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YamahaMotorCompany
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

YamahaMotorCompanyLimited(YamahaHatsudkiKabushikigaisha)isaJapanese
manufacturerofmotorcycles,marineproductssuchasboatsandoutboardmotors,andothermotorizedproducts.The
companywasestablishedin1955uponseparationfromYamahaCorporation(howeverYamahaCorporationisstillthe
largestshareholderwith12.21%,asofJune30,2015),[1]andisheadquarteredinIwata,Shizuoka,Japan.Thecompany
conductsdevelopment,productionandmarketingoperationsthrough109consolidatedsubsidiariesasof2012.

YamahaMotorCompany,Limited

Type

Public

LedbyGenichiKawakami,thecompanysfirstpresident,YamahaMotorbeganproductionofitsfirstproduct,theYA1,
in1955.The125ccmotorcyclewonthe3rdMountFujiAscentRaceinitsclass.

Industry

Automotive

Founded

July1,1955

Thecompany'sproductsincludesmotorcycles,scooters,motorizedbicycles,boats,sailboats,personalwatercraft,
swimmingpools,utilityboats,fishingboats,outboardmotors,4wheelATVs,recreationaloffroadvehicles,gokart
engines,golfcarts,multipurposeengines,electricalgenerators,waterpumps,snowmobiles,smallsnowthrowers,
automobileengines,surfacemounters,intelligentmachinery,industrialuseunmannedhelicopters,electricalpowerunits
forwheelchairsandhelmets.Thecompanyisalsoinvolvedintheimportandsalesofvarioustypesofproducts,
developmentoftouristbusinessesandmanagementofleisure,recreationalfacilitiesandrelatedservices.

Headquarters Iwata,Shizuoka,Japan
Areaserved

Global

Keypeople

HiroyukiYanagi(President&
RepresentativeDirector)

Products

Motorcycles,commutervehicles&
scooters,recreationalvehicles,
boats,marineengines,
snowmobiles,smalltractors,
personalwatercraft,electrically
powerassistedbicycles,automobile
engines,unmannedaerialvehicles,
golfcarts(https://www.yamahagolf
car.com/),powerproducts,pools,
compactindustrialrobots,
wheelchairs,partsincluding
apparel,helmets,musical
instruments

Numberof
employees

52,664(asofDecember31,2014)

Subsidiaries

Minarelli
MBK

Slogan

RevsYourHeart

Website

YamahaMotorGlobal(http://globa
l.yamahamotor.com/)

Contents
1 History
1.1 Beginnings:1955
1.2 Successandgrowthinthe1960s
1.3 Thefourstrokeerabegins:the1970s
1.4 The1980s:DiversificationandInnovation
1.5 The1990s:Performancebikesandaspinoffbrand
1.6 The2000s:Expansionandconsolidation
2 Motorcycleracinghighlights
3 FormulaOneWorldChampionshipresults
3.1 TeamswithYamahaasanenginesupplier
4 Divisions
4.1 Automobileengines
4.2 Snowmobiles
4.2.1 Currentmodels
4.3 Allterrainvehicles(ATV)vehicles
5 Seealso
6 References
7 Externallinks

History
Beginnings:1955
ThemotorcycledivisionofYamahawasfoundedin1955,andwasheadedbyGenichiKawakami.Yamaha'sinitialproductwasa125cctwocycle,singlecylinder
motorcycle,theYA1,whichwasacopyoftheGermanDKWRT125.TheYA1wasacompetitivesuccessatracingfromthebeginning,winningnotonlythe125ccclass
intheMt.FujiAscent,butalsosweepingthepodiumwithfirst,secondandthirdplaceintheAllJapanAutobikeEnduranceRoadRacethatsameyear.[2]Earlysuccessin
racingsetthetoneforYamaha,ascompetitioninmanyvarietiesofmotorcycleracinghasbeenakeyendeavorofthecompanythroughoutitshistory,oftenfueledbya
strongrivalrywithHondaandotherJapanesemanufacturers.
Yamahabegancompetinginternationallyin1956whentheyenteredtheCatalinaGrandPrix,againwiththeYA1,atwhichtheyplacedsixth.TheYA1wasfollowedby
theYA2of1957,another125cctwostroke,butwithsignificantlyimprovedframeandsuspension.[3]TheYD1of1957wasa250cctwostroketwincylindermotorcycle,
resemblingtheYA2,butwithalargerandmorepowerfulmotor.Aperformanceversionofthisbike,theYDS1housedthe250cctwostroketwininadoubledowntube
cradleframeandofferedthefirstfivespeedtransmissioninaJapanesemotorcycle.[4]ThisperiodalsosawYamahaofferitsfirstoutboardmarineengine.

