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Copper the coils were different in texture. The one used for 0.6g of sulfur was a
little rusty while the the other was as good as new. The
1. The copper metal sample is shiny and flexible, and copper in color.
2. The sulfur powder is yellow and has the consistency of flour or corn starch.
3. When the crucible is heated, purple flames and a white vapor escape. The vapor
irritating to the nose and throat.
4. Some sulfur melts and drips out.
5. The product is a gray-black coil thicker than the copper coil. It is brittle but a
little rusty.

Sources of error: human error in measuring time, instrumental error of the

calibration of the top loading balance, strayed a little from the procedures, not
heating the crucible enough before using, difference in the heating time and cooling
time of the two crucibles, reaction of copper with oxygen,



The empirical formula, Cu2S, does not depend on the mass of copper metal used.
Although each group used a different length of copper wire (to cover the range
from 15-25 cm of wire), it was determined that the mole ratio of Cu to S remained
relatively constant: 1.8 mol Cu:1.00 mol S. There were two anomalous data (*); the
appearance of the final product for those two samples was rusty. It could be
possible that some type of side reaction occurred creating a product that was not
copper (I) sulfide. We learned from reading about copper-sulfur compounds that
copper (II) sulfide melts at a temperature of 103 C (p. 4-50 of the CRC handbook of
Chemistry and Physics, 74th Edition), so our product could not have been copper (II)
sulfide, CuS. No matter how much sulfur was used, copper was the limiting reactant
(text, p. 110, course lecture notes, 9-27-06). The copper combined with sulfur
following the law of constant composition (text, p. 44, course lecture notes, 9-1306): in a ratio of two moles of copper to one mole of sulfur, according to the

2 Cu + S = Cu2S

The empirical formula, Cu2S, has the smallest whole number ratio of moles Cu to
moles S (text, p. 64, course lecture notes, 10-06-06). Copper is in the +1
oxidation state and sulfur is in the -2 oxidation state (text, p. 148, course lecture
notes, 9-20-06) in this compound. This reaction is both a combination reaction (two
elements combine to form a new compound) (text, p.146, course lecture notes, 922-06) and also an oxidation-reduction reaction (copper metal is oxidized to the
copper (I) ion (2 Cu = 2 Cu+1 + 2 e-) and elemental sulfur is reduced to the sulfide
ion (S + 2 e- = S-2) (text, p.148, course lecture notes, 9-22-06).
1. Evidence of chemical change:
change in color, texture, and odor. The copper was originally a shiny brown
coil and the sulfur was yellow powder, but the after the reaction, the copper
sulfide products were black coils with a rough feel. The products also emitted
a pungent odor while sulfur dioxide escaped from the crucible.
2. Law of Definite Composition
The law of definite composition states that chemical compounds are composed of a fixed ratio of
elements as determined by mass. This is verified in the experiment by comparing the copper-to-sulfur
mass ratio and the ratio of their % yield. The empirical formula of the copper sulfide in the

first and second heating is identical. In other words, in every compound that
contains copper and sulfur, there will always be two moles of copper for every mole
of sulfur, according to the law of definite proportions.
3. If all the copper did not react with sulfur, the weight of the product would be
greater. The copper would react with the oxygen to form copper (II) oxide, a
a. If part of the copper reacts with oxygen to Cu 20, which has a smaller
molar mass than CuS or Cu2S, the copper sulfide products will weigh
less. The mass of sulfur that reacted depends on the difference of the
mass of the crucible with the product and the mass of the crucible with
copper only. Less mass of the former would result in the sulfur that
reacted having less mass and number of moles. Computing for the
mole ratio would give a larger answer; hence, the subscript a of Cu aS
will increase.
b. If the final weight recorded was 0.10g higher than the true value, the
mass of sulfur that reacted would be greater. Using the similar method

used in the previous answer, the mole ratio would be smaller; hence,
the subscript a of CuaS would decrease.
c. If not all sulfur has been driven off, the final weight of the product
would also include the weight of the sulfur that did not react with
copper. This would augment the mass of the sulfur that reacted in the
computation, causing an decrease in the subscript a of Cu aS.