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S. Robinson,Associates stuart M, Robinson a Owner/Chiet Investigator STATE OF IDAHO vs, CHRISTOPHER C. TAPP FACTS OF THE CASE Early in the morning of Fune 13, 1996, Angie Dodge, a young female, was raped and murdered in her Idaho Falls, Idaho apartment ‘Ms. Dodge had just recently moved into the upstairs apartment moving, out of her parent's home. During the months that followed the murder of Angie Dodge, the Idaho Falls Police Detectives conducted numerous intervizws of fiends, family members and associates of Ms. Dodge. ‘Idaho Falls Detectives followed up and investigated tips and leads into the death of Angie. Incarly January, an acquaintance of Ms. Dodge, Benjamin (Ben) Hobbs, was arested in Ely, "Nevada for attempted Rape, and Using a Knife inthe Commission ofa Crime which he ‘commited in Nevada, Idaho Falls Detectives knew Christopher Tapp was a close friend of Ben Hobbs and as two detectives went to Ely Nevala to interview Hobbs, Tapp was picked up and brought tothe Tdaho Falls Police department to aso be interviewed, Mr. Tapp was first interviewed on January 7, 1997, by Kaho Falls Detective Jared Fuhyiman During this interview, Mr. Tapp was informed about the arrest of Mr. Hobbs in Nevada. Itis belioved that Detective Fuhrman was chosen to interview Mr. Tapp as he (Pubriman) knew ‘Tapp prior to hen he (Tubman) was a Schoo! Resource Officer and Tapp was attending school, Tapp Final Review/Conclusion- 1 AL the start of the interview, Fubriman informed Tapp that law enforcement believed he (Tapp) had information as tothe events of Angie Dodge's death. Detective Fuhriman expressed to Tapp that he (Tapp) bad knowlege ofthe Death of Angie and tht he (Tapp) needs to come forward ‘ith the information Detective Fuhriman had Topp relate his activities and where he was the night of Angie's murder. ‘Tapp's statements are later found tobe ale. ‘Tapp also provided information as tothe activities of himself and Hobbs prior to the murder of| Angie. ‘Tapp never admitted knowing or having knowledge ofthe murder of Angie during the first interview. n ofthe interview. ‘Tapp was allowed to leave the law enforcenvent building atthe conch ‘Tapp is again interviewed ca January 10, 1997, by Deteotive Fuhrman. During this interview, ‘Tapp is informed that thereare some inconsistencies in hs statements from his last interview. Detective Fubriman again informed ‘Tapp that law enforcement believes Tapp was not being ‘truthful with them during the last interview. At the end ofthat interview: Tapp agreed to return voluntarily the next day for still another interview. ‘Tapp did not return forthe scheduled interview on the 1h ‘When Idaho Falls Detectives searched for Tapp on the 11th, they were informed by his mother ‘that he had retained an attomey and he and his attomey would be in later. ‘The Idaho Falls Police Detestives did not wat for Tapp to come in voluntarily with his attomey. ‘Tapp was arested on January 11, 1997, as an accessory fo the murder of Angie Dodge, (On January 15, 1997, Tapp entered into a "Limited Use Immunity" agreement withthe Bonneville County Prosecutor, On January 17, 1997, he entered into a "Cooperation and Settlement Agreement." These agreements were based on Tapp providing truthful information 1s to the murder of Angie Dodge and that Tapp was not a primary suspect inher death. These agreements were Inter revoked, Dring, in-between, and after several of Tapp's interviews, Tapp was subject to several polygraphs exams. Dring these interviews and polygraphs, Tapp's explanation ofthe events that occurred in the apartment of Angie Dodge and who was present during her murder, would change. ‘Tapp was charged and tried forthe Murder and Rape of Angie Dodge ‘Tapp Final Review/Conclusion-2 After a jury trial, Tapp was found gully and sentenced to life plus fifteen year, with thity ‘determinate for First Degree Murder with the enhancement and to concurrent term of twenty ‘years with ten determinate for Rape with the enhancement. REVIEW OF THE CASE, 1 was provided copies of th Idaho Falls Prosecutors ease file on the murder af Angie Dodge. contained interviews, statements, reports and polygraphs along withthe transcripts for most of the interviews of Christopher Tapp, 1 was also provided the ropris rom the Judges 4 Tustiee experts. { sarted my review of this cae by reviewing the Gndings of the Judges 4 Justice expt then reviewed and researched the ease file ofthe murder of Angie Dodge 1 also conducted some persinal interviews of individuals involved inthis case. JUDGES 4 1USTICE, In reviewing the Judges 4 Justice Chief Investigative Officer Stephen K. Moore's report, there are several facts that [agree with and some statements, facts and findings in which I disagree, (On page 5 af Office's Moore report he states "There is also anecdotal and documentary evidence that dozens, if not hundreds of photos were talen atthe crime scene and during the money, Approximately a dozen hasbeen provided to Tapp's defense.” Dring my interview with rived Idaho Falls Detective James Hoffman, I was told that during 1996 and 1997, che Maho Falls Police Department was under tight guidelines as to investigative ‘expenses. They were instructed to limit investigative photographs. Detective Hoffman, told me all the pictures taken atthe erime seene of Angie Dodge had been provided to me. These included forty-threc (43) crime scene photographs, and sixty-one (61) autopsy photographs During any tppe of serious eriminal investigation, especially a homicide, there should be Iunareds of photographs taten inorder to properly document the scene. The pictures should be taken a several diferent argles and distances. Pictures of evidence should also be taken with ‘and without a ruler and wita and without a placard to identify Officer Moore also states that the auloriies filed to obtain the temperature of Angie Dodge's ‘ody atthe crime scene. The reason behind Officer Moore's statement is to attempt to determine the time ofthe death or an approximate time of death. Throughout the yeas, forensic scientists ‘and pathologists have searched fora definitive method of determining time of death, yet at present there is no single reliable method, Morcover, its impossible to fix the exact time of death, hence, an experienced pathologist can arrive at a reasonable estimation of time of death ‘Tapp Final Review/Conclusion-3 usually placing it within 2 range of hours. The process is subject to error, especially if some cxucial piece of informatior is omited. It should be noted, however, that this estimation certainly represents more than just an educated gues, it isa scientifically derived opinion based ‘on totality of specific factors distinctive to cach particular ease compared with ordinary time factors attributed to the pathological changes that occurred in a human body." [In years past, pathologists use to measure the temperature of a deceased person by cuting into the body and taking the temperature of the liver. Tis is no longer an acceptable practice by pathologists. Angie's approximate time of death was determined between 12:45 am. to 6:30 am Officer Moore claimed thatthe officers failed to collect othe items of evidence that would have had a probative effect on the investigation, however, he does not list these items. Having worked hundreds of death cases, tis not uncommon In these cases fo have hundreds of evidentiary items collected. As in most eircumsiances in life tis aways easier 10 look back at ‘what I should have done verses what was actually done. Investigators inthis case collected what ‘appeared to be related to the homicide, They also had an exert erime lab person ( Criminalist ‘Susan Williamson) assisting at the scene Page 12 (Officer Moore's report), "There is no motive for Benjamin Hobbs to kill or even be angry with Angie Dodge. ‘There exists no evidenee to support the alleged motive that Benjamin Hobbs was angry al Angie Dodge or in any way suspected her of having anything to do with Hobbs wife, DeAnn, leaving him and moving to Utah.” Tn the January 7, 1997, interview with Tapp, Pubriman asked Tapp if Angie started ny "shit" between Hobbs and DeAnn, Tapp answered, "From what Ben says, yea, she (Angie) said some shit” Pubriman cuts Tapp off and doesn't let Tapp finish wht he meant by "shit." February 7, 1997, interview with Jeremy Sargis by Detective Fuhrman: Pubriman: "I mean? And we neod to take that in, into consideration and, uh, but motive, Ihave no idea what the motive is unless maybe, ya know, what we were hoping” you could help us with is any type of motive, ya know. But, ub, I don't know, man. And what we need to uy to do is..xy to figure out some sot of game plan?” ble). When Ben and DeAnn were together, DeAnn Sargis: "Do you have alot? Okay. (Intell ‘aot a consumption ticket bezore they got split up (unintelligible). Anyway. Sargis: *..she come into town toa party and { remember Angie's name bein brought up, I don't know ifthe party was at herhouse und they got busted or it was at someone's else's house, 1 remember Angie was somehow tied in between an argument between Ben and DeAnn.” 1 Esiatin te Tne of Dehn Pci Homie vse: Vera) Ge MLAS. ‘Tapp Final Roview/Concusion-# FFubriman: "So could tht, could that have, uh, been the factor spitn’ em up was, whet, did Angie nare on, on her of Wrst?” Saris: "Mmm, no I don't know. Angie..might have told DeAnn “Hey, Ben has cheated on you \with” ya know, I don't know if tha's what its but [know Ben was prety pissed off drinking ‘comes home with a consumption ticket. I mean, what could she been doin? I know I wouldn't let my wife come into a party without me, drink and, no way. I dont think Ben would have let, his (unintelligible) do that ether. Te was pretty bothered (unintelligible) she was there that night (anintelligible)." Officer Moore's repor stats that Tapp claimed the position of Angie's sweatpants were "halt off one leg..