Successandgrowthinthe1960s
By1963Yamaha'sdedicationtoboththetwostrokeengineandracingpaidoffwiththeirfirstvictoryininternationalcompetition,attheBelgiumGP,wheretheywonthe
250ccclass.Successinsaleswasevenmoreimpressive,andYamahasetupthefirstofitsinternationalsubsidiariesinthisperiodbeginningwithThailandin1964,andthe
Netherlandsin1968.1965sawthereleaseofa305cctwostroketwin,theflagshipofthecompanieslineup.Itfeaturedaseparateoilsupplywhichdirectlyinjectedoilinto
thegasolinepriortocombustion(traditionallyridershadtopremixoilintogasolinetogetherbeforefillingthegastankontwostrokeengines).In1967anewlarger
displacementmodelwasaddedtotherange,the350cctwostroketwinR=1.
In1968Yamahalaunchedtheirfirstfourstrokemotorcycle,theXS1.TheYamahaXS1wasa650ccfourstroketwin,alargerandmorepowerfulmachinethatequaledthe
displacementandperformanceofthepopularBritishbikesoftheera,suchastheTriumphBonnevilleandBSAGoldStar.Yamahacontinuedonwithboththetwostroke
lineandfourstroketwinsatatimethatotherJapanesemanufacturerswereincreasinglymovingtofourcylinderfourstrokemachines,atrendledbyHondain1969with
thelegendaryCB750fourstrokefourcylindercycle.

Thefourstrokeerabegins:the1970s

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Notuntil1976wouldYamahaanswertheotherJapanesebrandswithamulticylinderfourstrokeoftheirown.TheXS750(andlater850)a750cctriplecylindermachine
withshaftfinaldrivewasintroducedalmostsevenyearsafterHonda'sbreakthroughbike.Yamaha'sfirstfourcylindermodel,theXS1100followedin1978,againwith
shaftdrive.[5]Despitebeingheavierandmoretouringorientedthanitsrivalsitproducedanimpressivestringofvictoriesinenduranceracing.
The1970salsosawsomeofthefirstdedicatedoffroadbikesforoffroadracingandrecreation.Yamahawasanearlyinnovatorindirtbiketechnology,andintroducedthe
firstsingleshockrearsuspension,thetrademarked"Monoshock"of1973.[6]Itappearedinproductiononthe1974YamahaYZ250,amodelwhichhascontinuedin
production,withmanyupdates,until2015,makingitYamaha'slongestcontinuousmodelandname.
Yamahacontinuedracingthroughoutthe1960sand1970swithincreasingsuccessinseveralformats.Thedecadeofthe1970swascappedbytheXT500winningthefirst
ParisDakarRallyin1979.[7]

