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# CHAPTER 2 |INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

## Digital Signal Processing

Digital Signal Processing uses unique data of
type i.e. signal, for processing
Signals
- refers to any continuous function of
one or more variables such as time, space,
frequency, etc. e.g.
Voltage across a resistor
Velocity of a vehicle
Light intensity of an image
Temperature, pressure inside a system
Signal Processing
- Signal Processing refers to the science
of analyzing time-varying physical process
2 Category of Signal Processing:
1) Analog Signal Processing used to
describe a waveform that is continuous
in time and can take a continuous
range of amplitude values. It will be
more correct to say continuous signal
processing
2) Digital Signal Processing - A digital
signal, which is discrete-time-signal, is
not represented by a continuous
waveform and the discrete-time signal
quantities. The amplitude that we know
one amplitude value of signal at
discrete instants in time.
Signal Processing
Humans are the most advanced signal
processors
speech and pattern recognition, speech
synthesis,
We encounter many types of signals in
various applications
Electrical signals: voltage, current, magnetic
and electric fields,
Mechanical signals: velocity, force,
displacement,
Acoustic signals: sound, vibration,
Other signals: pressure, temperature,
Most real-world signals are analog
They are continuous in time and amplitude
Convert to voltage or currents using sensors
and transducers
Analog circuits process these signals using
Resistors, Capacitors, Inductors, Amplifiers,

## Video processing in traditional TV sets

Digital Signal Processing
Signal to be converted to a form that can be
processed by a digital System.

## Limitations of Analog Signal Processing

Accuracy limitations due to
Component tolerances
Undesired nonlinearities
Limited repeatability due to
Tolerances
Changes in environmental conditions
Temperature
Vibration
Sensitivity to electrical noise
Limited dynamic range for voltage and
currents
Inflexibility to changes
Difficulty of implementing certain
operations
Nonlinear operations
Time-varying operations
Difficulty of storing information
Digital Signal Processing
Represent signals by a sequence of
numbers
Sampling or analog-to-digital conversions
Perform processing on these numbers with a
digital processor
Digital signal processing
Reconstruct analog signal from processed
numbers
Reconstruction or digital-to-analog
conversion
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Digital recording of music
Touch tone phone dialing
Digital input analog output
Text to speech
Digital input digital output
Compression of a file on computer

## Pros and Cons of Digital Signal

Processing
Pros
Accuracy can be controlled by choosing
word length
Repeatable
Sensitivity to electrical noise is minimal
Dynamic range can be controlled using
floating point numbers
Flexibility can be achieved with software
implementations
Non-linear and time-varying operations are
easier to implement
Digital storage is cheap
Digital information can be encrypted for
security
Price/performance and reduced time-tomarket
Cons
Sampling causes loss of information
A/D and D/A requires mixed-signal hardware
Limited speed of processors
Quantization and round-off errors
Benefits: Digital Signal Processing
Flexibility of the system offered by the
software component
Better control of accuracy requirements
Ease of storage and offline processing
Lower cost of processors
Compression and coding techniques are
efficient to implement
Limitations
Speed of operation of digital processors
Noise due to quantization and switching
DSP Study Related with Technical Disciplines
Science, Engineering and Mathematics

DSP Application

DSP Technology
DSP technology is with its own mathematics,
algorithms and the techniques that are used
to manipulate the signals in digital form. DSP
technology is nowadays commonplace in such
devices as mobile phones, multimedia
computers, video recorders, CD players, hard
disc drive controllers and modems, and will
soon replace analog circuitry in TV sets and
telephones.
Telecommunication
Multiplexing
Compression
Echo Control
Audio Processing
Music
Speech generation
Speech recognition
Echo Location
Sonar