“and (Tapp) gestured indicating that her pants leg had been completely removed ‘rom one feg while remaining on the other. Pave 22 Moore's report). Officer Moore indicated that Angio’s sweatpants wer fully on bath legs and pulled down less than 3 inches below her pubic bone on her left leg, and 6 inches below her pubie bone on her right leg, Officer Moore refers this diagram on page 47 of his report, wwp's interview on January 17, 1997 (©227) 2:48:23) Fuhrman: "Did you see bare skin at all? Tapp: Motions with his hand downward and says, "bottom hal" ‘Fohrman: “The bottom half?" ‘Tapp: "Yea, "Like her sweats were like leg” In reviewing the crime seere photograph, Angie is found with her sweats pulled down unevenly “The left sie is jst below ber hip, and the right side further down above the knee. I believe that reasonable person could consider Tapp’ statement fo be truthful as he is motioning with his band ‘that one side is lower than the other. (CLAIMED CUPLABLE KNOWLEDGE | agree with most of Officer Moore's findings on his review in this setion. There area few details that will be discussed further later on inthis report. Tapp also was provided numerous elas during his interrogation about the erime and erime scene which should have been held back by the detectives, Officer Moore suggested th Tapp know what Angie was wearing the night she was murdered as it was common knowledge of her friends and associates that she wore sweats, Officer Moore provides a ist of individuals that knew what Angie was wearing the night she was murdered, ‘Topp Final Review/Conclusion -5 “Most ofthe individuals listed in his report were te law enforcement officers involved in the Officer Moore also listed tke two co-workers of Angie that found her dead in her apartment, During the tral when they testified, they were asked what Angie was wearing when they found her, neither of them could ceseribe the clothing Angie was wearing when she was found. ‘Time of Death: ‘Angie had company at her apartment until spproximately 12:30 A.M. During this time of year it is daylight by 6:00 A.M. Iis believed thatthe individual(s) left bythe front door of her partment. It would not be resonable to believe thatthe suspect would leave by the front door after daylight due to being scen. ‘Tapp or Ben Hobbs could not account for their whereabouts from 12:30 am. to 3:00 am. ALTERNATE MEANS OF ESTABLISHING TIME OF DEATH Officer Moore claims to be able to determine the actual time of death using James G. Wimore's theory. ‘This theory works only it can be proven ar known when Angie last emptied her bladder, ‘When I contacted Forensie Pathologist Dr. Glen Groben, Ada County Forensie Coroner, with the ove theory he stated thatit was an unproven scientific method and he would not tus it ‘Murder Weapon: Dr. Ellwein, the pathologis in Angie's murder, only identified one (1) wound as possibly being pointed at both ends (One wound is not enough t identify the weapon used (knife) as being double edged. Dticer Moore also refers toa folding bladed knife having a thumb stud to assis the user in ‘opening the knife, That these thumb studs would leave some type of bruising or marks on the body of Angie Dodge. He Iso stated that there were no marks, abrasions or defects noted in the ‘autopsy on her body. This is actually cn untrue statement, Most folding blade knifes do not have a thumb stud. They usually have some sort af eu or indentation within the blade to assist in opening the knife. See the following examples. ‘Tapp Fal Review/Concusion-6 Officer Moore also commented that sheathed knives (carried on the bet) are one-piece knives sand ute waned by lunters and are therefore commen in Tdaho. Folding bladed knives, such 2s above, are also carried in sheaths strapped toa person belt These knives are commonly carried by persons dealing with livestock and or working around ‘agricultural animals. IFPD ATTACK SCENARIO ‘Wounds: Officer Moore's report stats that Tapp's soenario requires Angie Dodge to be standing as she is attacked. That a knife thrus into her ehest (which punctured the lungs and resulted in substantial bleeding) would have possibly caused blood to splatter [sic] on walls, furniture or at least drip onto the foot. Either of the wounds themselves or blood being cast off the knife as it was swung, with great velocity, would ll have occurred ia the vicinity ofthe attack. Which judging by the final postion of the body, would likely have been approximately six fet ftom the wall almost even with the foot of Angie's bed, Officer Moore goes on to say that Tapp sad Angie was repeatedly forced backward, but then she Iunged at Hobbs, even after she was stabbed, ‘The blood would likely have fillen to the floor uring ths altereation and the odds aze substantial that she would have siepped in er own blood. ‘Tapp Final Revew/Conclusior-7 ‘Moore states this was the eason Dr, Ellwein cheeked Angie's feet during the autopsy. Dr: Elwein noted that the soles ofthe feet are dirty with no blood identified. Officer Moore's report confinues that if Angie had been slabbed several times in the chest while standing up, there would be vertical blood tails below those wounds. Dr. Ellwein testified in Christopher Tapp's tral concerning Lesion #7, a stab wound to the left chest cavity. This wound renetrated the upper lobe ofthe lft lung. Dr. Bllwein was asked if he ‘measured any blood inthe cavity nese this wound, Dr. Ellwein replied "yes, 700 co's of blood, ‘This would equal a pint.” ‘This type of chest wound would not “spurt” out blood onto the floor or walls. Blood would have seeped from this wound. This is evident by the amount of blood that stayed within the body cavity When this type of wound it inflicted, cast off blood spater is caused when the knife i thrust in the same area ofthe wound colleeting the Blood seeping from the wound. Then thrown off the Inife or hand when the assailant throws hie arm back, casting the blood off the knife and or hand There would have been very litle blood spatter (cast of) with this type of attack and wounds. As far as the blood dripping tothe floor from these wounds, itis my experience it would depend how long the victim was standing. Angie was stabbed through her shirt. The shirt would absorb and hold alot of the blood seeping from these wounds. Officer Moore states thatthe killer didnot try and clean her body. the picture below it shows wipe marks and smears across her lower abdomen, upper right hip and lft thigh: This is evidence that someone attempted to wipe away (clean) evidence. “Tapp Final Revew/Concusin-8 MANIPULATION OF EVIDENCE According to Officer Moore, Tapp stated he couldn't understand how Angie could stil stand after absorbing Hobbs bare knuckled blow. This violent impact would have undonbyedly’ in obvious tissue damage, blood and visible evidence, possibly including damage tothe nose, eyes andor teeth. Certainly split lis and facial wounds would be present, Officer Moore went ‘on tosis that no such deft was found on Angie's face during the autopsy, rendering Tapp's story i false and raising questions about why this stark contradiction did not concer the authorities, Officer Moore als states tat Officer Brown indicated to the media that the punch to Angie's head wus tothe left side of her head, where bruise was alleged to have been found in the autopsy ‘Tapp Final Review/Conclusion- 9 Doctor Gary Ellwein in his autopsy report states: External Examination Lesion #1, consists of an approximately 3 em. diameter area of possible soft tissue swelling on the lef side ofthe forehead ‘beeween the hairline and left eyebrow. ‘This wound (bruise) wus ler changed to having no signifieant value by De. Ellwein, Doctor Ellwein did find bruise to her right car which could have resulted from a blow to the head. BEDROOM VENUE, ‘This iss very small apartment and the rooms are very clase together. See below, oe dagmen "8 wk nty of violin then Bae agree with Moore that its unlikely that Angie would have invited any of them into her bedroom, however, Angie knew both Hobbs and Tapp and she had attended several partes with “Tapp Final Review/Conclslor -10, ‘them in the past. It is also possible that Tapp, in his state of intoxication, couldn't recall whieh oom the assault actually ok place in, ‘11s possible thatthe verbal argument between Hobbs and Angie started in the hallway between ‘the bedroom and living room and ended in the bedroom. (See sketch page 10). POSITIONING OF ATTACKER(S) AND VICTIM Officer Moore states that Tapp's description of the sexual assault on Angie Dodge isa least as improbable a the rest oF hs story By the evidence at the scene this was a blitz attack that accurred very fast. It 1s very evident by the fow defense wounds an Angie Dodge that she was controlled very uickly. When interviewing suspects involved in sexta based crimes, it isnot wncammon for them fo avoid and/or lie abou specific details relating to she crime. Rarely will a suspect tell the complete and absolute truth during a confession. This alone should not serve as a clear indication that the entre confession is false? ATTACK SCENARIO SUGGESTED PHYSICAL EVIDENCE Officer Moore believes Tapp is ruled out by the physical evidence, that the evidence is only consistent with a single attacker, Officer Moore's report clara that the circular smudges on the wall above and directly behind Angie Dodge's head are consistent with the postion oF her head and hait, if sho tried to fight the sssailant off, attempting to sit up, stand, and escape. ‘The blood spatter shadow on Angie's ight and the positioning of her cothes are consistent with her assailant kneeling on the vietim's right, ‘tween the bed and her head ("and also te likely source ofthe bruise on her right ear”). The spatter pattem strongly indicates that Ane was found substantially in the location where she as killed. There is no indication thatthe body asa whole was moved, however, individual limbs were possibly manipulated {tis evident that the swipe Mood patterns behind Angie's head were most likely caused by her hair brushing agains the wall at some point during the attack. The fact that there ts very lite blood spatter would be consistent with the victim's movement being restrained in some form. 2. Cini inert nd Cdn, Reid Cpe 5, age 386 Acs of Cobain Tapp Final Review/Conclsion -11 Angie received several eutsto her hands and forearms during the attack. One would expect 10 see more cast off blood om tne back wall from these injurles. Ii also evident that Angie was ‘most probably on the floor when the blood was cast off on 10 the wall due to the lower location of these blood spaiters, Tere is a void pattern to the right of Angie; fr the void on the wall 10 be possible, someone would have to be kneeling fo the right of Angie during the attack This would ‘mate controlling her difcut. It is my experience that most attackers stay on top of their victimes to contol them rather than offto one side. Dr. Elwein testified shat the cut to Angie's breast had «lot of downward pressure when it was made. Again this would be dificult ift was someone ple attackers Ineeling on her side, making it more plausible there were mul I is my opinion the bloody smudge on the wall above the victim's heal and to the right, isnot consistent with an assailanton the right side of Angie attempting to use the wall to asist him as he stands Seo the next photo of the blood spalter on Tapp Final Review/Concusion- 12 Inthe above photograph the area marked A and B are cas off blood. Ths is identified by lite fingers that were made when the blood hi the wall. There was enough blood in the spatter to actualy start to run down the wall. The area marked C isa swipe pattern, This most likely was an object that contained blood and it was swiped along the wall. Ths could be consistent with a hand Officer Moore states that it sould be impossible for Angie to have been raped vaginally by the ‘that if during the attack, Angie's sweatpants were very diffieut fora p postion ajfer her throat was cut. There were positioning of her sweaipanis. 