The1980s:DiversificationandInnovation
By1980thecombinationofconsumerpreferenceandenvironmentalregulationmadefourstrokesincreasinglypopular.SuzukiendedproductionoftheirGTtwostroke
series,includingtheflagshipwatercooledtwostroke750ccGT750in1977.Kawasaki,whohadconsiderablesuccessthroughoutthe1970swiththeirtwostroketriplesof
250cc,350cc,500ccand750ccendedproductionofroadgoingtwostrokesin1980.Yamahabuckedthistrendandcontinuedtorefineandselltwostrokesforthestreet
intothe1980s.Thesebikeswereperformanceoriented,watercooledtwincylindermachines,designedtoachieveexcellentperformancetakingadvantageofthelower
weightoftwostrokes.TheRZ250of1980[8]wastheprogenitorofthisseries.TheRZ350,thelargestdisplacementmodel,wasapopularhotrodbikeofthe1980sand
continuedtobesoldinsomecountriesintotheearly1990s.
Throughoutthe1980sthemotorcycleindustrygraduallywentfrombuildingafewbasicbutversatilemodelsdesignedtoworkwellinmanyroles,toofferingmanymore
specializedmachinesdesignedtoexcelinparticularniches.Theseincludedracingandperformancestreetriding,touring,motocrossracing,enduroandrecreationaloffroad
riding,andcruising.YamahabranchedoutfromtherelativelysmallnumberofUJMs(UniversalJapaneseMotorcycle)atthestartofthedecadetoamuchlargersetof
offeringsinseveralclearlydefinedmarketsattheendofthedecade.
TheXV750of1981featuredanaircooledVtwinfourstrokeengineandcruiserstyling,andwasoneofthefirstJapanesecruiserstylemotorcycles.Bytheendofthe1980s
Yamahahadoffereddozensofcruiserstyledbikesinavarietyofdisplacementsandengineconfigurations.
TheRZV500wasoneofthefirst"repliracers",anearcopyofKennyRobertscompetitionGPbike,itfeaturedaliquidcooledtwostrokemotorof500ccdisplacementina
V4configuration,alongwithaperimeterframeandfullfairing.[9]
Amorepopularandpracticalhighperformancemodelforthestreetwasintroducedin1985,theFZ750.Itwasaninnovative750ccfourstrokeinlinefourcylindermodel.It
wasthefirstmotorcycletofeatureafivevalvecylinderhead,somethingYamahabecamewellknownfor.Italsofeaturedacylinderblockcantedforwardat45degrees,and
aboxsectionsteelperimeterframe.ProductionoftheFZcontinueduntil1991.

The1990s:Performancebikesandaspinoffbrand
In1998Yamahamarketeda1000ccfourcylinderroadbikecalledtheYZF'R1',thismodelintroducedanewstyleofgearboxdesignwhichshortenedtheoveralllengthof
themotor/gearboxcase,toallowamorecompactunit.This,inturnallowedthemotortobeplacedintheframefurtherforward,designedtoimprovehandlinginashort
wheelbasedframe.[10]
In1995,YamahaannouncedthecreationofStarMotorcycles,anewbrandnameforitscruiserseriesofmotorcyclesintheAmericanmarket.Inothermarkets,Star
motorcyclesarestillsoldundertheYamahabrand.Thiswasanattempttocreateabrandidentitymorecloselyalignedwiththecruisermarketsegment,oneofthelargest
andmostlucrativeintheUSA.

The2000s:Expansionandconsolidation
In2007,YamahaestablishedthePhilippineoperationsanddistributesYamahamotorcyclesunderthecorporatenameofYamahaMotorPhilippines,Inc.,oneofmorethan
20worldwidesubsidiariesoperatingonallcontinents.

Motorcycleracinghighlights
InmotorcycleracingYamahahaswon39worldchampionships,including6inMotoGPand9inthepreceding500cctwostroke
class,and1inWorldSuperbike.InadditionYamahahaverecorded208victoriesattheIsleofManTT[11]andheadthelistof
victoriesattheSidecarTTwith40.[12]PastYamaharidersinclude:GiacomoAgostini,BobHannah,HeikkiMikkola,Kenny
Roberts,EddieLawson,WayneRainey,JeremyMcGrath,StefanMerriman,DaveMolyneux,IanHutchinson,PhilRead,ChadReed,
BenSpies,andcurrentlyJorgeLorenzoandValentinoRossi.
TheYamahaYZ450FwontheAMASupercrossChampionshiptwoyearsinarow,in2008withChadReed,and2009James
Stewart.Yamahawasthefirsttobuildaproductionmonoshockmotocrossbike(1975for250and400,1976for125)andoneofthe
firsttohaveawatercooledmotocrossproductionbike(1977inworksbikes,1981inofftheshelfbikes).Yamaha'sfirstMotocross
competitionfourstrokebike,theYZ400F,wonthe1998USAoutdoornationalChampionshipwithfactoryriderDougHenry.

