Systemic Drug Prescription in Dentistry

Iyad Abou Rabii DDS, OMFS, MRes, PhD

QASSIM UNIVERSITY

Systemic Drug Prescription in Dentistry
Iyad Abou Rabii DDS, OMFS, MRes, PhD Methods of administering drugs
Drugs may be introduced into the body in several ways Oral Buccal Topical Parenteral Inhalation Rectal Vaginal Oral Advantages Among the advantages of administering medication orally (as opposed to other methods) are the following: · Oral medications are convenient. · Oral medications are cheaper. · Oral medications do not have to be pure or sterile. · A wide variety of oral dosage forms Disadvantages · Some patients may have difficulty swallowing tablets or capsules. · Oral medications are often absorbed too slowly. · Oral medications may be partially or completely destroyed by the digestive system
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Buccal
1. Topical administration 2. Local administration 3. General administration Advantages • High local concentration of the drug • Less side effects • Les complications • More accepted by patient • Non-invasive alternative to parenteral way • Disadvantages • salivary Flow • Hurdling functions of the oral cavity. • Unwanted drug swallowing

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Parenteral
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Intramuscular Intravenous Subcutaneous Intrapulpal Intradermal Interseptal intraosseous

Advantages • High local concentration of the drug • Less side effects • Les complications • More accepted by patient • Non-invasive alternative to parenteral way • Disadvantages • Some patients may have difficulty swallowing tablets or capsules. • Oral medications are often absorbed too slowly. • Oral medications may be partially or completely destroyed by the digestive system

Other Routes
• Rectal root is suitable when rapid drug effect is desired (Sodium Diclofenac) in case of pain. • Inhalation is rarley used in Dental Clinic (Anesthesia on Ozone-induced). • Vaginal rout is not used in dentistry
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Drug Prescription
Prescription is: A written order, especially by a physician, for the preparation and administration of a medicine or other treatment. Essential Components of Prescriptions All written prescriptions should contain: • Patient's full name and address • Prescriber's full name, address, telephone number, • Date of issuance • Signature of prescriber • Drug name, dose, dosage form, amount • Directions for use • Refill instructions Latin abbreviations # Rx : abbreviation of the Latin word "recipe” x as a substitute period. # ac (ante cibum) means "before meals" # bid (bis in die) means "twice a day" # gt (gutta) means "drop" # hs (hora somni) means "at bedtime" # do (oculus dexter) means "right eye" # os (oculus sinister) means "left eye" # po (per os) means "by mouth" # pc (post cibum) means "after meals" # prn (pro re nata) means "as needed" # q 3 h (quaque 3 hora) means "every 3 hours" # qd (quaque die) means "every day" # qid (quarter in die) means "4 times a day" # Sig (signa) means "write" # tid (ter in die) means "3 times a day" Drug Types a) Schedule I Substances with no accepted medical use Examples: heroin, LSD, peyote, mescaline, psilocybin, THC, etc. b) Schedule II Substances that have a high abuse potential with severe psychic or physical dependence liability This list consists of certain narcotic, stimulant, and depressant drugs Examples: morphine, codeine, percodan c) Schedule III Substances with abuse potential less than those in Schedule I and II Examples: preparations containing certain quantities of narcotics; derivatives of barbituric acid (barbiturates) except those listed in another schedule, par_egoric and others d) Schedule IV Substances with an abuse potential less than those in Schedule III
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Examples: barbital, phenobarbital, chloral hydrate, meprobamate (Equannil, Miltown), diazepam (Valium), etc Substances with an abuse potential less than that of Schedule IV substances Consist of certain preparations containing limited quantities of certain narcotic drugs generally for the antitussive and antidiarrheal purposes

Things to be Considered
Drug-Drug Interaction Action to be conducted when we have such problem: • Require dosage adjustments • Temporary or complete elimination of one or the other agent to avoid serious • Close monitoring of the subject • Total change of drug therapy • Stop herb and supplement use 7-14 days prior to surgery. • All pre-surgical patients should be questioned about herb/supplement use to determine recent consumption of anticoagulant or drug-interacting herbs.

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