'would a son to comm the a ofrape. never pulled any further down it would be Is possible that she was raped and left in th several puble hairs found or Angie's hands and facial area. This would indicate that Angie attempted ra fight with someone as they were attempting an oral sexual assault ‘he pubic airs discovered on her hands and face were found to belong to Angie. Tapp Final Review/Conclsion -13 ‘THE MULTIPLE ATTACKER THEORY Officer Moore reports that Lt. Henaticks Profile Report stated “one person could have controlled the vietim in several ways: Officer Moore refess to pas history of women killed by Jack the Ripper, a lone man with knife A large percentage of those victims showed no defensive wounds either beeause the attacker threatened them into surender withthe promise of not killing them, or because the attacker «quickly killed them. Aetuatly some of Jack the Rippers vietims did have defense wounds Officer Moore reports that Lt Hendricks reports states, one person could have controlled the vietim in several ways.” ‘Twant to point out that Lt. Hendricks’ report says one person could have controlled the victim, Officer Moore lef out some important facts that were also contained in Lt. Hendricks report. Officer Moore, later in is report makes reference to the void of blood on Angie's wrist being from her watch. In examining the photograph closely, you can see that there is actually more than just one void. There isa void an the forearm, one on the wrist and one on the hand just below her first no fingers. These could be consistent with someone holding Angie's hand and ‘arm during the attack. See photograph below Tapp Final Review/Conelusion 14 ‘The below is from Lieutenant Morgen Hendricks Profile: The killer could have entered the apartment through the exterior stairwell door that was found ajar or he could have easily climbed onto the roof and entered through the second story exterior petiovkitchen door that was also found ajar. A small bag of garbage found against the inside of| ‘he patiofktchen door might suggest the killer did not exit from this door, but entry cannot be ruled out. The exterior stairwell door dil not swing shut on its own, It must be forced closed before it locked, both exterior doors were found ajar. ‘The stairwell storm door was closed but ‘he patiovkitchen door was open to allow air to circulate through the upstairs apartment. Circulation would also sugpest one or more of the windows were open, Based on Angie's routine, the exterior stairwell door is kept lacked, while the kitehen/patio door was open or aja: ‘The method of entrance isimportant because it helps define sophistication, motive and relationship between the vitim and the killer. The to possible scenarios in this ease are: ‘The Entrance (1) Ihe killer entered an unlocked exterior door, without the vetin’s knowledge, then the {eller displayed a high level of sophistication. The vietim and the killer are casual acquaintances, ‘The killer probably engaged in surveillance ofthe vietim snd vietim's residence, It was the killer’ primary motive to kill and sexually assault the victim, The killers not emotionally ied to the vitim in the traditosal sense. His relationship is one of fantasy wherein the vitim was the central figure. He actec out his fantasy when be killed the vietim. @) Ifthe killer was allowed entry into the apartment from the exterior stairwell door, then the ‘victim knew the killer, they were more than casual aequaintances. The vitim saw wiho she was ‘admitting into the apartment through the glass inthe storen aad exterior doors. The victim felt comfortable allowing the killer into the apartment during th early morning hours. I is possible the killer approached the victim after her friends lef, bul before she locked the exterior stairwell door. Fither scenatio would indicate a relationship between the killer and vietim. ‘The primary ‘reason for entering the aparment may not have been to kil and sexually assault the vietim rather, the killing and subsequent assault is probably the result ofthe meeting ‘The Exit The killer most likely exitec the apartment through the exterior stairwell door before sunrise. ‘The stairwell door was ajar, which indicates the killer knew some force was necessity o close ‘the door and he did not want to risk the noise, o his hands were occupied and the door elosed to that angle on its own, I also suggests the killer felt he could explain his presence ihe exited the front ofthe house, rather then the bac, should anyone see him, Tapp Final Roview/Concusion- 15 Polygraph Examinations A polygraphist should be aneuaral party and have very litle firsthand knowledge of the case Detective Finn would interview Tapp prior to his polygraph exam, and after his polygraph ‘Once an individual has provided a confession, the officers should fist attempt to confirm and ‘carroborate the information provided, then proceed to the polygraph. agree with Moore and Hoats that it appears Detective Finn conducted his polygraph unprofessional and reekless manner. Doing two separate polygraph examinations of Christopher Tapp the phone rings, Detective Finn answered his phone and talked with the subject. This isa distraction for the subject being interviewed and even more, its disrespectful. This phone call by the conversation was not official business of urgent. During several ofthe polygraphs, Detective Finn would begin to interrogate Tapp prior to the ‘exam. He would inform Tapp that he (Tapp) was not being truthful and would use tha as Teverage o get Tapp to elaborate further on questions he was being asked. Detective Finn also informed Tapp several times that even as an accessory to murder he (Tapp) ‘ean be changed with life in prison, or even the gas chamber. In my apinian it appears the polygraph was being used more as an attempt ta solicit additional Information from Tapp, rather than deterosning if he was telling the trth or being deceptive. ‘Tapp Interview January 7.1997 ‘Benn Hobbs was arrested ir Ely, Nevada for Kidnapping, Rupe and Asscult, Hobbs used a knife inthe crime. Maho Falls Detectives went to Ely, Nevada and interviewed Hobs about his knovledge of the death of Angie. Daring ths time, Idaho Falls Detectives located Chris Tapp and brought him into the Idaho Falls Police Department to also question him about his knowledge ofthe death of Angie. Tapp was a knowin associate of Hobbs prior to Angie's death Detective Fuhriman was chosen to frst interview Tapp ashe already had a relationship with him from when Tapp was attending school and Detective Fuhrimen was the school resource officer. Tapp was told why he was brought into the law enforcement building. ‘Tapp Fal Review/Concluson -16 Tapp had already been contcted by law enforcement before this and requested that he give @ sample of his DNA to be used in the Angie Dodge homicide, which he did At the beginning of the int-view, Tapp is very casual, even sitting with one leg up on a ch times. Tapp is told by Detective Fuhrman that his (Tapp's) name is being mentioned as to having {information reganling Angie's murder. ‘Tapp never denies these allegations. Tapps response is that he will ry and clear his name up* Detective Fubriman tells Twpp tha it may get ugly ia here for him as far as incriminating himselt* ‘Tapp's response is, "Okay." FFuhriman has been asking Tapp where he was the night of Angie's murder, “Tapp at this point tells Detective Fubriman that he (Tapp) was at home atthe Avalon Apartments ‘when Angie was murdered, ‘This alibi of Tapp is found to be false through the interview and trial testimony of his roommate Jeff Blackbutn, Mr. Blackbura said Tapp didn’t return to the apartment until approximately 2:00, AMon June 13, 1996,° Detective Fuhriman told Tapp that be (Tapp) and Hobbs were overheard trying to establish an alibi as to where they were during the time of Angie's death. “Tapp's response to this is,"Tm not gonna, you know, put it down as an excuse or nothia’ if we talked about it I don't remeraber it, That's the honest truth." Tapp's answer to his question is deceptive, he (Tapp) knows if he and Hobbs were trying to establish an alibi, this is something someone would not forget. It was a yes or no question. Detective Furman then informed Tapp that he (Tapp) is involved to some degree inthe murder cof Angie, and that he (Tapp! needs to acknowledge that involvement. Detective Fuhrman also tells Tapp that he (Tapp) could be charged with First Degree Murder. Detective Fuhriman followed this statement with, "Did Ben intend to kill her?" 2. Tat ste wil pond ty off denial gt whe canon. Ty means an tpt ioe pense {VPage 12 Tgp anny 7, 7 Jaton il serps 0-8 RoC Itcroptons od Confessions. Tats ant Teg thi eto ge 47) Eaten of Wet nd anal Repes A spe wh swe to Gno fy oss on ack Bo te her ts spp his ‘Tapp Final Review/Conclsion- 17 ‘Tapp responded whisperirg "no, no" when Tapp answered this question he is also shaking his Incad from side to side, Detective Fubriman then followed this with, "Was it «spur ofthe moment thing ‘Tapp doesu/t answer verbally but in the video he i shaking his head up and down in the affirmative, ‘There isa pause after this. Detective Fubriman either doesn't see Tapp shaking his head up and Detective Brown and Furman again expressed to Tapp that DNA has been recovered from the crime scene. They are telling Tapp that DNA can be left on anything and warning him that if the DNA comes back as his they wont be able to help him. Tapp responded, "I understand that, T understand that, and that's my... knowledge, I was never there." my best of my erview January 17, 1997 “Tapp now also has a cooperative agreement with his immunity agreement “Te interview is already in progress when the video stars Detective Brown is interviewing Tapp. Detective Brovm asked Tapp what time he and Hobbs ‘went to Angie's apariment ‘Tapp "Eleven-Thinty, Twelve: ‘Tapp was given a couple of reaks during this interview. Detective Brown had Tapp -ecalling what happened again when he and Hobbs went to Angie's apartment that late at night. Detective Brown asked Tapp winet Angie was wearing when she answered the door. Detective Brow; "When sie answered the door think about what she had on." “Tapp: Sighs (unintelligible! 