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# de Castro, Krystel Iris M.

10H
Experiment 1: The Density of Beverages
August 15, 2016
Objectives:

To determine the Lewis structure, AXmEn designation, electron and molecular geometry, VBT
hybridization, and bond angles of molecules
References:
Qi Analytical [Internet]. Washington: Decagon Devices Inc.; 2007 February 28 [cited
2016 August 15]. Available from: http://www.qia.cz/shop/pdf/40464msds.pdf
ScienceLab.com [Internet]. Texas: Sciencelab.com, Inc.; 2005 October 10 [updated
2013 May 21; cited 2016 August 15]. Available from:
https://www.sciencelab.com/msds.php?msdsId=9927285

## National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database

[Internet]. Maryland: U.S. National Library of Medicine; 2004 September 16
[updated 2016 August 7; cited 2016 August 15]. Available from:
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/5988
Data and Observations:
Writing Lewis Structures:
1. Find the sum of valance electrons of all atoms in the polyatomic ion or molecule
-If it is an anion, add one electron for each negative charge
-If it is a cation, subtract one electron for each positive charge
2.BOND MATH!
-Used to determine the total number of bonds in a molecule or ion
-Forumula: Number of Bonds = (number of octet electrons - number of valance electrons)/(2)
-Example of Bond math: PCl3. There are 4 atoms so 4 times 8 (octet) = 32. And P (5 valance)
plus 7 times 3 (three Cl atoms in the molecule and Cl has 7 valence electrons) equals 26. So,
(32-26)/(2)= 3 Bonds.
3. Use a central atom
-The central atom is the least electronegative element that isn't hydrogen. Usually the first
element in the mane. Surround the central element with the other atoms and put in the correct
number of bonds
4. Fill the octet of the atoms
5. Verify the correct number of electrons. (The electrons need to equal the number of valance electrons
that we found in step 2).

Molecule/

AXmEn

Electron

Molecular

Hybridization

Bond Angles

polyatomic
ions
Ammonia
Nitrogen
trifluoride
Carbonate
ion
Nitrogen
dioxide
Selenium
tetrachloride
Bromine
pentafluoride
Carbon
tetrachloride
Tin (II)
chloride
Tin (IV)
chloride

Domain
Geometry
AX3E1

tetrahedral

AX3E1

tetrahedral

AX3
AX2E1
AX4E1

Trigonal
planar
Trigonal
planar
Trigonal
bipyramidal

Geometry
Trigonal
pyramidal
Trigonal
pyramidal
Trigonal
planar
V-shaped
bent

sp3

<109.5

sp3

<109.5

sp2

<109.5

sp2

<120

Seesaw

sp3d

<90, <120

AX5E1

Octahedral

Square
pyramidal

sp3d2

90

AX4

Tetrahedral

Tetrahedral

sp3

109.5

AX2E1

Trigonal
planar

V-shaped
bent

sp2

<120

AX4

Tetrahedral

Tetrahedral

sp3

109.5

Chlorate ion

AX3E1

Tetrahedral

sp3

<109.5

Chlorite ion

AX2E2

Tetrahedral

sp3

<109.5

AX3

Trigonal
planar

sp2

<109.5

AX2E2

Tetrahedral

sp3

<109.5

AX4E2

Octahedral

Square planar

sp3d2

90

AX2E2

Tetrahedral

V-shaped
bent

sp3

<109.5

T-shaped

sp3d

90

Tetrahedral
Tetrahedral
Trigonal
planar
Trigonal
planar
Tetrahedral

sp3
sp3

109.5
109.5

sp2

<109.5

sp2

<109.5

sp3

109.5

Linear

sp3d

180

Octahedral

sp3d2

90

Sulfur
trioxide
Oxygen
difluoride
Xenon
tetrafluoride
Sulfur
dichloride
Iodine
trifluoride
Nitrate ion
Phosphate

AX3E2
AX4
AX4

CN-

AX3

CH3+

AX3

PH4+

AX4

ICl2-

AX2E3

AlCl63-

AX6

Trigonal
bipyramidal
Tetrahedral
Tetrahedral
Trigonal
planar
Trigonal
planar
Tetrahedral
Trigonal
bipyramidal
Octahedral

Trigonal
pyramidal
V-shaped
bent
Trigonal
planar
V-shaped
bent

SbCl5

AX5

SiF62-

AX6

Trigonal
bipyramidal
Octahedral

Trigonal
bipyramidal
Octahedral

sp3d

sp3d2

90