YamahaXS650verticaltwin

Since1962,YamahamadeproductionroadracingGrandPrixmotorcyclesthatanylicensedroadracercouldpurchase.In1970,nonfactoryprivateerteamsdominatedthe
250ccWorldChampionshipwithGreatBritain'sRodneyGouldwinningthetitleonaYamahaTD2.
YamahaalsosponsorsseveralprofessionalATVridersinseveralareasofracing,suchascrosscountryracingandmotocross.Yamahahashadsuccessincrosscountrywith
theirYFZ450,riddenbyBillBallance,winning9straighttitlessince2000.Yamaha'sothermajorrider,TraciCecco,hasriddentheYFZ450to7titles,withthefirstin
2000.InATVmotocross,YamahahashadsuccesswithDustinNelsonandPatBrown,bothwhoracetheYFZ450.PatBrown'sbestseasonwasa3rdplacetitlein2007,
whileNelsonhashadtwo1stplacetitlesintheYamaha/ITPQuadcross,onein2006andtheotherin2008.
YamahaproducedFormulaOneenginesfrom1989to1997,initiallyfortheZakspeedteam,in1991fortheBrabhamBT60Y,in1992fortheJordan192,from1993to1996
forTyrrell,andin1997fortheArrowsA18.Theseneverwonarace,butdriversincludingDamonHill,UkyoKatayama,MarkBlundellandAndreadeCesarisscoredsome
acceptableresultswiththem.Howevertheirengineswereoftenunreliableandwereusuallynotverypowerful.

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FormulaOneWorldChampionshipresults
TeamswithYamahaasanenginesupplier
(key)

ThreetimeGrand
ChampionshipwinnerKenny
Robertsatthe1981German
GrandPrix.

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Year

YamahaMotorCompanyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia
Entrant

Chassis

Drivers

1
BRA

1989

West
Zakspeed
Racing

Bernd
Zakspeed
Schneider
891
Aguri
Suzuki

Brabham
MotorRacing BT59Y Martin
1991
Developments Brabham Brundle
BT60Y
Mark
Blundell