21, We ntevewing pet ante cnt arte notion uch Tap sting tat he a reese ‘tg he icine nd wi pose war be we oi ome! rasa sg of eon BEB einen ase 91 {tnd 912 Anse ale eon ber a. £B, eis buena Contos id ein). Caer Taserand Teles nerogatn Sispets Whose Gt Srimoene ls Comidect Dash Uncertain Vt Rese pet7, Alpine use nets wil ea Fumtenetrincsupss semen alo may ipa ematy ne ea coaroned wi poo ison oF ‘pining wads aesan of ie ‘SP vis re opm il pposinately 120 A.M. Ts i clas apposition. “Tapp Fina Review/Conclusor -24 Detective Brown: “When dhe come to the door. Dah dah dah we wanna’ tlk." ‘Tapp: "What comes to mind is t-shirt and some sweats. Detective Brown had Tapp show him where Hobbs first stabbed Angie* Detective Brown questioned Tapp if Angie's shir! was up when she was stubbed. Detective Brown: Do you remember if her shirt was still on? Was ito Was it pulled up? Was it pulled down? Was it eut? ‘Tapp: "Te was cut, it was evt afew times."?™* Detective Fuhriman replaces Detective Brown inthe interview room. Detective Fuhriman asked Tapp to describe how Angie's clothes were arranged on her. He followed this question askirg Tapp if there was any "bare skin showing?" Detective Fuhriman: "Did you see any bare skin at al?” ‘Tapp: "Bottom hal” Detective Fuhsiman: "Bottom half?" ‘Tapp: "Like her sweats arealf on. One leg was (unintelligible)? (05:05:51 Imerview video) Detective Brown has re-entered the interview sau, Tapp is shown pictures ofthe crime seene.°® Jeuary 17, 1997, the DNA test results came back that Hobbs and Tapp are excluded. Detective ‘Fuhrman started to question Tapp ifit was possible that Jeremy Sargis could have been in ‘Angie's apartment the night she was Killed ‘Tapp ended th interview tdling Detective Fubsiman that he can't reall Sargis being there, Detective Fuhriman ignoree Tapp's statement referring to Sargis and sarted to question Tapp as {to where he (Capp) tossed the knife 25 Tap aay 1, 1997, teri vile (O28) 2 Tap mary 17, 1997, nary von (02:2117 Th ithe ae one he stb oust Angie. Fr Thepmngap anise St shows hata he eats an stabs eee we she was wearing he si. 24 Tap mary 17,1997 rie fen (0°02) Tap shows ve the cs he i we 7 Chl me psp show one ws amd ith rasp ow on eta han he es 50: hina noon andi Chap 1 sigan Bete Toe ai Fale Cones, Conon ‘Corton eae 335. Ary nara ht Tp provi qs healing Pe ism prcanal ‘now oF one pio sown i ‘Tapp Final Review/Condlusion Detective Fubriman: “Now, the fact is (inaudible) we need to recover it. Yesterday, you know the other day, you were hurting pretty good at te time. And when we talked to you about {Gnaudible), no denying thattype of stuf, remember you made the statement that, "I ossed i. Detective Pubriman; "Do yeu remember making that statement?" ‘apps first response is inautible. Detective Fubtiman followed with the question asking Tapp where he (Tapp) threw the kaif ‘Tapp: “And thetFared, [ seewed up there, Okay, Pl own up to that right now. I will be a big rman, {didn't do nothing with it mean, that's Giaudible) because right now everything-all my cards are out on the table.” Detective Fuhriman; “Okay. All we're trying to get as is, we're not trying to prove you. We ‘want the knife, We want it desperately.” Tapp: “And tha’ Gnaudib:) ‘Detective Fuhiman: "Best Tapp: “All my cards right sow are out on the table, and I'm trying to~" Detcctive Fubriman: "89 any ideas where we could find that knife?" ‘Tapp: *No. Only thing he old me was, he took care oft, That'-so-"™ Detective Furman asked Tapp if it possible that a third person could have been inthe apartment when Angie was murdered, ‘Tapp: “No it was ust me and him because the ony other person fever hung out with was Jer, and Jer was off with April” Detective Furman asked again if Jeremy Sargis could have been there. ‘Tapp's responded, "no, 21, Tap eve anaps by Byes & Andon pag. 5. bce a nay 197 Tap mvt al othe he eon, be si ot Hots ie i 53: Tap ero taney Byes Andon ap 1 Tap cn ans y By & Anon ae ‘Tapp Final Review/Conclusion -26 Detective Fubriman repeated the question, Detective Fuhriman: "So was Jeremy--his total involvement inthis whole thing was what? ‘Tapp: "A little fess than wat I've done."™* Detective Fubriman suggests to Tapp that Jeremy Sargis is involved inthe murder of Angie more than jut trying to establish an alibi for Hobbs. Detective Pubriman suggests that Saris helped et rd of evidence. Detective Fubsiman ended this interview telling Tapp tha a tied person is involved, Polygraph January 18, 1997 Detective Finn started the polygraph test by asking Tapp who was in the room (Angie's partment) with him. ‘Tapp: "Ben, This guy member somebody else bing there, [have t." Finn: "Thee is somebody else there Tapp: "Ihave to remember because I iat protecting nobody anymore,” Finn: "There is no reason t." ‘Tapp: "I don't know." Finn; "Tell me the other person who was there so we ean get clarity and I ean run this and we can get that out." ‘Tapp: “Maybe Jer was 35. Tapp ieee by Byes & Aro ag 36. Tp ines anes ana 18 197, by Byes Anon page 0. 37. Deve in shal be sy Tap ha slat awe "Maybe ‘Topp Final Review/Conclusion -27, Finn: "That's what I want tknow. Why don't you tll me, like we talked about completely ‘open, okay, because you car't help Jeremy?" Tapp: "No." Finn; "Okay. He's already in deep shit” ‘Tapp: "Yea." Finn: "So it's you, Ben and Jeremy?" ‘Tapp: "Jeremy. Put Jer there“ Prior to the polygraph test Detective Finn informed Tapp that Jeremy stayed inthe apartment with Hobbs. Deteotive Finn: “Okay (inavdible) Jeremy stayed there with him. Okay." app: “Lust pot Jer there because I have to remember somebody else." ne df the pre-polygraph test questions during this phase ofthe test was, "was Ben Hobbs, Jotemy Sargis, and yourselfat Angie Dodge's apartment when she was killed? Not died. When she was killed?” ‘Tapp’ answer to this was, T was speculating that Jer was there beemuse~so I'm going to go with yes on tha." Detective Finn conducts the polygraph test and afer the test tells Tapp that he (Tapp) is 100% truthful when he answered the question i Jeremy Sargis was in Angie's apartment the night she was killed. 48 Thisis Daten Finn pting Seem Sag athe ime eet Tap. Tapp pola erp mary 18 197, * 59, Datetve Fon sl have soc! Tgp oth eh atone, "st rhe” Deve Fa shonin ve Wace i test ul Tapp acs ey Sri shoo satay posers Iawny 18,197, page 7, tte in going over i quion the ino msk Tape “ring he posh wether Feld ot eve rocoto it Tapp oul i posi at wa Ani's Sarton th ehh mare Tapp polygraph tasers sry 1, 197, ee 4 Banton rnp any 8 1997 pap 7 Review/Concluson -28 erview January 18, 1997 elective Finn conducted mote polygraph tests with Tapp during this session, He is telling Tapp that he (Tapp) is still withholding information as to the murder of Angie. “Tapp, at the beginning of the interview, stated that be (Tapp), Hobbs and Jeremy were driving around and getting really high. ‘Detective Fuhriman asked Tapp about what time they went to Angie's apartment. Tapp: "12:30, 1:00." “Tapp again is going over what happened inside Angie's apartment the night of the murder (23:23 video) Detective Fuhriman: "Did you see any stuffed animals, or anything like that? ‘app coulds’t eeall seeing any stutTed animals (04:26) Detective Fuhriman: “At any point in time did anybody that you saw...This is petty important, put anything over hee face or her mouth and muffle her sereams or her eries oF anything? Detective Fuhriman continued to feed Tapp information about the erime scene: (36:04) Detective Funriman told Tapp that some sexual acts were performed on Angie. (26:54) Detective Fuhriman: “Ok, s fll me about all the things they di to her and made her do “Apparently they made he do some slufTbefore..ahm before she died correct?" (49:4 etesive Flan: “Who was trying to hive her doth ol sex? Who tried to have her siehin 6000) Detecive Puram: "At one pint and ime was oe of them trying to make am them {Rim vr ci ee i a nce Ieee ruciun as ntne Tgp more eid intertrial te set shoul iro ee mtu alcedigqusion paving Tap wih ses af eine tol the pect “opp Final Review/Concusion -29, Interview January 29, 1997 ‘The interview is already in progress whten the video starts. Detective Fubriman is upset with Tapp as DNA results have come back and Jeremy Sargis does not match the DNA found atthe rime scene, Detective Furiman: “Chris, you told us Jeremy Sargis was there, You not ouly told us that be ‘was there but he took an active part init. Now we're flndin' out that Sargis probably wasn't there and that you were serewing with us.™* During this, Tapp fold Detective Fuhriman that he had passed the lst polygraph test.” ‘Detective Fuhriman informs him that he did not pass the polyeraph exam, Somevhere Between the last interview cn this interview, detectives take Tapp tothe apartment where Angie was killed, No documentation was made ofthis trip by video, pictures, and/or recording. In my opinion and experience this practice was very disturbing and isan unacceptable police practice. The detectives knew in advance that they were taking Tapp back to ‘the erime scene. This had tobe arranged with the current tenant ofthe residence, and they had ime to prepare for It Head this been property conducted it could have been powerful evidence and corroboration as to what had happened during the murder of Angie, as explained by Tapp. ¥utwiman: "Well, know help me, help me understand. Twanna make sure I get he story Fight ‘Okay? Inthe house um, you said the guy was tundin' over her. And be I Okey? [Now you're sayin’ that, ul he did it while he was, uh, holdin’ her down. If important tha we understand these, thes facts okay?" ‘Toward the end of the interview Tapp informs Detective Fubriman that he wants t speak with bis attorney. (Page 114) “Tapp: I guess the next thing 1 wanna do before Esay anything, I wanna talk to, T ‘want you to, er, T wanna talk to Jerry (Tapp attorney) real quick.” uibrman: “Okay.” Tapp: Unintlligible 8, Tap into Samar 17,1997, (0:31.29 vi) Tap bon at eds bev Sars ws ioe. Typ niga pas Taps my or ws ere Tapp Comins wth wae speatng ha fer wether Tver fed msrsued Saath gen hem an afr teem Ange war muerte sme ine Tap ls {6 Ths revistat Top eles hae compe ith grace vs ht eis cing he th 5S Tepe Inia 9,197 pat Any semen Tape no shoul become! queso. Detetne vin srw rm pt ines tha app) as tnt it er tale aby Pi, “Tapp Final Review Conclusion - 30 uiuriman: “What do you wanna tak to him about?"