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Su lut c bn trong thit k

Trong cuc sng chng ta gp phi v chu nh hng ca rt nhiu iu lut. Lut l l do con ngi chng ta t
ra nhm mc ch to 1 x hi cng bng v vn minh. Trong thit k cng vy, cng c nhng iu lut c bn chi
phi din mo ca 1 mu thit k. Chng c th khng tng tc qua li ln nhau v cng c th trng lp vi
nhau trong 1 s trng hp. Vy hy cng nhau phn tch nhng nguyn l c bn ca thit k, m chng ta s
p dng chng trong nhng mu thit k ca mnh.
Su lut c bn trong thit k bao gm:
- Balance (cn bng)
- Rhythm (nhp iu)
- Emphasis (nhn mnh)
- Unity (ng nht)
- Simplicity (n gin)
- Proportion (cn xng)
The law of balance: lut cn bng
S cn bng ph hp ca cc yu t l s cn thit i vi 1 mu design. Lut cn bng c 2 loi l cn bng i
xng v cn bng bt i xng.
Cn bng i xng biu th tt c cc yu t nh chiu cao, chiu rng c sp t 1 cch i xng trong
trang. Cn bng i xng cp n tt c nhng g c sp xp trong 1 b cc. Cn bng i xng c chia ra
lm nhiu loi nh cn bng o ngc, cn bng 2 trc, cn bng xuyn tm
Cn bng bt i xng t c khi khng c s i xng.Khi tt c cc yu t c xp t khng c s i xng
vi nhau, cn bng bt i xng c thit lp.
Lut cn bng c p dng trong rt nhiu thit k m tiu biu l thit k logo.
The law of rhythm: lut nhp iu
Nhp iu dng to nn s dch chuyn v iu hng ca tm nhn. N xy ra khi cc yu t trong 1 b cc
c lp li. Nhp iu c to ra bng cch to nn 1 dng chy m m ca tm nhn. Nhp iu c dng
nh 1 ng dn m do mt chng ta c th c c nhng phn quan trng ca 1 thng tin. N cn c gi
l 1 mu thc ca ngh thut. Nhp iu rt quan trng v n ng 1 vai tr sng cn trong cuc sng vt cht ca
chng ta. Nhp iu gip chng ta nhn nhn ra trt t ca th gii chung quanh.
Nhp iu c th to nn bng 3 cch l: s lp li, dng chui v dng s lin tc. Ngi ngh s, thng thng
s dng tt c cc hnh thc ca nhp iu trong 1 b cc. H pht trin thnh 1 s lin kt ca nhp iu trong
xy dng, v, cc sn phm th cng 1 cch nhun nhuyn v kho lo to nn 1 tng th tuyt vi.
The law of emphasis: lut nhn mnh
Nhng yu t cn phi ni bt th s cn c nhn mnh. S nhn c to ra bi s sp cc yu t 1 cch
hp l. Hoc t chng v tr ng c ch bng cch dng s tng phn, c ngha l lm chng ni bt ln
bng nhng nt c trng nh mu sc, hnh dng, t l. S nhn mnh hoc tng phn mang li s mun mu
mun v cho 1 mu thit k. Mt s loi tng phn ph bin l: cong v thng, rng v hp, hoa m v x x
Nhn mnh bng tng phn xut pht t rt nhiu phng cch, nhng cch ph bin nht c l l dng mu
sc. S tng phn v ng nt, hnh dng v kch thc lm nn u th ca 1 chi tit so vi tng th. Th d nh
1 a hoa c t trc 1 bc tng tnh lng v n sc thu c hiu qu nhiu hn trong 1 mi trng n o
no nhit.
The law of unity: lut ng nht
S ng nht hoc hi ha to nn s lin kt gia cc yu t trong 1 din mo. N l s cn bng ph hp ca tt
c cc yu t to nn 1 tng th d chu. S ng nht c phn nh trong tng th hi ha. S ng nht m
ch n s hp nht ca tt c cc yu t trong 1 mu thit k, ni m mi phn khc nhau h tr nhng phn cn
li v tt c s kt hp lm thnh 1 khi ngh thut ng nht. N t c bng cch s dng s lin tc v s
hi ha.

The law of simplicity: lut n gin


S n gin trong thit k dn n s nhn thc ch 1 cch d dng hn. S n gin l thc s cn thit, c
bit trong mu thit k, to nn s r rng, sng sa.
The law of proportion: lut cn xng
Lut cn xng l mi quan h gia hnh dng v kch thc. N gip cho chng ta t c s cn bng, ng
nht cho 1 mu thit k. c c 1 s cn xng tt th cc yu t phi c chiu chnh. S iu chnh kch
thc ca cc yu t vi 1 s cn xng hon ho to nn 1 mu thit k tt. chnh l s lin quan gia kch
thc ca cc yu t vi nhau, v vi s cn xng tng th. S cn xng bao gm nhng mi lin quan l lin
quan v chiu cao, chiu rng, chiu su v khng gian chung quanh.
Khong khng gian m xung quanh 1 ch to nn 1 yu t gi l t l. Chng ta c th thy rng t l lin quan
mt thit n cuc sng hng ngy ca chng ta. Chng ta i vo siu th mua 1 ci n ng trang tr cho cn
phng v tm c 1 ci ng l ph hp trong con mt chng ta lc . Nhng khi v nh th mi nhn thy rng
n qu to so vi cn phng. Chng ta khng thay i g ci n, nhng i vi khng gian chung quanh c s
thay i v t l. i vi thit k cng vy. Bn c ng rng n rt ph hp trn mn hnh vi tnh, nhng khi in ra
th l c 1 khong cch khng th khng xem xt. V vy ti sao ngi ta phi in nhng maquette en trng (
nhng cng ty nc ngoi ngi ta in n hng chc maquette nh vy) tm ra 1 mu thit k ph hp nht.
Do c th ni rng t l l 1 yu t quan trng nht trong thit k, mc d n ch c xp v tr th 6 trong
nhng yu t ca thit k (cc yu t kia l ng nt, phng hng, hnh dng, mu sc, cht liu v sng
ti).
Tm li, nhng nguyn l ca thit k l nhng nguyn tc c bn c ghi nh v p dng i km vi suy ngh v
cm xc ca ngi ngh s hoc nh thit k. Nhng nguyn l c son thnh lut l cho nhng phng php
lm vic, m ngui ngh s rt ra qua bao nhiu th k tri nghim, thc hnh cng nh c nhng sai st thc
t. V vy tt c nhng g ca ngy nay chng ta c hc tp l nhng tinh hoa ca hng trm nm lch s thit
k ni chung v thit k ho ni ring. Cng vi s sng to ca mnh kt hp vi nhng lut c bn trong thit
k ni trn, chc chn cc bn s a thit k ho ca VN pht trin ln tm quc t.