1992

SasolJordan
Yamaha

Jordan
192

Stefano
Modena
Maurcio
Gugelmin

1993

1994

TyrrellRacing
Organisation

TyrrellRacing
Organisation

Tyrrell
020C
Tyrrell
021

Tyrrell
022

Ukyo
Katayama
Andrea
de
Cesaris

Ukyo
Katayama
Mark
Blundell

1995

NokiaTyrrell
Yamaha

Tyrrell
023

Ukyo
Katayama

Tyrrell
Yamaha

Tyrrell
024

Danka
Arrows
Yamaha

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

USA

CAN

FRA

GBR

GER

HUN

BEL

ITA

POR

ESP

JPN

AUS

Ret

DNPQ

DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ

17 Points

0
DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ
USA

BRA

SMR MON CAN MEX

11

12

11

EX

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

DNQ

RSA

MEX

BRA

ESP

SMR MON CAN

DNQ

Ret

Ret

DNQ

Ret

FRA

GBR

GER

HUN

BEL

ITA

POR

ESP

JPN

AUS

Ret

Ret

Ret

11

Ret

13

12

10

DNQ

Ret

Ret

Ret

12

Ret

12

Ret

Ret

DNPQ

17

FRA

GBR

GER

HUN

BEL

ITA

POR

JPN

AUS

Ret

Ret

DNQ

Ret

15

DNQ

13

Ret

Ret

1
11

Ret

Ret

Ret

RSA

BRA

EUR

SMR

ESP

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

MON CAN
Ret

17

Ret

Ret

15

10

14

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

FRA

GBR

GER

HUN

BEL

ITA

POR

JPN

AUS

Ret

13

Ret

10

15

14

Ret

Ret

Ret
0

Ret

Ret

Ret

BRA

PAC

Ret

Ret

Ret

BRA
Ret

Ret

DSQ

10

Ret

15

NC

Ret

11

Ret

13

12

Ret

13

ESP

CAN

FRA

GBR

GER

HUN

BEL

ITA

POR

EUR

JPN

AUS

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

10

10

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

13

Ret

Ret

ARG

SMR

ESP

FRA

GBR

GER

HUN

BEL

ITA

POR

EUR

PAC

JPN AUS

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

10

Ret

SMR MON

MON CAN
Ret

Ret

14

Ret

13

Ret
5

Ukyo
Katayama
Mika
Salo

1997

14

Gabriele
Tarquini
Mika
Salo

1996

Ret

SMR MON MEX

Damon
Arrows
Hill
A18
Pedro
Diniz

Ret

Ret

10

Ret

AUS

BRA

ARG

EUR

11

Ret

DSQ

Ret

Ret

DSQ

Ret

AUS

BRA

ARG

DNS

17

Ret

15

Ret

Ret

13

10

12

ESP

CAN

FRA

GBR

GER

HUN

BEL

ITA

POR

JPN

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

10

12

Ret

DSQ

Ret

10

Ret

Ret

11

Ret

ESP

CAN

FRA

GBR

GER

HUN

BEL

ITA

AUT

LUX

Ret

12

13

Ret

SMR MON

SMR MON
Ret

Ret

JPN EUR
12

Ret
9

10

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

Ret

13

13

Ret

Divisions
YamahaMotorsisahighlydiversifiedcompanywhichproducesproductsforalargenumberofindustriesandconsumermarketsegments:
MotorcyclesSportbikes,StarCruiserbikes,trailbikes,roadracersandmotocrossracers
Commutervehicles,includingscooters
RecreationalvehiclesAllterrainvehiclesandsnowmobiles
BoatsPowerboats,sailboats,utilityboatsandcustomboats
MarineenginesOutboardmotors,electricmarinemotors,marinedieselenginesandsterndrives[13]
Personalwatercraft
Electricbicycles
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Automobileengines
Industrialuseunmannedhelicopters
Golfcars
Powerproductsgenerators,multipurposeengines,waterpumpsandsnowthrowers
Swimmingpools,waterslidersandpoolrelatedequipment
Intelligentmachinery,includingcompactindustrialrobots
Electricwheelchairsandwheelchairelectricdriveunits
Yamahapartsandaccessories,apparel,cyclehelmetsandmotoroil
Industrialrobotsandsurfacemounters[14]

Automobileengines

YamahabuiltDOHCV6FordTaurus
SHOengine

Yamahahasbuiltenginesforothermanufacturers'vehiclesbeginningwiththedevelopmentandproductionoftheToyota2000GT
(1967)withtheToyotaMotorCorporation.Also,thecylinderheadfromtheToyota4AGEenginewasdevelopedbyYamahaMotor
CorporationandwasbuiltatToyota'sShimayamaplantalongsidethe4Aand2Aengines.[15]Allperformanceorientedcylinder
headsonToyota/Lexusenginesweredesignedand/orbuiltbyYamaha.Someexamplesarethe1LRGUEenginefoundonthe2010
2012LexusLFA,the2URGSEfoundinLexusISF,the3SGTEenginefoundontheToyotaCelicaGT4andthe2ZZGEengine
foundonthe19992006ToyotaCelicaGTS.In1984,executivesoftheYamahaMotorCorporationsignedacontractwiththeFord
MotorCompanytodevelop,produce,andsupplycompact603.0LiterDOHCV6enginesfortransverseapplicationforthe
1989'95FordTaurusSHO.[16][17]From1993to1995,theSHOenginewasproducedin3.0and3.2Literversions.Yamahajointly
designedthe3.4LiterDOHCV8enginewithFordforthe1996'99SHO.FordandYamahaalsodevelopedtheZetecSEbranded4
cylinderenginesusedinseveralFordcarslikethesmallsportscarFordPuma.Since2005Yamahaproducesa4.4LiterV8for
Volvo.TheB8444SenginesareusedintheXC90andS80models.BritishsportscarmakerNoblealsousesabiturboversionofthe
VolvoV8intheirM600.

Yamahaalsotunesenginesforothermanufacturers,suchasToyota,soYamahalogosonToyotaSengines.[18]

Snowmobiles
In2010,Yamahawastheonlysnowmobilemanufacturertousefourstrokeenginesacrossitsrange.[19]InCanadathough,thereare
stillthreemodelsthatYamahamanufacturesthatarestilltwostroke.TheyaretheBravo,VK540andtheVentureXL.Yamahahad
introducedfourstrokestotheirlineupin2003,andthelineupbecamefourstrokebasedformodelyear2005.TheRX1,released
in2003,wasthefirstperformanceorientedfourstrokesnowmobileonthemarket.Itwasnot,however,thefirstmodernfourstroke
snowmobileproduced.ThathonorbelongstoArcticCatfortheirYellowstoneSpecial,releasedin2000,whichwasdesignedasa
rentalsledthatcouldmeetYellowstoneNationalPark'sstringentemissionrequirement.However,Yamahareceivedmuchcriticism
foritsweightdisadvantagewhencomparedtosimilartwostrokes,despiteitsfueleconomyandlowrangetorque.Yamahaisnow
usingfourstroketechnologywiththeintroducingoftheir80FIengine,whichisequippedonthePhazerandVentureLitemodels.
Thisenginehasoneofthehighestspecificoutputofanyfourstrokeinproduction,with160HP/L,Yamahaachievesthiseven
withouttheuseofaforcedinductionsystem.Yamahaisalsoakeyplayerinthe"fourstrokewars",whichareaseriesof
advertisementsfromopponentSkiDoo,whoclaimtheirEtecandpowertecequippedtwostrokesarestillcleanerandmore
efficientthanfourstrokes,whileYamahastillclaimsthefourstrokesarecleaner.Yamahaalsobrokeamultiyearabsencefromsno
crossinthewinterof2006/2007withtheirintroductionofafactoryraceteamheadedbyformerArcticCatracerRobbieMalinoski.