! Tapp: "Oh just some ofthe things I have. I mean just lawyer things, 1 guess, I don't even know, {just wanna talk to:my lawyer real quick.” At this time this interviewed is terminated. interview January 30, 1997 Detective Furman is the interviewing Detective at the start of this interview. ‘Tapp bas been faken back into custody after his agreements were revoked. Fuhriman starts out the interview ith Furman: "Okay... Talked to both attomeys, both sets of attomeys yestelay. I think you pretty ‘much know the game. So, uhm. our postion is still know, we're still looking’ a those ‘v0 picees af uh, uh, evidence or elements to put this thing to bed, Okay? And [think as soon as you do that..hen, ya know, as we talked yesterday, things are gonna look up. Okay. And uh, 0, tha’ kinda where wama, kinda start off on wh, this morning, is just jump righ into itso we dont waste your time anymore."*= ‘This is the second half of the interview. Tapp had been taken (othe polygraph room for yet nother set of polygraphs test, Aer this polygraph, Detective Stacy 1s now the interviewing Detective, Detective Stacy had Tapp gp back over his statement starting from when they were atthe river Detective Siaey also divulges specific crime scene information to Tapp contaminating any further statements from Tagp about the erime or crime scene. (Pg, 86) Stacy: "(unintelligise) the eloth that Mike used to wipe, to lean Angie. Where's that 1? You guys tke that with you that night? Who took that eut ofthe apartment?” ‘Tapp tells Detective Stacy that they used aplastic sack possibly from Alberison's to remove ‘evidence out ofthe house.” 5, iow sve opp king o Tapa alone hi o pk wih is tome. Pringn bs ight eho 52a ons a wal yi su yay was ae pe fren Tap we pov 5c has formed Tapp a eth abs lean p Age. Tata ae ws ade ean er ai aca pe of vies nen om Ncw se. an ry psi a rime ea Tap Si Bosse tbe ato Anse opr the ie oe) wt aes pre ta on of th Dele rove ‘Sic itimatinn 0 Taping he Ting hem th pervs by Dave Fata, Sow Sy whee ‘Tapp Fina Review/Conclusion-31 “Tapp has told Detective Fubriman that he was foreed to cut Angie on the breast (Page 74) Fuhrman: "(Cnintllgible) the voice from nowhere? When you, cut her across the breast, vas her shirt up or down? Do you remember?" “Tapp: "think it wasup. Polygraph January 30, 1997 Detective Fina informs Tapp that, "he needs to come clean with everything.” He co informing Tapp that he (Tap) can be charged with Murder 1. Detective Finn informs Tapp that he (Tapp) could be serving énywhere from two (2) years to the death sentence."® Also prior to the pre-polygraph exam Detective Finn told Tapp bow he (Finn) believes the attack on Angie ‘occurred. “ust prior tothe polygraph exam Detective Finn had been discussing with Tapp that Hobbs had force him (Tapp) to eut Angie. Detective Finn instruets Tapp that he (Tapp) was in fear of his lie.” This polygraph transcript/video ends prior to the conclusion of the test. Interview January 31,1997 Detectives Stacy and Brown ate interviewing Tapp at tis time. (One ofthe detectives wouldask a question of Tapp and if e didn’t answer immediately the other detective provided the answer or the possible answer and then asked app if that was conect, Tapp ig asked by Detective Brown ifhe (Tapp) or Mike used a stuffed bear to cover Angie's mouth “Tapp docss't answer immediately so Detective Stacy inserts, "You did, did't ya." ‘Trapp responds with a question, "me" Detective Stacy: "somebody did." 5, Can se potas of Angie show th ca the ot wa ue Ivough er shi. Meaning ot St a0 Inve teen dw tn test acs Wet was male, eV rlyg eps nay 30,1957 pape Sr Date ig a pt eg gt amy whi Ta yes SE Page 2 Tope nary 31, 197 tei " ‘app Final Review/Conchsion-32 “Tapp: "Ben grabbed the bea." ® Detective Stacy: “Okay, so the cut you made was across the breast?” ‘Tapp: "Yes." Detective Stacy: "Was h shir up o down?™ Tapp: “It was up" all at Detective Stacy: “Who, when you left and went into the living room, was there anybody s that time holding the beac? Where they stil holdin’ that on Angie?" “Tapp responds that he took te bear off Angie before he left and placed it next to her. Detective Grimes asked Tarp where he was when he (Tapp) was holding Angie's arms. During this questioning, Tapp informed Grimes that one of Angie's arms got fre from his (Tapes) grasp, “Tapp has heen allowed to take a break and smoke, The interview started up and Detective ubaiman is the interviewer. Fuloriman; “Okay, In there, you said it was Tom Brown, so...are you stayin’ with that? Is it Tom Brown." ‘rior to the above interview, Detective Finn provided Tapp with alist af ames when he (Tapp) ‘was being polygraphed. Tom Brown, a friend of Tapp, was on this list, Tap told Detective Finn hat Brown was not involved inthe murder of Angie, t appears that Detective Finn was hoping fo get a positive reaction toone of the names given (o Tapp. Detectives had not tried fo verify or eliminate Brown as a suspect in this crime Detective Fuhriman: “Okay. But what we talked earlier about with what's onthe line for you.” ‘Tapp: “Is i Pubsiman: “Right™ Pg Tp nay 31,1997 en: een sh Ani shit yas dn wh he her rt war al. Dette il ackrow ‘Sobor nt este hap esi or ces ae 1S: Eeemic Cane Rep Sorenson orem (Fash DNA tet) en 50a Re. Neve for Crise Ten 1S Thc ht amen fe wal hind Ags ho coal e oss With hr sting am ae ee: (Cries poten) cae ean tal given Tap apsveran san whe i (Ottve et ge hie wtf eames, Tom Brown at {eof Tappan hanes Toop, ain the polars oom de Tom Brows ln ved SEAL Citi! neropaosaet Casesoes rth Eaton, Chaps 2 Disingusing Baweeo ve nd Fal Cates Conzson ohntross ape, As ste dg cs tha ast mgm a tops itia ‘rien srt on neato ou ns el sages. Rel ebeannes fest he ues ysl oe ‘Sedna ah pest nm saa rian iti ates (Tose ying ge es. his Fae ar Fo inerogan ihe on on nsing him of posi oes oes ces imprisonment, Or just a few years or many years or. ‘Topp Final Review/Conclsion -33 {En my opinion itis evident that Tapp was present when Angie was attacked and stabbed. This is ‘based on the following: orig Tapp's firs interview, Detective Fubriman told Tapp several times that he is involved in some manner inthe death of Angie. Tapp never denis this. Fuiriman told Tapp that itmay get ugly in here for you as for as incriminating yourself ‘Tapp answers with only "Clay." ‘An innocent person who kiows that they are not involved ina erime, such as murder, are going ‘o deny any involvement afamantly and not answer with just "Okay." ‘Tapp explains to DeteetiveFuhrimen that he (Tapp) will fey and cleat his name up. An innocent ‘person does not have to try and clear their name up. They know they are nol involved and there sno evidence that implicates them in the crime. “Tapp tells Detective Fubrisman that be (Fapp) vas at home atthe Avalon Apartments when Angie was murdered, This statement was proven o bea lie, through the testimony of Jeff Blackburn, Tapp's roommate atthe time ofthe mmintor ‘Topp didet get home until approximately 2:00 A.M. the night (carly 'morning) that Angie was murdered, Detective Fuhriman contin.ed with the allegations that Tapp und Habbs were overheard bedroom getting their stories straight as to where they were the night Angie was murdered. This ‘asthe third time that Tapy has been asked this question. ‘Tapp denied that this happened to Detective Fuhriman just as ne did winen he was first questioned by detectives shortly after the murder af Angie Detective Fubriman continued his interview stating he knew Tapp was involved in the murder of ‘Angie fo some deuree. Detective Fubriman followed this with the question, "Did Ben intend to kill her down at the ground ‘Tapp responds, "no no." Tapp i lod Detective Fubriman followed this question with, was ita spur af the moment t ‘Tapp doesn't answer this question verbally, but on the video he can be observed shaking his head ‘up and down inthe affirmative, Tapp is still looking atthe ground: “Tapp Fina Review/Conclusion -34 Detective Furiman should save followed up with Tapp's response, but unfortunately he does not {A deceptive person will often look away or atthe ground when he is lying or being deceptive. Oftentimes the subject being interviewed will have spontaneous body reactions to certain ‘questions, such as Tapp displayed with his bead shaking up and down, Further into the interview, Detective Fubriman informs Tapp that Ben Hobbs had been arrested in Ely, Nevada, for assaultirg and attempted rape of « woman, Detective Fuhriman informed Tapp that Hobbs could be taking to the detectives and he (Hobbs) ‘could be implicating him (Tapp) in the murder of Angie. Taps response tis sin Hob was roby tying tt he Tap) pedi se mare of Angie. “This is important in that Tapp said that Hobbs is probably saying that he (Tapp) helped. Up to ‘his point inthe interview Detective Fubriman has only informed Tapp that he (Tapp) has information in the death of Angi, not that he had participated in anyway. ‘Again Fubriman faited to acon Tapp's answer, he Fubriman) should have kept Tapp on track ‘on how and why Hobbs would say that Tapp helped in the murder. ‘The Judges 4 Justice have sated that Tapp was manipulated into saying thet Hobbs was mad at Angie for telling Hobb's wife that Hobbs had cheated on her and that Hobbs had no motve to Aull Angie, “This is somewhat true, Tapp did alfempl to answer Detective Fuhman's question {app esponded that, yes, Angie had caused some "shit" between Hobbs and! DeAnn, but Detective Fubriman cut Tapp off before he could complete the answer, Detective Fubriman never bad Tapp clarify what he was trying, to say “This information by Tapp is further corroborated in the interview with Jeremy Sargis, as he too said that Hobbs was upset with Angie. During the interview with Sargs, itis never really lear as to what the problem Ange eaused between the two. “Tapp took a polygraph January 10, 1997, after which Detective Finn told Ty heing truthful with his statements, Detective Furiman