

and

k R T

M c

0.3

M k R T

1

ft lbf

lbm R

32.2 lbm ft

2

lbf s

u ( 60 460 ) R

60 mph

88

ft

s

229 mph

Problem 2.88

[Difficulty: 3]

Given:

Find:

Solution:

Basic equation

Hence

M c

and

k R T

k R T

223.5 K

1

2

2700 u 103 m u 1 hr 1 u 1 kg K u 1 N s u 1 1 M

223.5 K

kg m

Then

Retrans

V x trans

Retrans

2.5

500000

so

Retrans

x trans

We need to find the viscosity and density at this altitude and pressure. The viscosity depends on temperature only, but at 223.5

K = - 50oC, it is off scale of Fig. A.3. Instead we need to use formulas as in Appendix A

At this altitude the density is (Table A.3)

1

For

Hence

b T

1

0.02422u 1.225

where

1.458 u 10

kg

3

kg

6

m s K

5 kg

1.459 u 10

x trans

m s

5 kg

1.459 u 10

m s

0.0297

110.4 K

5 Ns

1.459 u 10

u 500000u

kg

m

3

m

1

1 hr

3600 s

u

u

u

3 m

0.0297 kg

2700

1 hr

10

1

x trans

0.327m

PRACTICE/EXTRA CREDIT PROBLEMS:

Problem 2.77

[Difficulty: 2]

Problem 2.78

Given:

Find:

[Difficulty: 2]

Solution:

For a steel needle of length L, diameter D, density Us, to float in water with surface tension V and contact angle T, the vertical

force due to surface tension must equal or exceed the weight

2

2 L cos( ) t W

Hence

8 cos( )

SG g

s L g

72.8 u 10

SG

Dd

or

3 N

m g

0 deg

s g

1000

kg

3

7.83

7.83

u 72.8 u 10

3 N

999 kg

9.81 m

Hence D < 1.55 mm. Only the 1 mm needles float (needle length is irrelevant)

8 cos( )

kg m

2

3

1.55 u 10

1.55 mm

N s

Problem 2.92

[Difficulty: 4]

Discussion: The sketch shows the cross-section of a typical airplane wing. The airfoil section is

rounded at the front, curved across the top, reaches maximum thickness about a third of the way back, and

then tapers slowly to a fine trailing edge. The bottom of the airfoil section is relatively flat. (The discussion

below also applies to a symmetric airfoil at an angle of incidence that produces lift.)

It is both a popular expectation and an experimental fact that air flows more rapidly over the curved top

surface of the airfoil section than along the relatively flat bottom. In the NCFMF video Flow Visualization,

timelines placed in front of the airfoil indicate that fluid flows more rapidly along the top of the section

than along the bottom.

In the absence of viscous effects (this is a valid assumption outside the boundary layers on the airfoil)

pressure falls when flow speed increases. Thus the pressures on the top surface of the airfoil where flow

speed is higher are lower than the pressures on the bottom surface where flow speed does not increase.

(Actual pressure profiles measured for a lifting section are shown in the NCFMF video Boundary Layer

Control.) The unbalanced pressures on the top and bottom surfaces of the airfoil section create a net force

that tends to develop lift on the profile.

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