YamahaPhazersnowmobile

Yamahawasthefirstbrandtowinwitha4strokeinaprofessionalsnowcrossrace.Thishappenedin2006attheWPSAsnowcrosschampionship.
Currentmodels
Apex,ApexSE,ApexXTX
SRViperRTXDX,SRViperLTXDX,SRViperSTXDX,SRViperMTX153,SRViperRTXSE,SRViperLTXSE,SRViperXTXSE,SRViperMTX153SE,
SRViperMTX162SE,SRViperRTXLE,SRViperLTXLE,SRViperXTXLE,SRViperMTX162LE
RSVector,RSVectorLTX
RSVenture,RSVentureGT,RSVentureTF
RSVikingProfessional
PhazerRTX,PhazerXTX,PhazerMTX
VentureMP
SRX120

Allterrainvehicles(ATV)vehicles
BW80/200/350
YFZ450
Raptor80/250/350/660/700R
Badger80
Champ100
Blaster200
Timberwolf250
Banshee350
Warrior350
Bruin350
Kodiak400/450
Grizzly80/125/350/400/450/550/600/660/700
BigBear350/400
Moto4200/225/250/350Made19851995
Wolverine350/450
Terrapro
TriZinger60
TriMoto125/175/200/225
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Yamahauler200
TriZ250
YXZ1000R

Seealso
ListofYamahamotorcycles
ListofYamahaScooters
YamahaWaveRunner

References
1."StockInformation".YamahaMotorCompany.Retrieved29January2016.
2.unattributed."YAMAHAMotorcyclesandBrandHistory".Autoevoluiton.com.SoftNewsNET.Retrieved15January2015.
3."YamahaShowroomCommunicationPlazaCollection".YamahaMotorsWebsite.YamahaMotors.Retrieved15January2015.
4."YamahaCollectionYDS1".YamahaMotor.com.Retrieved15January2015.
5."YamahaCollections:XS1100".YamahaMotors.Retrieved16January2015.
6.Melling,Frank."MemorableMC:1974YamahaYZ250MMonoshock".MotorycleUSA.com.MotorcycleUSALLC.Retrieved16January2015.
7."DakarRetrospective19792007"(PDF).Retrieved29April2011.
8."YamahaMotorsCollectionRZ250".YamahaMotors.Retrieved16January2015.
9."YamahaCollection:RZV500R".YamahaMotors.Retrieved16January2015.
10.Vandenheuvel,Cornelis(1997).PictorialhistoryofJapanesemotorcycles.MBIPublishingCompany.pp.8490.ISBN9781870979979.
11.http://www.iomtt.com/TTDatabase/Machines.aspx?marq_Name=Yamaha&filter=Y
12.http://www.iomtt.com/TTDatabase/Machines.aspx?marq_Name=Yamaha&filter=Y
13.http://www.yamahamotor.com/outboard/products/lifestylehome/home.aspx
14."IntelligentMachineryCompanyinformation".YamahaMotor.Retrieved20111227.
15.AllAbouttheToyotaTwinCam(2nded.),Tokyo,Japan:ToyotaMotorCompany,1984,p.24,retrieved20121206
16."SHOnTell".JonMikelonisandMattWilder.Retrieved20080404.
17.FordMotorCompany(20070719).1989FordTaurusSHOcommercial.FordMotorCompany.
18."ToyotaTwinCamArticle".Toysport.com.Retrieved20090714.
19.2010YamahaSnowmobilebrochure

Externallinks
YamahaMotorCo.(http://global.yamahamotor.com/)globalsite
YamahaMotorcycles(https://www.dmoz.org/Recreation/Motorcycles/Makes_and_Models/Yamaha)atDMOZ

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