entered into the poy him and Detective Finn question Tapp. while Detectives Fubriman and Finn Note: Tapp is stil hooked fo the polygraph mack uerviewing him. ‘app Final Review/Conchsion-35 ‘Tapp said that Hobbs told him (Tapp) that he (Hobbs) killed Angie, Both Detective Finn and Fulriman are pushing Tapp to be more descriptive as to what Hobbs told him, ‘Tapp makes the statement, "I didn't go with them." "Them" is referring to more than just Hobbs, and Tapp is implicating a third subject. ‘Again neither Detective Furman or Finn have Tapp clarify why he said "them." January 17, 1997, Detective Brown and Fuhsiman are interviewing Tapp. Tapp is now saying that he went with Hobbs to Angie's apartment. ‘Tapp times differ a ite during his interview between 11:30 and 12:30 as to when they artived ther apartment Officer Moore believes that Tapp was able to determine the time when Detective Pubriman told ‘Tapp that Angie was killed during the night. In my opinioa, I don’t believe that Tapp is able to pick such a small frame oftime as 11:30 to 12:30 hy Fubriman's disclosure, Angie had guests at her apertment until approximately 12:30 A.M. By the evidence and/or lack of evidence atthe scene, itis my opinion that Angie was killed shorty after her guest had left her apartment, Angie was all dressed in her sweatpants, This was during the surnmer month, it was warm, her windows were open, and the door upstairs was open ta allow a breeze to enter through the apartment, Angie mos likely would have removed the sweatpants prior to going to bed. “There is evidence that it was a "blitz" type attack. Angie was not killed inher bed by the lack of | evidence of stabs in the bedding covering the mattress, The bedding also appears undisturbed, \where as if Angie had boen attacked on the bed, the bottom bedding would be more askew. Angic had to have allowed 2ntry into her apartment. There was no forced entry discovered, therefore she knew her attackers) Tapp told detectives that heand Hobbs went tothe front door of Angie's apartment, Detective Brown asked Tapp what Angie was wearing when she came tothe door. ‘Tapp tells Detective Brown, "What comes to mind i -shiet and sweats." ‘The evime scene photographs show that Angie was killed wearing a shirt and sweats. This is specific information that I could not find had been disclosed to Tapp prior to this statement ‘Tapp is later asked by Detective Furiman how Angie's clothes were arranged on her, followed ‘with “dd you see any bare skin a all?" Tapp responded "Like her sweats are half on. One leg was (unintelligible)." When answering this Tapp is waving his hand dow around his thighs. “Tapp Final Review/Conclusion- 36 Angie was found with hersweats pulled down, one side lower than the othe. This is very unique to this crime. This is information that orly someone that would have been present during the murder of Angie would know. ‘Tapp told Detectives (prio: to being shown the crime seene photographs) that Habbs and Angie got into a verbal argument that escalated into Hobbs attacking and stabbing Angie, Tapp said Hobbs hit Angie, knocking her t the ground. Angic did have a bruise toher ear that could have been caused by being hit. It appears by the Knife wounds Angie received during her atiack that it was frontal assaul ‘Most knife attacks area frontal assaul, however, often times the vietim receives wounds to the side, back, head and shoulders when they attemp! to flee fight back. All of Angie's wounds are the front torso. This would be consistent witha blitz assault that was quickly contralled by the attacker(s), ‘The position that Angie was found, is consistent with Tapp's story of the attack, ‘She was laying on her beck. It appears that Angie was attacked and pushed back into her room. Nis possible that Angie and Hobbs were standing inthe short hallway infront of her bedroom ‘when they first started to talk. The argument got heated and Hobbs attacked Angie. During the attack, she retreated back io the bedroom to where she was found. The Judges 4 Justice beiews that Angie was attacked inher sleep on the bed. If this was the case, it would seem that Angie would have never gotten off the bed. ‘The attacker would have been able to get on top of er while she was sleeping. Angie would most likely have been found laying in her bed, half off the bed or along the side ofthe bed, and the sheets would have been in disarray Icis my experience that when subjets are atacked in their bed, there willbe cus (stabs) found inthe bedding (sheets). ‘There are none reported or documented in this case Italso appears that the shee: covering the bed (crime scene photographs) appears to be undisturbed except where itappears that someone might have sat omit atthe foot ofthe bed by the body of Ange. Had Angie been attacked or her bed, I would expect the sheet covering the bed to be more isturbed. The defense wounds on her hand and arms prove Angie was able to put up a short fight. The sheet covering the top of the mattress would have been disturbed during the fight. ‘Angie had a few defense weunds from the attack which would mean that her attacker was able to ‘control her very quickly or that he had help in controling hee ‘app Final Review/Conclusion-37 ‘Tapp also told detectives that Hobbs pulled a folding bladed knife from his pocket. This type of knife most commonly hasa blade length consistent with the stabs into Angie's body. Hobbs was also known to carry aka During this investigation, detectives learned that Sargis was missing a knife. Sargis believed that Hobbs had taken the knife The knife was described asa folding knife with athree-inch blade. Judges 4 Justice state that she Idaho Fall Police Detectives had Confirmation Bias and/or tunnel vision when they pursued Hobbs and Tapp. This is not true. After the murder of Angie, the Idaho Falls Police Department eenducted an intense comprehensive investigation. They interviewed hundreds of individuals, followed up on numerous tips called in and took DNA. samples from anyone (malt) that was elose to Angie. In 1996, DNA testing was oxtremely expensive and this was cone ata great expense to the laho Falls Police Deparsment. The only other time T have seen something like that done, was during the Boise, Idaho murder case of Lynn Henneman, the United Airlines Stewardess that went missing. Hundreds of DNA samples were taken from homeless males in the area atthe time, ‘Ben Hobbs had been arrested in Ely, Nevada for an Aggravated Assnult and Attempted Rape vsing a knife ‘The idaho Falls Police Department Detectives acted on this, In my opinion this good police work: Research of murders found that most murders ae committed by someone the vitim knew or had ‘been associated with ‘There is verification that Ben Hobbs and Angie were frends at one time, Hobbs had even been at ‘Angie's home prior tothe murder. ‘There is evidence that Hobbs had become upset with Angie. Dusing Tapp's frst interview when Detective Fuhriman asked if Angic had eausod some "shit" betwen Hobbs and Denn, Tapp started to tell Detective Fulximan that, ys, she had. Unfortunately, Detective Fubriman didn't allow Tapp to complete his statement, More evidence of Hobbs being upset was disclosed during the interview of Jeremy Sargs. He also told investigators that Hobbs was upset aver someting Angie had done that involved DeAnn. The investigators never really did determine the eason Hobbs was upset with Angie. Judges 4 Justice state Detecive Furiman contacted DeAnn Calloway by telephone and spoke to her about the reason for leaving Hobbs, ‘This isa murder investigation, DeAnn Calloway should have been interviewed in person. ‘Tapp Final Review/Conclusion- 38 DeAnn was Hobbs wife athe time of the moder of Angie, she (DeAnn) was one of the closest persons 19 Hobbs just prior:0 this murder, and asthe Idaho Falls Detectives believed, possibly the reason for the marr, DeAnn told Detective Fuhriman that Angie did not cause the breakup between herself and Hobbs. Because this interview was not recorded, we do not know what questions Detective Fulaiman specifically asked DeAnn, Itis also possible that Denn did not know what Angie did to Hobbs to make him so upset Iwas also stated, through sovera interviews, that Hobbs had a very violent temper. Debra Bonsor (DeAnn Callovay's mother) told investigators that DeAnn was sfisid of Hobbs because ‘he would get mad and start hitting things. of Contaminati 'sIntervi During the first interview Tapp denied any knowledge of Angie's death. During this interview, Detective Fuhriman began © contaminate the interview by providing information as to how ‘Angie was killed. Detective Fuhrman told Tap that Angie, “was butchered, stabbed and sliced.” rom this point in the invesigation any information that Tapp provides concerning a knife being sed inthe erime (a knife is used to butcher, stab, and slice) andor the person being butchered, stabbed or sliced is tainted, “Tapp was arested on January 1, 1997, because fe failed to show for his interview votuntar ‘Tapp had retained an attorney, “Tapp was brought into the iaterview room again, Detective Fubriman further eorups the interview as he again informs Tapp that Angie was cut over and over again, On January 15, 1997, Tappis given polygraph by labo Falls Detective Finn, During this exam “Tapp is again provided information as tothe specifies ofthe crime. One ofthe questions Detective Finn is asked Tapp was, "did you see Angie Dodge's body in the apartment, on the oor before the murder was reported?" “Tapp now knows that Angie was murdered on the floor of her apartment, that a knife was used to slab hee multiple times, and there are probably cuts on het. In the January 17, 1997, Tapp was being interviewed by both Idaho Palls Detectives Fuhrman and Brown, Tapp gave dels as to how Hobbs stabbed Angie, (03:03:51 video) Detective Brown entered into the interview room and shows Tapp pietures of the exime scene, These photographs show Angie as was she was found on the floor. Anything that Tapp reveals now, as to information as tothe rime scene, is tainted and cannot be deemed independent corroboration. “Topp Final Review/Concusion 33 Jamuary 17, 1997, Detective Fuhriman has leaned that the DNA found atthe crime scene doestt atch Tapp or Hobbs. Detective Fubriman starts to question Tapp if Jeremy Sargis could have also been in the apartment when Angie was killed ‘Tapp tells Detective Fuhritan that he doesst recall Saris being inthe apartment that night Detcetive Fubriman tells Tapp that he (Puriman) now believes that Sargis was with them. Tapp is sil saying that he can't remember Sargis being thee. Daring ths interview, at different times, Detective Fuhriman goes back and asked Tapp if Sargis ‘could have been in the apatment. Tapp responds, "no." Detective Fubriman: "Khas come to our attention that it looks like Jer was probably more involved." looks like he probably was, Detective Fubriman continged with, "what involvement —I mea there atone time. Yeah?” ‘Tapp: *How could he have been there? 11 remember Jer being there wouldn't 12" Detective Fubriman: "I would think so.” “Tapp: "I don't remember sesing him there." Detectives already interviewed Jeremy Sargis and found that he had an alibi for where he was the hight Angie was murdered Detective Fuhsiman then sured to ask Tapp where the knife was. Tapp is telling Detective Fubriman that he doesn't krow. Detective Fuhriman told Tapp that he told him that he already (app) tossed it. Tapp, during the interview of January 15, 1997, Tapp dd say that be tossed the knife. However, be corrected himself and said that Hobbs tossed the knife inthe river. Tapp is given another polygraph by Detective Finn on January 18, 1997, ‘During this pre-polygraph exam, Detective Finn asked Tapp who else was inthe apartment with him and Hobbs. ‘Tapp: "Some guy, [remember somebody else being there. Thave to.” {1 pp nerve rants ony 17,997, ae 50 “Topp Final Review/Conclusion- 40 ‘Tapp continues with "maybe Jer was. Jeremy, put ler there." ‘Tapp also si he was “speculating that Jer was there, so I'm going to go with yes on that." Tapp is not saying Jeremy Sargis is in Angie's apartment, Detective Finn should have stopped Tapp and told him thst he needed to know if Jeremy was there, yes or no, before continuing, th the polygraph exam. Detestive Finn would have kaown by Tapp's response that he was going to get a failed polygraph test. Tastead Detective Finn proceeds withthe test and Tapp answered " the apartment wien Angie wa killed to Jeremy Sargis being ia At the conclusion of the test Detective Finn tells Tapp that he is 100 % truthful when he sai that Jeremy Sargis was in Angie's apartment. tis possible that Tapp cangot reall al the details of this crime. A study conducted showed that 26% of men who had been convicted of murder or manslaughter could not remember committing, the crime. In other studies, between 25% and 65 % of convicted murders report some level of ‘amnesia associated with thir crime ™ A contributing factor to this filed memory includes a state of intoxiation, ‘Numerous times throughour Tapps interviews, he states that he was extremely high prior to going to Angie's apartment ‘Tapp left the polygraph room and went to the interview room believing that he has told the tuth that Jeremy Sargis was in te apartment when Angie was killed. Interview January 18, 1997 Detective Fuhriman futher contaminates the interrogation when he asked Tapp ifhe noticed any stuffed animals in the room where Angie was Killed, ‘Tapp tells Detective Futriman that he (Capp) doesn't recall any stulfed animals, Detective Fuhriman stated "his is pretty important” he followed the statement with “did anyone pat anything over her face or her mouth and muffle er screams, or her cries or anything?™ Detective Fuhriman has infermed Tapp now that a stuffed animal was used to mule the screaming of Angie during ber murder. (Rit Cina argon nd Cosi (Fh Eton Chr 1S, iingating Babe Tae nd Fale {Cates Acumey of Consboraon page 35a mmr of eran fb say sets toa aie ‘bene ofacime drags coteron Ang tet com ing nr ides dps tein the ‘app Final Review/Concusion 41 Detective Fubriman contimed to contaminate the interview by telling Tapp that some sexual acts ‘ere performed on Angieduring her murder, Detective Fuhriman contirued to ell Tapp what "he" (Deteetive Puhriman) believed happened during the murder of Angie. Detective Fuihriman told Tapp that someone was forcing her (Angie) o perform oral sex on them during the erie. ‘This information was very specific to this rime. This is information that should hav told toa suspect especially one believed to have been present ding the murder. Interview January 29, 199% Prior to this interview, Tagp was taken to the apartment where Angie was murdered. This trip, \was not, in any manner, documented. By taking Tapp to the crime seene and not documenting ‘any of it, makes any information received from Tapp here after is questionable ast its, reliability. There is no way to know if itis independent corroboration or if this i information that Detective Fuhrman or Fins provided, or suggested to Tapp while they were inthe apartment Tapp's agreements with the State for his cooperation were revoked and Tapp was charged with ‘the murder and rape of Angie. The reason the State revoked the agreements was they believed he violated the agreement by ying about his involvement and the identity of other participants in the murder of Angie, and he lied specifically as to Sargis being involved. ‘Tapp appealed the decision of the District Couet upholding dhe Sites right wo void the agreement. (State of Ldaho vs. Christopher C. Tapp NO. 25295) ‘The Court denied Tapp's agp Detective Fuhriman was the one tht introduced Sargis asa suspect even when Tapp denied this. Detective Finn assisted in convincing Tapp that he (Tapp) was telling the truth when he stated that Sargis was in Angie's apartment when she was killed. It was afte the polygraph by Finn that ‘Tapp believed Sergis was involved inthe murder of Angie, In my opinion, any statemests Tapp made regarding his involvement assisting or holding Angie, turing her murder, after the visi to her apartment on the 29th, is questionable and tainted. This is based on the fact that Detecive Purhiman, in every one of his interviews with Tapp, informed Tapp of some detailfs) of the crime. Additionally, Detective Finn, who was also present during this undocumented visi, had also provided specific crime scene details to Tapp during polyeraph ‘exams. Detective Finn at one point even instructed Tapp how to answer a specific question (using the term "in fear oF hs lif) Detective Fubriman testified during Tapp’ tral that Tapp told him (while atthe apartment) he (Capp) was standing on Angie's lef side holding ker arms down, ‘Topp Final Review/Conclusion- 42 In review ofthe erime seene photos on the le side of Angie's shoulder is a white plastic laundry ‘hamper filled with stuffed animal, Had Tapp been standing there, he most likely would have fumed! over the hamper, shoved it out ofthe way, or disrupted itin some manner. He would have been unable to stand near he head as she was too close to the wall, Hobbs aad the unknown subject are already at her hips and legs (according to Fubiman). ‘This statement seems very unlikely to have oecurted as stated by Puhrimoan. Detective Fuhriman also testified thot Tapp told him (while in the apartment) as he was holding her down, the ex acts were being done, Its believed that one ofthe assailants attempted fellatio during the attack. There is evidence of this by the pubic hairs (Angie's) found on her face and hands. In may opinion itis uncommon for an assault o have a femaleattempt fellatio while she laying Maton the ground on her beck. This isalso based on the postion/ecation of Angie. She is laying near the bed and wall with Hobls at her feet and Tapp om her lel side making this wot very difficult fora third person to attempt. ‘Tapp's own statement that ke cut Angie across the breast is questionable. Tapp stated that when he cut her, her shire was up There isa cut in her shirt that coreelates with the eut across her breast. This proves her shirt was down whe the eut aeross the breast was made. ‘Toward the end ofthe interview, Tapp wanted to stop and talk with his atorney, who is not present in the room during he interview. Detective Fuhrman questioned Tapp a8 to why he ‘ante to speak with his atomey and doesn't want Tapp to stop the interview. ‘app has the right to stop the interview at any time he has a question and to discuss legal issues ‘with this alfomey and Deteetive Furman has no right to know what those issues ar. Interview January 30, 1997 ‘Tapp had been re-artested because the Idaho Falls Police Detectives believe that Tapp is withholding information asto the identity of who the donor ofthe DNA was. At this point, Tapp had taken several polygraphs conducted by Detective Finn. During the pre= ‘question phase ofthe test, Detective Finn explains to Tapp that he is looking at a very long sentence and even the possisly the death sentence if he doesn't cooperate Usually informing a suspect of the consequences of his act is not considered threatening, However, Tapp was told centinually throughout the interviews of the possibility af a denth sentence. I believe thal the repeated consequences stated to Tapp and the fat that he could end up with the death penalty he started to affect his creditabiity as tothe truthfulness of his statements, Prior tothe start ofthe intersiew of January 30, 1997, Detective Fubriman told Tapp that he had talked with "both atomeys, both sets." By this conversation I surmised that another agreement ‘was being drawn up for Tagp, ‘Tapp Fina Review/Conclusion- tis my opinion that after ‘he vist tothe apartment, and the dewetives continually providing specific crime scene information, anything Tapp ssid, any statement thet he made concerning the ‘murder of Angie has been contaminated and is questionable and needs to be authenticate. Tapp has been given numerous promises that he will be ok if he cooperates and tells the tith as to the facts ofthe murder cf Angie. Tapp believes these promises, provides what he believes is, ‘the truth, is given freedom (released from jail, only to then have that freedom revoked and returned back (0 jal, Tapp has been given numerous polygraphs throughout this process. It is evident during the January 17, 1997, polygragh that Tapp doesn't believe that Jeremy Sargis was in the room when ‘Angie vas Killed When he takes this rst. ‘After the test, Detective Finn told Tapp that he was 100% truthful. Tapp then belioved chat, Sargis was in the room when Angie was killed. {is plausible that Tapp can't reeal! specific evens of the murder of Angie due to his intoxicated state January 17, 1997, Detective Stacy further contaminated Tapp's statements by also providing him ‘With aditional specitie crime scene details, Detective Stacy asked Tapy wit happened to the cloth that was used to clean Angie, ‘Tapp responded that they used a plastic sack (grocery type) to cary the items out ofthe house, This statement from Tapp is tainted by the undocumented tip to Angie's apartment, Detective Fuhriman stated that they went into different rooms ofthe apartment, It is possible that ‘wile in these rooms Tapp was provided information as to possible events that detectives believed occurred in these noms, During the interview of January 31, 1997, the contamination of Tapp's interview continues. Detectives Staey and Brows start out interviewing Tapp. ‘Tapp is provided additional details of events that possibly occurred during the murder of Angie, mouth Detective Brown asked Tap» ifa sted bear was used to caver Ang ‘When Tapp doesn't answer immediately, Detective Stacy inserts, "You did, didn't ya ‘Tapp told them, "Ben grab the bear.” ‘Tapp Final Review/Conclusion-44 Detective Stacy then tells ‘Tapp thar Ben made him (Tapp) eat Angie, so he (Tapp) cut Angie across the breast, “Tapp: tyes." ‘This statement was made by Tapp after his polygraph exam where Detective Finn told Tapp how to answer this question, When he (Detective Finn) was questioning Tap, Detective Finn instructed Tapp to say that he (app) was in fear of his life. Detective Stacy followed this question with, "as the shirt up or down’ “Tapp: Nt was up.” ‘The crime scene photographs show that the cut to Angie's breast was through the shirt. The shirt was down when the eu to her breast was made. ‘Tapp was charged and triod asa principal for Murder inthe Fist Degree and Rape. ‘Prom reviewing the investigative reports, interviews and trial transeript, the charges stem largely from Tapp's own statements whieh, from analysis, rove that most of his statements as to his personal involvement were questionable. Detective Fuhriman, during he tral of Tapp, testified extensively that Tapp was never provided specifi information as to the murder of Angi ; "Would it be an aecepiasle interview technique for you to interview someone and tel them everything you know about the case?” A: "No, absolutely not." Q; "Tellus, ifyou can, wha: Mr; Tapp talked fo you about on the 11th after Mr. Taylor came?" ‘A: “Hle revealed that Mr, Hobbs had cut her over aad over, whieh was new to us, and described that it was sick." Q “In the course ofthis interview. as in the course of the interview on the 7b and the 10th id ‘you reveal anything to Mr. Tapp about specific details of the erime; that is, where the stabbed marks were, where the slice marks were on the body of Angie Dodge, where the body was laying, anything of that sort of detail about the rime seenc?” AL'No.” (© Pag 154 Til suis Fabra. 10 age L190 Til nasa Fas eso ‘TeppFinalReview/Conclusion-45 Daring part of Detective Fubrman's testimony, ke testified as to what happened when they took ‘Tapp tothe apartment where Angie was murdered, "Did he tell you anything different about wat happened that he had told you in the previous interview tapes? Ar*Yes* Qe "What did he tell you?” ‘A: "It was at this point in tme that he admitted that he actually took part in holding her (Angie) down.” Q; "Okay. And did he dessribe ro you how that occurred?" As"Yes, he did.” Q: "Tellus what he said," A: "He showed us exactly where the body was or the general area where the body was. And he vyallked.” ‘This is why documentation of the suspect's statements and activity when he/she is taken back to ‘crime seen is important. Ths isan unclear and misleading answer. Did Tapp show them ‘exsetly where Angie was fund or did he show them the general area? Continuing with Detective Fubriman's trial testimony starting with page 1240. Q: "Okay. From your review ofthe physical evidence found a the scene, was there anything inconsistent with what Mr. Tapp had been telling you in that regard, either in prior interviews, at the scene on the 29th or during the interview on the 29th?" A: "Inconsistent?" Q"¥ea" As No. Everything was prety much verified." "Nove, we had interviews onthe 7th, the 10th, the 11th, the 17h, the 18th the 29th, the 30th, and now well see later today the 31st, Were you around the investigation of this ease during that period of time? 71 Pas 1240! nit Flina's testimony ‘Topp Final Review/Concluson 46, ‘A: "During those dates, yes, Iwas." (Q: "To your knowledge, was anyone divulging anything to Christopher Tapp about the erime scene oF about the facts ofthe ease that you zs investigators knew in between the interviews?" As "No, not to my knowledge." Q: “Okay. Now, what is this evidence you have against Hobbs?” A: "Basically the statements Mr. Tapp has made that we have heen able to prove, bear out that they have been true." Tapp, during his interviews, told detectives that he assisted in holding Angie while she was sabre and raped by Hobbs Q: "Okay. But you did cenainly intend to manipulate and to lead Christopher Tapp?" A; "Well, I don't know abcut leading. All [was doing ise had a lot of information, and it was, slowly coming out. So we would present difTerent ideas and present different options, and alot ‘of times he answered the right questions. But there were sometimes that we threw out some ‘options, but he suid, no that’s not it"™* {Q: "So the information at least tothe extent that Mr. Tapp was coming up with on that date (1th ‘oF 10th) about Ben Hobbs 2uting Angie was something that he did not get from you?" A: "Nos solely no During the trial a the statof the viewing ofthe recorded interview of January 17th, 1997, ‘Tapp's attorney, Me, Booker, had stopped requesting tha the entre video of Tapp's interviews be shown tothe jury. So as ofthis date, the jury is only seeing what portions of the video the prosecution vas wanting them to soe. It's also important to note hat the jury is not seeing the video recordings ofthe polygraph ‘interviews and the information that is being provided to Tapp during these polygraph interviews, by Detective Finn, Detective Fubriman is being crossed on his testimony daring the til by Tapp's Attomey, Mr Booker, (Note this in reference tothe fist trip tothe house where Tapp identified where Angie's apartment was located), 13 Page (269 soserps of Fava’ testimony. 75 age 1185 transept of Fura’ estoy. ‘Tapp Final Review/Conclusion-47 Q: "There were no cameras there were there?" As"No, didnt need any.” Qe "Tape recordings?” ‘As "Didn't need any. [At this time the Idaho Falls Police Department are sil conducting extensive DNA tests on specific items of evidence. January 11, 2013, the purple "En tshirt, the sweatpants and the teddy bear were tested at Rode Technology in Lorton, Virginia “The STR profiles of Ben Hobbs, Christopher Tapp, Jeremy Sargis and Christian Grebstad were submitted for comparison. Only Christian Grebstad could not be excluded on the sweatpants. Hobbs and Tapp were cexeluded, “The "Enut" tshirt had three (3) oc more contributors. Hobbs and Tapp were excluded, Tae teddy bear also had two (2) contributors. Hobbs and Tapp were exeluded. “The above DNA testing dees not preclude the fact that Hobbs or Tapp were the contributors it only means tht a positive result could not be concluded with the DNA diseovere. June 14,2016, again fests were conducted, this time using a MVAC filter through Sorenson Forensics, in an attempt to identify DNA. “The MVAC filter analysis covers a much larger area inthe DNA testing process. Tests prior to the MVAC were conducted by taking a very small sample of a suspeeted area and submiting it for analy “The MVAC analysis is a sterile wel-vacuum. It ereates a "mini-hurrcane” that loosens the DNA ‘material which i transfered to the collection bottle and later concentrated onto a filter, This allows forthe testing of a much larger are. “The following were testedusing the MVAC. The sweatpants, (FBI and FB2) the teddy beat, shirt and swabs from Angie's hands. 76 Page 124-1248 Wi argo Feit esti “Tapp Final Review/Conclusion~ 48 Only one area ofthe sweatpants was tested. A mixture of Y-STR DNA profiles from a minimum of tree (3) male contributors were obtained. The test was inconclusive “The teddy bear had a mixture of Y-STR DNA fiom minimum of tive (3) male contsibutors. One of the contributors isthe unknown male already found. The other two are inconclusive. ‘The Lshiet. A mixture of Y-STR NDA from a minimum of four (4) male contributors was ‘bined from ths fem. Due tothe complexity ofthis mixture, this DNA is inconelusive and ‘eannat be compared to any known reference sample. Angie's right hand swab. A mixture of Y-STR-DNA profiles from two (2) male contributors was ‘obtained from this item. The major Y-STR-DNA is from the already unknown male donor, the ‘minor is inconclusive. Angie's left hand swab, A mixture from throe (3) male contibutors was obtained. The major ‘again isthe unknown male donor, the other two mixtures are inconclusive. “Tapp stated that he held Aggie dowm by her arms and wrist, he stated atone time that he cleaned this Bands on ber shirt, and he sai that he picked up the teddy bear that had been placed over her ‘mouth, From the statements Tapp gave to the Idaho Falls Police Detestves explaining his involvement inthe murder of Angie in 1997, especially with the latest MVAC that was conducted, one would ‘think that is (Tapp's) DNA would be present on atleast one of the items above. ‘With everything [have reviewed, it is my opinion that Tapp was atthe apartment when Angie ‘as murdered. This is based on not one specific statement by Tapp, but by the totality of the Statements provided that were not contamiaated or tainted, by evidence eom the scene, and statements provided by witnesses. ‘Tapp atleast witnessed the attack and the stb) to her chest area, Hle was present at least when her sweats were pulled down or at some point in ime he saw her as she was found, {In my review ofthis case, statements made by Tapp of his personal involvement in the death of Angie are either tainted, questionable, or unlikely ‘With cases being overturned by DNA, the research as to individuals confessing to crimes that they actually were not invelved in is much more prevalent than back in 1997. As isthe different soles and research into the Disease of Certainty,” False confessions, and "I Did It" confessions Jurors today ate wanting (expecting) to see more forensic evidence during a trial. The lack of ‘Tapp’s DNA in this ease inmy opinion would be a huge factor. “The above opinion was based on the information that I was provided. If additional information is discovered it could change this opinion 27 Pepsin the Die of Cea FB) Bree Donte PA, “Topp Final Review/Conclsion - 45